STPM Biology Practical 20

Ecological study of a terrestrial or an aquatic area.

Area to be studied: School Compound  Members: Yap Yee Sheng (910522145163)  Tham Weng Chen(910915145527)  Muhammad Basrul (910130145607)  Chong Dik Tseng (911109145703)
 

Objectives
       

Learning the basic principles of ecology through students’ own effort Elements of ecosystem: biosis and abiosis Dynamic relationship of elements and flow of energy through ecosystem Using the simple apparatus and instruments in ecological studies Learning the methods of collecting and analyzing ecological data Writing an ecological study report Inculcating nature loving attitude Inculcating good moral values such as cooperation, independence, and self-confidence

Technique
 Quadrat

sampling  Line Transect  Belt Transect  Tullgren funnel  Baermann funnel  Observation

Rough planning of work
 Date:

4/11/09  Period: 1 day  Activity: Planning

 Date:

10/11/09  Period: 1 day  Activity: Proposal presentation

 Date:

11-12/11/09  Period: 2 day  Activity: Soil Analysis
 soil sampling determination determination determination determination determination

of of of of of

the texture of soil water content of soil organic matter content air content in soil soil pH

 Date:

13-16/11/09  Period: 4 days  Activity: Determination of the types of soil organisms

 Date:

17-20/11/09  Period: 3 days  Activity: Determination of the density of plant species in a habitat
 quadrat sampling technique sampling technique using line transect

 Date:  Period: 

1 day  Activity: Report presentation

Soil Analysis

1. Soil Sampling Technique
 PS:

How to obtain soil?  Apparatus:
 Metal cylinder Piston  Procedure:

a)Press the metal cylinder into the soil. b)Using the piston, remove the soil sample from the cylinder.

2. Determination of the texture of the soil
PS: How is the texture of the soil.  Apparatus:

› 500cm3 measuring cylinder › 100cm3 soil sample › 300cm3 water

Procedure
a) Add the soil sample to the measuring cylinder and cover with water. b) Shake the contents vigorously. c) Allow the mixture to settle out, according to the density and the surface area of particles, for 48 hours. d) Measure the volume of various fractions of soil sample. e)   f) Results Formula: g) Calculate the percentage of stone, sand, and clay components of the soil sample.

 Results

Formula:

Calculate the percentage of stone, sand, and clay components of the soil sample.  

 Tabulation
Component Stone Sand Clay Weight of component (g) 1 2 % of component 3 Average

3. Determination of water content of soil
 

PS: What is the percentage of water content of soil? Apparatus:
› › › › › ›

Aluminium foil pie dish balance oven desiccators tongs thermometer 

Procedure:
a) Weigh an aluminium foil pie dish while still empty. Record the mass (a) b) Add the broken-up soil sample to the pie dish and weigh. Record the mass (b) c) Place the pie dish containing the soil sample in the oven at 110°C for 24 hours. d) Remove the sample from the oven and cool in the desiccator. e) Weigh the sample when cool, and record the mass. f) Return the sample to the oven at 110°C for a further 24 hours. g) Repeat stages (d) and (e) until consistent weighing is recorded (constant mass). Record the mass (c). h) Calculate the percentage water content as follows:

 Results  

formula:

 Tabulation

Mass (g) 1 (a) (b) (c)

2

3

Average

4. Determination of organic matter content
 

PS: What is the organic matter content of the soil? Apparatus and Material:
› › › › › ›

Desiccators and lid Tripod Bunsen Burner Asbestos mat Fireclay triangle tongs Dried soil sample

Procedure:
a) Heat the crucible and lid strongly in the Bunsen Flame to remove all traces of moisture. Place in desiccator to cool. Weigh and record the mass (a) b) Add the dried soil sample (kept from the previous experiment) from the desiccators and weigh. Record the mass (b) c) Heat the soil sample in the crucible, covered with the lid, to red-heat for 1 hour to burn off all the organic matter. Allow to cool for 10 minutes and remove to the desiccators. d) Weigh the crucible and sample when cool. e) Repeat (c) and (d) until constant mass is recorded. f) Calculate the percentage of organic content as follow: g) Repeat the experiment on soil sample taken from different areas to demonstrate variation of organic content.

 Results  

formula:

 Tabulation

Mass (g) 1 (a) (b) (c)

2

3

Average

5. Determination of air content in soil
 

PS: What is the percentage of air content in soil? Apparatus:
› › › ›

tin can of volume about 200cm3 500cm3 beaker Metal seeker Water 

Procedure: a) Place the empty can open end uppermost into the 500cm3 beaker and fill the beaker with water above the level of the can. Mark the water level in the beaker. b) Carefully remove the can containing the water and measure this volume of water in a measuring cylinder. Record the volume (a). The water level in the beaker will fall by the amount corresponding with the volume of water in the can. c) Perforate the base of the can using a drill, making about eight small holes. d) Push open the end of the can into the soil from which surface vegetation has been removed until the soil begins to come through the perforations. Gently dig out the can, turn it over and remove the soil from the surface until it is level with the top of can. e) Place the can of soil, with open end uppermost, gently back into the beaker of water and loosen soil in the can with the seeker to allow air to escape. f) The water level in the beaker will be lower than the original level because water will be used to replace the air which was present in the soil.

 Results

formula:

%

volume of air in soil sample

 Tabulation
Mass(g) 1 (a) (b) 2 3 Average

6. Determination of soil pH
 

PS: What is the pH of the Soil? Apparatus 
› › › › ›

long test-tube test-tube rack spatula 100cm3 pipette Universal indicator 

Procedure:
a) Add about 1cm3 of soil to the test-tube and 1cm of barium sulphate, which ensures flocculation of the colloidal clay. b) Add 10cm3 of distilled water and 5cm3 of BDH universal indicator solution. Seal the test-tube with the bung. Shake vigorously and allow contents to settle for 5 minutes. c) Compare the colour of liquid in the test tube with the colours on the BDH reference colour chart and read off the corresponding pH. d) Repeat the experiment on soil samples from different areas.

Results:

State the pH value of the soil.

 

 Tabulation
Area Area Area Area Area A B C D pH 1 2 3 Average

Determination of the types of soil organisms

PS: What are the types of organisms present in soi

Apparatus and materials:
› › › › › › ›

Tullgren funnel Retort stand Beakers Magnifying glass Microscope, glass slide Baermann funnel 4% formalin solution 

Results:
a) List down the types of animals such as Nematoda, Annelida, Myriapoda, Insecta, Mollusca, and Amoeba. b)State the name of the above animals and draw the appearance of the animals.

Baermann Funnel

Tullgren Funnel

PS: What is the density of plant species in a habitat?

Determination of the density of plant species in a habitat

1. Quadrat sampling technique
 Apparatus:

› Quadrats measuring 1m2
 Procedure:

a)Systematic sampling procedure – quadrats are placed at the same intervals along transects which runs across the investigated area at the same intervals. b)Random sampling procedure – using random number table

Systematic distribution of quadrats

Random distribution of quadrats

 Results:

› › › › › ›

Student’s name: ___________________ Date:___________________ Habitat: __________________________ Location/Place: ____________________ Type of plant: ______________________ Quadrat size: ______________________


No.

Table of the data for the measurements of each species cover in quadrat sampling
Species cover (base/air) in quadrat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total species Percentage cover for 10 Cover (%) quadrats


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

 Results

formula:

2. Sampling method using line transect
 

Apparatus:
› Rope (15.30 meters)

Procedure:
a)Determine a base line along the border of the area under the investigation. b)Choose a series of points along the base line either randomly or systematically. These points are used as the starting points for the transects to run across the area being investigated. c)Record only the plants which touch the line as seen vertically above or below the transect line. d)10 – 20 lines are placed randomly in the area to provide enough samples to investigate the community.

 Results:

Student’s name: ___________________ Date: _________________ Habitat: __________________________ Location/Place: ____________________ Type of plant: _____________________ › Distance of each interval: ____________ › Total number of intervals: ___________ › Total length of line transect: __________
› › › ›

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Name of Species

Number of interval 1 2 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

 Calculate

the frequency of a species using the following formula: % of surface area cover of each species the relative species cover

 Calculate

 Calculate


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Summary of the measurements obtained by the line transect technique
of Species Number of intervals where the species are recorded. Percentage cover Relative cover Frequency

Name 

3. Sampling method using Belt transect
 Apparatus:

› Strip of 0.5 width
 Procedure:

› Run the strip trough the habitat by

setting up two line transects.

THANK YOU!!! HAVE A NICE DAY. (‘.^)V

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful