For
Electrical Engineering
By
www.thegateacademy.com
Syllabus
Percentage of Marks
2015
4.00
2014
3.60
2013
4.00
2012
2.00
2011
2.00
2010
0.00
2009
0.00
2008
4.00
2007
6.00
2006
0.67
Overall Percentage
2.627%
Contents
Contents
#1.
Chapters
Electromagnetic Field
Introduction
Operators
Material and Physical Constants
Electromagnetic (EM Field)
Electric Field Intensity
Electric Dipole
Divergence of Current Density and Relaxation
Boundary Conditions
The Magnetic Vector Potential
Faradays Law
Maxwells Equations
Magnetic Field
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys & Explanations
Page No.
1 46
1
27
78
89
9 12
12 17
18
19 21
21 25
25 27
27 28
28 32
32 38
39 41
41 42
43 46
Module Test
47 50
47 48
49 50
Test Questions
Answer Keys & Explanations
Reference Books
51
CHAPTER
Harry Fosdick
Electromagnetic
Field
Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you will know:
1. Elements of Vector Calculus
2. Operators, Curl, Divergence
3. Electromagnetic Coulombs law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Dipole, Electric Flux Density
4. Gauss's Law, Electric Potential
5. Divergence of Current Density and Relaxation
6. Boundary Conditions
7. BiotSavarts Law, Ampere Circuit Law, Continuity Equation
8. Magnetic Vector Potential, Energy Density of Electric & Magnetic Fields, Stored Energy in
Inductance
9. Faradays Law, Motional EMF, Induced EMF Approach
10. Maxwells Equations
Introduction
Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), < x < , < y < , < z <
Cylindrical coordinates ( , , z), 0 < , 0 < 2, < z <
Spherical coordinates (r, , ) , 0 r < , 0 , 0 < 2
Other valid alternative range of and are(i) 0 < 2, 0
(ii) , 0
(iii) 2 2 , 0 < 2
(iv) 0 < , <
Vector Calculus Formula
SL. No
(a)
(b)
(c)
Cartesian Coordinates
Differential Displacement
dl = dx ax + dy ay + dz az
Differential Area
dS = dy dz ax
= dx dz ay
= dx dy az
Differential Volume
dv = dx dy dz
Cylindrical Coordinates
dl = da + da +dzaz
dS = d dz a
= d dz a
= dd az
Spherical Coordinates
dl = drar + rda + r sin
da
ds = r 2 sin d d ar
= r sin dr d a
= r dr d a
dv = d d dz
dv = r 2 sin d d dr
Electromagnetic Field
Operators
1) V Gradient, of a Scalar V
2) V Divergence, of a Vector V
3) V Curl, of a Vector V
4) 2 V Laplacian, of a Scalar V
DEL Operator:
= ax + ay +
a (Cartesian)
x
y
z z
=
a +
a +
a (Cylindrical)
z z
1
1
= ar +
a +
a (Spherical)
r
r
rsi n
Gradient of a Scalar field
V is a vector that represents both the magnitude and the direction of maximum space rate of
increase of V.
V
V
V
V =
ax +
ay +
a For Cartisian Coordinates
x
y
z z
V
1 V
V
=
a +
a +
a For Spherical Coordinates
z z
V
1 V
1 V
=
ar +
a +
a For Cylindrical Coordinates
r
r
rsi n
The following are the fundamental properties of the gradient of a scalar field V
1. The magnitude of V equals the maximum rate of change in V per unit distance.
2. V points in the direction of the maximum rate of change in V.
3. V at any point is perpendicular to the constant V surface that passes through that point.
4. If A = V, V is said to be the scalar potential of A.
5. The projection of V in the direction of a unit vector a is V. a and is called the directional
derivative of V along a. This is the rate of change of V in direction of a.
Example: Find the Gradient of the following scalar fields:
(a) V = ez sin 2x cosh y
(b) U = 2 z cos 2
(c) W = 10r sin2 cos
Solution:
(a) V =
a
x x
z
= 2e
(b) U =
a
y y
V
z
az
+ a + z az
W
r
ar +
1 W
r
a +
r sin
Electromagnetic Field
Divergence of a Vector
Statement: Divergence of A at a given point P is the outward flux per unit volume as the volume
shrinks about P.
Hence,
A . ds
DivA = . A = lim S
(1)
v0
v
Where, v is the volume enclosed by the closed surface S in which P is located. Physically, we may
regard the divergence of the vector field A at a given point as a measure of how much the field
diverges or emanates from that point.
Ax Ay Az
. A =
+
Cartisian System
x
y z
P
1
1 A A z
(A ) +
+
Cylindrical System
=
z
1 2
1 A
1
= 2 (r Ar ) +
(A sin ) +
Sphearical System
r r
r sin
r sin
From equation (1),
A . dS = . A dv
S
This is called divergence theorem which states that the total outward flux of the vector field A
through a closed surface S is same as the volume integral of the divergence of A.
Example: Determine the divergence of these vector field
(a) P = x 2 yzax + xzaz
(b) Q = sin a + 2 za + z cos az
1
(a) . P = x Px + y Py + z Pz
2
(b) . Q = (Q ) + Q + z Qz
1 2
1 2
( sin ) +
( z) +
(z cos )
z
= 2 sin + cos
=
(c) . T =
1
r2 r
(r 2 Tr ) +
r sin
(T sin ) +
r sin
(T )
1
1
1
(cos ) +
(r sin 2 cos ) +
(cos )
2
r r
r sin
r sin
1
=0+
2r sin cos cos + 0
r sin
= 2 cos cos
=
Electromagnetic Field
Curl of a Vector
Curl of a Vector field provides the maximum value of the circulation of the field per unit area and
indicates the direction along which this maximum value occurs.
That is,
A . dl
)
an . . (2)
Curl A = A = lim ( L
S0
S
max
ax ay az

A = 
x y z
Ax Ay Az
a a az
1

= 
z
A A Az
a ra r sin a


= 2
r sin r

A r rA r sin A
From equation (2) we may expect that
A dl = ( A) . ds
L
This is called stokes theorem, which states that the circulation of a vector field A around a (closed)
path L is equal to the surface integral of the curl of A over the open surface S bounded by L, Provided
A and A are continuous no s.
Example: Determine the curl of each of the vector fields.
(a) P = x 2 yz ax + xzaz
(b) Q = sin a + 2 za + z cos az
1
) ay + (
)a
y
z
z
x
x
y z
= (0 0)ax + (x 2 y z)ay + (0 x 2 z)az
= (x 2 y z)ay x 2 zaz
Q Qz
Q
1 Qz Q
1
] a + [
] a + [ (Q )
]a
z
z
z
z
1
= ( sin 2 ) a + (0 0)a + (32 z cos )az
1
= (z sin + 3 )a + (3z cos )az
(b) Q = [
Electromagnetic Field
1
[ (T sin )
T ]a
r
r sin
1 1
+ [
Tr (rT )] a + [ (rT ) Tr ] a
r sin
r
r r
1
[ (cos sin )
=
(r sin cos )] ar
r sin
1 1 (cos )
+ [
(r cos )] a
r sin r 2
r
1 2
(cos )
] a
+ [ (r sin cos )
r r
r 2
1
1
(cos 2 + r sin sin )ar + (0 cos )a
=
r sin
r
1
sin
+ (2r sin cos + 2 ) a
r
r
cos 2
cos
1
=(
+ sin ) ar
a + (2 cos + 3 ) sin a
r sin
r
r
(c) T =
Laplacian
(a) Laplacian of a scalar field V, is the divergence of the gradient of V and is written as 2 V.
2 V 2 V 2 V
2 V = 2 + 2 + 2 For Cartisian Coordinates
x
y
z
1
V
1 2 V 2 V
2 V =
( ) + 2 2 + 2 For Cylindrical Coordinates
z
1
V
1
V
1 2 V
= 2 (r 2 ) + 2
(sin ) + 2
For Spherical Coordinates
r r
r
r sin
r sin 2
If 2 V = 0, V is said to be harmonic in the region.
A vector field is solenoid if .A = 0; it is irrotational or conservative if A = 0
. ( A) = 0
(V) = 0
2 V = 0 ........Laplace E.q.
E
2 E
2 E =
+ E 2 . . . . . . . wave E. q.
t
t
Electromagnetic Field
Example: The potential (scalar) distribution in free space is given as V = 10y 4 + 20x 3 .
If 0 : permittivity of free space what is the charge density at the point (2,0)?
: Poissions Equation 2 V =
2
2
2
( 2 + 2 + 2 ) (10 y 4 + 20x 3 ) =
y
z
x
0
= r 0 [ = 0 as r = 1]
20 3 2x + 10 4 3y 2 =
0
At pt(2, 10) 20 3 2 2 =
= 2400
0
Example: Find the Laplacian of the following scalar fields
(a) V = ez sin 2x cosh y
(b) U = 2 z cos 2
(c) W = 10r sin2 cos
Solution: The Laplacian in the Cartesian system can be found by taking the first derivative and later
the second derivative.
2 V 2 V 2 V
(a) 2 V = 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
= 4z cos 2 4z cos 2
=0
2 W
1
W
1
W
1
(c) 2 W = 2
(r 2
)+ 2
(sin
)+ 2
r r
r
r sin
r sin2 2
1
1
10r sin2 cos
(10r sin 2 sin cos )
= 2 (10 r 2 sin2 cos ) + 2
r r
r sin
r 2 sin2
2
20 sin cos 20r cos 2 sin cos 10r sin 2 cos cos 10 cos
=
+
+
r
r 2 sin
r 2 sin
r
10 cos
=
(2 sin2 + 2 cos 2 + 2 cos2 1)
r
10 cos
=
(1 + 2 cos 2)
r
Stokes Theorem
integrated over any closed curve C is always equal to
Statement: Closed line integral of any vector A
integrated over the surface area s which is enclosed by the
the surface integral of curl of vector A
closed curve c.
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Electromagnetic Field
= ( A) dS
A . dL
S
V
dv
A dS = V. A
S
Conductivity ( ) S/m
0
3.186 107
1014
2.564 107
3 104
5.8 107
1013
105
1015
1015
1
6
6
3
2.1
Electromagnetic Field
Plexiglas
Polystyrene
PVC
Porcelain
Quartz
Rubber
Rutile
Soil(Clay)
(Sandy)
Urban ground
Vaseline
Terflon
Water (Distilled)
(Fresh)
(Sea)
Wood
Transformer oil
Ebonite
Epoxy
1016
1017
1013
5 103
2 103
2 104
1015
104
102 to 103
4 to 5
3.4
2.7
2.7
5
5
5
100
14
10
4
2.2
2.1
80
80
80
2
2 to 3
2.6
4
In general, electromagnetic field is regarded as interplay between time varying electric and
magnetic fields. The study of electromagnetic can be accomplished with study of electrostatics,
magneto statics and time varying electric and magnetic fields.
Electrostatics deals with field related to stationary charge(s). The charge can be positive or
negative. The unit of charge is called a coulomb. The charge of an electron is
e = 1.6019 1019 Coulombs
q = e
Charge may be distributed in space or may be concentrated in a small volume at a point.
A charge that occupies a volume in space may be considered to be a point charge for analysis
purposes if this volume is small compared to the surrounding dimensions.
A charge density defines charge distribution on a line (or) over a surface (or) throughout a
volume.
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Electromagnetic Field
Coulombs Law
Statement: The force between any two point charges Q1 and Q2 is proportional to the product of the
two charges, inversely proportional to square of the distance between the two charges, and directed
along the line connecting the two charges.
The Mathematical expression of Coulombs law is
Q1 Q2
F=
R
4 R2
Where (1/4 ) is proportionality factor
R is the distance between the two charges.
is the unit vector pointing form Q1 to Q2 (or) Q2 to Q1.
R
The proportionality factor depends on the material in which the charges are located. is a material
constant and is called the permittivity of the material and its units are Farad/meter.
Force is measured in Newton.
= 0 r , where r is relative permittivity and 0 is permittivity of free space.
Q
a . . . . . . . . . . . . due to pt. chrage
40 R2 r
dl
E = L
a . . . . . . . . . . . . (Line Charge)
40 R2 r
=
E
=
E
S
ps ds
a . . . . . . . . . . . . (Surface Charge)
4R2 r
E =
V
v dv
a . . . . . . . . . . . . (Volume Charge)
40 R2 r
R
r r
=
R
=
 r r 
R
Electromagnetic Field
Electrical field
y
R
Q
r
=
E
O
E =
R = r r
x
Q
Q
R
a R =
2
40 R
40 R3
Q(r r )
3
40 r r 
Equipotential surface
An equipotential surface has its every point at equal potential.
Properties:
The movement of charge over such a surface would require no work.
Tangential to such surface is zero electric field.
Electric field is always perpendicular to an equipotential surface for static fields, a conductor
surface is always an equipotential surface.
Electric Field Intensity of a Finite Line Charge
Consider a line charge with uniform charge density L extending from A to B along the z axis as
shown in
For a finite line charge
L
[(sin 2 sin 1 )ar + (cos 2 cos1 )az ]
E=
40
Where L is line charge density and r is the perpendicular distance from the line to point of interest.
+
P (x, y, z)
A
0
10
Electromagnetic Field
F=
a
=
R
40 R2
40 r rk 3
k=1,2
k=1,2
9
3/2
10
(9 + 1 + 4)
(1 + 16 + 9)3/2
4 36
(3, 1, 2) (2, 8, 6)
]
= 9 102 [
+
1414
2626
F = 6.507 ax 3.817 ay + 7.506az mN
At that point,
F
E=
Q
103
= (6.507 3.817, 7.506)
10 109
E = 650 7ax 381 7ay + 750 6az kV/m
Example: The finite sheet 0 x 1, 0 y 1 on the z = 0 plane has a charge density
s = xy(x 2 + y 2 + 25)32 n C/m2 . Find
(a) The total charge on the sheet
(b) The electric field at (0, 0, 5)
(c) The force experienced by a 1 mC charge located at (0, 0, 5)
Solution:
1
Since x dx = 1/2 d(x 2 ), we now integrate with respect to x 2 (or change variable:
x 2 = u so that x dx = du2.
1
1
Q = y (x 2 + y 2 + 25)32 d(x 2 )dy nC
2
0
1
1
2
1
= y (x 2 + y 2 + 25)52 0 dy
2
5
0
1
1 1
= [(y 2 + 26)52 (y 2 + 25)52 ]d(y 2 )
5 2
0
11
Electromagnetic Field
1 2 2
1
[(y + 26)72 (y 2 + 25)7/2 ]0
10 7
7
1
[(27)72 + (25)2 2(26)72 ]
=
35
Q = 33.15 nC
=
(b) E =
S
S dS (r r )
S dS aR
=
40 r r 3
40 r 2
S
E =
0 0
= 9 [ x 2 dx y dy ax x dx y 2 dy ay + 5 x dx y dy az ]
0
1 1 5
= 9( ,
, )
6 6 4
= (1.5, 1.5,11.25) V/m
(c) F = qE = (1.5, 1.5, 11.25) mN
Electric Dipole
Two equal and opposite electric charges, separated by a very short distance is called electric dipole
and is shown below.
P
+Q
R
R>>d
Q
Electric Dipole
12
Electromagnetic Field
Gausss Law
Gausss law states that the total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to the total
charge enclosed by that surface. Thus
= Qenc
= Qenc
i. e. , = d = D ds
S
or
Q = D dS = v dv
S
So, v = D
Which is one of the four Maxwells equation and it states that the volume charge density is the same
as the divergence of the electric flux density.
When, at any point if charge density is zero, then divergence of electric flux density and
divergence of electric field intensity is zero.
Curl of static electric field intensity is zero. Mathematically, E = 0
Thus, electrostatic field is Irrotational (curl free) and NonSolenoidal (non zero divergence).
Gausss law is an alternate form of Coulombs law.
Gausss law may be used either to calculate the equivalent charges from known electric fields or
electric fields due to known charges.
Example: Find the Total flux in a cylinder of radius r and length L placed in a uniform electric field E
parallel to the axis of cylinder.
dA
B
E
E
dA
dA
L
A
C
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13
Electromagnetic Field
Solution:
The total flux E is the sum of flux coming out of surface A, B and C
E = E dA cos + E dA cos + E dA cos
A
A = 0 B = 90 C = 180
dAA = r 2 dAB = 2rl dAC = r 2
E = E. A + 0 E. A = 0
As E = 0, charge enclosed Qenclosed = 0 and hence D and E are 0 at all point inside the
plane of uniformly charged circular ring.
Example: Find the electric flux inside and outside a symmetrically charged sphere of radius A
R
A
r
1
Q
0 enclosed
E dA = E (4R2 ) =
1
Q
0
1 Q
40 R2
Where Q is the charge in the sphere of radius A and enclosed by sphere of radius R.
Suppose there is a point charge Q at the origin O. Then the electric field at the distance R
will be
1 Q
E=
40 R2
E.g.: Find the field for a long st. wire of charge.
E=
E
Gaussian
h
Surface
E
E
EdA =
E=
h
h
, E(2rh) =
0
0
14
Electromagnetic Field
Example: If A = sin p + 2 p , and L is the contour of fig. given below, the circulation
y
A. dL
C
2
d
1
a
1
Solution:
A. dL = ( + + + ) A. dL
C
ab
bc
cd
da
Along ab, d = 0, = 0
b
A. dL = 0 A. dL = 0
a
A. dL = 3 d = 23 = 8
b
A. dL = 0
C
A. dL = 3 d = (1)3 () =
d
a
A. dL = 0 + 8 + 0 = 7
d
Example: Let J =
800 sin
r2+4
radius r = 0.8 bounded by 0.1 < < 0.3, 0 < < 2 will be
Solution:
I = J. n d s
2
S
3
0.1
800 sin
(0.8)2 sin d d = 154.8 A
(0.8)2 + 4
15
Electromagnetic Field
Example: In a certain region where the relative permitivity is 2.4, D = 2ux 4uy + 5uz ncm2 .
Polarization = ?
Solution: D = 0 E + P where D = 0 r E
0 E = D/r
D D
p = D = (r 1)
r r
2.4 1
p = (2ux 4uy + 5uz )
2.4
p = 1.2ux 2.3uy + 2.9uz ncm2
Electric Potential
The scalar electric potential is defined using fundamental ideas of force and work related to the
electric field. When a charge is allowed to move due to force in the electric field, work is said to be
done as expressed below.
Work, W = (Force) (Displacement)
dW = F. dI
= (QE) (Displacement) = QE. dl
The total work done in moving a point charge Q from A to B is,
B
W = Q E. dl
A
Where negative sign indicates that the work is being done by an external agent.
Work done per unit charge is potential difference. Potential difference between two points is
difference of absolute potentials at the two points.
Absolute Potential
The potential at any point is the work per unit charge required to bring a unit charge form infinity to
the point.
In simple, it is potential difference between any point and a reference point at infinity.
Due to a point charge, Q
Absolute potential at a point r = a is Va = Q/4 a
Absolute potential at a point r = b is Vb = Q / 4 b
Potential difference between a and b is Vab = Va Vb
Q 1 1
=
( )
4 a b
The potential, only depends on the distance between points a and b and the point charge,
regardless of path between a and b.
In moving a charge along a closed path in electrostatic field, total work done is zero. Thus,
E dl = 0
L
E =0
It is one of the four Maxwells equations.
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16
Electromagnetic Field
Any surface on which the potential is same throughout is known an equipotential surface.
The direction of E is everywhere normal to the equipotential surface.
No work is done in moving a charge from one point to other point along equipotential surface.
The lines of constant potential are always perpendicular to the electric field intensity. Electric scalar
potential is scalar.
Electric field intensity and electric potential are related as, E = V. The negative sign shows that
the direction of E is opposite to the direction in which V increases; E is directed from higher to lower
level of V.
An electric flux line is an imaginary path or line drawn in such a way that its direction at any point is
the direction of the electric field at that point.
Example: Two point charges 4 C and 5 C are located at (2, 1, 3) and (0, 4, 2), respectively.
Find the potential at (1, 0, 1), assuming zero potential at infinity.
Solution: Let,
Q1 = 4 C, Q2 = 5 C
Q1
Q2
V(r) =
+
+ C0
40 r r1 
40 r r2 
If V() = 0, C0 = 0,
r r1  = (1, 0, 1) (2, 1, 3) = (1, 1, 2) = 6
r r2  = (1, 0, 1) (0, 4, 2,) = (1, 4, 3) = 26
Hence,
4
5
106
[
]
+
V(1, 0, 1) =
9
10
4 36 6 26
= 9 103 (1.633 + 0.9806)
= 5.872 kV
In electrostatics, charges are considered to be stationary. This certainly does not mean
that charges cannot move. A conductor is a material that allows free movement of charge
within its volume. In other words, if a charge is introduced into a conductor, it can move
freely until something prevents it from moving. This something may be an electric field
or the surface of the conductor. The movement of charges is merely a mechanism to
reach the steady state. After charges have reached their final state, the conductor has no
effect on the charges.
Conductors in electrostatic field are said to be perfect conductors. A perfect conductor
( = ) can not contain an electrostatic field within it. E = 0, v = 0, Vab = 0 inside a
conductor.
Unlike conductors, dielectrics are materials in which charges are not free to move.
A perfect dielectric is a material which has bound charges but no free charges.
A material is linear if a particular property like permittivity does not change when the
fields are changed.
A homogeneous material is a material whose physical properties do not vary from
point to point in space.
An isotropic material is one whose properties are independent of direction in space.
A linear, homogeneous, isotropic material is called simple material.
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17
Electromagnetic Field
In addition, the current in the conducting material must satisfy Ohms law, J = E and
v
Gausss law . E =
v
v
. E =
=
t
v
+ v = 0
t
t/
v = 0 e
where = /
This equation shows that the introduction of charge at some interior point of material
results in a decay of volume charge density .
At a radius R, the total current crossing the surface defined by the sphere of radius R is
d(QR )
4R3 d
t
(
)
[v (t)] = 15.8 R3 exp [
]
I R, t =
=
dt
3 dt
2.65 107
The current depends on the location and increases with the radius. Therefore, it is not
constant in space or time.
The time constant of the charge decay is /. This time constant depends on material
alone and is called the relaxation time.
A long time constant (poor conductors) means charges take longer to relax or to reach
the surface.
A short time constant (good conductor) means the charges quickly reach their static state
(at the surface). In the present case,
= / = 2.65 107 sec
the divergence of the current density is
v
t
[0 e ] = 3.77 exp (t
)
.J =
=
2.65 107
( )
t
t
The divergence of the current density is clearly not zero, but decays with time.
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18
Electromagnetic Field
Boundary Conditions
If the field exists in a region consisting of two different media, the condition that the field must
satisfy at the interface separating the media are called Boundary Conditions.
(a) Dielectric Dielectric Boundary Conditions: The tangential component Et of field undergoes no
change on the boundary and it is said to be continuous across the boundary,
E1t = E2t
D1t D2t
=
1
2
Hence Dt undergoes some change across the boundary and said to be discontinuous.
For normal component, D1n D2n = S
Where S is the free charge density placed at the boundary. If S = 0 then
D1n = D2n
1 E1n = 2 E2n
So the normal component of E is discontinuous across the interface.
tan1 r1
Law of refraction,
=
tan 2 r2
Where 1 and 2 are angles which E1 and E2 makes with the normal at the interface.
(b) Conductor Dielectric Boundary Condition: No electric field, E may not exist inside conductor
that is
E = 0, V = 0
Et = 0 = Dt
Dn = S
2 En = S
Thus, an electric field must be external to the conductor and must be normal to the surface.
(c) Conductor Free Space Boundary Condition:
Dt = o Et = 0
Dn = o En = S
BiotSavarts Law
The Biot Savarts Law is used to compute the magnetic field generated by a steady current, i.e., a
continuous flow of charges, for example through a wire, which is constant in time and in which
charge is neither building up nor depleting at any point. The equation is as follows:
0 Idl r
0 Idl r
B=
or (equivalently) B =
(in SI units)
2
4 r
4 r 3
dl
P
dB (Inside)
19
Electromagnetic Field
Where,
I is the current,
dl is a vector, whose magnitude is the length of the differential element of the wire, and whose
direction is the direction of conventional current,
B is the net magnetic field,
0 is the magnetic constant,
r is the displacement unit vector in the direction pointing from the wire element towards the point
at which the field is being computed,
r = rr is the full displacement vector from the wire element to the point at which the field is being
computed, the symbols in boldface denote vector quantities.
Magnetic field B, at point P due to a straight line conductor,
o I
(cos 2 cos 1 )a
B=
4
Where I is current of conductor and is perpendicular distance.
B
2
I
A
1
P
Field at P Due to a Straight Filamentary Conductor
When the conductor is semi infinite, 1 = 90 and 2 = 0
o I
B=
a
4
For a infinite conductor 1 = 180 and 2 = 0
o I
B=
a
2
Ampere's Circuit Law
In classical electromagnetism, Ampre's circuit law, discovered by AndrMarie Ampre in 1826,
relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the
loop.
It states that the line integral of B around a closed path is the same as the net current Ienc enclosed
by the path multiplied by permeability.
In SI units (the version in cgs units is in a later section), the "integral form" of the original Ampre's
circuital law is:
B. dl = 0 Ienc
C
20
Electromagnetic Field
B. dl = ( B). ds = 0 Ienc
C
But Ienc = J. ds
S
B = o J
Where
C is the closed line integral around the closed curve C.
B is the magnetic field in tesla.
". " is the vector dot product.
dl is an infinitesimal element (differential) of the curve C (i.e., a vector with magnitude equal to
the length of the infinitesimal line element, and direction given by the tangent to the curve C, see
below),
denotes an integral over the surface S enclosed by the curve C (see below). The double
integral sign is meant simply to denote that the integral is twodimensional in nature.
0 is the magnetic constant also called the absolute permeability of free space.
Jf is the free current density through the surface S enclosed by the curve C
dS is the vector area of an infinitesimal element of surface S (that is, a vector with magnitude
equal to the area of the infinitesimal surface element, and direction normal to surface S. The
direction of the normal must correspond with the orientation of C by the right hand rule, see
below for further discussion),
Ienc is the net free current that penetrates through the surface S.
H = J 0, that is a magnetostatic field is not conservative.
This is one of the four Maxwells equation.
or . B = 0
This is the fourth Maxwells equation.
21
Electromagnetic Field
Because the magnetic vector potential relates to the magnetic flux density through A, it is at right
angles to the magnetic flux density B.
The magnetic vector potential is always in the direction of the current (and perpendicular to B). It is
a sort of current distributed in space. It is sometimes even called a fuzzy current since it is spread
around the current, as shown in below figure
A
I
A
. B = 0, B = A
. A = 0 and is called the coulomb guage for static fields.
Amperes law is H = J
B = J
Since, B = A, A = J
(. A). 2 A = J
Taking . A = 0
2 A = J
i.e., 2 A = J
The above equation is a vector Poissons equation.
Energy Density of Electric and Magnetic Fields
Electric and magnetic fields store energy. In a vacuum, the (volumetric) energy density (in SI units)
is given by
0
1 2
U = E2 +
B
20
2
The electric (Potential) energy in an electrostatic field is given by
1
1
WE = D. E dv = E2 dv
2
2
The energy in an magnetostatic field in given by
1
1
WM = B. H dv = H 2 dv
2
2
Capacitance of capacitor (Parallel Plate) is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the charge on one
of the plate to the potential difference between them.
Q
C=
V
Q
q
1 Q2 1 2
1
Wcharging = dq =
= CV = Wstored = QV
C
2 C
2
2
0
22
Electromagnetic Field
1
1
W = Qk Vk = (Q1 V1 + Q2 V2 + Q3 V3 )
2
2
k=1
Q2
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q2
[
]+
[
] +
[
]
=
+
+
+
2 40 (1) 40 (1)
2 40 (1) 40 (2)
2 40 (1) 40 (2)
Q2 Q3
12
1
=
(Q1 Q2 + Q1 Q3 +
) = 9 ( 7) nJ = 13.37 nJ
40
2
2
As obtained in the first solution.
Stored Energy in Inductance
The energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored by an inductor is equal to the amount of work required
to establish the current through the inductor, and therefore the magnetic field. This is given by
1
Estored = LI2
2
The quantitative definition of the self inductance of a wire loop in SI units (weber per ampere known
as henries) is
N
L =
I
Where denotes the magnetic flux through the area spanned by the loop, and N is the number of
wire turns. The flux linkage thus is
N = LI
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23
Electromagnetic Field
Inductance of a Solenoid
A solenoid is a long, thin coil, i.e., a coil whose length is much greater than the diameter. Under these
conditions, and without any magnetic material used, the magnetic flux density B within the coil is
practically constant and is given by
B = 0 NI/ l
Where 0 is the magnetic constant, N the number of turns, I the current and l the length of the coil.
Ignoring end effects the total magnetic flux through the coil is obtained by multiplying the flux
density B by the crosssection area A and the number of turns N
= 0 N2 IA/l
From which it follows that the inductance of a solenoid is given by
L = 0 N2 A/l
l
a1
ln
2
a
L = 0 r
a1 : Outer radius
a : Inner radius
l : Length
L = Inductance (H)
0 = Permeability of free space = 4 107 H/m
r = Relative permeability of core material
N = Number of turns
r = Radius of coil winding (m)
D = Overall diameter of toroid (m)
N2 r 2
D
v
Now, consider figure below where we connect the volume through wire and allow the charge to flow
through the wire to some other body (not shown)
ds
I
v
The rate of decrease of charge in volume v is the current out of the volume. Because charges flow
there is a current I in the wire. At the same time, the charge that flows out of the volume over a time
dt (i.e., the charge that flows through the wire) is dQ. The time rate of decrease of charge in the
volume v is = dQ/dt.
The rate of decrease of the charge in volume v must equal the current out of the volume.
I = dQ/dt
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24
Electromagnetic Field
This is the basic definition of current. The current is considered to be positive because it flows
through the surface of the volume v in the direction of ds.
The total charge in volume v is Q =v v dv
dv
I = ddt v dv =
dv
v
v dt
The current I flowing out of the volume v in terms of the current density J that flows through the
surface enclosing the volume v is
I = J. ds
S
J. ds = dv dt dv
v
The surface s is a closed surface (encloses a volume). Thus, we can apply the divergence theorem
to the LHS of the above equation to convert the closed surface integral to a volume integral.
J dv = ( dv dt) dv
v
Since both integrals are taken over the same volume, we get
. J = dv dt
This is the general form of the continuity equation.
This expression holds at any point in space and is not limited to conductors.
In the particular case of steady currents, the charge density v does not vary with time. The rate of
change of charge with time is zero and the charge decreases from volume v must be replenished
constantly to maintain a steady current.
. J = 0, If v = Constant
The above equation means that a steady current must flow in closed circuits, it cannot end in a point
because the divergence at that point would not be zero, invalidating the requirement of steady
current. This also means that the total current entering any volume must equal the total leaving this
volume.
The steady current density is conservative, since
E . dI = 0 i. e. , J . dI = 0
J=0
The steady current density is solenoidal,
Since, J . ds = 0 i. e. , . J = 0
The current density is an irrotational, solenoidal field.
Faradays Law
Faraday found that the electromotive force (EMF) produced around a closed path is proportional to
the rate of change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path.
In practice, this means that an electrical current will be induced in any closed circuit when the
magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes. This applies whether the field
itself changes in strength or the conductor is moved through it.
Electromagnetic induction underlies the operation of generators, all electric motors, transformers,
induction motors, synchronous motors, solenoids, and most other electrical machines.
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25
Electromagnetic Field
Fr
Conductor
v = Velocity of
Conductor
Force
Equilibrium
+
Electric Force on
FB Conduction Charge
E q
Built up of
Conduction Electrons
FM
Magnetic Force on
Conduction Charge
V
L
, Vemf = EL = vBL
26
Electromagnetic Field
Area
A=Lx
x
d
d
Vemf = M = Bcos( )dA
dt
dt
Bd
cos(180)dA = Bd
d
dx
A = B Lx = BL = BLv
= dt
dt
dt
dt
The results are the same, a conductor moving in a perpendicular magnetic field produces an emf
across its length
Vemf = vLB
If the ends of the conductor are connected to an external circuit them the emf can act like a
battery. The end where the positive charges would build up would act like the positive pole of a
battery. Alternately, the flow of current is in the same direction as the force that magnetic field
exerts on positive conduction charges due to the conductors motion.
Maxwells Equations
Static
Integral Form
Differential Form
H = Jc
H. dl = J. ds
L
E. dl = 0
Time  Varying
Differential Form
Integral  Form
H = Jc + JD
D
H. dl = (JC + ) . ds
t
L
E = 0
E = Bt
D. dS = v dv
. D = v
. D = v
B. dS = 0
S
E. dl =
B. ds
t
D. ds = v dv
S
. B = 0
. B = 0
B. ds = 0
27
Electromagnetic Field
= 0, Loseless medium
The frequency at which (Jc/ JD) is equal to one is referred to as Transition Frequency, fq
i.e., When f = fq, Loss Tangent is one.
fq = /2 is called Transition Frequency.
From continuity of current equation . JC = v t
And Gausss law, . D = v
And Ohms law, JC = E,
We can find,
v = V0 e()t
v = V0 et Where = / and is called relaxation time constant.
The above relaxation indicates that at an interior point of any conductor if we place a charge, it
decreases to (1/e) times of initial charge in one relaxation time constant.
When operating frequency f, in a medium with , , is greater than fq, then that medium is
regarded as a Dielectric.
f >> fq Dielectric
When operating frequency f, in a medium with , , is less than fq, then that medium is
regarded as a Conductor.
f << fq Conductor
f = fq describes the transition point of medium behavior.
Magnetic Field
The magnetic field at a point is defined as being equal to the force acting on a unit magnetic pole
placed at that point. [Unit of magnetic field is ampere per meter (A/m)]
Magnetomotive Force (mmf): Magnetomotive force is the flux producing ability of an electric current
in a magnetic circuit. [It is something similar to electromotive force in an electric circuit].
[Unit of magnetomotive force is ampere (A)]  Note: Although some books use the term
ampereturns, it is strictly not correct as turns is not a dimension]
Flex path
28
Electromagnetic Field
mmf = I
Consider a coil having N turns as shown. It will link the flux path with each turn, so that total current
linking with the flux would be
I = N.I
Thus from Amperes Law, the mmf produced by a coil of N turns would be N I, and N I = H.I
Field Produced by a Long Straight Conductor: If a circular path of radius r is considered around the
conductor carrying a current I, then the field Hr along this path would be constant by symmetry.
By Amperes Law, 1.I = Hr .2 r
I
at a radial distance r from the conductor.
or Hr =
2r
I
r
Field Produced Inside a Toroid
Consider a toroid (similar to a ring) wound uniformly with N turns. If the mean radius of the
magnetic path of the toroid is a, then the magnetic path length would be 2.a, and the total mmf
NI
produced would be N I. Thus from Amperes Law magnetic field H =
inside the toroid.
2 a
[Variation of the magnetic field inside the cross section of the toroid is usually not necessary to be
considered and is assumed uniform]
I
N turn
Toroid
Reluctance of a Magnetic Path: A magnetic material presents a Reluctance S to the flow of magnetic
flux when an mmf is applied to the magnetic circuit.
[This is similar to the resistance shown by an electric circuit when an emf is applied]
Thus mmf = Reluctance flux or = S.
For a uniform field, = N I = H.l, and = B. A = H. A
H.l = S . H. A
So that the magnetic reluctance S =
1
S
A
l
29
Electromagnetic Field
Self Inductance: While the reluctance is a property of the magnetic circuit, the corresponding
quantity in the electrical circuit is the inductance.
Nd
di
N
Induced emf e +
= L , N = Li, L =
dt
dt
i
The self inductance L of a winding is the flux linkage produced in the same winding due to unit
current flowing through it. For a coil of N turns, if the flux in the magnetic circuit is , the flux
linkage with the coil would be N. .
N2 N2 A
also since NI = S, L =
=
S
l
Thus the inductance of a coil of N turn can be determined from the dimensions of the magnetic
circuit.
Mutual Inductance: When two coils are present in the vicinity of each others magnetic circuit,
mutual coupling can take place. One coil produces a flux which links with the second coil, and when
a current in the first coil varies, an induced emf occurs in the second coil. Induced emf in coil 2 due
to current in coil 1
d12
di1
N2 12
e2 = N2
= M12
, N2 12 = M12 i1 , M12 =
dt
dt
i1
The mutual inductance M12 , of coil 2 due to a current in coil 1, is the flux linkage in the coil 2 due to
unit current flowing in coil 1. Also since N1 I1 = S1 and a fraction k12 of the primary flux would link
with the secondary, 12 = k12 1
k12 N1 N2 k12 N1 N2 A
M12 =
=
S
l
k12 is know as the coefficient of coupling between the coils.
k12 = k 21 so that M12 = M21 . For good coupling, k12 is very nearly equal to unity.
Analysis of Electromagnetic Circuit
Electromagnetic circuit can be analyzed in a manner similar to the analysis of resistive circuit.
Consider the following two winding transformer would in a three limb core.
ly
I1
ll
I2
N1
Am
Al
N2
Ay
Cross section areas of the core, and the effective length of magnetic path are indicated. It is assumed
that the cross section does not change at the corners. m. m. f. s 1 and 2 are produced in the two
windings and equal to N1 I1 and N2 I2 .
l1
relactances of each outer limb Sl =
,
o r Al
ly
relactances of each part of top and bottom yokes Sy =
,
o r Ay
ll
relactancesof middle limb Sm =
, [length of middle limb same as outer]
o r Am
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30
Electromagnetic Field
if the fluxes flowing in the path are l (outer limbs, yokes) and m (centre limb), then an equivalent
circuit similar to the electrical equivalent circuit may be drawn as follows.
Sy
Sy
Sy
I1
Sl
Sy
1 = N1 I1
Sl
Sm
2 = N2 I2
Sy
l
Sl
1
Sm
l
Sl
Sy
Sy
Sy
The fluxes can be calculated using laws similar to Ohms law and Kirchoffs law as follows.
m = l + l
Similar to Kirchoffs current law
1 + 2 = Sm m + (2Sy + Sl )l
Similar to Kirchoffs voltage law and Ohms law
Only one loop was considered as both outer limbs are identical and must therefore have the same
flux. If the limbs were different, then there would have been one additional flux term and one
additional equation. The only unknowns are m and l which can be calculated. In the case of three
phase transformers, the winding current would have different phase angles, so that the
corresponding mmfs too would have different phase angles. The analysis of this would be similar to
the analysis of three phase problem, but no equivalent being there for inductance and capacitances
in the corresponding equations. The above analysis are valid only in the linear region of the
magnetization characteristic where the permeability can be assumed to be constant. However, when
saturation occurs, the analysis is more complicated.
Analysis in the Presence of a Non Linear Magnetization Characteristic: Only a simple circuit having a
non linear magnetic characteristic and a series air gap will be considered to illustrate the method
of analysis. It is assumed that there is no fringing of flux around that air gap so that the flux density
will be the same in both the air gap as well as the magnetic core. Bm = Ba . The characteristic of the
magnetic core is alo known. The air has a linear characteristic with permeability o
Let the cross section the core (and air gap) be A, the length of the magnetic path be lm in the
magnetic material and la in the air gap. Let the number of turn in the coil be N and the current I the
winding be I. Then from Amperes law
NI = Hm lm + Ha la
31
Electromagnetic Field
Ba Bm
=
o
o
Bm
l , or Bm = a Hm + b
o a
Since this equation has been written in terms of the parameters of the magnetic material,
intersection of this straight line with the magnetization characteristic would give the operating
position.
B
NI = Hm lm +
Bm
Bm = a Hm + b
Hm
Solved Examples
Example 1
= r 2 ar + 2sina
Given that D
in Spherical Coordinate System, where D is the electric flux
density, find the charge density ?
Solution:
Given:
1
v = 4 (r + cos )
r
= Dr ar + D a + D a
Electric Flux Density, D
In Spherical Coordinate System,
Where Dr = r 2 , D = 2 sin() , D = 0
and volume charge density , is given by
The relation between D
= v (1)
. D
Which is point form of Gauss law
in Spherical Coordinates is given by
. D
1 2
1
1 D
=
(
)
(
)
. D
r
D
+
D
sin
+
r
r 2 r
r sin
r sin
1
1
(2 sin2 ) + 0
v = 2 (r 2 r 2 ) +
r r
r sin
1
1
= 2 4r 3 +
2 2 sin cos
r
r sin
4
= 4r + cos
r
1
v = 4 (r + cos )
r
32
Electromagnetic Field
Example 2
r, where C is the helical path described by, x = cos t,
Evaluate the integral, C . d
y = sin t, z = t, joining the points given by t = 0 and t = /2
Solution:
Let I = r . dr
c
Where C is the helical path described by x = cos (t), y = sin (t), z = t joining the
point P at t = 0 and the point, Q at t = /2.
Position vector, r in Cartesian coordinates is given by
r = x ax + y ay + z az and dr = dx ax + dy ay + dz az
1
Q
I = (x dx + y dy + z dz) = [x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ]P
2
c
OC =
3
a
2
+Q
B
a
( , 0)
2
(i) Let P(0, y) be the point on yaxis, where the potential, V = V1 + V2 + V3 due to these
charges is zero.
V = V1 + V2 + V3 = 0 . . (1)
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33
Electromagnetic Field
V1 =
Q
,
40 (AP)
a2
AP = + y 2 . . . (2)
4
V2 =
Q
,
40 (BP)
a2
BP = + y 2 = AP . . (3)
4
2Q
3
, CP = (y OC) = (y
a) . (4)
40 (CP)
2
From equations (2), (3) and (4)
Q
1
1
2
[ +
V =
] . (5)
40 AP BP CP
1
1
2
2
2
V = 0 if
+
=
or
=
or AP = CP
AP BP CP AP CP
V3 =
a2
a2
3
3
+ y2 = y
a or
+ y 2 = y 2 + a2 y3a
2
4
4
4
3
a2
a2
a
y3a = a2
or y3a =
or y =
4
4
4
23
a
2Q 1
Q
1
[ ]=
40 AP CP
20
1
2
2
a
[ 4 +y
1
3
y 2 a
]
at P(0, y) is given by
E
= grad(V) = V
E
[ V ax +
V ay + V az ]
x
y
z
V = 0, V = 0
x
z
3/2
Q
1 a2
[( ) ( + y 2 )
V=
y
20
2 4
Q
a2
[y ( + y 2 )
20
4
a
At P(x, y) = P (0,
)
23
3/2
E =
3
+ (y
a)
2
Q
a a2 a2
E =
[
( + )
20
23 4 12
3
2y + (y
a) ]
2
] ay
3
+(
a) ] ay
2
23
Q
3
3Q
[ 2 ] a y =
a
20 2a
40 a2 y
3Q
E = Ey =
40 a2
=
34
Electromagnetic Field
(iii) The direction of E at P is the direction of the normal to the equipotential surface
(V = 0) at that point, in the direction of the decreasing values of V.
From equation (6) it follows that the direction of E is in the ve ydirection.
The angle between the equipotential surface and the yaxis is zero.
Example 4
Given an irrotational vector field
= (k1 xy + k 2 z 3 )ax + (3x 2 k 3 z)ay + (3xz 2 y)az
F
Find . F at(1,1, 2)
Solution:
= Fx ax + Fy ay + Fz a z ,
Given: Irrotational vector field, F
Where Fx = (k1 x y + k 2 z 3 ), Fy = (3 x 2 k 3 z), Fz = (3 x z 2 y)
) = . F is given by
In Cartesian coordinates, Div (F
Fx = k 1 y ,
Fy = 0,
F = 6xz
y
z z
x
At the point (x, y, z). . F = k1 y + 6 x z
At (1, 1, 2), . F = (k1 12)
Example 5
Given E = 10ej(4xkt) y V/m in free space.
(A) Write all the four maxwells equations in free space
(B) Find E
(C) Find H
Solution: Maxwells equations are Electro magnetic equations relating the field variables, which are
, H
, B
and D
vectors: E
Point or Differential Form
=
+ J
x H
D
t
B
x E
t
Integral Form
D + J ) . (ds)
s t
.
E
dl = B . ds
t
s
=
. D
D. d s = dV
= (
. dl
H
. B = 0
B. d s = 0
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
= dv
J . ds
. J =
t
t
Characteristics of the medium in which the fields exist given rise to the following
Constitutive relation:
= E,
= H
,
D
B
J = E
For a homogenous, isotropic and source free (no impressed voltages or currents) medium
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35
Electromagnetic Field
In free space medium i.e., perfect dielectric containing no charges, and no conduction
currents
1
109 F
Put = 0, J = 0, = 0, = 0 =
, = 0 = 4 107 H/m
36
m
In the above equations.
(a) The given field, E = 10 ej(4xkt) a V/m ..(1)
represents a uniform plane wave travelling in the xdirection with velocity v = k/4
and having components, Ex = 0, Ez = 0, Ey = 10ej(4xkt)
ax ay az
a x a y a z

E = 
 =  x y z 
x y z
0 Ey 0
Ex Ey Ez
= ax (0) a y (0) + az
E
x y
o
E = j 40 ej(4xkt) = 40 ej(4xkt+90 )az
(b) For uniform plane wave
E
=
H
can have only zcomponent so that wave travels in the xdirection.
As E = Ey a y , H
Ey
2Q
3
Q3
50 cm
x
2Q
Q3
+
450 4x
Q
Q3
V2 =
+
450 4(X 50)
Q
2Q
+
V3 =
(
4x 4 x 50)
P. E of the field = Q V1 + 2Q V2 + 3Q V3 = 0, for equilibrium
V1 =
36
Electromagnetic Field
Q
2Q
Q3
Q3
] + 2Q [
]
Q[
+
+
(
450 4 x 50)
450 4x
Q
2Q
]=0
+Q3 [
+
4x 4(x 50)
2Q Q3 2Q
2Q3
1
2
]=0
+
+
+
+ Q3 [ +
50
x
50 x 50
x (x 50)
4Q
1
2
1
2
]=0
+ Q3 [ +
+ +
50
x x 50 x x 50
2
4
4Q
6x 100
] = Q3 [
]
= Q3 [ +
x x 50
50
x(x 50)
4Q
2
= Q3 , Q3 = Q
50
25
x 2 50 x = 6x 100
x 2 56 x + 100 = 0
56 562 400 56 52.3
=
= 54.15, 1.85
2
2
x = 54.15 cm
Q3 should be a negative charge with magnitude 0.08 Q and located at x = 54.15 cm from
Q and 4.15 cm from 2Q.
x =
Example 7
Consider a circular cylinder of radius 1 meter and length 0.75 meters in free space
(intrinsic impedance = 120 ohms) with its oriented along the z direction. Let a x , a y
and a z denote the unit vectors in the x, y and z directions respectively. An EM wave is
propagating in the positive zdirection with its electric field E = cos [2 f(t z/c )] a x
volts/m, where f = 100 MHz and c is the velocity of light 3 108 m/s). Determine (i) the
pointing vector P, and (ii) the net power flux intering the cylinder.
Solution:
Given E = Ex a x
With Ex = 1 cos[2 f(t z/c)]
Ex  = 1 V/m
is having only ax component with Ex  = 1, the corresponding magnetic field
(i) As E
should have only y component so that the EM Wave travels in +ve zdirection.
z
0.75m
y
x
1m
z
= Hy  cos [2f (t )] ay
H
c
Ey  and Hy  are related by
: 080617 66 222, info@thegateacademy.com Copyright reserved. Web:www.thegateacademy.com
37
Electromagnetic Field
Ex 
Hy 
= 0 = (120)
1
z
yA
cos [2f (t )] a
120
c
m
is given by
The pointing vector, P
1
z
P = E
H
=
cos2 [2f (t )] az W/m2
120
c
(ii) Power enters from the bottom plane area = () m2 of the cylinder and leaves from
the top plane area of the cylinder.
Power flow through the curved surface is zero.
Net average power flux entering the cylinder
=
H
1 1
z
P=
cos2 (2f (t )) dt, where T = 1/f sec
T 120
c
t=0
1 T
1
=
=
W
120 T 2
240
38
Electromagnetic Field
Assignment 1
1.
2.
3.
(C) E =
(D) .E =
2o
5.
6.
has radius =
be
(A) Zero
(B) 1 F
t
2
9.
t/2
(A)
(B) C
t/2
(C) 2C
(D) 4C
(C) 4 F
(D) 0 F
8.
from either of
4o
7.
4.
39
Electromagnetic Field
10.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
A 3 F capacitor is charged by a
constant current of 2 A for 6 seconds.
The voltage across the capacitor at the
end of charging will be
(A) 3 V
(C) 6 V
(B) 4 V
(D) 9 V
18.
R
q
(A) Zero
(B)
11.
12.
q
4R2
(C)
N
(D)
q2
4R
q2
4R2
2r
I
(B)
4r
(C)
Ir
2R2
Ir
(D)
4R2
40
Electromagnetic Field
19.
2I
5.
6.
7.
(A) 0
(B) 2I
(C) 4I
(D) 6I
Assignment 2
1.
2.
3.
A
(B) E = t
4.
Y
2.5
PV
t
(C) . A = E t
(D) None of these
0 2.25 0
(A) 1.564
(B) 2.468
8.
0 0
(C) 3.911
(D) 4.389
2 E
t2
41
Electromagnetic Field
9.
12.
13.
d1
d2
ln(d2 2 /d1 2 )
(d2 /d1 )
10.
11.
(d2 2 /d1 2 )
(B) H =
I dIR
4R2
(D) H = J
14.
15.
16.
is __________
42
Electromagnetic Field
E =
o
2.
4.
5.
6.
[Ans. B]
The new system has two capacitor in
series, let the value of one capacitor is C.
A
A 2 A
C =
,C =
=
= 2C
t
t/2
t
New capacitance = 2C in series with 2C = C
[Ans. D]
s
E =
20
2 109
= 36 az V/m
2 8.854 1012
8.
10.
[Ans. A]
The E field vanishes everywhere inside
the sphere.
11.
[Ans. B]
Amperes law Magnetic flux density at a
point. Biosavarts law Force due to a
current carrying conductor. Coulombs
law Force on a charge. Gausss law
Electric flux density at a point
12.
[Ans. C]
H 2 r =
13.
14.
[Ans. C]
Surface Charge Density = D
= 21 + 3 = 4 C/m2
[Ans. B]
[Ans. C]
Nd
= 100 (3 t 2 2) 103
dt
[magnitude EMF] at t = 4 sec
EMF = 100 (48 2) 103
100 46 103 = 4.6 V
EMF =
1
=1F
40
[Ans. B]
B = 0
It does not pertain that magnetic field is
perpendicular to the electric field.
Ir 2
Ir
H =
2
2R2
R
M = K L1 L2
M
0.015
K=
=
= 0.5
0.09 0.01
L1 L2
[Ans. B]
C = 40 R = 40
7.
[Ans. C]
Inductance of solenoid,
o N2 A
L=
l
So L N2
When turns are double, inductance will be
4 times.
[Ans. B]
T = m B = IA az B
= IA az (2 ax 2 ay + az )105
= IA 105 (2ay + 2ax )
[Ans. B]
1
= sin1 = sin1 0.5 , = 30o
4
3.
9.
15.
[Ans. B]
z
A
+Q
C
Q
B
45
45
E2
E1
43
Electromagnetic Field
4.
V = 10xyz z + 5x E = v
100 = 10xyz z + 5x
(10yz + 5)ax 10xzay + (1 10xy)az
5x 10
z=
1 210xy
At point P(2,3, z), z = 1.52
E = 50.76 ax 30.51 ay 59 az V/m
[Ans. A]
q2
r2
1018
= 9 109
= 9 103 N
106
F = 9 109
17.
[Ans. B]
q It 2 106 6
V = = =
= 4V
C C
3 106
18.
[Ans. B]
1
1
50 2
E = LI2 = 0.4 ( ) = 20 J
2
2
5
19.
5.
[Ans. D]
For a < P < b & 0 < z < d
d b
0 A
=
sin(t) cos() dp dz
P
0 a
0 A
b
=
ln ( )
a
w0 A
ln(ba) sin(d) cos(t)
=
6.
[Ans. C]
At minimum
[Ans. C]
By Amperec circuit law H. dl = Ienc
3I + 2I I = 4I
2
= 6
S1
51 4
  =
=
= = 0.67
S+1
5+1 6
2 0
 = 67ej0.6
[ = ej ]
2 + 0
1 + 0.67ej0.6
2 = 0 (
)
t 0.67ej0.6
0.67ej108 = 20 + j0.6365
1 20 + j 6365
2 = 377 [
]
1 + 20j0.6365
377[0.3007 + j0.6899]
2 = 113.36 + j260.09
D
=
D2n
1n = 4 to (2az )
=x
2
= [1 + ( ) + 1 ]
2
2 5 106 5 2
[1 + x 2 + 1]
3 108
2
x=
= 1823
10 =
3.
[Ans. B]
B
t
A
=
E
[ A], E =
t
t
=
E
( + )
= 4
2
Assignment 2
1.
[Ans. A]
2.
[Ans. A]
7.
[Ans. A]
Since a > b the dominant mode is TE10
C
3 108
In face space fc =
=
= 3 GHz
2a
2 0.05
0
377
=
= 406.7
1 =
2
2
3
1 ( )
1 (fc )
7
f0
c
In dielectric medium fc =
2 GHz
2ar
0
377
=
=
= 251.33
r 2.25
251.33
2 =
= 259.23
2
2
1 ( )
8
44
Electromagnetic Field
Reflection Coefficient =
2 1
2 + 1
I
[ln [L + L2 + d12 ] ln d1 ]
2
I
[ln[2L] ln d1 ] , L >> d1
=
2
Vector magnetic potential A2 due to long
wire RS:
I
A2 = [ln[2L] ln d2 ]
2
Due to both wires,
I
A = A1 + A2 = [ln d2 ln d1 ]
259.23 406.7
= 0.22
259.23 + 406.7
1 + 
1 + 0.22
S =
=
= 1.564
1 + 
1 0.22
8.
[Ans. B]
An electrostatic field with electric field, E
is said to be conservative, if the closed
line integral of the field is zero. i.e.,
. dl = 0..(1)
E
Applying stokes theorem, equation (1)
becomes
= 0, i.e., the curl of the field, E
is
E
I
d2
I
d22
=
ln [ ] =
ln [ 2 ]
2
d1
2
d1
10.
[Ans. B, C]
This question is regarding the boundary
conditions at the interface between two
media (1) and (2)
For a charge free interface between two
media with dielectric constant 1 and 2
(i) The tangential components of the
electric field are equal. i.e.,
Etan1 = Etan2
or E is continuos at the boundary
(ii) The normal components of electric
flux density D are equal. i.e.,
DN1 = DN2 or DN is continuous at the
boundary.
Dtan1 1 EN2
It may be noted that
= =
Dtan2 2 EN1
11.
[Ans. A]
equal to zero.
2 E
[Ans. A]
The magnetic vector potential A, at point
P in the xy plane (z=o) is derived below
(see Fig.)
Taking an elemental current element I dz,
Vector magnetic potential A1 due to the
long wire PQ:
Q z
density, B
A = B = H
R
o
y
d1
d2
P
12.
x
P
N
L
A1 =
I
dz
, R = d12 + z 2
4
R
L
L
I
dz
I
=
ln [z 2 + d12 ]
2 d12 + z 2 2
0
[Ans. D]
E = 100 V/m is replaced by a 100 mV/m
Note that the data either 100 V/m has no
effect on the field strength required at the
point P.
Therefore for the present question also
the electric fields strength at P would be
zero.
45
Electromagnetic Field
13.
[Ans. C]
Gausss law for magnetic fields states that
the electric flux flowing through the
closed surface is equal to zero, as free
magnetic charge do not exit and magnetic
flux lines are closed.
=0
B.
ds = 0 or . B
sin2 y dy dx =
sin 2y 1 1
1
] [x]
= [ ] [y
2 0 0
2
1
sin(2)
1
sin(2)
= [1
] (1) = [1
]
2
2
2
2
I3 through OTSM = Vy dx dz,
y = 0, x = 0 to 1, z = 0 to 1
, . H
= 0
As B = H
In homogeneous medias is independent
of position.
. H = 0
14.
x3
= [x e dx dz] = [ ] [ex ]10
3 0
1
1
= [ ] [e1 1] = [e1 1]
3
3
I4 through PQRN = I3
I5 through OTQP = xcos2 y dy dz ,
x = 0, y = 0 to 1, z = 0 to 1
=0
I6 through MSRN = xcos2 y dy dz ,
x = 1, y = 0 to 1, z = 0 to 1
2 2
[Ans. D]
Power density, P = 1.2 kW/m2, on the
surface of the earth where
= 0 = (120)
The relation between E and P is given by
E2
=P
2
The amplitude, E of the electric field is
given by
[Ans. *]
Given V = x cos2 y i + x 2 ez j + z sin2 y k
R
Q
M
O
x
. n dS
The given integral : I = s V
I1 through OMNP = Vz dx dy,
z = 0, x = 0 to 1, y = 0 to 1
= 0 , as Vz = 0 at z = 0
I2 through TQRS = Vz dx dy,
z = 1, x = 0 to 1, y = 0 to 1
= sin2 y dy dx
1
sin 2y 1 1 1
sin(2)
= [y +
] [z]0 = [1 +
] [1]
2
2 0
2
2
1
sin(2)
= [1 +
]
2
2
I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 + I5 + I6
1
sin(2)
1
sin(2)
= [1
] + [1 +
]
2
2
2
2
1
= sin(2)
2
V = x cos2 y ax + x 2 e2 ay + z sin2 y az
= Vx ax + Vy ay + Vz az
Vx = cos2 y, Vy = x 2 e2 and Vz = z sin2 y
1 + cos 2y
cos y dy dz =
dy dz
2
2
E = 20 P
15.
1 cos 2y
dy dx
2
16.
[Ans. *]
Given the sphere of radius R with uniform
surface charge density C/m2 . Magnitude
of the electric field at 2R from the centre
of the sphere can be obtained by using
= Charge Enclosed
. ds
Gausss law: D
D (at r = 2R) 4(2R)2 = 4R2
D(at r = 2R) =
4
D(at r = 2R) 1
E(at r = 2R) =
=
4
R
R
But D (at r = ) = 0 or E (at r = ) = 0
2
2
Because no charge is enclosed within the
imaginary spherical surface of radius R/2
E(r = R/2)
=0
E(r = 2R)
46
Module Test
1.
(A) D = 0 , C = 0
(B) D 0 , C = 0
2.
3.
4.
(D) B. ds = 0
(C) D = 0 , C 0
(D) D 0 , C 0
E = 0 implies that
(A) E = 0
(B) E is a conservation field , and
hence irrotational vector
(C) E is a static and doesnt change
with time
(D) E is a constant vector
(B) .D = v
5.
P
y
O
V
6 cm
x
6.
7.
8.
47
Module Test
9.
10.
11.
E
(C) . D = 0, 2 E = 0 0 2
t
2
E
2 B
(D) 2 E = 0 0 2 , 2 B = 0 0 2
t
t
In the source free wave equation
2 E
E
0 0
2 E
0
=0
2
t
t
The term responsible for the
attenuation of the wave is
E
(A) 0
t
2 E
(B) 0 0 2
t
(C) 2 E
E
2 E
(D) 0
and 0 0 0 2
t
t
15.
16.
17.
18.
= 0 is based on
Equation .B
(A) Gausss Law
(B) Lenzs Law
(C) Amperes Law
(D) Continuity Equation
=0
(C) B
= 0
. ds
(B) B
S
(D) . B 0
14.
12.
13.
48
Module Test
[Ans. D]
Both curl and divergence is not zero.
2.
[Ans. B]
E = 0 implies that E is a
conservative field and hence it is
irrotational vector.
3.
[Ans. A]
V
D = E =
d
D V
Jd =
=
t
d t
A V
A dV
( )=
Id = Jd . A =
d dt
d dt
109 5 104
=2
103
36 3 103
50 cos 103 t A
= 147.4 cos 103 t nA
4.
[Ans. A]
5.
[Ans. A]
8.
[Ans. A]
Dt is called displacement current &
behaves the same way as physical
current & hence the continuity equation
must also include this current.
9.
[Ans. D]
10.
[Ans. A]
E
t
involves the parameter i.e.,
conductivity of the lossy medium that
correspond to losses in EM wave
propagation.
The term 0
11.
V
V
V
a + a + a ]
x x y y z z
E = [6xyax + (3x2 z)ay yay ]
E = V = [
v
. J = (0 + 0 + 3z ) cos 10 t =
t
2
6.
3z 2
=
sin 104 t + C0
104
v /z = 0 C0 =0
So, v = 0.3 z 2 sin 104 t mc/m3
[Ans. B]
According to Gauss law for magnetic
= 0 i.e., no existence of
field .B
monopoles.
= 0 ( Divergence theorem)
ds
B
[Ans. B]
Divergence of B = 0 i. e. , B is solenoidal.
Vemf =
0.08 0.06
B
. ds
t
y=0 x=0
[Ans. A]
V = 3x 2 y yz
[Ans. B]
Vemf = (v B). dl
0
12.
13.
[Ans. B]
Force on current carrying conductor
due to magnetic field
B = 3ax + 4ay
= l(laz B)
F
Force per unit length
1 = l(az B)
F
= 5[az (3a x + 4ay )]
= 5[3a y 4ax ]
F1 = 20ax + 15a y N/m
x=l
49
Module Test
14.
[Ans. D]
s
(az )
E=
2 0
20 109 4 9 109
=
(az )
21
= 360 az V/m
15.
[Ans. C]
Net flux coming out from a closed
= Qenclosed total
. ds
surface i.e., D
charge enclosed within the surface this
is Gausss law for electric field.
16.
[Ans. C]
From the boundary condition
Dn1 = Dn2 (Chargefree)
0 r1 Ez1 = 0 r2 Ez2
4 3 = 2 Ez2
Ez2 = 6az
17.
[Ans. B]
.D
= v
We known that
But D = E
. (E
) = v
but E = V
Vpotential (Scalar)
. (V) = v
Medium is inhomogeneous i.e., is
function of dimensions x, y, z so we
cannot take it out side.
18.
[Ans. A]
Magnetic monopoles are not physically
=0
possible as per Gausss Law i.e., .B
50
Reference Books
Reference Books
1.
2.
Engg Electromagnetic
By William Hayt
3.
4.
5.
6.
Principles of Elctromagnetics
By Matthew N.O. Sadiku
51
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