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xHrSm avhvmpHkprf;=unfhEdkifygw,f? 'gu ±_axmifhwpfckyg?
aemuf±_axmifhwpfcku olta=umif;jycJhwJh tJ'DtE W&m,f tJ'Dwkef;u trSef
wu,f&SdaeraeqdkwJh tcsufjzpf+yD; tJ'Dtcsufudk u|efawmfwkd@ avhvm=unhf=u&

9
atmifyg? ‘jynfaxmifpk+ydKuGJr,fh tE W&m,f’vdk@ Adkvfae0if; &nf!$ef;cJhwJh tE W&m,fu
(1947)ckepf tajccHOya'rSmygwJh ‘cGJxGufcGifh’ jzpfygw,f? t*FvdyfqDu vGwfvyfa&;
&,l&mrSm wpfEdkifiHvHk; pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; nDnDn$wfn$wfeJ@ wpfoHwnf; xGufEdkif=uapzdk@
twGuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; trSL;jyKwJh EdkifiHacgif;aqmif}uD;awGu tajctae tcsdeftcg
tay: rlwnf+yD; jynfe,fawGtwGuf txl;ojzifh tJ'Dwkef;u ArmuvGJ&if tiftm;
t}uD;qHk; vlrsdK;jzpfwJh &Srf;vlrsdK;awGtwGuf &nf&G,fxnfhoGif;cJhwJh Oya'yk'fr jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;&+yD; (10)ESpf
t=umrSm cGx
J u
G v
f u
kd cGx
J u
G Ef ikd w
f ,f
vdk@ qdkxm;wJh tJ'Dyk'frtwdkif; (10)
ESpf=umvmwJh (1958)ckESpfrSm jynf
axmifpku cGJxGufa&;udpPeJ@ ywfouf
+yD; &Srf;acgif;aqmifwcsKd@qDu toH
awG xGufvmwmrSefygw,f? tJ'D
toH[m (1958)ckESpfrSm ppfwyf&JŒ
yxrt}udrf tm%modrf;r_a=umifh
aysmuf u G , f o G m ;cJ h + yD ; (1960)a&G ;
aumufyGJrSm (yxp) tEdkif&um tpdk;
& jzpfvmcJh+yD;wJhaemufrSm jyefxGuf
vmwmvnf; rSefygw,f? 'gayr,fh
tJ'Dwkef;u yxptpdk;& acgif;aqmif
jzpfcJhwJh 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek&J@ &Spfav;vHk;
ta&;awmf y H k t wG i f ; eJ @ aemuf y d k i f ;
ajym=um;csufawGt& tJ'Dvdk toH
xGuv
f mwm&J@ t"duta=umif;&if;u ud,
k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfciG hf ydrk &kd &daS &;aps;qpfz@kd zdtm;ay;r_
om jzpf+yD; Adkvfae0if; tm%mrodrf;rD wpf&uftvdkrSmyJ tJ'DudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; jynf
axmifpk tpdk;&acgif;aqmifawGeJ@ &Srf;jynfe,facgif;aqmifawGt=um; vkyfief;pOfqdkif&m
tao;pdwf tcsuftvuf (Technical Process)awGuvGJvdk@ tajccHtm;jzifh a=ua=u
vnfvnf nd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;cJh+yD; jzpfw,fvdk@ od&dS&ygw,f? tJ'DtjyifrSm tvGwfoabm
&&dcS w
hJ hJ oabm wlncD suaf wGukd aemufwpfae@(rwfv 2 &uf)v$waf wmftpnf;ta0;rSm
wifjy+yD; w&m;0if twnfjyKEdik zf @kd twGuf acgi;f aqmifawG[m rwfv (1)&ufae@ nOfeh uf
wJhtxd aqG;aEG; +yD;rS rdrdwkd@aetdrftoD;oD;udk jyef+yD; tdyf&m0ifcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'DaemufrSmawmh tm;vHk;od=uwJhtwdkif; tJ'Dnoef;acgifausmf+yD;p tcsdefrSmyJ
tJ'Dacgif;aqmif tm;vHk;vdkvdk[m Adkvfae0if;&JΠzrf;qD;jcif;ukd cHcJh=u&ygw,f?

10
OD;EkeJ@ tJ'Dae@u tzrf;cHcJh=u&wJh acgif;aqmifawGxJu wcsKd@&J@ aemufydkif;
ajym=um;csuftm;vHk;udk avhvmoHk;oyf=unfhvdkuf&if tJ'Dwkef;u tm%modrf;&mrSm
f m bmrSt"dyg` ,f r&db
S ;l qdw
k m xif&mS ;ygw,f? usaemf
Adv
k af e0if;jycJw
h hJ ta=umif;jycsu[
tckwifjycJw
h hJ ±_axmifEh pS cf t
k &=unf&h if Adv
k af e0if;tm%modr;f wm[m tm%modr;f csif
vdk@ukd odrf;cJhwm? (wpfenf;)tm%mvdkcsifvkd@ odrf;cJhwmqdkwm ay:vGifvSygw,f?
tJ'DaemufrSmawmh Adkvfae0if;[m (wpfydkif;uol@&J@ wkdif;jynfcspfpdwfa=umifh
jzpfcsifvnf;jzpfr,f? usefwpfydkif;u yk*~dKvfa&;}uD;jrifhr_udk wyfrufwJh ol@&J@qENa=umifh
jzpfr,f) ol rSefr,faumif;r,f xifwmawGudk vkyfygawmhw,f? (1962)ckESpf Zlvkdifv
(7)&ufae@rSm &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;awGudk owfw,f? aemufwpfae@reuf
t±k%frwufcifrSm jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ordkif;rSm tifrwef tpOftvm}uD;cJhwJh ausmif;
om;or*~taqmuftOD;udk azmufcGJzsufqD;ypfw,f? tJ'Daemuf qifhuJqifhuJqdkovdkyJ
+idrf;csrf;a&;aqGaEG;yGJqdkwmudk ac:w,f? tJ'DaqGaEG;yGJ ysufoGm;awmh vuf0Jvdkvm;wJh
tiftm;pkawGudk odrf;usHK;zrf;qD;w,f? yk*~vduydkifvkyfief;awGudk jynfolydkifodrf;w,f?
rqvygwD&J@ oaE<jzpfwJh tjrKawygwDudk wnfaxmifw,f? usefEdkifiHa&;ygwDtm;vHk;udk
w&m;r0ifa=unmw,f? tajccHOya'a&;qG/J vlxq
k ENc,
H yl eJG @J twnfjyK+yD; a&G;aumufyJG
vkyf/ jynfol@v$wfawmfqdkwmudk zGJ@pnf;/ oluyJ toGiftrsdK;rsdK;eJ@ OD;aqmifwJh t&yfom;
tpdk;& qdkwmukd xlaxmifcJhygw,f?
jrefrmjynfrSm Adkvfae0if; tJovdkawG vkyfaewJhtcsdef[m urBmrSm tar&duef
OD;aqmifwJh t&if;&SifEdkifiHrsm;tkyfpkeJ@ qdkAD,ufOD;aqmifwJh uGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;tkyfpkwkd@
t=um; axmufvSrf;a&; tm;+ydKifr_/ oabmw&m;a&; tm;+yKdifr_/ ,Ofaus;r_tm;+yKdifr_
yHo
k ¾mefe@J qifEaJ$ ewJh ppfat;wdu
k yf t
JG &deS t
f [kef tawmfav;jrifah ewJt
h csed f jzpfygw,f?
wpfcsdefwnf;rSm tJ'Dppfat;&J@ a&mifjyef[yfr_wpfcktjzpf tm&S/ tmz&dueJ@ vufwif
tar&du pwJh a'o}uD;awGrmS ppft&m&d}S uD;awGu OD;aqmifwhJ tm%modr;f yGaJ wG w+cdr;f
+cdrf; ay:aygufaewJhumvvnf; jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefu ordkif;a&;tajctaet&
ppfat;wdkufyGJ&J@ ESpfbufacgif;aqmifawG jzpf=uwJh tar&duefeJ@ qdkAD,ufwkd@[m tJ'D
tm%modr;f yGaJ wGrmS b,forl eS +f yD; b,forl mS ;ovJqw
kd mxuf b,fou
l igb
h ufom;vJ/
b,fou
l ol@bufom;vJ qdw
k mudyk J =unf+h yD; axmufcrH /_ qef@usirf a_ wGvyk cf =hJ uygw,f?
tJ'Dtcsdefu ppft&m&dS}uD;awG&JΠtm%modrf;r_awG[m wpfrdk;vHk;azsmufqdyf qdkovdk
jzpfaewma=umifh Adv
k af e0if;&J@ tm%modr;f r_[m ork'&N mxJuswhJ a&wpfpufvkd jzpfomG ;
cJh+yD; EdkifiHwum&J@ xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tm±kHpdkufwm rcHcJh&ygbl;? vltcGifhta&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;
qdkwJh toHawG[mvnf; tJ'Dwkef;u tckavmuf acwfrpm;vSao;wmrdk@ Adkvfae0if;&J@
qJAif;Zlvkdifvkyf&yftwGif;eJ@ aemufydkif; ausmif;om;awG&J@ atmf[pfuef@uGufoHawG[m
vnf; ol@&@J jynfaxmifp}k uD;r+yKduaJG &;/ qd&k ,
S v
f pfa&; avvH;k rd;k vH;k awGatmufrmS rdeS af zsmh
aysmufuG,f oGm;cJh&ygw,f?

11
tifrwef y&d,m,fa00kpfºuG,f0+yD; tifrwef yg;eyfaumufuspfwJh jrif;
orm;wOD;tjzpf oleJ@acwf+yKdifawG&JΠazmfjyjcif;udkcHcJh&wJh Adkvfae0if;[m qdk&S,fvpfa&;
aºuG;a=umfoHeJ@ qdkAD,uftkyfpkudk rsufpypfxm;EdkifcJhovdk Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDudk
qufvuf wkdufcdkufjcif;jzifh tar&dueftkyfpkudk vSrf;xdef;xm;EdkifcJhwJhtjyif vGwfvyf+yD;
wufºuGaomfvnf; bufrvdu
k w
f Jh =um;aeEdik if jH cm;a&;rl0g'qdw
k meJ@ wwd,urBmEdik if aH wG
&J@ &ifaiG@uv
kd nf; vSr;f vSKx
H m;Edik cf yhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifh oabmw&m;a&;e,fvpk pfyx
JG J acgi;f
epfaewJh ppfat;wdkufyGJ acgif;aqmifEdkifiH}uD; ESpfckua&m/ udk,hf&J@jynfwGif;a&; jy\
emaygif;pHkeJ@ tjyifudkawmif vSrf;r=unfhEdkifavmufatmif aomuAsmxkºuG,fae=u&wJh
wwd,urBmEdkifiHqdkwmawGuyg Adkvfae0if;udk olwkd@oGm;r,fhvrf;ay:u taESmifh
t,Sufwpfcktjzpf rjrifcJh=uwJhtjyif tE W&m,fjzpfvmEdkifolwpfa,muf (potential
danger)tjzpfawmif r,lqcJh=uygbl;? ukefukefajym&&if 'Duae@ (etz)&ifqdkifae&wJh
(de-facto)vm;/ (de-jury)vm;qdkwJh jy\emawmif Adkvfae0if;rSm&dScJhwm r[kwfygbl;?
'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;wus a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHcJh&wJh t&yfom;tpdk;&wpf&yfudk
bmr,fr,f&& ta=umif;jycsufrSr&SdbJ jzKwfcsz,f&Sm; tm%modrf;cJh+yD; awmfvSefa&;
aumifpD qdkwJhtrnfeJ@ wkdif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfaewJh ppfAdkvfwpfpkudk (de-facto)vm;/ (dejury)vm;qd+k yD; jynfwiG ;f jynfy b,fou
l rS us,u
f s,af vmifavmif ar;cGe;f xkwf qef;ppf
wmrsKd ; r&Scd yhJ gb;l ? usaemf tavhtvm/ trSwt
f om; tm;enf;wma=umifh jzpfcsijf zpfEikd f
ygw,f? Adkvfae0if;tpdk;&udk tJovdkar;cGef;xkwfwmrsdK; usaemfb,fwkef;urS r=um;cJhzl;
ygbl;?
EdkifiHwumu ar;cGef;rxkwfwJhudpPeJ@ ywfoufvdk@uawmh usaemf tay:rSm
wwfEdkifoavmuf tusOf;csKyf &Sif;jycJh+yD;yg+yD? jynfwGif;u ar;cGef;rxkwfcJh=uwmua&m
bma=umifv
h ?J
(1962) ck E S p f tm%mod r f ; r_ r wd k i f r D t xd Ad k v f a e0if ; [m Ed k i f i H a &;rS m
}uD ; }uD ; rm;rm; trS m ;t,G i f ; / tpG e f ; txif ; r&d S c J h w J h ol w pf a ,muf j zpf y gw,f ?
'gh t jyif zuf q pf a wmf v S e f a &;rS m a&S @ wef ; uyg0if c J h w J h &J a bmf o H k ; usd y f 0 if w pf O D ; /
(62)ck E S p f r wd k i f r D u mvwavsmuf r S m wyf r awmf a cgif ; aqmif w pf O D ; tjzpf (Ed _ i f ;
,SOfcsuft&) b,fygwD/ b,f0g'/ b,fyk*d~Kvf bufudkrS rvdkufbJ tajctaeudk
apmif h = unf h a ecJ h o l w pf O D ; jzpf w ,f ? ol @ &J @ Ek d i f i H a &;t&if ; tED S ; awG x J r S m (58)
tm%modrf;yGJeJ@ 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmcJhayr,fh (1960)rSm wdkif;jynfudk ol ay;xm;
wJh uwdtwdkif; a&G;aumufyGJvkyfay;+yD; tEdkif&wJhygwDudk tm%mjyeftyfcJhw,f
qd k w J h aemuf x yf t &if ; tES D ; wpf c k (wpf e nf ; )emrnf a umif ; wpf c k xyf x nf h E d k i f c J h
wma=umif h (1962)tm%mod r f ; csd e f r S m ol @ ud k jynf w G i f ; u b,f v uf 0 J v uf , m
uG e f j rLepf / qd k & S , f v pf E d k i f i H a &;orm;urS jyif ; jyif ; xef x ef qef @ usif u ef @ uG u f
ajymqd k w mrsd K ; rvk y f c J h = uygbl ; ? Ad k v f a e0if ; &J @ zrf ; qD ; xd e f ; od r f ; jcif ; cH c J h & wJ h

12
0ef } uD ; csKyf OD ; Ek u qd k & if ol @ ud k v mzrf ; wJ h ol a wG u d k “Ad k v f a e0if ; a&m tzrf ; cH &
ovm;”vdk@ pdk;&drfw}uD; ar;cJhrdwJhtxdawmif Adkvfae0if;&J@ EdkifiHa&;yHk&dyf aumif;
rGefcJhygw,f? 'grSr[kkwf EdkifiHa&;orm;awG tJ'Dvdk Za0Z0gjzpfoGm;avmufatmif
Adkvfae0if;[m taetxdkif yd&daooyfcJhygw,f? ol@vlawGu EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawGudk
vdu
k zf rf;aewJh tcsed rf mS olu w±kwo
f ±H ;Hk &JŒ {nfch aH zsmaf jzyGw
J pfcrk mS cyfwnfwnf &daS ewm
uk=d unf&h if ol[m tm%modr;f zd@k b,favmuf tuGuaf phaph pDpOfcw
hJ ,fqw
kd m ay:vGiw
f hJ
tjyif wu,fvdk@ tm%modrf;yGJratmifjrifcJh&if acgif;a&SmifEdkifzdk@ ol b,favmuf uGuf
ausmf±kdufzdk@ pOf;pm;xm;EdkifcJhw,fqkdwm xif&Sm;vSygw,f?
tmvHk;od=uwJhtwdkif; tJ'Dtm%modrf;yGJ[m orRwp0fa&$odkuf&JΠom;i,f
wpfOD; aoqHk;oGm;cJhwmuvGJ&if wjcm;aoG;xGufoH,dkr_ r&dScJhbl;? tJ'Dtcsufuvnf;
Adkvfae0if;&JŒ tm%modrf;r_tay: tqdk;jrif±_axmifhu oHk;oyfzdk@ tcGifhtvrf;awGudk
wpdwfydkif; tm;enf;apcJhygw,f? 'ghtjyif tJ'Dtcsdefu jrefrmh ajray:EdkifiHa&; todkif;
t0dik ;f &JΠtiftm;w0ufjzpfwhJ qd&k ,
S v
f pfawGuvnf; Adv
k af e0if;udk olw@dk vv
l @kd ,lqxm;
=uwma=umifh +yD;cJw
h ahJ &G;aumufyu
JG yxpudk r±_rvS t±_;H ay;cJ&h vd@k usqif;cJ&h wJh olw@dk &@J
EdkifiHa&;oduQmudk Adkvfae0if;u jyefq,fay;vkdufovdkawmif ,lq=u+yD; udswf0rf;omae
=uwmawGawmif &dScJhygw,f? tJ'Dawmh tm%modrf;yGJudk qef@usifuef@uGufajymqdkr_awG
xGufrvmwm &Sif;ygw,f?
tm%m&ygwD}uD;bufu =unfhjyefawmhvnf; udk,hfygwDtwGif;udpP (OD;/ Adkvf/
ociftuGJ)/ wpfEdkifiHvHk;ta&;udpP (cGJxGufcGifh) ('Dae&mrSm 'Djy\em[m Adkvfae0if;
tm%modrf;&mrSm ta=umif;jycJhoavmuf tajctaerqdk;wm odyf&Sif;ayr,fh EdkifiHa&;
acgi;f aqmifawGukd txdu
k t
f avsmuf acgi;f pm;aeapwJh jy\emwpfcak wmh jzpfw,fqw
kd hJ
tcsufudk rSwfom;xm; oifhygw,f?) awGa=umifh enf;enf;yef;ae=uwJhtcsdefrSm olwkd@
tjrift& odyrf qd;k vSwhJ Adv
k af e0if;&JΠtckvkd tm%modr;f vdu
k rf [
_ m olw@dk twGuf cg;cg;
oD;oD; qef@usifuef@uGuf&r,fh udpPwpfck [kwfyHkr&cJhygbl;?
wwd,tiftm;pkjzpfwJh (yrnw)trSL;jyKwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;awGtwGuf
usawmhvnf; jrefrmhenf;jrefrmh[efeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfyef;wdkifodk@ ta&mufvSrf;r,fqdkwJh
Adkvfae0if;&JΠa=unmcsuf[m olwkd@&J@ tajccHrl0g'eJ@ wpfxyfwnf; jzpfaewJhtjyif olwkd@
ukd,fwdkifu tm%m& zqyv tpdk;&&J@ EdSyfuGyfr_udk awmufav#mufcHpm;vmcJh&wm
qdak wmh Adv
k af e0if;&JΠtm%modr;f yG[
J m olw@dk twGuf taygi;f vuQ%maqmifwhJ jzpf&yf
vdkvdkawmif jzpfaeygw,f? 'ga=umifh olwkd@u Adkvfae0if;udk 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ qdk&S,fvpfa&;
&J@ &efolvdk@ rjrifcJh=u±kHomru aemifwpfae@ae@rSm olwkd@&JŒ &Jabmf&JbufjzpfvmEkdifol
(Potential Comrade)wpfa,muftjzpfawmif jrifcJh=uyHk&ygw,f?
wu,fawmh u|eaf wmftckwifjycJw
h hJ ajray:Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawGukd xm;ygO;D ?
tJ'Dtcsdefu zqyv yxptpdk;&awGudk vufeufpGJudkif ykefuefwdkufcdkufae=uwJh ocif

13
oef;xGef;&J@ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ ocifpdk;&J@ tvHeDygwDawGuawmif Adkvfae0if;&J@
tm%modrf;yGJudk jyif;jyif;xefxef qef@usifuef@uGuf ±_wfcsajymqdk=uwmrsdK; r&dScJhbl;vdk@
usaemfrSwfom;rdcJhygw,f?
tJ'aD wmh tm;vH;k ud+k cKH =unf&h if Edik if w
H umrSm ppfat;wdu
k yf JG acgi;f aqmifEikd if }H u;D
ESpfckpvHk;uvnf; ruef@uGuf/ wwd,urBmtiftm;pkuvnf; rodvdkufrodzmomae/
jynfwiG ;f ajray:Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawGuvnf; tomapmif=h unfh aewmuvG+J yD; b,fvdk
rS jyif;jyif;xefxef rwHk@jyef/ awmwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkawGuvnf; zmodzmom
ae? tJovdkrsdK; 0ef;usiftaetxm;rSm Adkvfae0if;[m oludk,fwdkif toufeJ@vJ apmifh
xdef;umuG,fygr,fvdk@ uwdjyKxm;wJh EdkifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'udk azmufzsuf+yD;
'Drdkua&pDenf;us a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHxm;&wJh tpdk;&wpf&yfudk jzKwfcsz,f&Sm;
tm%modrf;cJholjzpfw,fqdkwJh toufyrmta&;ygvSwJh tcsufu zsmatmufa&muf
oGm;+yD; vuf0Jtkyfpktzdk@ Adkvfae0if;[m jrefrmjynf&J@ uyfpx±kdavvm; qdkwJhtjrifawG/
vuf,mtkypf t
k zd@k Adv
k af e0if;[m ql[mwdv
k m;/ yDEakd cs;avvm;qdw
k hJ tjrifawG/ jynfwiG ;f
u Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawGtzd@k Adv
k af e0if;[m Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk qufcrH ,fh trsKd ;om;
acgif;aqmif}uD;avvm;qdkwJh tjrifawG us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ ysH@ESH@aecJhyHk&+yD; Adkvfae0if;[m
tkypf t
k m;vH;k twGuf pdwu
f ;l ,Of &ifcek pf &m rif;orD;av; (od@k r[kw)f rif;om;av;wpfyg;
jzpfvmcJh&ygawmhw,f?
tJ't
D ajctaersKd ;rSm Adv
k af e0if;&J@
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtrnfcH tpdk;&[m
(de-jure)vm; (de-facto)vm; b,fou
l rS
ar;cGef;rxkwfcJh=uwm tifrwefudk ±kd;pif;
&Sif;vif;wJh udpPwpfckjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
vnf; 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&wpf&yfudk jzKwfcs+yD;
wufvmwJh Adkvfae0if;tpdk;&udk ukvor*~
tygt0if jrefrmEdkifiHyg0ifaewJh b,fEdkifiH
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14
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w,f? 'ga=umifh tajccHOya'rl=urf;a&;qGJ/ jynfolawGqDu t}uHHjyKcsufawG awmif;cH/
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xkwfawmif;qdkwJh +idrf;csrf;wJh qENjyyGJ}uD;wpfck qifE$JcJh=uygw,f?

15
tJ'D qENjytvkyform;awG&J@ awmif;qdkcsufawGudk OD;ae0if;&J@ jrefrmh
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azG;azG;udk jynfolawGaemufwpf}udrfjrifawG@cJh=u&jyef+yD; qefr&dSvdk@ qefawmif;wJh
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qENjyyGJwpfck qifE$JcJh=ujyefygw,f? 'Dwpf}udrfrSmvnf; OD;ae0if;&J@ rif;om;acgif;aqmif;
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usa&mufwJh urBmh+idrf;;csrf;a&;acgif;aqmif}uD;eJ@ jrefrmhtrsdK;om;pmqdk}uD; q&m}uD;

16
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17
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18
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19

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21

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22
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23
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24
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f )hJ tqH;k tjzwfatmifyJG wckr&vdu
k b
f J tqH;k owfomG ;cJ&h ygawmh
w,f?
'ga=umifh usaemfuawmh &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;twGif; jynfolawG
tqHk;tjzwfatmifyGJr&EdkifcJhwm&JΠta=umif;&if;[m tJ'Dwkef;u vlxkacgif;aqmif
awG&JΠtm;enf;r_a=umifhr[kwfbJ ppfwyf (txl;ojzifh acgif;aqmifydkif;)&JΠyl;aygif;
yg0ifulnDr_udk r&cJhr_jzpfw,fvkd@yJ jrifygw,f?
Õ

25

ar; ?
? tJovdkqdk&if jrefrmppfwyfta=umif; ar;cGef;wckar;csif
w,f? (1989) ckESpftwGif; ql;avbk&m;teD; r[mAE<Kvvrf;
(tJ'Dwkef;u) cspfpdef'efaygufqkdif tay:xyfrSm zGifhxm;wJh vl@abmif
opf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD XmecsKyf±kH;cef;uae a':atmifqef;pk=unfu
vlxkudk rdef@cGef;wckajymcJhw,f? tJ'Drdef@cGef;xJrSm a':atmifqef;pk
=unfu 'Duae@ jrefrmppfwyf[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ppfwyfvm;/
OD;ae0if; ppfwyfvm; qdw
k m uk,
d u
hf ,
kd u
f kd ar;cGe;f xkw&f awmhr,fqw
kd hJ
pum;wcGef; ygw,f? tJ'Dpum;rSm jrefrmjynfrSm ppfwyfESpfrsdK;&dScJhwJh
yHkrsdK; xif[yfaew,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠtJ'Dpum;eJ@ywfouf
+yD; cifAsm;&JŒtjrifudk ajymygOD;?
ajz ?
? a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒtjrifudk usaemf oabmwlyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒtjrifu a,bk,s qefae
w,fvkd@ ,lqwJhtwGuf usaemfu tJ'Dt,ltqudk tao;pdwfxyf
+yD; cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmcsifw,f? usaemfhtjrift& acwfopfjrefrmhppf
orkid ;f rSm ppfwyf(4)ck&w
Sd ,f? tJ'gawGuawmh Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wyf/
Adkvfarmifarmifwyf/ Akdvfae0if;wyfeJ@ Adkvfoef;a&$wyfwkd@yJ jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DcGJjcrf;pdwfjzmcsufudk usaemf tao;pdwf &Sif;jyygr,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wyfqdkwmeJ@ ywfoufvkd@awmh odyfrsm;
rsm;&Sif;jyzkd@ vdkr,frxifygbl;? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m b,fvdkvlrsdK;
jzpfw,fqw
kd m pmtkyaf ygi;f taxmiftaomif;xJrmS yg&+Sd yD; jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DpmawGxJrSm azmfjycsufawGt& AdkvfcsLyfatmifqef;&JΠyHk&dyf[m
aumif;pGm ay:vGifae+yDjzpfvkd@ 'Dae&mrSm tJ'DyHk&dyfudk usaemfxyf+yD;

26
tus,cf sŒJ wmrsKd ; rvkyaf wmhygb;l ? tus,cf sŒJ !¸e;f zG@J p&m tcsut
f vufvnf; usaemfrh mS
r&dSygbl;? usaemfh&JŒtajztwGuf +cHKiHkrdapEdkifr,fh ol@&JŒ pdwf"mwfeJ@ ywfouf+yD; oludk,f
wkdif&JΠajympum;wpfckudkyJ udk;um;azmfjyygr,f? oludk,fwdkifa&;om;wJh aqmif;yg;wyk'f
xJrSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u “vlwa,muf[m tajccHtm;jzifh ±kd;om;&r,f (sincere)/
trSefw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;&r,f (love of truth)/ 'grSvlyDor,f”vkd@qdkygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;[m ajymwJhtwdkif; vkyfwJhol[kwf r[kwf/ vlyDool [kwfr[kwf qdkwmudk
awmh oltouf&iS af exdik o
f mG ;wJh b0u jycJ+h yD;jzpfwmrk@d tus,cf sŒJ &Si;f jyp&mvdrk ,f rxif
awmhygbl;?
'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vdkvlrsdK;u wnfaxmifzGJ@pnf; au|;arG;jyKpk ysdK;
axmifchJwJh ppfwyf[m b,fvdkppfwyfrsdK; jzpfrvJ? ±kd;om;+yD; trSefw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;wJh
ppfwyfjzpfvdrfhr,fvkd@ a,bk,stm;jzifh ,lqEdkifygw,f? tJ'Dppfwyf zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif
pOfu wnf&cSd w
hJ hJ jrefrmEdik if &H ŒJ ordik ;f a&; tajctaeuvnf; rsKd ;csppf w
d "f mwfukd tjrifrh m;
qHk; wGef;tm;ay;aewJh 0ef;usiftaetxm;rsdK; jzpfwma=umifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ
ppfwyf[m wdkif;jynftusdK;twGuf udk,fusdK;udkomru toufudkyg pGef@v$wfr,fqdkwJh
rsdK;cspfpdwf"mwf jyif;xefwJh/ rdrdwkd@acgif;aqmif&JŒ tajccH *k%f&nfESpfckjzpfwJh ±kd;om;r_eJ@
trSefw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;r_wkd@udk toufyrm ±kdaoapmifha&SmufumuG,fwJh ppfwyfjzpfcJh
w,fqw
kd hJ tcsuef @J ywfouf+yD; oufaoom"u taxmuftxm;awG trsm;}uD;&dcS w
hJ m
udkvnf; avhvm=unfh&if odEdkifygw,f?
Adv
k rf LS ;csKyfarmifarmif&ŒJ ud,
k af &;&mZ0if tao;pdwu
f akd wmh usaemf rodygb;l ?
usaemf ol@ta=umif; p odwJhae&mu zufqpf*syefawG jrefrmEdkifiHudk tkyfpdk;aewJhumv
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;trSL;jyKwJh wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawGudk/ jynfolawG zufqpf&JŒ n‡Of;
yef ; Ed S y f p uf w mcH a e&wJ h t jzpf u d k vspf v sK±_ x m;&aumif ; vm;vk d @ rausreyf j zpf + yD ;
Adv
k af tmif}uD;eJ@ wGu
J m Adv
k af e0if;udk acgi;f aqmifwif *syefuakd wmfveS zf @dk jyifqifwhJ udpyP g?
ol[m OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;AaqGwkd@vkd qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifawGeJ@ &if;EDS;ol/ ocifpdk;/ ocif
oef;xGe;f trSL;jyKwJh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfacgi;f aqmifawGukd tjrifr=unfo/l owif;pmq&m
awGudk txiftjrifao;ol/ wdkif;jynfudk EdkifiHa&;orm;awGvufxJ v$Jxm;vkd@uawmh
ig;yg;arSmufvdrfhr,f? wkdif;jynfaumif;zkd@ igwkd@ppfwyfu vkyfrS&r,fvkd@ ±_jrifolwOD;tjzpf
=um;zl;em;0 pum;awGt& usaemfodxm;ygw,f?
wkdif;jynfaumif;zkd@ igwkd@ppfwyfvkyfrS&r,fqdkwJh tawG;tac: AdkvfrSL;csKyf
armifarmifacgif;xJ b,ftcsdefrSmp+yD; oaE<wnfcJhw,fqdkwJh tcsufukd rajymEdkifayr,fh
tJ't
D awG;tac: wpwp±kyv
f ;kH ay:vmwmuawmh Akv
d af e0if; umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfjzpf+yD;
r=umrDumvawGrmS jzpfygw,f? pmtvGezf wfov
l @dk ausm=f um;+yD; (tJ'w
D ek ;f u) oabm
w&m;a&; tawG;tac:eJ@ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;t& tompD;&aewJh jrefrmuGefjrLepf
acgi;f aqmifawGe@J wyfxu
J uGejf rLepfvv
kd m;wJh wyfrLS ;awGukd tiftm;csed cf iG v
f #mn‡Ed ikd zf @dk

27
ppfwyfudk qdk&S,fvpftawG;tac:udkifpGJ+yD; udk,fhajcaxmufay: udk,f&yfwnfEdkifwJh trm
cHtrsdK;om;a&; tiftm;pk}uD;w&yftjzpf wnfaxmifvdkpdwf jyif;jyoltjzpf vlodrsm;wJh
AdkvfrSL;csKyfarmifarmif[m ol@&JΠtJ'DtawG;tac:udk (1950) jynfhvGefpESpfawGrSm pwif
taumiftxnfazmfcJhygw,f? tJovdkvkyfaqmifwJhae&mrSm wyfwGif;u ol@&JΠnmvuf
±kH;u AdkvfrSL;csKyf atmif}uD;jzpf+yD; wyftjyifbufu ol@&JŒnmvuf±kH;uawmh uGefjrLepf
acgi;f aqmif}uD; ocifp;kd &JΠtaE 0W gou
d wynfw
h OD;jzpfczhJ ;l wJh OD;cspv
f id_ f jzpfw,fv@dk od&yg
w,f?
EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awG&JΠajym=um;csuft& tJ'DumvawGwkef;u
OD;ae0if;[m ppfwyf&JΠt}uD;tuJjzpfayr,fh ppfwyf&JΠwu,fhta&;t&mawGudk vuf
awG@pDrHcef@cGJaewmu AdkvfarmifarmifeJ@ Adkvfatmif}uD;wkd@jzpfw,fvkd@ od&ygw,f? t"du
uawmh Adkvfarmifarmifjzpfw,fvkd@ qdkygw,f? AdkvfrSL;csKyfarmifarmif[m ODcspfvd_if&JŒ
tultnDeJ@ (1954) ckESpfavmuf apmapmuwnf;up+yD; wyfxJrSm qdk&S,fvpfoifwef;
awG ay;cJhw,fvkd@ od&ygw,f? tcdsefumv twdtus rodayr,fh usaemfh txif tJ'D
umv0ef;usifavmufrSmyJ p+yD; wyfrawmf udk,fhajcaxmufay:udk,f &yfwnfEdkifa&;
twGuf (bwf*sufeJ@ ywfouf+yD; tpdk;&tay: rDScdkae&wmrsdK; rjzpfapzkd@twGuf) wyfr
awmf&JΠudk,fykdifpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awG (bDtD;'DpD/ =u,fig;yGifh pojzifh) xlaxmifcJhw,fvkd@
od&ygw,f? 'g[m 'Duae@ AdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;oef;a&$ OD;aqmifwJh ppfwyfu av#mufvSrf;zkd@
}udK;pm;aewJh wyfrawmfu EdkifiHa&;OD;aqmiftcef;u¾rSm yg0ifa&;qdkwJh pDrHudef;&JŒ
rlvtp jrpfzsm;ydkif;yJ jzpfygw,f?
ppfwyf&JΠyxrqHk;t}udrf tm%modrf;yGJjzpfwJh (1958)ckESpf tm%modrf;yGJudk
trsm;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;&JΠtm%modrf;yGJvkd@ odxm;=uayr,fh wu,fawmh tJ'g[m
AdkvfrSL;csKyfarmifarmif&JΠtm%modrf;yGJomjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;EkqD oGm;
+yD; ppfwyfudk tm%mv$Jtyfay;zkd@ awmif;qdkcJh=uwm AdkvfarmifarmifeJ@ Adkvfatmif}uD;
wkd@ESpfa,mufqdkayr,fh aemufydkif; a&'D,dktifwmAsL;wckrSm Adkvfarmifarmifu “Adkvf
atmif}uD;udk usKyfac:oGm;cJhwmyg” vkd@ ajymcJhwJh pum;udk =unfh&if tJ'DZmwfvrf;&JŒ
Zmwf!¸ef;a&;q&mtppf[m Adkvfarmifarmifomjzpfw,fqdkwmudk awG@=u&rSmyg? olwkd@
ESpfa,muf OD;EkqDoGm;+yD; tm%mv$Jay;zkd@ ajymwJhudpP[m OD;ae0if;eJ@wdkifyif/ ('grSr[kwf)
OD;ae0if;udk today;+yD;rS vkyfwmjzpfrSm aocsmayr,fh tJ'DyGJrSm wu,fh oabmw&m;
a&;q&m}uD;uawmh AdkvfarmifarmifygyJ? wenf;ajym&&if Adkvfarmifarmif[m tESpfESpf
tvvu ol=uHpnfvmcJhwJh “trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;wGif wyfrawmfu OD;aqmifr_u¾rS
yg0ifa&;”qdkwJh ar#mfrSef;csufudk vlod&Sif=um; pwiftaumiftxnfazmfvkdufwmyJ jzpfyg
w,f?
tJ'yD rJG mS OD;Ek&ŒJ yg;eyfr/_ tpOftquf olw@dk &ŒJ tpfu}kd uD;ozG,f &Sv
d mcJw
h hJ OD;Ek&ŒJ
yk*~dKvfa&;t&dSeft0gudk tm%modrf;zkd@ =uHpnfwJh ppfacgif;aqmifawG rvSefEdkifr_wkd@a=umifh

28
tJ'Dwkef;u tm%modrf;ppftpdk;&&JΠoufwrf;[m (2)ESpf0ef;usifom =um&SnfcJhayr,fh
tJ'Dumvwdkuav;twGif;rSmawmif ppfwyf&JŒvkyf&yfawGrSm Adkvfarmifarmif&JŒ ajc&m
vuf&mawG txift&Sm; xif[yfaewmudk awG@jrifEdkifygw,f? (zqyv)uGJwJh'%feJ@
jynfwGif;ppf'%fa=umifh 'Drdkua&pDqdkwmudk tawmftwef pdwfemaumif; emae=uzG,f
&dw
S /hJ ('grrS [kw)f 'Dru
kd a&pDtavhtusihf tawG@t}uKH enf;yg; vGe;f r_a=umifh 'Dru
kd a&pDukd
wefzdk;xm;&aumif;rSef; jynfhjynfh00 oabmaygufem;vnfEdkifpGrf; r&dS=uao;wJh jynfol
wcsKdŒu ESpfoufvufcHcsifp&m vkyf&yfwcsKdŒ&dScJhayr,fh tJ'Dwkef;u ppfwyf&JŒvkyf&yfawG
[m r=umcifrSm jrefrmEdkifiH&JŒaumif;uif,HrSm odkif;zGJ@vmawmhr,f ppftm%m&Sifpepf
wdrfndKwdrfrnf;}uD;awG&JΠtwdwfedrdwfawGvkdygyJ? tJ'DtcsufawGudk (1959)ckESpf
ara';ae@rSmajymwJh OD;Ek&JŒrdef@cGef;udk avhvm=unfh&if awG@Edkifygw,f? 'ghtjyifh t*Fvdyf
acwfu {&mr &mZ0wfaumifawGukd yk@d whJ udu
k ;kd u|e;f ok@d Edik if aH &;orm;awGudk yk@d +yD; EdyS pf uf
n‡Of;yef;wJh tavhtx yxrqHk;t}udrf ay:xGufcJhwmvnf; tJ'Dtm%modrf; ppftpdk;&
vufxufrSm jzpfygw,f? aemuf+yD; EdkifiHwckvHk;eJ@ oufqdkifwJh b¾maiGawGudk toHk;jyK
+yD; ppfwyfyikd f pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;awGukd ajymifajymifwif;wif;/ ay:ay:xifxif xlaxmifvm
wmvnf; tJ'pD pftpd;k &vufxufrmS jzpfygw,f? wcsed u
f ordik ;f a&;vdt
k yfcsut
f & xGuf
ay:vmcJw
h mjzpfwhJ “wyfrawmftiftm;&drS S wdik ;f jynftiftm;&drS nf”qdw
k hJ oDcsi;f [m tJ'D
wkef;u tm%modrf;ppftpdk;&&JΠvkyf&yfawGudk aumif;pGm tvkyftau|;jyKcJhygw,f?
ppftpdk;&[m +rdKŒjya'oawG (txl;ojzifh &efukefeJ@ rE Wav;wkd@vdk +rdKŒ}uD;awG)rSm ol@
tac: jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief;awGudk tm;oGefcGefpdkuf vkyfudkifcJhovdk awmpGef e,f
zsm;rSmvnf; olyek af ygi;f pHu
k kd tjyif;txefwu
kd cf u
kd f acsre_ ;f cJyh gw,f? wcsed w
f nf;rSm awm
xJu uGefjrLepfolykefawGudk vdkvm;w,fvkd@ ,lq&wJh +rdKŒay:u EdkifiHa&;orm; rSefor#udk
vnf; zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cJhygw,f? vuf0Jvdkvm;wJh ausmif;om;or*~eJ@ ausmif;om; acgif;
aqmifawGudkvnf; ESdyfuGyfcJhygw,f?
tJ'Dvkyf&yftm;vHk;[m uGefjrLepfawGudk tpOftquf tjrifr=unfvifcJhwJh/
wdkif;jynfudk ppfwyfOD;aqmifrS &r,fqdkwJh tawG;tac:&dSwJh/ ppfwyfudk EdkifiHawmftpdk;&eJ@
oD;jcm;uif;vGww
f hJ (Institution) wckjzpfapcsiw
f hJ Adv
k rf LS ;csKyfarmifarmif&ŒJ tawG;tac:
awGudk xif[yfaewJhtwGuf (1950) jynfhvGefESpfrsm;upvkd@ a&G;aumufyGJvkyfay;+yD;
tEdkif& (yxp)tpdk;&vufxJ tm%mjyefv$Jay;cJh&wJh (1960)ckESpfavmuftxdumv
twGif; &dScJhwJh ppfwyf[m AdkvfrSL;csKyf armifarmif&JΠppfwyfjzpfw,fvkd@ usaemfqdkcsifyg
w,f? tJ'pD pfwyf[m vkyef nf;vky[
f eftrsm;pke@J tE rdW ar#mrf eS ;f csut
f ydik ;f rSm ausm±k;d u
ppf0g'jzpfwJh zufqpf0g'taiG@toufawG v$rf;rkd;aecJhayr,fh t&if;cHapwemtydkif;rSm
wdik ;f jynfaumif;pm;a&;udk trSew
f u,f vdv
k m;cJw
h hJ ppfwyfjzpfw,fv@dk usaemf tuJjzwf
csifygw,f?

29
wwd,tydkif;uawmh OD;ae0if;&JŒppfwyfqdkwJh tydkif;jzpfygw,f? OD;ae0if;
ta=umif; ol@&JΠtaE W0godu wynfhwpfOD;jzpfol a'gufwmarmifarmifa&;wJh bkef;awmf
bGJ@pmtkyf}uD;xJrSm tawmfrsm;rsm;yg0if+yD; tcsKdŒaom EdkifiHa&;orm;awGa&;wJh pmtkyf
awGxrJ mS vnf; }udK=um;}udK=um; yg&cSd +hJ yD;jzpfv@dk tJ'rD mS yg+yD; ta=umif;awGuakd wmh usaemf
'DrSmxyfrajymawmhygbl;? oleJ@ywfouf+yD; jzpfEdkifor# tjynfhpHkqHk; yHk&dyfwck&&dSEdkifapzkd@
ol@ta=umif; vlodenf;ao;w,fvkd@ ,lqrdwJh ta=umif;awGudkyJ wifjyoGm;ygr,f?
ol@ta=umif; a&;om;csuftrsm;pkt& OD;ae0if;[m &JabmfoHk;usdyfqdkwJh
a0g[m&eJ@rSwGJ+yD; vlodrsm;vmcJhwm jzpfygw,f? ol[m tJ'Dt&ifuwnf;u pmwkduf
pma&;b0eJ@ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;}udK;yrf;r_ a&pD;a=umif;&JΠtpGeftzsm;em;rSm yg0ifcJhw,f
vkd@ a'gufwmarmifarmif&JŒ pmtkyfxJrSm azmfjyxm;ayr,fh &JabmfoHk;usdyfrwdkifrD ol&JŒ
Edik if aH &;jzwfoef;r_ta=umif; wjcm; b,fEikd if aH &;orm;&JΠa&;om;csurf S usaemf rsm;rsm;
pm;pm; rzwfzl;ygbl;? 'g[m usaemfh&JΠpmzwfrESH@r_eJ@ tavhtvm tm;enf;r_a=umifh
vnf; jzpfEdkifygw,f?
OD;ae0if;ta=umif; usaemf avh
vmrSwfom; od&dSxm;oavmufxJu vl
trsm; od&dSxm;=u+yD;om;jzpfw,fvkd@ us
aemf xifwJh tcsuftvufawGudk (usrf;
av;rSm pdk;wJh ±_axmifht&) csefvSyf+yD; vlod
enf;ao;w,fvkd@ usaemf xifwJh tcsuf
tvufawGudkom a&;om;azmfjyoGm;yg
r,f? &nf&G,fcsufuawmh tJ'Dtcsuft
vuf ESpfrsdK;aygif;uae OD;ae0if;&JΠwpHkwck
aom twdkif;twmtxd jynfhpHkwJh yHk&dyfwck
xGufay:vmr,f? 'DtcgrSm tJ'DvdkvlrsdK;
vufatmufrSm umvwcktxd jzwfoef;
cJh&wJh jrefrmppfwyf[m b,fvkdtaet
xm; &drS ,fqw
kd mudk rSe;f qoH;k oyf=unfEh ikd zf @dk
jzpfygw,f?
'Duae@ 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;rsm;qdkwJh acgif;pOfatmufrSm jrefrmEdkifiH&JΠtrsdK
om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;wkd@twGuf tdkrif;
rpGrf;jzpfae=uwJh rdrdwkd@&JŒtouft&G,fudkrS riJhuGufEdkifbJ waxmifhwae&mu wwyf
wtm; yg0if}udK;yrff;aqmif&Gufae=uwJh a&SŒrDaemufrD rsdK;cspfEkdifiHa&;orm;}uD;wpk&JŒ
OD;pD;OD;aqmiftjzpf wm0ef,x
l m;wJh vuf&rSd mS touf(90)ausmaf e+yDjzpfwhJ ocifoed ;f az
u ol@&JΠtdrf+cH0if;xJrSmvkyfwJh EdkifiHa&; tcrf;tem;wckrSm OD;ae0if;[m &JabmfoHk;usdyf

30
ppfynmoifzkd@ [dkifeefu|ef;udk xGufcGm=ur,fh oabFmay:a&mufrS ocifjzpfvmwJhol
jzpfw,fvkd@ &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if AdkvfrSL;atmifu rSwfcsufcswmudk ol=um;zl;cJha=umif;
ajymqdkcJhygw,f? [dkifeefudk oGm;+yD; v#Kd@0Sufppfynmoif,lr,fh rsdK;cspfvli,fawGudk a&G;
cs,zf @dk wm0ef&w
Sd hJ ocifacgi;f aqmifwOD;u v$wrf ,fv
h t
l a&twGuf rjynfah o;vk@d }uH&m
r&jzpfaepOfrSm tdrfa&SŒu jzwfav#mufoGm;wJh ,cif&if;ESD;+yD;om; vli,fwOD;jzpfol
armif±_armifudk jrifvkd@ vSrf;ac:vdkuf+yD; ppfynmoifzkd@ oGm;rvm;vkd@ ar;wJhtcg oGm;
r,fvkd@ajymwmeJ@ a&G;cs,fvdkufa=umif;/ oGm;r,fhae@ ol oabFmay:wufvmwJhtcg
oabFmay: a&mufEiS ahf e=u+yD;jzpfwhJ &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifawGu “b,fov
l ”J vk@d ar;wJt
h cg
“ocif±_armif” vkd@ajymcJha=umif;/ t&ifu ocif±_armifqdkwJh trnfudk r=um;bl;=ubJ
oabFmay:a&mufrS =um;zl;=uwma=umifh oabFmay:a&mufrS ocifjzpfvmolvkd@
ajym&wmjzpfa=umif; pojzifh tJ'rD ed @f ceG ;f rSm ocifoed ;f azu ajymqdo
k mG ;cJw
h m jzpfygw,f?
tJ'gu OD;ae0if;&JΠvlodenf;ao;wJh yHk&dyfwuGufjzpfygw,f? tJ'Daemufawmh
[dkifeefu|ef;ay:u b0rSm ol@&JΠyHk&dyf[m tjcm;aom &JabmfoHk;udsyf0ifrsm;xuf ydk+yD;
xl;jcm;vSw,fqdkwm r&dScJhygbl;? twnfrjyKEdkifwJh tcsuftvuf wckawmh &dSygw,f?
tJ'guawmh tJ'rD mS &daS ecdu
k f Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ole@J &if;ES;D wJh olawGukd “Adv
k af e0if;[m
udk,feJ@ rxdkufwefwJh ae&mudk ,lcsifwJh pdwf&dSoljzpfw,f”vkd@ ajymqdkcJhw,fqdkwJh tcsuf
jzpfygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u Adkvfae0if;eJ@ywfouf+yD; trSefwu,fyJ tJovdk ajymcJh
jcif; &dSr&dSqdkwmudk twnfrjyKEdkifayr,fh olwkd@ESpfOD;=um; yÉdyuQ oHk;}udrfjzpfcJhzl;w,f
qdkwJh tcsufuawmh ordkif;rSm txift&Sm;jzpfygw,f? yxrqHk; w}udrfu zufqpf*syef
acwfrmS Adv
k af rmifarmife@J Adv
k af tmif}uD;wk@d jrefrmhEikd if aH &;bufe@J ppfbufacgi;f aqmifyikd ;f
udk tm;rvdktm;r& jzpf+yD; *syefudkawmfvSefzkd@ }uHpnfcJh=upOfwkef;u jzpfygw,f? olwkd@
ESpOf ;D [m Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;trde@f e@J q+kd yD; &efuek u
f kd qif;/ Adv
k af e0if;udk acgi;f aqmifwif+yD;
*syefudkawmfvSefzkd@ pnf;a0;jyifqif=uygw,f? tJ'Dowif;udk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; odoGm;
wJhtcg a'goxGuf+yD; Adkvfae0if;udk tjyif;txef qlyl}udrf;armif;ygw,f?
'kwd,t}udrfu zufqpfawmfvSefa&;vkyfzkd@ ppfwdkif;awG cGJa0owfrSwfwJh
v#KdŒ0Suftpnf;ta0;rSm jzpfygw,f? awmfvSefa&;rSm Adkvfae0if;wm0efuswJh e,fajru
jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'o jzpfygw,f? tJ'De,fajrxJrSm yg0ifwJh [Hom0wDc±kdifeJ@ +rdKŒe,ftcsKdŒ
udk awmfveS af &;tzG@J 0ifwOD;u (trnfrrSwrf ad wmh) ppfqifa&;tajctaet& ol@wikd ;f xJ
xnfhay;zkd@ tJ'D tpnf;ta0;rSm awmif;qdkwJhtcgAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u oabmwl+yD;
xnfhay;vdkufygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm Adkvfae0if;u a'goaygufuGJ+yD; “usaemfhudk r,Hk&if
vnf; wm0efray;ygeJ@? tckvdkvkyfwmawmh bmaumif;ovJ”vkd@ t"dy`g,f&wJh pum;rsdK;
udk rcHr&yfEdkif ajymqdkcJhygw,f? Adkvfae0if;&JΠtJ'Dvkyf&yfa=umifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; tyg
t0if tJ'DrSm&dSaewJh acgif;aqmifawG[m ±kwfw&uf a=umifoGm;=u+yD; aemufrdepf

31
tenf;i,f=umrS tJ'Dtjzpftysufudk tm;vHk;u rodovdkvkyf+yD; tpnf;ta0;udk
qufvkyf=uum r=umcifrSm tpnf;ta0;udk ±kyfodrf;vdkufw,fvkd@ od&ygw,f?
wwd,t}udru
f awmh *syefawmfveS af &;&JΠaemufq;kH ae@&ufwckrmS Adv
k af rmif
armif/ Adkvfatmif}uD;wkd@ tpDtpOfeJ@yJ &efukefudk ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfu odrf;ydkuf
vdkuf+yDqdkwJhta=umif; Adkvfae0if; vufrSwfeJ@ toHv$ifh a=unmwJhudpP jzpfygw,f? tJ'D
udpP[mvnf; ol@&JŒcGifhjyKcsufrygbJ vkyfcJhwJhudpPjzpfwma=umifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m
t}uD;tus,f a'gyG+yD; Adkvfae0if;udk tjyif;txef qlyl}udrf;armif;cJhwJhtjyif &mxl;uyg
csvdkufygw,f?
Adv
k af e0if;[m acwfopfjrefrmhwyfrawmfukd xlaxmifco
hJ l Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;eJ@
tJovkd yÉdyuQav;awG &dScJhzl;ygw,f? 'gtjyifh wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawGjzpf=uwJh
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ Adv
k v
f usmf / Adv
k af Z,s/ zqyv acgi;f aqmifawG jzpf=uwJh OD;Ek/ OD;ode;f
azjrifh/ OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;AaqG/ ocifA[def; polwkd@[m wuUodkvfausmif;omor*~ todkuf
t0ef;u vmolawGjzpf=u+yD; oluawmh tJovdkr[kwfwJhtwGuf Adkvfae0if;[m
wuUodkvfausmif;om;awGudk rvdkrkef;xm;wJhpdwf &ifxJrSm usdwf&dSaeoljzpf+yD; (1962)
ckESpf/ Zlvdkif (7)&ufae@u ol&JŒvkyf&yfawG[m tJ'Dpdwf"mwf&JŒ xif[yfcsufwck jzpfw,f
vkd@ qdkolawGvnf; &dSygw,f? &efukefwuUodkvf ausmif;om;awGudk ypfcwfowfjzwf/
&efukefwuUodkvf ausmif;om;or*~ taqmuftOD;udk 'dkif;erdkufeJ@ +zdKcszsufqD;cJh+yD;wJh
aemuf wkid ;f jynfukd ajymqdw
k hJ a&'D,t
kd oHvi$ hf rde@f ceG ;f xJrmS “"m;"m;csi;f / vSv
H cHS si;f &ifqikd f
r,f”vkd@ }udrf;0g;cJhwJh pum;[mvnf; wuUodkvfeJ@ wuUodkvftodkuft0ef;eJ@ ywfouf
wJh ol&JΠtikH@pdwf/ tusdwftcJ yGifhxGufvmwmjzpfw,fvkd@ tJ'DvlawGu qdk=uygw,f?
Adkvfae0if;[m ^m%feD^m%feuf ºuG,f0olwpfa,mufjzpfw,fvkd@ ol&JŒ jrif;
orm;b0udk odrDvdkufolawGu tudk;tum;awGeJ@ ajymjy=uygw,f? ol[m trsuf
apmifrmef}uD;oljzpfwhJ wcsed w
f nf;rSm &Jabmf&b
J ufawGtay: u±k%mxm;oljzpfw,fv@dk
vnf; 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; OD;Eku ajymzl;w,fvkd@ usaemf rSwfom;&zl;ygw,f? Adkvfae0if;
eJ@ acwf+yKdifwOD;jzpf+yD; 'Duae@txd jrefrmhordkif;a&jyifus,f}uD;xJrSm ol,Hk=unf&m
bufudk OD;wnful;cwfaeqJjzpfwJh ocifwifjruawmh ol@&JΠ'DbufacwftwGif;a&;wJh
aqmif;yg;wyk'fxJrSm OD;ae0if;[m ,kwfrmolwa,mufr[kwfbl;/ yk*~dKvfa&;}uD;jrifhr_udk
tvdk&dSolwOD;om jzpfw,fvkd@ a&;xm;wmudk zwfvdkuf&ygao;w,f?
tJ'Dawmh twnfjyKEdkifwJh tcsuftvufawGa&m/ twnfrjyKEdkifwJh tcsuf
tvufawGa&mudk aygif;csKyfwGufcsuf+yD; yHkazmf=unfhvdkufwJhtcg Adkvfae0if;[m udk,feJ@
rxdu
k w
f efwhJ ae&mudk &,lvo
kd /l Om%feOD m%feufrsm;ol/ trsuaf pmifrmef}uD;ol/ &Jabmf
&JbufawGudk oem;=uifemwwfol/ yk*~Kdvfa&;}uD;jrifhr_udk tvdk&dSol pojzifh ol&JŒ
t=urf;zsif; yHk&dyfudk rSef;qjrifa,mifrdvmygw,f?

32
Akdvfae0if; jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;ZmwfcHkay:rSm yg0ifujyoGm;cJhwJh umvtwdkif;
twmudk rSwfwrf;jyK=unfhr,fqkd&if &JabmfoHk;udsyf0ifwOD;tjzpf oabFmeJ@vdkufyg
oGm;cJhwJh (1941) ckESpfuae uG,fvGefwJh (2004) ckESpftxdvkd@ t=urf;zsif; qdkEdkifr,f
xifygw,f? ESpfumvtm;jzihf (63) ESpfjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh ol@&JŒyHk&dyftppftrSefudk
trsm;jynfol yDyDjyifjyif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; jrifawG@cJh=u&wmawGuawmh (1962)ckESpfuae
(1988)ckESpftxd (26) ESpfwmumvjzpfw,fvkd@ usaemfajym&if trsm;vufcHEdkif=ur,f
xifygw,f? txufrSm azmfjycJhwJh ol@&JŒyHk&dyfawG[mvnf; tJ'DumvtwGif;rSm xif&Sm;
yDjyifcJhw,f qdkwmudk jrifawG@=u&rSm jzpfygw,f?
Akdvfae0if;[m wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf jzpfvmcJhayr,fh tJ'Dupvkd@
(1962) ckESpftxd (1958 rS 1960 txdumvryg) ppfOD;pD;csKyf[m t&yfom; umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD;&JŒ vufatmufrSm &dScJhwmrkd@ tJ'DumvtwGif; jrefrmppfwyf[m Akdvfae0if;&JŒ
vufatmufrSm vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; &dScJhw,fvkd@ rqdkEdkifygbl;? tdrfapmifhtpdk;&umv (5860)rSm 0wfpHkjynfh tprf;avhusifhcJh+yD;aemuf (1962) ckESpf rwfv (2) &ufae@usrSom
ppf w yf [ m awmf v S e f a &;aumif p D O uU X / jynf a xmif p k j ref r mEd k i f i H 0ef } uD ; csKyf /
jrefrmhqdk&S,fvrf;pOfygwD OuUX/ EdkifiHawmfaumifpDOuUX/ jynfaxmifpk qdk&S,fvpforRw
jrefrmEdkifiH orRw pwJh &mxl;yHko¿meftrsdK;rsdK;udk tcsdeftcgeJ@ tajctae tm;avsmfpGm
&,lcJhwJh Akdvfae0if;&JŒ “waoG; woH wrdef@” atmufudk a&muf&dScJhwmjzpfwJhtwGuf
(1962)ckESpfeJ@ Akdvfae0if; jrefrmhEdkifiHa&; uef@vefumaemufudk 0ifoGm;cJhwJh (1988) ckESpf
Zlvdkifvt=um; (26) ESpfausmfumvtwGif; wnf&dScJhwJh ppfwyf[m Akdvfae0if;&JŒ
ppfwyfjzpfw,fvkd@ ,lq&rSmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'DumvtwGif;&SdcJhwJh jrefrmppfwyf[m OD;ae0if;ppfwyfjzpfw,fvkd@ aumuf
csuq
f EJG ikd +f yDqw
kd t
hJ cg tJ'pD pfwyf&ŒJ xl;jcm;wJh 0daootcsut
f vufawG (characteristics)u bmawGvJ qkdwmudk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm=unfh=u&atmifyg?
tzGJ@tpnf;wckrSm tJ'DtzGJ@tpnf;udk acgif;aqmifaewJhol&JŒ yifudk,fp±kduf
vuQ%mawG a,bk,stm;jzifh xif[yfaeavh&dSw,fqdkwJhtcsufudk usaemf a&SŒrSm Adkvf
csKyfatmifqef;/ AdkvfrSL;csKyfarmifarmifwkd@eJ@ OyrmjycJh+yD; jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh (1962)
ckESpfu (1988) ckESpftxd (26) ESpfwmumvtwGif; wnf&dScJhwJh jrefrmppfwyf[mvnf;
usaemf txufrmS azmfjycJ+h yD;jzpfwhJ Akv
d af e0if;&JΠyifu,
kd pf ±ku
d v
f uQ%mawG xif[yfaewJh
ppfwyfwck jzpfw,fqdkwmudk pl;pl;pdkufpdkuf avhvmolwdkif; jrifawG@=ur,fxifygw,f?
txl;ojzifh trsufapmifrmef}uD;jcif;qdkwJh p±kdufvuQ%musawmh txift&Sm; tay:
vGifqHk;jzpfygw,f? qJAif;Zlvdkifta&;tcif;upvkd@ &Spfav;vHk;jynfol@'Drdkua&pD ta&;
awmfy}kH uD;txd jynfoal wG&ŒJ qENazmfxw
k rf a_ wGtay: Akv
d af e0if;tpd;k &&JΠwk@H jyef ajz&Si;f yHk
awGu Akdvfae0if;tygt0if olavhusifhay;xm;wJh acgif;aqmiftqifhqifh&JΠtrsufapmif
rmef}uD;vSwJh p±kdufvuQ%mudk azmf!¸ef;jyoaeygw,f? jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_ "avhxHk;wrf;

33
awGxJu tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m usifhxHk;wckjzpfwJh rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;xJu “cE WDp onf;cH
jcif;”qdkwJh w&m;eJ@ Akdvfae0if;eJ@ ol@&JŒ ppfwyfwkd@ udkufnDr_&dS r&dSqdkwmuawmh trsm;
od+yD;om;jzpfrkd@ xyf+yD; tajzxkwfray;vdkawmhygbl;?
'Dae&mrSm AdkvfrSL;csKyf armifarmif&JΠppfwyfeJ@ Akdvfae0if;&JΠppfwyft=um;
t"duuswJh uGJjym; jcm;em;r_wckudk oHk;oyfwifjyvkdygw,f? ppfwyfESpfckpvHk;[m wdkif;
jynfukd Edik if aH &;orm;awG vufxx
J m;vk@d rjzpfb;l / igw@dk vyk af y;rS wkid ;f jynf aumif;pm;r,f
qdkwJh t,ltq&dSolawGcsnf; jzpf
ayr,fh Adkvfarmifarmifu Adkvfae
0if;eJ@ pm&if yk*~dKvfa&;ar#mfrSef;csuf
trsm;}uD; ykdenf;ygw,f? olu
“wkdif;jynfudk ppfwyfu,frSjzpf
r,f”vkd@ ,lqoljzpf+yD; “wkdif;jynf
udk igu,frSjzpfr,f”vkd@ ,lqol
[kwyf kH r&ygb;l ? Akv
d af e0if;uawmh
“wkdif;jynfudk ppfwyfu,frSjzpf
r,f? tJ'Dppfwyfudkvnf; ig acgif;
aqmifrSjzpfr,f”vkd@ ,lqoljzpf
a=umif;/ (26)ESpfwmumvtwGif;
tm%m,E W&m; eHygwf wpf ae&m
rSm t+rJwnf&dSaeapzkd@ Akdvfae0if;
b,fyHkb,fenf; }udK;pm;cJhw,f
qkw
d t
hJ csuf awGu oufaojyae
ygw,f ? (tJ ' D t a=umif ; awG e J @
ywfouf+yD; Akv
d af e0if;acwf txl;
ojzifh rqvacwfudk udk,fwdkif twGif;usus jzwfoef;cJh=uwJh ppfbufe,fbuf EdkifiHa&;
orm;a[mif;}uD;tcsKdŒu pmeJ@a&;om;rSwfwrf;wifxm;=uw,fqdkwJh owif;awG &&dS
xm;ygw,f? r=umcif zwf±_=u&vdrfhr,fvkd@ ar#mfvifh&ygw,f?)
tm;vHk;od=uwJhtwdkif; (1962)ckESpfrSm rv$Jomvkd@ ppfwyfu odrf;ydkufcJh&wJh
EdkifiHawmftm%mudk (1974) tajccHOya't& jynfolwkd@vuf0,fokd@ jyefvnfv$Jajymif;
ay;cJhw,f qdkwm[mvnf; atmufajca'oE W&tqifhtcsKdŒrSm wu,fh t&yfom;tppf
awG tm%m,E W&m;xJ yg0ifvmcJhw,fqdkayr,fh xdyfqHk;tqifhrSmawmh Akdvfae0if;tyg
t0if xdyfwef;acgif;aqmiftm;vHk; abmif;bDc|wf+yD; ykqdk;0wfvdkuf=uwmyJjzpfwJhtjyif
tJ'D ykq;kd ajymif;0wfvu
kd =f uwJh acgi;f aqmifawGuyJ ppfwyf&ŒJ aomhcsuaf e&mawGukd quf
vufxdef;csKyfxm;=uwmrkd@ jrefrmEdkifiH[m tESpfom&tm;jzifh ppftpdk;& vufatmuf

34
rSmyJ quf&dSaecJhwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dawmh xdyfqHk;u acgif;aqmifawG&JΠvkyf&yfawGvdkyJ
ppfbufu t+idrf;pm;,l+yD; jynfe,f/wdkif;/ c±kdif/ +rdKŒe,ftqifh t&yfbuf tkyfcsKyfa&;
,E W&m;xJ a&mufoGm;=uwJh ppfAdkvfvlxGufawG&JΠvkyf&yfrSefor#[mvnf; jrefrm
ppfwyf&JΠvkyf&yfvkd@yJ qdk&rSmjzpfygw,f? (26) ESpfwmumvtwGif; tJ'D ppfAdkvfvlxGuf
awGa&m/ wyfxJrSm&dScJh=uwJh acgif;aqmifawGyg wdkif;jynfaumif;pm;a&;twGuf bmawG
b,fvkdvkyfcJh=uygovJ? tajzrSefrrSefqdkwJh tay:uae wGufenf;rSefcJhjcif;&dSr&dS jyefokH;
oyfwJh ±_axmifht& ajymr,fqdk&ifawmh &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;[m tJ'D ppfAdkvfvl
xGufawG/ vuf&dSppfAdkvfawG wdkif;jynfaumif;pm;a&;qdk+yD; bmawG b,fvkdvkyfcJh=uovJ
qdkwmudk tm;vHk;jrifomatmif axmifjyvkdufwJh rSefwcsyfyJ jzpfygw,f?
rdrdeJ@ rxdkufwefwJh t&mudk &,lvdkr_/ trsufapmifrmef}uD;r_/ yk*~dKvfa&;}uD;
jrifrh u
_ kd rufarmr_pwJh tajccH twWpw
d w
f csKŒd &daS ewJh Akv
d af e0if;[m ta=umif;a=umif;awG
a=umifh tm%m&SifwOD; jzpfvmwJhtcgrSm ol&JΠtJ'D twWpdwfawG[m ydkrdk zGH@+zdK;}uD; xGm;
vmcJh+yD; wcsdefu ol@&JΠ^m%frsufpd/ ynmrsufpdtwGif;rSm cyfao;ao;om&dScJhwJh wdrfndK
wdrfrnf;[m aemufqHk;rSm tuef@towfrJh }uD;xGm;vmcJhum pHkvHk;uef;wJhtjzpfqDukd
a&mufoGm;cJh+yD; ed*Hk;rSmawmh ol@rSm wcsdefu &dScJhzl;wJh EdkifiHa&;t&if;tEDS;wcsKdŒudkyg vHk;vHk;
vsm;vsm; vufvGwfqHk;±_H;oGm;cJh&mu olvdkcsifwmvnf; wckrS &&dScJhjcif;r&dSbJ avmu
}uD;xJu vlrodolrod rsufemi,fi,feJ@ xGufcGmoGm;cJh&ygawmhw,f?
'gayr,fh Akdvfae0if;[m (1962)ckESpfrwdkifrD ol&&dSxm;cJhwJhEdkifiHa&; t&if;tESD;
awGtjyif jrif;orm;wOD;tjzpf ^m%feD^m%feuf ºuG,f0r_qdkwJh xl;jcm;wJh t&nftaoG;
wckyg &dSoljzpfwma=umifh (26)ESpfwmumvtwGif; ol@&JΠt&dSeft0g[m tvGef }uD;rm;
cJh+yD; ppfwyfudk ol@pdwfwdkif;us yHkoGif;cJhyHkuvnf; xl;c|efajymifajrmufvGef;vSwmrkd@ ol
EdkifiHawmf tm%mudk xdef;csKyfxm;cJhwJh (26)ESpfvHk;vHk; jrefrmppfwyf[m vlawGeJ@ zGJ@pnf;
xm;wJh tzG@J tpnf;wckqw
kd hJ tESpo
f m&awmif aysmufu,
G +f yD; }udK;qGq
J &m}uD; Akv
d af e0if;
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k s ujy&wJh ±kyaf o;±kyu
f av;w±kyo
f zG,f &dcS w
hJ mudk awG@jrifc=hJ u&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh
vnf; (1962)u (1988)txd umvtwGif;&dScJhwJh jrefrmppfwyf[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
ppfwyfuae tESpfom&t& cGJxGufvmcJhwJh Adkvfarmifarmifppfwyf&JŒ xl;jcm;wJh p±kduf
vuQ%mawG ydkrdkzGH@+zdK; tm;aumif;vmcJhwJh ppfwyfjzpfw,fvkd@ ajymEdkifavmufp&m ckdifrm
wJh tcsut
f vuf taxmuftxm;awG trSeyf &J cSd ahJ yr,fh tJ'D (26)ESpw
f m umvtwGi;f
Akv
d af e0if;&JΠyH&k yd u
f }uD;rm;vGe;f vSwma=umifh ppfwyf[m Akv
d af e0if; aemufausmbufrmS
aysmufuG,faeovdk jzpfcJhygw,f? qdkvdkwmuawmh tJ'DumvtwGif; jrefrmppfwyf&JŒ
vkyf&yftrsm;pk[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; pwifwnfaxmifpOfu ar#mfrSef;cJhwJh ppfwyf&JŒ
vkyf&yfawGeJ@ uGmjcm;aecJh+yDjzpfayr,fh 'gawG[m Akdvfae0if;wOD;wnf;&JΠvkyf&yfawG
tjzpfom ay:vGifcJh+yD; olvdkovdk yHkoGif;cJhwJh ppfwyf&JΠvkyf&yfawG r[kwfwJhyHkrsdK; aygufae
cJhwm jzpfygw,f?

35
txufrmS azmfjycJ+h yD;jzpfwhJ acgi;f aqmifaumif;wa,mufrmS r&dt
S yfwhJ pdwaf e
pdwx
f m;/ tusiphf ±ku
d f tawmfrsm;rsm;&dw
S hJ Akv
d af e0if; uHtm;avsmpf mG (jrefrmjynfoal wG
bufu =unf&h if uHraumif; ta=umif;rvSpmG ) Edik if aH cgi;f aqmif jzpfvmcJ+h yD; olu,
kd w
f ikd f
pdww
f ikd ;f us ydik yf ikd Ef ikd Ef ikd f au|;arG;okwo
f if jyKpkysKd ;axmifay;cJw
h hJ jrefrmppfwyf&ŒJ xl;jcm;wJh
p±kdufvuQ%mawGudk jrefrmjynfolawGeJ@ urBmhjynfolawG rsuf0g;xifxif yDyDjyifjyif
awG@cJh=u&+yD; tHh=orifoufrdcJh=u&wmuawmh e0w trnfeJ@ Adkvfapmarmif OD;aqmif+yD;
tm%modrf;,lcJhwJh (1988)ckESpf pufwifbmv (18) &ufae@upvkd@ 'Duae@txdumv
rSm jzpfygw,f?
'DumvtwGi;f wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmif ESpaf ,muf&cSd ahJ yr,fh Adv
k af pmarmif[m
ppfwyfudk tcsdefwdkuav; (2)ESpfom }uD;pdk;cGifh&cJhwJhtjyif ol}uD;pdk;wJh umvrSmvnf;
Adv
k af e0if;u ol@aemufrmS &daS eao;wmrk@d tJ'u
D mvudk Akv
d af e0if;acwftwGi;f xnfo
h iG ;f
oifw
h ,fv@dk ,lqygw,f? 'ga=umifh Adv
k af pmarmif ppfwyft}uD;tuJtjzpfu z,f&mS ;jcif;
cHvkduf&wJh (1992)ckESpfupvkd@ tckxdumvudk acwfopfArmhwyfrawmf&JŒ pwkwˆacwf
jzpfwJh Adkvfoef;a&$acwf jzpfw,f? (wenf;) tJ'DumvtwGif; wnf&dScJh/ wnf&dSqJjzpfwJh
jrefrmppfwyf[m Adkvfoef;a&$ppfwyf jzpfw,fvkd@ qdkcsifygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ppfwyf/ Adkvfarmifarmifppfwyf/ Adkvfae0if;ppfwyfqdk+yD;
acwfopfArmhwyfrawmf&JΠrwljcm;em;wJh acwf (3)acwfta=umif; usaemf avhvm rSwf
om;rdoavmuf a&SŒrSm wifjycJh+yD;+yD? vuf&dSrSm pwkwˆacwfudka&mufaewJh Adkvfoef;a&$
ppfwyf[m ol@a&SŒacwf (3)acwfu ppfwyfawGeJ@ tESpfom&tm;jzifh bmawGwl+yD;
bmawG uGJovJ? 'Dtcsufudk avhvmqef;ppf oHk;oyfjcif;u udk,fhEdkifiHudk cspfjrwfEdk;wJh/
udk,fhEdkifiH +idrf;csrf;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;wkd@ukd vdkvm;wJh jrefrmjynfolwdkif;
vuf&dS rdrdwkd@EdkifiH }uKHawG@&ifqdkifae&wJh jy\emrsm;udk rSefrSefuefuef em;vnfoabm
ayguf+yD; a&SŒbmqufvkyfoifhw,fqdkwJh udpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; taxmuftul jzpfapr,fh
tcsuftvufawG &&dSEdkifaprSm jzpfwma=umifh rkcstudsK;&dSaprSm jzpfygw,f?
jrefrmvlrsKd ;wdik ;f aus;nDaemifyjkH yifukd =um;zl;=ur,fxifygw,f? tJ'yD jkH yifxu
J
teD;pyfq;kH qG,
J v
l @dk &or# tcsut
f vufawGu,
kd +l yD; E_id ;f ,SOaf jym&&if Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;
&JΠppfwyf[m olawmfoljrwf &aoh&[ef;awGqD a&mufoGm;wJh aus;om;i,feJ@wl+yD;/
Adkvfarmifarmif/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvfoef;a&$wkd@&JΠppfwyfawGuawmh vlqdk;"m;jyawGqD
a&mufomG ;wJh aus;om;i,fe@J wlygw,f? ta=umif;uawmh Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;&JΠppfwyf
[m jrifawG@}uKHqHk=u&olwdkif; cspfcifjrwfEdk;=uwJh olawmfoljrwfawGqD a&mufoGm;wJh
aus;om;i,fvdk jrefrmjynfolawG 'Duae@xdwdkif w±_dufrufruf/ vGrf;woo jzpfae=u
&qJ ppfwyfjzpfae+yD; usefppfwyf (3) ckuawmh jrifawG@}uKHqHk=u&olwdkif; pufqkyfrkef;wD;
&G&H mS =uwJh vlq;kd "m;jyawGqD a&mufomG ;wJh aus;om;i,fvdk jrefrmjynfoal wGukd rsu&f nf
yifv,f a0apchJwJh ppfwyfjzpfcJha=umif; ordkif;u oufaojycJh+yD; jzpfvkd@ygyJ?

36
acwfa[mif;yJjzpfjzpf/ acwfopfyJjzpfjzpf/ b,fEdkifiH/ b,fvlrsdK;rSmyJjzpfjzpf
wyfrawmfwck OD;xdyyf efqif&r,fh tjrifrm;qH;k opPmw&m;[m jynfow
l @dk &ŒJ tusKd ;pD;yGm;
yJjzpfygw,f? tJ't
D ajccH tESpo
f m&uae jrefrmppfwyf&ŒJ aoGzv
D mr_[m Adv
k af rmifarmif
vufxufrSm pwifoaE<wnfvmcJh+yD; Adkvfae0if;vufxufrSm vlvm;ajrmufcJhum Adkvf
oef;a&$ vufxufrmS awmh tzG@H +zdK; t}uD;rm;qH;k tqifu
h kd a&muf&aSd e+yDv@dk qd&k ygvrd rhf ,f?
Adkvfarmifarmifppfwyfu trsdK;om;jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; aºuG;a=umfoHeJ@
'Drdkua&pDudk ausmcdkif;+yD; +rdK@jyqif;&Jom; jynfolawG/ wdkif;pGefjynfzsm;u wkdif;&if;om;
jynfolawGudk idkaºuG;apcJhw,f? twdkuftcH EdkifiHa&;orm;awGudk wu|ef;ykd@+yD; EdSyfpuf
n‡O;f yef;w,f? Adv
k af e0if;ppfwyfu tJ'v
D yk [
f efawGukd qufxed ;f xm;wJt
h jyif qd&k ,
S v
f pf
a&;aºuG;a=umfoHeJ@ 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk t+yD;wdkif ajrjr‡Kyfo+*õKvfypfvkdufw,f? ta&;tcif;
tqufquf &efukef/ rE Wav;tygt0if +rdK@}uD;+rdK@i,fawG&JΠ+rdK@v,facgif ae@cif;a=umif
awmifrSm ausmif;om;/ tvkyform;/ &[ef;&Sifvl jynfolawGudk aoewfeJ@ ypfcwfEdSrfeif;
vkd@ vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm aoqHk;cJh=u&w,f?
Adkvfoef;a&$&J@ ppfwyfua&m b,fvdktajctae &dSovJ? txufrSm ajymcJhwJh
aoGzDr_ txGÉftxdyf a&mufoGm;cJhwJh acwfvkd@yJ qdk&ygawmhr,f? ol@vufxuf trsm;
jynfol jrifuGif;awGrSm axmifxm;wJh {&mrqdkif;bkwf}uD;wcku pmom;udkyJ erlem=unfh
vku
d yf g? “wyfrawmfomtrd/ wyfrawmfomtz” vk@d jzpfygw,f? jyif;xefwhJ a0zefra_ wG
ae&mtESH@u xGufay:vmvGef;ru xGufay:vmawmhrS 'Dqkdif;bkwfyg pmom;[m jynfol
awGtwGuf &nf!¸ef;wm r[kwfbl;? wyfrawmfom;awGtwGufom &nf!¸ef;wm
jzpfw,fvkd@ ppfAdkvf}uD;wa,mufu avajyxkd;w,fvkd@ =um;&ygw,f? wyfrawmfom;
awG twGuo
f m jzpfw,fq&kd if bma=umifh wyfrawmfwyfpcef;awGtwGi;f rSmyJ raxmifbJ
trsm;jynfol jrifuGif;rSm vmaxmif&ovJ? wu,fawmh tJ'DaºuG;a=umfoH[m Adkvf
ae0if;acwfuawmif &dScJhzl;wm r[kwfygbl;? aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;=unfh&if tJ'D aºuG;
a=umfoH[m jynfoludk tqkH;pGef apmfum;vkdufwJh aºuG;a=umfoHjzpfygw,f?
Adkvfae0if; jyKpkysdK;axmifay;cJhwmjzpfayr,fh Adkvfae0if;vufxufrSm tvHk;
t&yf ryDjyifvaS o;wJh vlxk qef@usiaf &; jrefrmppfwyf[m Adv
k af pmarmif/ Adv
k o
f ef;a&$w@dk
vufxufrSmawmh jynfhjynfh00 tawmiftvuf pHkvifvmcJh+yDvkd@ qdk&rSmjzpfygw,f?
+idrf;csrf;pGm qENjyawmif;qdkaewJh jynfolawGudk axmifeJ@csD owfjzwf+yD; tm%modrf;cJhwJh
tJ'Dppfwyf[m jynfwGif;jynfyu zdtm;awGa=umifh (1990)ckESpf/ arv (27)&ufae@rSm
wpHkwckaom twdkif;twmtxd vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyGJudk usif;yay;cJh
ayr,fh tJ'Da&G;aumufyGJ&v'fu olwkd@twGuf rSef;csufeJ@ESrf;xGufrudkuf jzpfoGm;wJhtcg
rSmawmh jynfolawGudk wkdif;odjynfod/ urBmoday;xm;wJh uwdopPmudk ajymifajymif
wif;wif; csdK;azmufvkdufwm tJ'Dppfwyfjzpfygw,f?

37
Adkvfoef;a&$&JΠppfwyf[m b,fvdkppfwyfrsdK;jzpfovJ qdkwmudkawmh tESpf
ESpfq,feD;yg; umvtwGif; xyfjyefwvJvJ jrifawG@cJh=u&+yD; jzpfwmrkd@ txl;&Sif;jyzkd@
vdrk ,f rxifawmhygb;l ? Adv
k o
f ef;a&$[m rdrt
d m%m wnf+rJa&;twGuq
f &kd if rdrd &yfwnf
&Sifoefae&wJh tawG;tac:udk azmfxkwfzefwD;ay;cJhwJh q&m}uD;(Adkvfae0if;)udkawmif
z,f&Sm;&JwJhol/ rdrd txuft&m&Sd (Adkvfapmarmif)udkawmif z,f&Sm;0HhwJhol/ Zmwfwlom;
(AdkvfxGef;=unf/ Adkvfausmfb/ Adkvfjrifhatmifponfh) pm;0hHwJhol/ rdrdudk txGÉftxdyf
a&mufatmif rdu
k rf u
kd u
f ef;uef; ycH;k eJ@xrf;wifay;cJo
h l (Adv
k cf ifneG @f )udv
k nf; &Si;f ypf0w
hH o
hJ /l
'Dy,
J if; vlowfr}_ uD;vd@k urBmo
h rdik ;f rSm xm0& trnf;pufwifuseo
f mG ;awmhr,fh r=um;0hH
remom &mZ0wfr_}uD;udk usL;vGef0Hhol/ aemufqHk; rdrdudk;uG,f&m bmomt,l0g'&JŒ
txGÉt
f jrwfwckjzpfwhJ &[ef;oHCmawGuakd wmif Edik if w
H um&JΠrsupf ad tmufrmS ypfcwf
owfjzwf0HhwJhol/ tJovdk olrwlatmif xl;jcm;wJh 0daoovuQ%mawGeJ@ jynfhpHkwJh vl
wa,muf jzpfygw,f?
ajymr,Hk }uKHz;l rSod qdw
k hJ vl@tcGit
hf a&; csKd ;azmufra_ wG[mvnf; tJ'v
D v
kd rl sKd ;
OD;aqmifwJh ppfwyf tkyfcsKyfwJhacwfrSm ay:aygufcJhwm jzpfygw,f? (VOA) em;axmifvkd@
axmif(3)ESpf tcsccH &hJ wm/ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;arG;ae@ vGwv
f yfa&;ausmufwikd rf mS Adv
k cf sKyf
oDcsif;qdkvkd@ axmif(3)ESpf tcscH&wm/ ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; awmif;qdkqENjyvkd@ axmif
wpfouf tcscH&wm/ ukvor*~u xkwfjyefxm;wJh vl@tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;
ta=umif; &Gmom;awGudk &Sif;jy+yD; &GmujyeftxGufrSm vlpkvla0;eJ@ acsmif;t±kdufcH&wJh
vl@tcGifhta&;orm;awGu aq;±kHwuf
ukor_cH,l&wJhtjyif aq;±kHutqif;rSm
urBm}uD;rSm acwftqufquf
w&m;cHtjzpf pGJcsuftwifcH&+yD; axmif
b,fwkef;urS b,fe,fy,frSmrS
'%fESpf&Snf csrSwfcH&wm/ oHvufoD;eJ@
xdy fq Hk; (10)pm&if ;xJ
txkd;cH&+yD; rsufvHk;uG,fvkrwwfjzpfae
r0ifcJhzl;wJh jrefrmEkdifiH[m
wJh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,feJ@ trSefw&m;
twdkif; jzpfapvdkol ol@rdom;pk0ifawGu
Adkvfoef;a&$ vufxufa&mufrSyJ
w&m;cHjzpf+yD; axmif'%fcsrSwfcH&/ oHvuf
urBmhtqdk;&Gm;qHk;
oD;eJ@ xk;d oGm;wJv
h &l ŒJ tzG@J tpnf;u w&m;
tm%m&S i f ( 10)OD ; pm&if ; &J Œ
vdkjzpfoGm;wm pojzifh æ pojzifh urBmh
xdyfqHk;em;w0dkufrSm
b,fEidk if rH mS rS r}uKHb;l r=um;bl; avmufwhJ
vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_awG us,fus,f
jyef@jyef@ eufeuf±_dif;±_dif; jzpfyGm;aewm Adkvf
oef;a&$ppfwyf tkyfcsKyfaewJh jrefrmjynfrSm jzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dvkyf&yfawG&JΠtusdK;quftjzpf jrefrmEdkifiHtygt0if urBmhEdkifiHaygif;pHk
yg0ifzGJ@pnf;xm;wJh urBmhukvor*~tzGJ@}uD;eJ@ ,Ofaus;wJh EdkifiHwumrdom;pk todkif;t

38

0dkif;u Adkvfoef;a&$ppfwyfudk b,fvdk oabmxm;+yD; b,fvdk wkH@jyef
ae=uovJqdkwm tm;vHk;todygyJ? EdkifiHaygif; (200)ausmf wnf&dSwJh
urBm}uD;rSm acwftqufquf b,fwkef;urS b,fe,fy,frSmrS
xdyfqHk; (10)pm&if;xJ r0ifcJhzl;wJh jrefrmEkdifiH[m Adkvfoef;a&$ vuf
xufa&mufryS J urBmt
h qd;k &Gm;qH;k tm%m&Sif (10)OD;pm&if;&JΠxdyq
f ;kH
em;w0du
k rf mS ESppf Of ae&m,lxm;Edik w
f m wcsuw
f nf;udk =unf±h eHk @J wif
Adkvfoef;a&$ppfwyf&JΠyHk&dyfudk rSef;qEdkifrSmjzpfygw,f?
jynfou
l kd tvkyt
f au|;jyKzk@d qw
kd hJ &nf&,
G cf suef @J ±k;d om;+yD;
trSefw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;wJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; xlaxmifcJhwJh jrefrm
ppfwyf[m w,loeform; Adv
k af rmifarmif&ŒJ tawG;tac:atmufrmS
pwif vrf;acsmv
f mcJ&h mu yk*Kd~ vfa&;}uD;jrifv
h o
kd l Adv
k af e0if;&JΠtawG;
tac:atmufrSm Oy"d±kyf tawmfuav; azmufjyef,dk,Gif;oGm;cJh+yD;
tm%m&rRufeJ@ t+idK;tmCmw }uD;rm;vSwJh Adkvfoef;a&$&JΠtawG;
tac:atmufrSmawmh rlv±kyfudk rSef;qjrifa,mif=unfhvkd@awmif r&
EdkifawmhwJhtxd ysufpD;oGm;cJh+yDqdkwmudk Adkvfoef;a&$OD;aqmifwJh
xdyfydkif;u ppfAdkvfwpkeJ@ rdrdwkd@&JΠudk,fusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf olwkd@udk
rSefyghbk&m; vkyfaewJh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifqdkol wpkuvGJ&if jrefrm
jynfoltm;vHk;u odjrifoabmaygufae=u+yD jzpfygw,f?
ud,
k ahf oG;&if;om;&if; wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;tcsi;f csi;f uvGv
J @dk
b,fEdkifiHjcm; ppfwyfwckudkrS &ifqdkif,SOf+yKdif wkdufcdkufcJhzl;jcif;r&dSwJh
vuf&jSd refrmhppfwyfxu
J xdyyf ikd ;f acgi;f aqmifp[
k m ukvor*~XmecsKyf
oGm;+yD; ,Ofaus;wJh urBmhrdom;pk todkif;t0dkif;&JΠacgif;aqmifawGeJ@
rsufESmcsif;rqdkif&J=uayr,fh jynfwGif;rSmawmh olwkd@u vufckyfxJu
a&yrm jzpfae=u&&SmwJh jrefrmjynfolawGudk olwkd@vm&if twif;
tusyf vuftkyfcsDcdkif;+yD; ro'<ga&pm tuefawmhcH&wJh t&omudk
+rdef+rdef}uD; pm;oHk;ae=uygw,f? ‘EdkifiHawmf at;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh
zGH+zdK;a&;aumifpD’qdkwJh emrnfvSvSudk cH,lxm;wJh Adkvfoef;a&$wkd@
vlp[
k m wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ b¾maiGawGukd txde;f tcsKyf tuef@towfr&dS
xifovdk oHk;pGJae=uwJhtjyif rif;pdk;&mZmpdwf b,favmufrsm; xdyf
wufae=uovJq&kd if ysO;f rem;+rdKŒteD;u =uyfajy;&Gmw0ku
d u
f kd awmif
aejynfawmfvkd@ orkwf+yD; ajymif;a&GŒeef;pdkufcJh=uwJhtxdygyJ?

39

aiGa=u;oef;aygif;rsm;pGm ukefuscJh&wJh tJ'Daejynfawmf wnf
aqmufa&; vkyfief;[m EdkifiH&JΠukefxkwfpGrf;tm; zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_twGuf
bmwckrS taxmuftuljzpfwmr[kwrf eS ;f tm;vH;k od=uayr,fh “b0&Sif
rif;w&m;}uD;”udk b,fAdkvfcsKyfurS vlod&Sif=um; ar;cGef; rxkwf0hHcJh=u
ygb;l ? Adv
k af rmifarmife@J Adv
k af e0if;wk@d qifu
h q
J ifu
h J avhusihf jyKpkysKd ;axmif
ay;cJhwJh vlxkqef@usifa&; jrefrmppfwyf[m Adkvfoef;a&$ vufxufrSm
awmh ±kd;om;r_eJ@ trSefw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;r_qdkwJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
xlaxmifcJhwJh ppfwyf&JΠtESpfom&udk aq;azmfzkd@ &Smr,fqdk&ifawmif
&SmrawG@ Edik af wmhygb;l ? tajymifajrmufq;kH / t}uD;us,q
f ;kH / tcrf;em;qH;k
aºuG;a=umfoHawG atmf[pfaeayr,fh wu,fhvufawG@rSmawmh vuf&Sd
ppfwyf[m tESpfAvm tum+yJŒ+yJŒeJ@ ‘tqif;vSqef; vl@aygufyef;’vdk
vlrsKd;/ usD;tmoD;vkd toD;rsKd; jzpfw,fqdkwm udk,fhjynfolawGua&m
EdkifiHwum jynfolawGuyg odae=uyg+yD?
tJ'gawGuawmh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ppfwyfeJ@ Adkvfae0if;
ppfwyf qdw
k hJ a':atmifqef;pk=unf&ŒJ toH;k tE_e;f eJ@ ywfoufwhJ cifAsm;&JŒ
ar;cGef;tay: usaemf&JŒ tusOf;csKyfajz=um;csufyJjzpfygw,f? Õ

40

ar; ?
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46
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48

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pufeJ@ eif;owfcdkif;cJhzl;w,f qdkwmvnf; =um;zl;w,f? tdrfapmifh
tpdk;&vufxufrSmvnf; +rdKŒaeqif;&Jom;awGudk +rdKŒopfawGqD a&$@
ajymif;wJh pDrHudef;rSm jrefrmppfwyf&JΠzufqpfqefqef vkyf&yfawGudk

51
jrifawG@cJh=u&w,f? (62)ckESpf tm%modrf;+yD;aemufydkif;rSmawmh
jrefrmppfwyf&JŒ zufqpfo±kyf[m ydk+yD; yDjyifay:vGifxif&Sm;vmcJh
w,f? qJAif;ZlvdkifudpP/ wuo taqmuftOD; +zdKcGJwJhudpPawGtp/
(1970)jynfv
h eG Ef pS af wGrmS jzpfymG ;cJw
h hJ ta&;tcif;awGe@J &Spaf v;vH;k
ta&;awmfyHk}uD;tv,f/ 'DyJ,if;ta&;tcif;eJ@ pufwifbm a&$0g
a&mif awmfvSefa&;tqHk; jzpf&yfrsm;rSm jrefrmppfwyf&JΠzufqpf
o±kyf[m wae@wjcm; ydkrdkay:vGif xif&Sm;vmcJhwm jzpfw,f?
jrefrmppfwyf&JŒ zufqpfo±kyfudk tapmqHk;eJ@ teuf±_dif;
qH;k odjrifoabmayguf em;vnfco
hJ al wGuawmh jrefrmEdik if H e,fpeG f
e,fzsm;rSm aexkdif=uwJh wdkif;&if;om;jynfolrsm;yJ jzpfygw,f? jref
rmppfwyf&JΠenf;vrf;aygif;pHkoHk;+yD; &uf&ufpufpuf EdSyfuGyfacsr_ef;
r_udk cHcJh=u&wJh tJ'DjynfolawG&J@ 'kuQa0'emawG ta=umif;
(License to rape)wkd@vdk pmtkyfawGuwqifh urBmu odvmcJh=u
wm b,favmufrS r=umao;ayr,fh cHpm;aecJh=u&wJh umvu
q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm wkdifcJh+yD jzpfygw,f?
tck wifjycJhwmawG tm;vHk;[m tpdk;&qef@usiw
f hJ tkypf k
awG&ŒJ r[kwrf rSef 0g'jzef@csufawGjzpfw,fvkd@ apm'u wufEdkifyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh owif;qufoG,fa&; enf;ynm tvGefwdk;wufae
+yDjzpfwJh 'Duae@acwfrSm EdkifiHwumu rsufjcnfrjywf puUef@rvyf
apmifh=unfhaewJh tcsdefrsdK;rSm jzpfyGm;cJhwJh a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;
twGif;rSmawmif jrefrmppfwyf[m ol&JŒ zufqpfo±kyfudk rzHk;Edkif
rzdEikd af vmufatmif rjybJraeEdik f jzpfomG ;cJyh u
kH awmh =ocsavmuf
w,fvkd@ qdk&rSmjzpfygw,f? EdkifiHwum ±kyfoHowif;tpDtpOfawG
rSm jrifawG@c=hJ u&wJh wef;pDxidk af ewJh vli,fwOD;udk um;ay:twifrmS
vHkxdef;&JawGu wkwfawGeJ@ wa,muf+yD; wa,muf ±kdufae=uwJh
jrifuiG ;f / qENjyvli,f wa,mufukd vHx
k ed ;f wa,mufu atmufcH
abmif;bDom usefawmhwJhtxd ±kdufESuf uefausmuf+yD;wJhaemuf
tJ'Dvli,fudk ol@&JŒppfzdeyfeJ@ eif;xm;wJh jrifuGif;/ pk+yD;xdkifae=uwJh
&[ef;oHCmawmfawGudk &JawGu eHygwfwkwfawGeJ@ twif;0if±kduf
wJh jrifuGif;/ aoG;oH&J&JeJ@ acgif;u'%f&mudk vufeJ@tkyfxm;wJh
oHCmawmfwyg;udk &Jwa,mufu tcsKyfum;qD qGJac:oGm;wJh
jrifuiG ;f awG[m tpd;k &qef@usiaf &;orm;awG&ŒJ 0g'jzef@ vky}f uH ±ku
d f
csufawGr[kwfwm wurBmvHk; od=uygw,f?

52

jrefrmppftpd;k &&JŒ zufqpfp±ku
d f tay:vGiq
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h m
uawmh a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;rSm *syefowif;axmuf em*tdqef
aoqHk;cJh&wJh tjzpftysufrSm jzpfygw,f? ±kyfoHjrifuGif;awGt&
aoewfeJ@ typfcH&wJhtcsdefrSm em*tdqefa&m/ qENjyjynfolvlxka&m
[m vHkxdef;wyfzGJ@awGudk xdyfwkduf&ifqdkif t=urf;zufaewJh tajc
taerSm &dSaewmr[kwfygbl;? em*tdqef[m vrf;ay:rSm aoewfeJ@
aoG;at;at; typfcH&+yD; vJusaoqHk; oGm;cJh&wm jzpfygw,f?
wurBmvHk;u jrifawG@cJh&wJh tJ'Djzpf&yfudk rdrdwkd@udk qENjyolawGu
t=urf;zufvmvkd@ udk,fhudk,fudk ckcHumuG,fydkifcGifht& ypfcwfcJh&wm
jzpfygw,fvkd@ jrefrmppftpdk;& ta=umif;jyw,fqdk&ifawmh tJ'D
ta=umif;jycsuf[m (etz)&JΠ&,fp&mraumif;qHk; jyufvHk;awGxJu
wckyJ jzpfygvdrhfr,f?
tJ'DtcsufawGtm;vHk;tjyif (etz)ppfwyfu avhusifh
ay;xm;wJh vHkxdef;awG&JΠqENjyyGJwdkif; jynfolvlxktay: jyKrlvkyf
aqmifcyhJ aHk wGukd =unf&h if/ tjcm;Edik if aH wGu vHx
k ed ;f awGe@J vH;k vH;k vsm;
vsm;rwlbJ qENjyolawGudk +idK;ol&efbufawGozG,f onf;}uD;rnf;
}uD; ±kdufESufypfcwf owfjzwfcJhwmawGudk=unfh&if jrefrmvHkxdef;
awGudkrS bma=umifhxl;+yD; emem=unf;=unf; jzpfcJh=u&wmvJqdkwJh
ar;cGef;&JŒ tajzudk &dyfpm;od&dSEdkifr,f xifygw,f? Õ

53

ar; ?
? (etz)[m bmoma&;tydkif;rSm bk&m;apwDta[mif;awG
jyKjyif topfawGwnfcw
hJ ,f? ,Ofaus;r_tykid ;f rSm qd/k u/ a&;/ wD;+yKdiyf aJG wG
usif;yay;+yD; jrefrmhtEkynm zGH@+zdK;wkd;wufa&;udk aqmif&GufcJhw,f?
ynma&;tydkif;rSm wuUodkvf/ aumvdyf ody`HopfawGtrsm;}uD; wnf
aqmufay;cJhw,f? vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;tydkif;rSm vrf;wHwm;topfawG
trsm;}uD; aqmufvkyfay;cJhw,f? 'gawG[m jynfolvlxktwGuf tusdK;
jzpfxGef;apwJh udpPawG r[kwfbl;vm;?

ajz ?
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h hJ vky&f yfawGukd (etz)
u wu,fh apwemtrSefeJ@ vkyfcJhw,fqdkOD;awmh “ukodkvfwyJ i&Jwydom”qdkwJh pum;
udkyJ ukd;um;&ygvdrfhr,f? wu,fawmh &[ef;oHCmawGudk owfwJhjypfr_udk b,fvkd
aumif;r_rsdK;eJ@rS jyefaxvkd@ r&Edkifygbl;?
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csD;usL;EdkifwJh udpPwckjzpfygw,f? 'gawmif 0g'jzef@csda&; tudsK;pD;yGm;qdkwmudk xnfhwGuf
&if odyfajymp&m r&dSvSygbl;?
ynma&;tydkif;rSm wuUodkvfawGtrsm;}uD; wnfaqmufay;cJhw,fqkdwm
a,bk,stm;jzifhawmh aumif;wJhvkyf&yfyg? 'gayr,fh tJ'DwuUodkvfawG[m vlpOfrDwJh

54
wuUodkvfawG[kwf&JŒvm;? tJ'DwuUodkvfwnfaqmufa&; vkyfief;awGrSm
tusifhysufjcpm;r_awG uif;&Sif;&JŒvm;qdkwJh ar;cGef;awGudk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&if/
wuUov
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f t
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tjynfht0csD;usL;cHxdkufol [kwfr[kwfpOf;pm;&rSm jzpfygw,f?
vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;tydkif;eJ@ ywfoufvkd@ (etz)vufxufrSm
vrf;wHwm;awG tweftoifh wdk;yGm;vmwm rSefygw,f? 'gayr,fh 'DudpPrSm
vnf; ajymp&mESpcf k &dyS gw,f? wcku txufrmS a jymcJo
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wJh “[pfwvm vkyfcJhor#” pmtkyfxJu tcef;wcef;eJ@ E_dif;,SOfjy&rSmjzpfyg
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}uD;awG oGm;vdk&mudk tjrefqHk;a&mufoGm;Edkifatmif ykd@ay;zkd@jzpfw,fvkd@ q&m
}uD;u a&;ygw,f? (88)ta&;awmfyHktwGif; qENjy jynfolvlxka=umifh ol@&JŒ
ppftiftm;awGudk vsifvsifjrefjref vG,fvG,fulul ra&$Œrajymif;Edkif jzpfcJh&wJh
oifcef;pmudk &&dx
S m;wJh (etz)u vrf;wHwm;awG wnfaqmufazmufvyk jf cif;
&JΠt"du &nf&G,fcsuf[m qENjy jynfolawGudk tjrefqHk;ESdyfuGyf acsr_ef;Edkifzkd@
r[kwfbl;vkd@ b,folajymEdkifygovJ?
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abmxm; tjrifygyJ? bmoma&;tydkif;
(etz)u
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vrf ; wH w m;awG
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wnf a qmuf a zmuf v k y f j cif ; &J Œ
wGuf pGr;f pGr;f wrH aqmif&u
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tjcm;bmomawG twG u f v nf ;
qENjy jynfolawGudk
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tjrefqHk;ESdyfuGyf
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acsr_ e f ; Ed k i f z k d @
ar;w,f? 'gqdk&if bmomaygif;pHku
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b,f o l a jymEd k i f y govJ
twG u f aqmif & G u f a ewJ h o l a wG [ m
(etz)vufxufrSm t&rf;udk aysmf&$if

55

0rf;ajrmufae=uwJh oabmaygh? tJovdk[kwfr[kwf tJ'DvlawGudk udk,fwdkif
ar;=unfhoifhygw,f? olwkd@&JΠtajztwGuf bmudkrS pdk;&drfylyef p&mrvdkwJh
tajctaersdK;udk t&ifzefwD;+yD;rS ar;zkd@awmh vdktyfygw,f?
,Ofaus;r_tydkif;rSmvnf; 'Dtwdkif;ygyJ? qdk/ u/ a&;/ wD;+yKdifyGJawG
usif;yay;wJhtwGuf jrefrmh*DwokckrtEkynmudk jynfolawG ydkrdkjrwfEdk;
wef;zdk; xm;+yD; vli,ftrsm;pk taemufwdkif; *DwokckrtEkynmxuf jrefrmh
*Dwokckr tEkynmudkydk+yD; av;pm;wefzdk;xm; vm=uygovm;? 'DudpPudk
aoaocsmcsm uGif;qif; ppfwrf;aumuf,l=unfhzkd@ oifhygw,f? 'gayr,fh
'Duae@ a,bk,s jrifawG@ae&wmuawmh vufrSwfcawG aomif;*%ef;em;
uyfaeayr,fh taemufwikd ;f *Dw pifjrifah zsmaf jzyGaJ wGrmS vlawG}udw}f udww
f ;kd
ae+yD;/ jrefrmh*DwazsmfajzyGJawGrSmawmh usD;eJ@zkwfzkwfjzpfaewmudkygyJ?
'ghtjyif jrefrmh tEkynmavmuom; tm;vHk; 'Duae@rSm pdwfrcsrf;rajrŒ
jzpfae=uygw,f? avhvm=unfhvkdufyg? 'Dtcsufu (etz)&JΠtay:,H a&$r_ef
}uJvkyf&yfudk rD;armif;xkd;jyaeygw,f?
ynma&;e,fy,frSma&m/ wuUodkvf}uD;awG wkd;vmvkd@ ausmif;
om;awG/ q&mawG &$ifvef;wufºuG jzpfae=uygovm;? a&$ausmif;ajymif
ajymif 0rf;acgifacgifqdkwJh pum;udk q&mawG t+rJowd&ae=uovdk wif;usyf
wJh pnf;urf;awG/ rl;,pfaq;0g;awGeJ@ avmif;upm;r_awG y&yGjzpfaewJh tJ'D
wuUodkvf topf}uD;awG[m ynmudk wu,fvdkcsifol ausmif;om;awG
twGufawmh usD;tmoD;awGvdkygyJ?
vrf ; yef ; quf o G , f a &;awG wd k ; wuf v mw,f r[k w f v m;vk d @
cifAsm;u ar;w,f? 'DudpPeJ@ ywfouf+yD; jynfolawGudk ar;=unfh&r,f? vrf;
wHwm;awGwdk;vmwJhtwGuf cifAsm;wkd@ oGm;&vm&wm t&ifuxuf p&dwf
pu tydkif;rSma&m tqifajyoufom vG,fulacsmarG@r_ tydkif;rSmyg wdk;wuf
vmw,fv@dk cHpm;=u&ovm;? vrf;wHwm;awG wk;d vmwJt
h wGuf cifAsm;wk@d &ŒJ
pD;yGm;a&; tajctae t&ifuxufy+kd yD; wd;k wuf acsmifvnfvm=uovm;vk@d
ar;=unfh&if taumif;qHk;ygyJ?
Õ

56
ar; ?
? wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&; qkwf,kwfae&wm olwkd@a=umifhr[kwfbl;? taemuf
EdkifiH}uD;awGu csrSwfxm;wJh '%fcwf ydwfqkd@r_awGa=umifh jzpfw,f? 'Duae@ (etz)eJ@
(NLD) ajyvnfa&;rSm (NLD)u awmif;qkdvkd@ taemuf EdkifiH}uD;awGu vkyfay;aewJh
pD;yGm;a&; '%fcwfydwfqkd@ta&;,lr_awGu t"du t[ef@twm;wck jzpfaew,fvkd@
(etz)u awmufav#muf ajymaewJhtjyif tJ'Dtcsuftygt0if tcsuf(4)csufudk
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu vkdufavsmrS awG@qHkaqG;aEG;Edkifr,fvkd@ r=umcifuyJajym
cJjh yefw,f? 'gt
h jyif a'guw
f m Zmenfw@dk vkd t&ifu pD;yGm;a&; '%fcwfyw
d q
f @dk ru
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cHv_H@aqmfcJhw,f qdkoluawGvnf; (NLD)u tJ'Drl0g'udk qufvufudkifpGJxm;wmrSm;
w,f? pD;yGm;a&; '%fcwfydwfqkd@r_awGa=umifh trSefwu,f'kuQcHpm;&wmu jynfol
vlxkomjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh (NLD)taeeJ@ jrefrmjynftay: pD;yGm;a&; '%fcwfydwfqkd@r_
awGvkyfzkd@ EdkifiHwumudk awmif;qdkwJhrl0g'udk pGef@v$wfoifhw,fvkd@ ajymae=uw,f?
'DudpPeJ@ ywfouf+yD; cifAsm;tjrifudkajymygOD;?
ajz ?

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(ethics) ud p P u d k oG m ;&r,f ? usif h 0 wf p &%w&m;qd k w m vl o m;
wa,muftaeeJ@ jyKusifhtyfwJh/ rjyKusifhtyfwJhudpPawGudk qdkvdkwm
jzpfygw,f? vlom;eJ@ wd&p>mefuGmjcm;wm[m 'Dw&m;ygyJ? taumif;eJ@
tqd;k udk cGjJ cm;odjrifEikd w
f hJ ^m%fynm&ifo
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^m%fynm &ifhoefr_ &dSvmavav wd&p>meftjzpfeJ@ a0;uGmvmavav
ygyJ?
tJ'D±_axmifht& vlyDovdkwJh vlwa,muf[m tajccHtm;
jzifh b,f[mtrSe/f b,f[mtrSm;/ b,f[m taumif;/ b,f[mtqd;k
qdkwmudk cGJjcm;odjrifEdkifzkd@ }udK;yrf;&r,f? tJ'Dtqifh+yD;&if ol[m ukd,f
ukd,fwdkifu trSefeJ@ taumif;udkvkyf+yD; trSm;eJ@tqdk;udk a&Smif&r,f?
wcsed w
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f hJ vlukd cs;D usK;+yD; tqd;k vkyw
f v
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axmufjy&r,f? 'g[m em;vnfoabmaygufzkd@ tifrwefrS vG,ful±kd;
pif;wJh p&%w&m; w&yfjzpfygw,f?
&yfuGufwckxJrSm tifrwef rdkuf±kdif;qdk;oGrf; &rf;um;wJh vl
wa,muf &dSaew,f qkdygpkd@? tJ'D&yfuGufxJu vl,Ofaus;awG/ vl
aumif;olaumif;awG taeeJ@ ol@udk b,fvkdwkH@jyef qufqHoifhovJ?

57
yxr acsmharmh azsmif;jzr,f? tJ'geJ@rS r&bl;qdk&if avoHcyfrmrmeJ@ a0zefr,f?
tJ'geJ@rS r&bl;qkd&if 0kdif;y,fxm;r,f? tJ'geJ@rS r&bl;qdk&ifawmh 0dkif;zrf;+yD;
&Jpcef;ykd@=uw,f r[kwfvm;?
(etz)[m b,fvdktpdk;&rsdK; jzpfw,fqdkwm usaemf a&S@rSm tawmf
toifh ajymcJh+yD;+yD? (etz)[m jynfolvlxk axmifeJ@csDowf+yD; tm%modrf;cJh
wJhtpdk;& r[kwfbl;vm;? (etz)[m jynfolawGudk ay;xm;wJh uwdopPmudk
zsufcJhwJh tpdk;&r[kwfbl;vm;? (etz)[m EdkifiHwumrdom;pk&JΠtjrifo
abmxm;awGudk todrSwfjyK av;pm;jcif;r&dSwJh tpdk;& r[kwfbl;vm;? (etz)
[m ppftm%m&Sifpepf &moufyefwnfwhH cdkif+rJa&;twGuf ajymifajymifwif;
wif; }udK;yrf;aewJh tpdk;& r[kwfblvm;? (etz)[m rdrdtm%mwnf+rJa&;
twGuf b,favmuf}uD;rm;wJh &mZ0wfr_rsdK;udkrqdk ('DyJ,if;/ a&$0ga&mifawmf
vSefa&;/ em*pf)usL;vGefcJhwJh tpdk;& r[kwfbl;vm;? tJ'Dvdk tpdk;&rdsK;udk
oleJ@ wurBmxJrSmaewJh vl,Ofaus;awG/ vlaumif;olaumif;awGu
b,fvdkoabmxm; wkH@jyefoifhygovJ?
usaemftxufrSm ay;cJhwJhOyrmxJu &yfuGufxJrSm vl(3)rsdK;&dS
w,f? wrdsK;u tJ'Dvl[m qdk;oGrf; &rf;um;w,f qdkwm olwkd@odw,f?
'gayr,fh tJ'DvlqDrSm olwkd@vdkcsifwJh ypPnf;awG &dSaew,f? tJ'DypPnf;awG
udk tvum;avmufeD;eD; aps;E_ef;eJ@ tacsmifE_duf+yD; &aewmrkd@ olwkd@u
tJ'Dvludk tvkdvkduf t}udKufaqmifae=uygw,f? aemufwrsdK;uawmh
tJ'Dvl qdk;oGrf; &rf;um;wmudk olwkd@odw,f? 'gayr,fh olqkd;wmu
olwkd@udk bmrSvm+yD; wkduf±kduf rxdcdkufbl;? 'ga=umifh olwkd@u tJ'Dvludk
cs;D vnf;rcs;D usK;/ uJv
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uawmh tJ'v
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d ±f u
dk rf xd
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hJ wGuf tod
eJ@ vkyf&yf wxyfwnf;jzpfatmifusifhw,f?
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omud,
k f a&G;cs,Ef ikd yf gw,f? ud,
k ahf &G;cs,rf [
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h wef;
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tar&duefeJ@ taemufEdkifiH}uD;awGu pD;yGm;a&; '%fcwfydwfqkd@
ta&;,lr_ jyKvkyfw,fqdkwm 'DoabmygyJ? tJ'D ta&;,lr_a=umifh jrefrmhpD;yGm;
a&; rwdk;wuf&wm jzpfw,fvkd@ (etz)u ajymw,f? 'gqdk&if tJ'Dta&;,lr_
awG ay:aygufvm&jcif;&JΠta=umif;&if;udk jyefpOf;pm;oifhygw,f? ta&;,l
r_awG[m (etz) wufwufvmcsif; (1988)ckESpfrSm pwif ay:aygufvmcJhwm

58
r[kwfygbl;? (e0w)(etz)wkd@&JΠppftm%m&Sifpepf a&&Snf wnfwhH
cdkif+rJatmifvkyfzkd@ }udK;yrf;r_awG ajymifajymifwif;wif; jzpfvm+yD;wJh
aemufrSmrS ta&;,lr_awG pwifay:aygufvmcJhwm jzpfygw,f?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfuvnf; (etz)tay: '%fcwfydwf
qk@d whJ ta&;,lra_ wGcsrw
S zf @dk b,fEikd if u
H rkd S vlo&d iS =f um; awmif;qdw
k m
rsdK; usaemfwkd@ r=um;zl;ygbl;? ol@udk v$wfay;vdkufwJh (1995)ckESpf
aemufyikd ;f Ekid if w
H csK@d u jrefrmjynf'rD u
kd a&pDEikd if H r=umcifjzpfvmawmh
r,f txifeJ@ pD;yGm;a&; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_awGvkyfzkd@ [efjyifvm=uwJhtcg
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu jrefrmjynfu tajctae[m &Sifwkd@xifo
avmuf raumif;ao;ygbl;? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfw,fqdkwm EdkifiHa&; vGwf
vyfr&_ rSd S wd;k wufr,f? 'ga=umifh Edik if aH &; wd;k wufr&_ aSd tmif t&ifun
l D
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ta&;,lzkd@ awmif;qdkwJhrl0g'udk pGef@v$wfrS awG@qkHaqG;aEG;Edkif r,fvkd@
a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd awmif;qdw
k m[m “rcd;k wJo
h u
l kd aemifrcd;k awmh
ygbl;”vdk@ twif;0efcHcdkif;wmeJ@ wlaeygw,f? wu,fawmh (etz)&JŒ
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wu,f a wmh
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(etz)&J Πjynf o l @ qef @ usif a &;
xJ a&mufae+yDjzpfwJh pGyfpGJcsufjzpf
vkyf&yfawG
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r&dSawmhbl;qdk&if æ
u u|ef ; Ed k i f i H u av;wck j zpf w J h
udyfAm'D&JΠ0ef}uD;csKyfu tJovkd

59

'%fcwf ta&;,lr_a=umifh jrefrmjynfu
aiG(100)qHk;±_H;&if (etz)u (95)qHk;±_H;+yD;
jynfolu(5)om qHk;±_H;wmjzpfygw,f

ajymwJh EdkifiHacgif;aqmifawGudk “usaemfwkd@wawG udkvdkeD
vufatmufu vGwfajrmufvmcJ=h uwm &mpkEpS f w0ufavmuf
&do
S mG ;yg+yD? tck tcsed t
f xd Edik if pH ;D yGm;a&; rwd;k wufvm wm[m
acgi;f aqmifawG&ŒJ t&nftaoG; nhzH si;f r_a=umifyh g? udv
k ekd D tarG
qdk;qdkwmudk v$Jcsraeoifhawmhygbl;”vdk@ a0zefaxmufjycJhyg
w,f?
pD;yGm;a&;'%fcwfydwfqkd@ ta&;,lr_&J@ '%fudk t"du
cHpm;&wmu jynfolawGygqdkwJh pum;udkvnf; usaemf vufrcH
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atmif vHk;0OoHk csKyfudkifxm;wmu (etz)ppftkyfpkeJ@ ol@&JŒ
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(Targetted Sanction)om jzpfwJhtwGuf tJ'Dta&;,lr_ '%f
udk trsm;qHk;cH&wmu (etz)udk,fpm; tvkyfvkyfay;ae=uwJh
ukr`%D}uD;awG/ b%f}uD;awGom jzpfygw,f? jynfolvlxkudk
rxdbl;vkd@awmh rqdkvkdygbl;? '%fcwf ta&;,lr_a=umifh jrefrm
jynfu aiG(100)qHk;±_H;&if (etz)u (95)qHk;±_H;+yD; jynfolu
(5)om qHk;±_H;wmjzpfygw,f? oef;acgifxuf nOfhreufawmhwJh
jref r mjynf o l a wG t zk d @ awmh “rD ; yk H x J u vl a&aEG ; yl a vmif
oavmufom” &dSwmrkd@ xl;+yD; rylawmhygbl;? Õ

60
ar; ?
? a'gufwmZmenfwkd@/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠudk,fa&;
t&m&dSjzpfcJhzl;wJh rod*ô wkd@u '%fcwfydwfqkd@r_ ta&;,lr_awGu
(etz)udk oabmxm;ajymif;vJvmatmif rvkyfEdkifcJhygbl;vkd@
ajymae=uw,f? olwkd@tckrSbma=umifh tJovdk ajymae=uwmvJ?

ajz ?
? 'gqdk&if tmqD,Htygt0if tcsKdŒaomEdkifiHawG usifh
oHk;ae=uwJh acsmharmh ESpfodrfhazsmif;jza&;rl0g' (appeasement
policy)ua&m tvkyfjzpfcJhovm;vkd@ usaemfwkd@ ar;&r,f? tck
xdrSm tJ'Denf;vrf;ESpfckpvHk;u ay:vGifjrifomwJh &v'fwckckudk
rxkwv
f yk f ay;Edik af o;bl;qdw
k m ESpzf ufpvH;k u 0efc&H ygr,f? 'gqkd
&if enf;vrf;ESpcf pk vk;H &JΠrSm;Ekid /f rSeEf ikd af jcu &mckid Ef e_ ;f ig;q,fpv
D @kd
ajym&rSmaygh? 'DtajctaerSm “usifh0wfp&%w&m;”udk xnfh
oGi;f pOf;pm;wJt
h cg b,fenf;vrf;udk oH;k oifo
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zdtm;rygbJ ol@tvdktavsmuf apwem o'<gayguf+yD; jynfolukd
vGwfvyfr_ tyfESif;oGm;cJhwJh tm%m&Siftpkd;& wckrS ray:cJhzl;bl;
qdkwmudk awG@&rSmyg? taumif;qHk; Oyrmwckuawmh awmif
tmz&du EdkifiHygyJ?
trSefu pD;yGm;a&;t& '%fcwfydwfqkd@
ta&;,lr_jyKvkyfwJh enf;vrf;u rSm;,Gif;wJh enf;
urBmhorkdif;udk jyef=unfh&if
vrf;r[kwfygbl;? (etz)vdk tpdk;&rsdK;[m '%f
Ed k i f i H w um&J @
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k yfwhJ tpd;k &rsKd ;
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yg? vdkaewmu urBmhEdkifiHwdkif; txl;ojzifh tdrfeD;
zd t m;rygbJ
csif; EdkifiHawGtaeeJ@ tJ'DtcsufudkvufcH+yD; yg0if
ol @ tvd k t avsmuf
yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufvm=uzkd@yJ jzpfygw,f? jrefrm
apwem o'< g ayguf + yD ;
EdkifiHu vkyftm;eJ@ o,HZmw t&if;tjrpfawGudk
jynfolukd
atmufaps;eJ@ tacsmifEu
d_ af ewmudk wjcm;olawG
vGwfvyfr_ tyfESif;oGm;cJhwJh
owdrjyKrdatmif '%fcwfydwfqkd@ ta&;,lr_[m
tm%m&S i f t pk d ; &wck r S
rSm;w,fv@dk odo}d uD;eJ@ usm;usm;rD;,yf atmf[pf
ray:cJ h z l ; bl ;
ae=uzkd@ roifhygbl;? tJ'Dvdk vkyfae=uwJh jrefrm&JŒ
tdref ;D csi;f Edik if aH wG[m rD;yHw
k ckukd ta0;uvlawG

61

ordkif;rSm vlxkqEN yifra&pD;udk
qef@usifol rSefor# jynfol&JΠ'%fcwfr_udkcH&+yD;
orkdif;&JŒ a&ykyftdkifxJrSm æ

vmr+idrf;Edkifatmif 0kdif;umay;xm;=uwJh vlawGeJ@ wlaeygw,f? olwkd@
tJ'Dvdk vkyfaejcif;jzifh wae@us&if tJ'DvlawG[m tJ'DrD;yHk&JŒrD; olwkd@udk
yg ul;pufavmifu|rf;wJh'%fudk rkcscH=u&ygvdrfhr,f?
(etz)tay: taemufEikd if }H uD;awGu '%fcwfyw
d q
f @dk ta&;
,lr_awG vkyfaewm rSm;w,f? tJ'gudk jyef±kyfodrf;ay; oifhw,fvkd@
a'guw
f mZmenfw@dk v/kd rod*w
ô @dk vv
kd al wGu bma=umifah jymae=uovJ
qdw
k meJ@ ywfouf+yD;ajym&&if olw@dk &ŒJ &nf&,
G cf suf tppftrSeu
f akd wmh
usaemfvnf; rodygbl;? rSef;q=unfh&ifawmh tajzESpfck &dSEdkifygw,f?
wckuawmh olw@dk [m jrefrmjynf&ŒJ Edik if aH &;udk ajcajcjrpfjrpf em;rvnf
vk@d / jrefrmjynf ppftm%m&Sipf epf&ŒJ obm0udk eufeuf±id_ ;f ±_id ;f oabm
raygufvkd@ jzpfEdkifygw,f? aemufwckuawmh tJ'D awmif;qdkr_rSm
olwkd@&JΠudk,fusdK;pD;yGm;wckck yg0ifaewm jzpfEdkifygw,f? 'gudkawmh
twdtusrodwJhtwGuf usaemfpGyfpGJwJh oabmrsdK; rajymcsifygbl;?
yxrtcsufa=umifh jzpfzkd@rsm;w,fvkd@yJ ajymcsifygw,f?
'gayr,fh olwkd@vdk vlrsdK;awGudk usaemf wu,fhapwem
trSefeJ@ ajymcsifwJh pum;wcGef;awmh &dSw,f? arwWmeJ@ay;wJh owday;
csufwckvkd@ qdkEdkifygw,f? ,lvdku,l/ r,lvdku v$ifhypfwmuawmh
olwkd@ udpPyg? tJ'guawmh ordkif;rSm vlxkqEN yifra&pD;udk qef@usifol
rSefor# jynfol&JΠ'%fcwfr_udkcH&+yD; orkdif;&JΠa&ykyftdkifxJrSm 0yfusef
&pfcJh &avh&dSw,fqdkwJh ed,mr w&m;wckygyJ?
Õ

62
ar; ?

? (etz)u toHus,fus,feJ@ t+rJ
ajymavh&dSwJhpum; wck&dSw,f? tJ'guawmh
ol w k d @ t&if b,f t pd k ; &urS rvk y f E d k i f c J h w J h
wdkif;&if;om; vufeufudkif tzGJ@trsm;tjym;eJ@
+idr;f csr;f a&;&,lwhJ tvkyu
f kd olw@dk vkyEf ikd cf w
hJ ,f
qdkwJh pum;yJ/ tJ'Dpum;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; cifAsm;
tjrifudk ajymygOD;?

ajz ?
? pma&;q&m}uD;yg&*l bmomjyefwJh “[dawmya'o qdkwJh pmtkyfxJrSm (rdwf
zG@J cef;)qdw
k hJ tcef;wcef; ygw,f? tJ't
D cef;rSm tiftm;}uD;wJ&h efou
l kd &ifqikd w
f u
kd cf u
kd Ef ikd f
zk@d twGuf tjcm;olrsm; (tJ'x
D rJ mS rdred @J &efzufjzpfczhJ ;l olrsm;yif yg0ifw,f)eJ@ rsm;Edik o
f r#
rsm;rsm; r[mrdwfzGJ@+yD; rdrd&efoludk txD;usefjzpfatmif vkyf&r,fqdkwJh oabmw&m;
wckudk azmfjyxm;w,f?
jrefrmEdkifiH&JΠjynfwGif;ppftwGif; oaE<wnfcJh+yD; (1950)jynfhvGefp ESpfawGrSm
arG;zGm;vmcJu
h m (1958)rSm 0wfpjkH ynfh tprf;avhusichf +hJ yD; (1962)rSm yGx
J u
G cf u
hJ m (1974)
rSm tarG;tawmifpHkvifcJhwJh ppftm%m&Sifpepf[m &Spfav;vHk; ta&;awmfyHk}uD; rwdkifrD
txd b,fvdk avmufavmufvm;vm; +yKdifzufrsdK;eJ@rS &ifqdkifcJh&zl;wm r[kwfygbl;? tJ'D
umvtwGif; ppftkyfpk&JΠtajctaeu omom,m,mvkd@ qkd&ygr,f? wkdif;&if;om;
vufeufudkiftzGJ@awG qkdwmuvnf; olwkd@vlrsdK;pk tcGifhta&;twGufom wdkufyGJ0ifae
=uwmyg? olwkd@ ukvm;xdkifudk v_yfEdkifajc&dSwJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudkvnf; yJcl;±kd;reJ@
jrpf0u|ef;ay:pwJh tajccHa'oawGu armif;xkwf+yD; ta&S@ajrmufydkif; e,fpyfem;udk wGef;
ykd@xm;EdkifcJhyg+yD? jynfwGif;u twdkuftcHawGeJ@ wdk;wufwJh tawG;tac:&dSwJh ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifawGudkvnf; xdxdrdrd EdSyfuGyfxm;EdkifcJh+yD;yg+yD?
tJ'DatmifyGJawGa=umifh ukd,fhudk,fudk ,Hk=unfpdwf tjynfht0&dSaecsdefrSm ppf
tkyfpk[m &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;eJ@ ezl;awG@'l;awG@ &ifqdkifvkduf&wm jzpfygw,f?
'gawmifrS ppftkyfpk[m &Spfav;vHk;udk (70)ckESpfawGu ay:aygufcJhzl;wJh ta&;tcif;awG
vdkyJ xif+yD; pOf;pm;vkd@&or# Om%feDOm%feufaygif;pHk toHk;jyK+yD; acsr_ef;tEdkif,lzkd@ }udK;
yrf;cJhao;wmyg? 'gayr,fh jynfolvlxk&JΠtiftm;eJ@ wkH@jyefr_u olwkd@xifxm;wmxuf
tqrwef ydkrdk}uD;rm;jyif;xefwJhtwGuf ppftkyfpk[m jynfolawG&JŒqEN wckjzpfwJh ygwDpHk
pepfudk vdkufavsmay;cJh&ygw,f? tJovdkrwwfomvkd@ jynfol@qENwckudk vdkufavsm
ay;vdkuf&ayr,fh ol@&JΠae0ifcsdefteH@udk &ae+yDjzpfwJh ppftkyfpk[m a&G;aumufyGJ usif;y
r,fh&ufukd wwfEdkifor# tcsdefqGJ+yD;rS a=unmcJhygw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSm twdkuftcH

63
tiftm;pkawGudkvnf; enf;vrf;aygif;pHkoHk;+yD; EdSyfuGyfcJhygw,f? wcsdef
wnf;rSm 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pkawG nD!w
G pf nf;vH;k vk@d r&atmif? rJawG
uGo
J mG ;+yD; tJ'g&ŒJ tusKd ;quftjzpf olw@dk tm%mudk qufvuf xde;f
csKyfxm;Edkifatmif enf;vrf;aygif;pHkoHk;+yD; }udK;yrf;cJhygw,f?
'gayr,fh tm;vHk;od=uwJh twdkif;ygyJ? jrefrmjynfolvlxk
}uD;&JΠrarhravsmh rayghrvpfaom owda=umifh a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;rSm
ppftyk pf &k ŒJ ar#mv
f ifch sut
f m;vH;k a&pkeaf rsmoGm;cJ+h yD; (NLD)[m jrefrm
jynfolawG&JΠwcJeufaxmufcH qENeJ@twl jrefrmEdkifiHudk w&m;0if
udk,fpm;jyKcGifh&&dSwJh tzGJ@}uD;tjzpfokd@ a&muf&SdoGm;cJhygawmhw,f?
tJ'rD mS wif ajcrudik rf d vufrudik rf jd zpfomG ;wJh ppftyk pf [
k m
jrefrmjynfolwkd@&JΠw&m;0ifudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfoGm;wJh (NLD)udk &if
qdkifEdkifzkd@ pOf;pm;vkd@&or# enf;vrf;aygif;pHkudk oHk;+yD;pwif }udK;yrf;yg
awmhw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkif tzGJ@awGeJ@ +idrf;csrf;a&;&,lEdkifcJh
w,fqdkwm tJ'D}udK;yrf;r_&JΠtusdK;qufwckom jzpfygw,f?
(1963)ckESpfwkef;uvnf; Adkvfae0if;[m +idrf;csrf;a&; aqG;
aEG;yGJ qdw
k mudk ac:,lusi;f y+yD; awmfveS af &; tiftm;pkawGukd xde;f csKyf
Edkifzkd@ }udK;pm;cJhzl;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dwkef;uawmh ppftkyfpk[m tck
vdk (Edik if aH &;t&) aoaumifaygi;f vJ tajctaersKd ;rSm r±SLEkid rf u,fEikd f
vkyfcJh&wm r[kwfygbl;? tJ'Dwkef;u ppftkyfpk[m EdkifiHa&;t&a&m/
ppfa&;t&yg twdu
k t
f cHe@J awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkawGtay: tompD;
&aewJh taetxm;uae aqG;aEG;yGJjyKvkyfcJhwmrkd@ aqG;aEG;yGJrSm ol@
bufu bmwckrS r,fr,f&& ay;cJhwm r&dSygbl;? 'ga=umifhvnf; +idrf;
csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJ vmwufwJhtzGJ@ (13)ckxJu apm[efwmomar$;
acgif;aqmifwJh (KRC)tzGJ@ wzGJ@wnf;om ppftpdk;&eJ@ ajyvnfr_&+yD;
vufeufcscJhwm jzpfygw,f?
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tzGJ@eJ@ em&D0ufyJ aqG;aEG;+yD; ajyvnfr_r&bJjyefoGm;cJhw,fvkd@ aemuf

64
ykdif; Adkvfae0if;&JΠrdef@cGef;wckrSm
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awGukd wnf&cSd iG ahf y;&r,f qdw
k mjzpfygw,f? tJ'D awmif;qkcd suaf wGukd =unfh
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vkd@ qdk&ygvdrhfr,f?
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65
jrefrmppftkyfpk udk,fwdkifu bdef;"m;jyqdkwJh emr0daooewyf+yD; ac:
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wma=umifh wu,fhtESpfom&u +idrf;csrf;a&; &oGm;=uwmr[kwfbJ
typftcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsufawG &xm;=uwmom jzpfyg
w,f?
rltm;jzifh typftcwf&yfpJa&;qdkwm +idrf;csrf;a&;qDokd@ OD;
wnfwJh tqifhwqifhvkd@ qdkEdkifayr,fh jrefrmjynfu typftcwf&yfpJ
a&; oabmwlncD suaf wGuawmh wcsed cf sed rf mS aocsmaygux
f +yD; ayguf
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&yfpaJ &;&&dcS w
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wyfrawmfeJ@ywfoufwJh Oya'zGifhqdkcsufawGa=umifh jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DtajccHOya'xJrSm wyfrawmf[m wckwnf;aom vuf
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vkyfzkd@ &dSaewJh (2010)a&G;aumufyGJ +yD;aemuf umvwckckrSm tJ'Dcsdef
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tae=umoG m ;cJ h + yD
jzpfygw,f?

jzpf v k d @ ygyJ

66

'DESpf arvtwGif; jynfolvlxk&JΠaxmufcHqENrJ (90) &mckdif
E_ef;ausmfeJ@ twnfjyKcJhw,fqdkwJh tajccH Oya'qdkwm[m cJrl;aph}uD;
jzpfw,fqdkwmudk jrefrmjynfolawG/ urBmhjynfolawG od=uovdk tJ'D
Oya'eJ@ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; tygt0if b,fjy\emudkrS rajz&Sif;Edkif
bl;qdkwmudkvnf; (etz)u odygw,f?
'gjzifh bma=umifh (etz)u 'Dvrf;udyk J ZGww
f ;kd +yD; av#mufae
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awG ±kduf+yD; rsufpdpHkvHk;uef;aewJh (etz)tzkd@ &SOfhvnf;av#mufom
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tarSmifurBmxJ tae=umoGm;cJh+yD jzpfvkd@ygyJ? ('Dta=umif;udk aemuf
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odaewJh jrefrmppftkyfpk[m tjcm;tjcm;aom udpPrsm;pGmwkd@vdkyJ
“+idrf;tzGJ@”awGudpPudkvnf; “aemifcgvm aemifcgaps;” oabmrsdK;
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k ma&m[m jrefrmjynfoal wGe@J Edik if H
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wyg;jzpfw,f r[kwfygvm;?
Õ

67
ar; ?
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ay;ae=uwJh Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifawGxu
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vufrcHcJh=ubl;? tck ESpf ESpfq,f&dSvm+yD? 'Drdkua&pD r&
ao;bl;? 'Dtcsed rf mS wcsKŒd u tJ'J w
D ek ;f u a'guw
f marmifarmif
urf;vSrf;wmudk acgif;aqmiftm;vHk;u wnDwnGwfwnf;
vufccH =hJ u&if tckvkd cufc=J urf;wrf;wJh c&D;&Sn}f u;D udk av#muf
vSrf;cJh&rSm r[kwfbl;vkd@ aemifw&wJh avoHeJ@ ajymae=u
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awGu rSefcJhwmvm;?
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ta=umif;jycsuaf wGxu
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qdw
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zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif&r,fh ygwDawGu b,fvdk ,SOf+yKdifEdkifrSmvJ?

68
tajccHOya'xJrmS ygwhJ “rqv onf Edik if aH wmf. wckwnf;aom OD;aqmifygwjD zpfonf”
qdkwJh yk'frudk jzKwfy,fvkduf±kHeJ@ (26)ESpfvkH;vkH; (rqv)ukyfwG,fxm;cJhwJh tjrpfawGudk
jzKwfy,fEdkifwm r[kwfygbl;? 'ga=umifh a'gufwmarmifarmif&JΠurf;vSrf;csufu (26)ESpf
om;eJ@ (3)vom; vlESpfa,mufudk }udK;0dkif;xJxnfh+yD; xkd;ckdif;ovdk jzpfaeygw,f? 'gu
wcsufyg?
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w&dyf&dyf jrifhwufvmcsdefrSm tJ'DtkyfpkbmawG vkyfcJhovJqdkwm jrefrmjynfolvlxk
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cJh&mrSm tkyfcsKyfa&;ysufaewJh umvrSm jzpfwwfwJh xHk;pHtwdkif; tvGeftu|HawG &dScJhwm
rSefayr,fh vlxk&J@ tJ'Da'gorD;v#HxJrSm usdK;a=umif;cdkifvHkr_ wpdwfwydkif; &dSaew,fqdkwm
udkawmh qifjcifwHkw&m;&dSolwdkif; 0efcH=u&rSmyg?
t&Sif;qHk;uawmh tJ'Dtkyfpk&JΠ(1988)pufwifbm (18)&ufae@aemufykdif;
vkyf&yfawGygyJ? tJ'Dae@uae 'Duae@txd tJ'Dnpfywfacgif;rmtkyfpk[m &Spfav;vHk;
ta&;awmfyHktwGif; 'Drkdua&pDawmif;qdkcJh=uolawGtay: b,fvdkjyKrl qufqHcJhovJ?
'gawGuakd wmh cifAsm;&JŒar;cGe;f awGuakd jzwJt
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xyfrajymawmhygbl;?
tJ'Dawmh a'gufwmarmifarmif&JŒ
urf;vSrf;csufudk,fE_dufu tm;enf;aewJh
ay;xm;csu/f npfywfacgi;f rmtkypf &k ŒJ ta&;
a'guf w marmif a rmif [ m
awmfyHktwGif;eJ@ aemufydkif;umv vkyf&yf
ol p mtk y f } uD ; wtk y f a &;+yD ;
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tao;pdwf zGifhqdkcJhzl;wJh
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jynfolawGtwGuf tusdK;jzpfxGef;zkd@ tvm;
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bma=umif h v J æ
w,fqdk&if a'gufwmarmifarmif[mvnf;
trSefwu,fyJ tm%mtjynfht0 &SdwJh

69

tajccH O ya'qd k w m
bk&m;ocifu a&;qGJjyXmef;wm r[kwfbl;?
vlawGu a&;qGJjyXmef;wmom jzpfw,f?
'ga=umifh vdktyf&if ajymif;vdk@/ jyifvdk@&w,f

orRw jzpfw,fq&kd if olurf;vSr;f oifw
h mu (3)vtwGi;f vkyaf y;r,fqkd
wJh a&G;aumufyJG r[kwyf gb;l ? (rqv)eJ@ vlxak cgi;f aqmifawG ESpzf ufpvH;k
yg0ifwJh ppfrSefwJh =um;jzwftpdk;&w&yf zGJ@pnf;ay;a&;om jzpfygw,f?
tJ'grsdK; vkyfzkd@udpP[m tajccHOya'eJ@ rnDbl;vkd@ a'gufwmarmifarmifu
ta=umif;jyygw,f? EdkifiHudk vlrsdK;jcm;awGvufatmufu vGwfajrmuf
atmif ±ke;f uefwu
kd yf 0JG ifc=hJ uwJh acgi;f aqmifawGe@J wdik ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmif
awG cufcufcJcJ nd‡E_dif;a&;qGJ twnfjyK jyXmef;cJh=u&wJh (1947)tajccH
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(orRw)qko
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raumif;bl;vm;? tajccHOya'eJ@ rnDvdk@ =um;jzwftpdk;& zGJ@ray;Edkifygbl;
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a&;+yD; tao;pdwf zGiq
hf ckd zhJ ;l wJh (1947)tajccHOya'udk Akv
d af e0if; ppfzed yfe@J
eif;acswkef;u uef@uGufwJh toHav;wckavmufawmif rxGufcJhwm
bma=umifhvJ? ruef@uGufwJhtjyif bkef;awmfbGJ@ pmtkyf}uD;wtkyf a&;+yD;
awmhawmif Adkvfae0if;udk csD;ajr‡mufcJhao;w,f r[kwfvm;?
wu,fawmh tajccHOya'qdkwm bk&m;ocifu a&;qGJjyXmef;
wm r[kwb
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k yf
&if ajymif;vdk@/ jyifvdk@&w,fqdkwm Oya'udk ta&udsK aomufxm;wJh
a'gufwmarmifarmif rodwm r[kwfygbl;? wu,fvkd@ 'gav;udkawmifrS
rodb;l qk&d ifvnf; a'guw
f marmifarmif[m t*wdw&m;(4)yg;xJu wyg;
yg; 'grSr[kwf wyg;xufydkwJh t*wdw&m;awG&JΠzkH;v$rf;jcif; cHae&vkd@yJ
jzpfygvdrfhr,f?
Õ

70
ar; ? ? &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD; 'Da&tjrifhqHk;csdefrSm vlxkacgif;
aqmiftrsm;pk (tm;vH;k eD;yg;)awmif;qdak e=uwmu =um;jzwf tpd;k &jzpfw,f?
'gayr,fh pufwifbmv(18)&ufae@rmS tm%modr;f +yD;wufvmwJh (e0w)u
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tJ'Dacgif;aqmifawG[m =um;jzwftpdk;&awmif;qdkcsufudk pGef@v$wf+yD;
a'gufwmarmifarmif urf;vSrf;wkef;u vufrcHcJh=uwJh a&G;aumufyGJqdkwmudk
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csuf rcdkifrmr_udk jyowJhoufao wckvm;?
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avsmnDaxG&dSwJh &yfwnfcsufukd ajymif;vJcsrSwfcJhwm jzpfwJhtwGuf rSefw,fvkd@
qdkEdkifygw,f?
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armifarmif vufxufrSm ppfwyfudk (rqv)ygwD0if tjzpfu &yfpJvdkufwJhtwGuf
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l x
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rSm b,fbufrS rvdkufwJh =um;aetiftm;pktjzpf &dSaecJhwmjzpfw,f?

71

(rqv)udk umuG,fzkd@ wufvma=umif;
xif & S m ;ay:vG i f a ewJ h
(e0w)[m a&S @ av#muf v nf ;
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tcsufudk awG;rd=uayr,fh
vl x k a cgif ; aqmif a wG [ m æ
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ajymif;vJoGm;cJh+yDjzpfw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm ppfwyf[m jynfolvlxkudk axmifeJ@csD
owfjzwf+yD; (rqv)bufrSm ajymifajymifwif;wif; &yfwnfvdkufwJh tae
txm;udk a&muf&dSoGm;cJh+yD jzpfw,f? (e0w)wufvmjcif;[m jynfolvlxk
tusdK;pD;yGm;eJ@ qef@usifw,fqdkwm vlxkacgif;aqmif tm;vHk;u od=uygw,f?
'gayr,fh tJ't
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bJ vdycf w
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aumufyGJ &yfwnfcsufudk ajymif;vJudkifpGJcJh=uwm jzpfygw,f? (e0w)u
npfenf;aygif;pHkeJ@ npfaewJh=um;u (90)a&G;aumufyGJrSm jynfolawG&JΠqEN
tppftrSefudk w&m;0if azmfxkwfEdkifcJhwmudk =unfh&if tJ'Dvkd &yfwnfcsuf
ajymif;vJcJhwm[m rrSm;a=umif; od&dSEdkifygw,f? Õ

72
ar; ?
? vlxkacgif;aqmifawG[m tJ'Dwkef;u cifAsm;ajymcJhovdk
&yfwnfcsuf ajymif;vJudkifpGJcJh=uw,f? 'gayr,fh tckawmh olwkd@
(NLD)eJ@ tjcm;aom 'Dru
kd a&pD acgi;f aqmifrsm;[m (90)a&G;aumufyJG
&v'fudkyJ rvGwfwrf; qkyfudkifxm;=u+yD; (etz)&JΠ(2010) a&G;
aumufyGJ qdkwmudk qef@usifae=uw,f? tJ'gu b,fvdk jzpfwmvJ?
olwkd@rSm ajymif;vG,fjyifvG,f &dSr_ r&dSawmhbl;vm;?
ajz ?
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jzwfxm;+yD;+yDqdkygawmh? tJ'Dawmifxdyfudk wufwJhae&mrSm cifAsm;[m ig
awmifbufuyJ wufr,f? 'grSr[kwf ajrmufbufuyJ wufr,fvkd@ ydkif;
jzwfp&m vkdovm;? b,fbufuyJ jzpfjzpf tqiftajyqHk; jzpfr,fhbufu
wufrmS yJ r[kwv
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ajymif;vG,f jyifv,
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vG,jf yifv,
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vsm;vsm; qef@usifbufygyJ? bma=umifh 'Dvdkajym&ovJ?
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toufaxmifaygif;rsm;pGmudk owfjzwf+yD; tm%m&,lcJhwJh tpdk;&w&yfu
vkyaf y;cJ&h wJh tnpftax; tpGe;f txif;aygi;f rsm;pGmeJ@ npfywfayusaH ecJh
wJh a&G;aumufyw
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Edik if w
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J mwJh ta=umif;a=umif;awGa=umifh

73
(e0w)u zGifhay;cJh&wJh vGwfvyfr_ rqdkpavmufukd jynfolvlxku
tjynfht0 t&,l+yD; rdrdwkd@&JΠppfrSefwJh tonf;=um;u rJwjym;udk
toHk;csEdkifcJhwJh a&G;aumufyGJrkd@ tJ'Da&G;aumufyGJu xGufay:vmcJhwJh
&v'f[m jynfolvlxk&JΠqENudk tjynfht0eD;yg; xif[yfcJhwJh &v'fjzpf
ygw,f?
(2010)a&G;aumufyJG qdw
k muawmh tm;vH;k od=uwJt
h wkid ;f
ygyJ? (90)a&G;aumufyGJ+yD;csdefupvkd@ jynfolawGeJ@ jyefqHkr,fhvrf;
r&dSawmhwJh rdrdwkd@tjzpfudk oabmaygufoGm;r_eJ@twl “ighavSigxdk;/
ighjrif;igpdkif;”vrf;udk ZGwfwdk;av#muf&if; =umav aemufjyefvSnfh r&
avjzpf+yD; rsufuef;wap>ra=umuf a&G;cs,fcJhwJh
jynfolqef@usifa&; vrf;yg? (2010)a&G;aumufyGJ
[m jynfolvlxk&JΠqENudk (wenf; ajym&&if)
(etz)tay:
(90) a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk t+yD;wkdif acszsufypfzkd@
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h mudk
=unfh&if tJ'Dacgif;aqmifawG[m 'Dvdkurf;vSrf;Edkifatmif b,favmuf

74

ememusifusif cufcufcJcJ }udK;yrf;cJh=u&w,fqdkwmudk rSef;q=unfh
Edik yf gw,f? 'gayr,fh tm;vH;k od=uwJt
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acgi;f aqmifawG&@J txGÉt
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urf;vSrf;csufudkawmif y,fcscJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'D urf;vSrf;r_udk
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zdpD;aewJh w%Sm/ b,meJ@ rme/ ta=umufeJ@ rmefrmeqdkwJh arm[
w&m;ok;H yg;&J@ xkxnfyrm% b,favmuf }uD;rm;w,fqw
kd t
hJ csuf
ay:vGifaeygw,f? Õ

75

ar; ?

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jcif; xkd;vkd@&ygvdrfhr,f? tawG@t}uKH ºuG,f0jcif;[m aumif;csD;r*Fvm
wyg; jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Daumif;csD;r*Fvm[m trSefw&m;eJ@
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tpGJuif;uif;eJ@ avhvmaeolrsm;taeeJ@ tJ'Da&;om;ajzqdkcsufawG
xJrSm ocifwifjr&JΠrGefjrwfoef@pifwJh apwemudk awG@Ekdifygw,f?

76
'gayr,fh tJ'Dta=umif;a=umifheJ@awmh ocifwifjr&JŒ
&yfwnfcsuf[m jynfol@qENudk udk,fpm;jyKaew,fvkd@ vHk;0
rajymEdkifygbl;? “apwemaumif;”eJ@ “trSefw&m;”[m tcgcyf
odrf; xyfwluswm r[kwfygbl;? wGufenf;rSm;&if b,fawmhrS
tajzrSef r&Edkifygbl;? +yD;cJhwJh vlxkqENcH,lyGJrSm olwkd@&JΠtajccH
Oya'udk jynfolvlxk (90µ)ausmfu axmufcHcJhw,fqdkwJh
(etz)&JΠpum;udk bk&m; E_wfuywfawmftvm; udk;um;+yD;
ajymqdkaewJh ocifwifjr[m vuf&dSacwfjrefrmhorkdif;&JΠtajz
rSefudk b,fawmhrS&SmawG@rSm r[kwfbl;vkd@yJ usaemf ajymyg&ap?
cifAsm;&JŒar;cGe;f xJu vlx&k ŒJ oabmxm;tjriftay:
tawmftoifh=oZmanmif;wJh vlwcsKdŒqdkwm b,folawGudk
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pdk;&drfrdw,fvkd@yJ ajymyg&ap?
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D n
S ;f ay:rSm vuf&Sd (NLD)&JΠ&yfwnfcsut
f wdik ;f
&yfwnfae=uwJh ud,
k pf m;vS,f
awGyJ ygoGm;rvm;? tJ'D yJh
xGut
f pkyJ ygomG ;rvm; qdw
k m
tajccH Oya'ud k
uk d a wmh zD ' ,f u yf p x±k d & J @
jynf o l v l x k ( 90µ)ausmf u
pum;twdkif;ajym&&if ordkif;
axmufcHcJhw,fqdkwJh (etz)&JŒpum;udk
uyJ tqH k ; tjzwf a y;ygvd r f h
bk&m; E_wfuywfawmftvm;
r,f?
udk;um;+yD; ajymqdkaewJh
udkat;vGifwkd@/
ocif w if j r[m
a'guf w mpd k ; vif ; wk d @ eJ @ ywf
vuf&dSacwfjrefrmhorkdif;&JŒ
oufvkd@ ajymygr,f? usaemf
tajzrSefudk b,fawmhrS &SmawG@rSm
wcgu ta0;ajy;um;*d w f
r[kwfbl;vkd@yJ æ
wckrSm xdkifaewkef; ±kd;om;EHkt
yHk&wJh v,form;jzpf[ef&dSwJh

77

rd r d & yf w nf c suf t ay: rd r d t cd k i f t rm
,Hk=unfolawGeJ@ rdrdudk,fudkrdrd
±kdaoav;pm;olawG[m b,fawmhrS
yHkrSm;±kdufavh r&dS=uygbl;?

vl}uD;wOD; ycHk;ay:rSm uufqufxnfhwJh puULAl;}uD;wck xrf;+yD;
0ifvmwmudk awG@vkduf&ygw,f? puULAl;ay:rSm ±kdufESdyfxm;wJh wHqdyf
u “National Panasonic” jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvl}uD;teD;a&mufvm
vkd@ puULAl;ay:u wHqdyfudk aemufw}udrfxyf+yD; aoaocsmcsm
*±kwpdkufzwf=unfhvkdufawmhrS wu,fhpmom;trSefu “ National
Parazonic” jzpfygw,f? ±k;d om;wJh awmolawmifom;awGe@J earmferJh
Edik o
f t
l m;vH;k udk vSnphf m;vdw
k hJ weyfpm;pD;yGm;a&; jzwfvrf;orm;awG
&JΠvkyf[efwckjzpfygw,f? tJ'Djzpf&yfuav;eJ@ }uKHvdkufwkef;u
usaemf udak t;vGief @J a'guw
f mpd;k vif;wk@d ukd zswcf eJ rsupf x
d jJ rifa,mif
vm+yD; +yKH;vdu
k rf yd gw,f? rdr&d yfwnfcsut
f ay: rdrt
d cdik t
f rm ,H=k unf
olawGe@J rdru
d ,
kd u
f rkd rd d ±kad oav;pm;olawG[m b,fawmhrS yHrk mS ;±ku
d f
avhr&dS=uygbl;?
(etz)&JΠtajccHOya'qdw
k meJ@ ywfouf+yD; xdik ;f Edik if t
H ajc
pdkuf jrefrmEdkifiHa&SŒaersm;aumifpDtwGif;a&;rSL; OD;atmifxl; &Sif;vif;
jycJhwmxuf ydk+yD; wdusyDjyifjywfom;atmif usaemf &Sif;jyEdkifawmhrSm
r[kwfygbl;? tJ'Dvdk tajccHOya'rsdK;udk r&dSwmxuf &dSwmydkaumif;
w,fvkd@ ajymae=uolawGudk usaemf ar;cGef;wckyJ ar;csifygw,f?
(1962)uae (1974)txd Adkvfae0if;[m awmfvSefa&;aumifpD
trnfe@J bmtajccHOya'rS r&db
S J wdik ;f jynfukd tkycf sKyfcw
hJ ,f? (1974)
uae (1988)txdudkawmh jynfaxmifpk qdk&S,fvpforRw jrefrmEdkifiH
awmftajccHOya'qdw
k meJ@ tkycf sKyfcw
hJ ,f? usaemf ar;csiw
f hJ ar;cGe;f u
(74-88)umv[m (62-74) umvxuf jrefrmjynfolawGtwGuf
ydkaumif;cJhygovm;qdkwJh ar;cGef;ygyJ?
Õ

78
ar; ?
? (2008)arvrSm jrefrmEdkifiH[m tzsufpGrf;tm; ±_axmifhu
=unfh&if ordkif;rSm r=um;bl;r}uKHbl;avmufatmif jyif;xefwJh em*pf
rkefwdkif;wdkufcwfwJh'%fukdcHcJh&+yD; &uftenf;i,ftwGif; EdkifiHwum
0ifa&mufulnDyg&apvkd@ urf;vSrf;cJhw,f? 'gayr,fh (etz)u tJ'Durf;
vSrf;csufawGudk jiif;y,fcJhw,f? usaemf ar;csifwmu tJ'Durf;vSrf;csuf
awGudk (etz)u bma=umifh y,fcscJhwmvJ?
tar&dueftpdk;&ua&m ppfoabFmawGeJ@rS bma=umifh 0ifcsif&
wmvJ? aemuf+yD; (etz)[m Zm*em/ aZmfoufaxG;/ atmifausmq
f ef;wk@d
tygt0if avab;ulnD u,fq,fa&;vkyfief;awGrSm a&S@wef;u yg0if
aqmif&GufaeolawGudk zrf;qD;cJhwm&JΠwu,fhta=umif;&if; trSefu
bmvJ?
olwkd@&JΠtJ'Dvkyf&yftm;vHk;[m rkefwdkif;'%fcHjynfolawGtay:
rpmemwJhtjyif &ufpufvGef;&m usvGef;w,fvkd@ EdkifiHwumu xifjrif
,lqoGm;rSmudk (etz)u rpdk;&drfbl;vm;?
ajz ?
? 'Dar;cGef;udk rajzcif cifAsm;taeeJ@ t&ifqHk; rjzpfrae
odxm;zkd@ vkdtyfwJhtcsufwcku (etz)&JΠvkyf&yftm;vHk;[m olwkd@
tm%mwnf+rJa&; tawG;tac:u vmwmjzpfw,fqw
kd hJ tcsuyf gy?J
tJ'D tawG;tac:udk wyfrufpGJvrf;r_/ ta=umufeJ@ rmefrme qdkwJh
arm[w&m; okH;yg;tay:rSm wnfaqmufxm;w,fqdkwmudk usaemf
a&SŒrSm ajymcJh+yD;+yD? wyfrufpGJvrf;r_qkdwmu olwkd@ rwefr&m &&Sdxm;
=uwJh tcGifhtm%meJ@ pnf;pdrfOpPmawGudk wyfrufpGJvrf; ae=uwm
jzpfw,f? ta=umufw&m;qdw
k mu olw@dk tm%m vufvw
G jf zpfomG ;
&if vlxku olwkd@udk vufwkH@jyef vufpm;acsrSmudk a=umufwmjzpf
w,f? rmefrmeqdkwmuawmh olwkd@tcktwdkif; “ighjrif;igpdkif; ighavS
igxdk;”wJh rl0g'udk rav#mhwrf; qkyfudkifxm;or# umvywfvHk; olwkd@
b,fawmhrS usqHk;p&mr&dSbl;? tckawmif jynfwGif;a&m jynfyrSmyg
bmwwfEdkifvkd@vJqdkwJh t,ltqjzpfw,f?

79
(etz)[m tjcm;tjcm;aom udpPrsm;rSmvdkyJ em*pfrSmvnf;
tJ'DtawG;tac:t& wkH@jyefcJhwmjzpfw,f? EdkifiHwum&JΠurf;vSrf;r_udk
vufrcHwmu rdrdtkyfcsKyfwJh jynfolawGudk tarSmifxJrSmyJ xm;vdkwJh tm
%m&Siaf wG&ŒJ obm0twdik ;f Edik if w
H um tzG@J tpnf;awG jrefrmjynfoal wG
eJ@ wdkuf±kdufxdawG@+yD; jynfolawG&JŒ b0eJ@ cHpm;csufawG t,ltq tawG;
tjrifawGudk jrifawG@/ =um;od oGm;=urSmudk pdk;&drfw,f? aemufwcsufu
tm%m&Siftpdk;&awG&JΠxHk;pHtwdkif; jynfolawG&JΠb0ta&;t&mawG/ 0if
a&mufulnD=ur,fh EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;awG&JΠv_yf&Sm;r_awGudk tyfus
wmutp xdef;csKyfxm;csifw,f? 'gayr,fh em*pfuay;wJh '%f&m'%f
csufawG&JΠyrm%u olwkd@vnf; r}uKHzl; r=um;zl;avmufatmif jyif;xef
vGe;f vSwmrk@d Edik if w
H umtzG@J awGukd 0ifciG ahf y;vdu
k +f yDqw
kd meJ@ olw@dk pdww
f idk ;f
us xdef;csKyfzkd@ rvG,fbl;qdkwmudkvnf; olwkd@ odaew,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'D
urf;vSrf;csufudk yxrydkif;rSm tif;rv_yf tJrv_yfaecJh+yD; &uftawmfav;&
vmrS wdka&&Sm;a&eJ@ cGifhjyKcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
tar&dueftpdk;&u ppfoabFmawGeJ@rS 0ifcsif&wJh ta=umif;u
awmh &Sif;ygw,f? EdkifiHwdkif;rSm ppfwyfqdkwm taumif;qHk; avhusifhxm;wJh
tzGJ@tpnf;jzpf+yD; tJ'D tzGJ@tpnf; toHk;jyKaewJh vufeufud&d,m wef
qmyvmqdkwmawGuvnf; taumif;qHk;awGom jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
vnf; b,fEdkifiHrSmrqdk obm0ab;tE W&m,f wckckeJ@}uKH+yDqdk&if ppfwyf
uom a&SŒwef;u yg0ifulnDaqmif&Gufwmudk jrif=u&wmjzpfygw,f?
em*pfupd rP mS vnf; 'Dtwdik ;f ygy?J qlemrDwek ;f u oufqikd &f m Edik if t
H pd;k &awG
eJ@ ndE‡ id_ ;f yl;aygi;f +yD; 'kuo
Q nfawGukd tjrefq;kH eJ@ txda&mufq;kH ulncD o
hJ vdk
rsKd ; tar&duefppfwyf[m em*pf'%fcH jynfoal wGqD tjrefq;kH oGm;+yD; txd
a&mufqHk; ulnDzkd@}udK;yrf;cJhwmom jzpfygw,f? uyfab; u,fq,fulnD

80

a&$ 0 ga&mif a wmf v S e f a &;t+yD ; rS m ik y f v #d K ;oG m ;cJ h = u+yD ; em*pf t jzpf r S m
jynfolawG&JŒa0'emudk r=unfh&ufvkd@ jyefay:vmcJh=uwJh
ol & J a umif ; awG & J Πra=umuf r &G H Π&G y f & G y f c |H c |H trsm;tusd K ;jyK
aqmif&GufcsufawGa=umifh “vdyfjymEdk;” vmcJh=uwJhæ

a&; tawG@t}uKH ºuG,f0ae+yDjzpfwJh tar&duefppfwyfu u,fq,fa&;
aemufusavav jynfolawG ydk+yD; 'kuQa&mufavavjzpfr,f qdkwmudk
aumif;aumif; od&dSxm;vkd@vnf; (etz)qDrSm tJovdk tjrefqHk; 0if
a&mufulnDcGifh awmif;cHcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
tar&duef ppfwyf&JŒ tJ'Durf;vSrf;r_udk (etz) y,fcscJhr_&JŒ
ta=umif;&if;awGuawmh txufu EdkifiHwum tzGJ@tpnf;awGudpPrSm
wifjycJw
h t
hJ csuaf wGtjyif tar&duef ppfoabFmawGaemufu tar&duef
ppfwyf}uD;vdu
k v
f mavrvm;qdw
k hJ cyfyg;yg; ta=umufw&m;uwa=umif;/
olwkd@&JΠtar&duefqef@usifa&; pdwf"mwfcdkifrmyHkudk olwkd@&JΠt"du r[m
rdwf}uD; w±kwfudk jyovdkwmu wa=umif;wkd@yJ jzpfvdrfhr,fvkd@ xifyg
w,f?
Zm*emwkd@/ aZmfoufaxG;wkd@/ atmifausmfqef;wkd@tygt0if
avab;u,fq,fa&;udpaP wGrmS wufwufºuGºuG yg0if ulnaD qmif&u
G af e
olawGukd zrf;qD;cJw
h muawmh (etz)u wcsucf w
k f oH;k av;csujf ywf vdu
k f
wmjzpfygw,f? yxrqH;k tcsuu
f tJ'v
D al wGtm;vH;k [m Edik if aH &; tusO;f
om;a[mif;awG jzpf=uygw,f? wpfenf;ajym&&if (etz)u &efoltjzpf
owfrSwfxm;olawG jzpfygw,f? Zm*emqdk&if ol@&JΠa&'D,dk tifwmAsL;
awGa=umifh (etz)u +idK;aecJhwm =umyg+yD? txl;ojzifh (etz)[m ol@&JŒ
rif;om;acgif;aqmif;udk qGJc|wf+yD; rlvbDvl;±kyfoGifudk zGihfjyvdkufwJh “puf
wifbm a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;”udk tpysdK;ay;cJhol wa,muftjzpf
Zm*emudk “tjywfodrf;”zkd@ tuGufacsmif;aecJhygw,f? usefwJholawG[m
vnf; EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;a[mif;awG jzpf=u+yD; (etz)u &efoltjzpf
jyKrlqufqHjcif;udk cHcJh&olawGjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdk vlrsdK;awGu jynfol@
tusKd ;jyK vkyif ef;awGrmS wufwufºuGºuGyg0if aqmif&u
G af ejcif;u jrefrm

81

jynfoal wGe@J Edik if w
H umtodik ;f t0dik ;f &JΠtjrifrmS
(etz)udk rsufESmyef;rvS jzpfapygw,f? 'ghtjyif
tJ'DvlawGeJ@ a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&; t+yD;rSm
ikyfv#dK;oGm;cJh=u+yD; em*pftjzpfrSm jynfolawG&JŒ
a0'emudk r=unfh&ufvkd@ jyefay:vmcJh=uwJh ol&J
aumif;awG&JΠra=umufr&GHΠ&Gyf&Gyfc|Hc|H trsm;
tusdK;jyK aqmif&GufcsufawGa=umifh “vdyfjymEdk;”
vmcJh=uwJh jynfwGif;u yk*~vdu tpktzGJ@i,f
uav;rsm;udkvnf; (etz)[m =unfhr&jzpfae+yD;
vef@oGm;atmif +cdrf;ajcmuf [ef@wm;csifaewm
vnf; &dSygw,f? aemuf+yD; olwkd@ZGwfvkyfzkd@ &dSaewJh
(2010)a&G;aumufyGJ rwkdifrDrSmvnf; ql;ajimifh
cvkwf jzpfvmEdkifr,fh tJ'DvlawGudk wwfEdkifor#
z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;xm; csifygw,f? tJ'D&nf&G,fcsuf
awGa=umifh cifAsm;ajymwJholawG zrf;qD; xdef;odrf;
jcif;cHcJh&wm jzpfygw,f?
Õ

82
ar; ?
? cifAsm;pum;xJrSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;qdkwJh
tokH;tE_ef;udk =um;vdkuf&w,f? jynfwGif;jynfyu EdkifiH
a&;eJ@ vl@tcGifhta&; tzGJ@tpnf;awGua&m/ ukvor*~uyg
a':atmifqef;pk=unftygt0if EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk
tjrefqHk;eJ@ ¹cGif;csufr&dS v$wfay;zkd@ awmif;qdkae=uayr,fh
(etz)uawmh jref r mjynf r S m Ed k i f i H a &;tusOf ; om;
wa,mufrS r&dSbl;vkd@ t+rJ woHwnf; ajymaeygvm;? olwkd@
bma=umifh tJovkd ajymae=uwmvJ?
ajz ?
? ppfwyfukd toH;k jyKtm%modr;f cJ+h yD; wkid ;f jynfukd w&m;r0iftyk pf ;kd aewJh tpd;k &
wdkif; oHk;avh&dSwJh vufoHk;pum;wckygyJ? Adkvfae0if;&JΠawmfvSefa&;aumifpDeJ@ rqv
tpdk;& oufwrf;wav#mufrSmvnf; tJovdkyJ wGifwGifatmfcJh=uwmygyJ? 'gayr,fh
Edik if aH &; tjrwfxw
k zf @dk tcsed u
f sa&mufvm+yDv@dk olw@dk zmomolw@dk wGuq
f vmwJh tcgrsKd ;
awGrSm olwkd@xkwfjyefavh&dSwJh taxGaxG vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhqdkwJh txJrSm EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;vkd@ wkduf±kduf 0efrcHayr,fh tJ'DtusOf;om;awGeJ@ &mZ0wftusOf;om;awG
rwlb;l qdw
k mudk t"dyg` ,zf iG q
hf ckd suaf wG/ tJ't
D usO;f om;awGtay: pGq
J ckd w
hJ hJ yk'rf awGt&
cGJjcm;zGifhqdk+yD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;qdkwJh trsdK;tpm;&dSa=umif; wzufvSnfheJ@ 0efcH=uavh
&dSygw,f? (1980)ckESpfwkef;u xkwfjyefcJhwJh vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh trdef@udkavhvm=unfh&if
tJ'Dtcsufudk txift&Sm; jrifawG@EkdifrSm jzpfygw,f?
rdrw
d @dk Eikd if rH mS Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; r&db
S ;l vk@d tm%modr;f w&m;r0if tpd;k &awG
ajymae=uwm&JΠ&nf&,
G cf suu
f awmh Edik if rH mS Edik if aH &;jy\em r&db
S ;l qdw
k t
hJ csuf ay:vGif
apcsifvkd@ jzpfygw,f? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; &dSw,fqdkwm[m EdkifiHrSm EdkifiHa&; jy\em &dS
aew,fvkd@ 0efcHvdkuf&m a&mufygw,f? tm;vHk; od=uwJhtwdkif; 'Duae@acwfrSm EdkifiHa&;
qdkwm oabmxm;csif; rwlolawG=um; pm;yGJ0dkif;rSm n‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG; tav#mhtwif;vkyf
aphpyfwJhenf;vrf;eJ@ tajz&Sm=u&wJh udpPrsKd;yg? 'Dawmh 'grsKd;udk ukd,fwkdifu t"rRenf;eJ@
tiftm;oH;k tm%modr;f vmcJw
h hJ w&m;r0if tpd;k &awGu vkycf siw
f hJ qENvnf;r&d/S vkyEf ikd f
wJh pGrf;&nfvnf; r&dSygbl;? qENr&dSwmu EdkifiHa&; aqG;aEG;yGJ pwifvdkufwmeJ@ w+yKdifeuf
olwkd@&JΠw&m;r0ifwJhtjzpf xif;xif;}uD; ay:vGifoGm;wJh wcsdefwnf;rSm olwkd@ wif;jynfh
usyfjynfh qkyfudkifxm;wJh tm%mudk cGJa0ay;rS jzpfawmhr,fqdkwJh usdK;a=umif;qDavsmfr_
qdkif&m trSefw&m;eJ@ ezl;awG@'l;awG@ &ifqdkif&rSmudk pdk;&drfylyefwJhtwGuf jzpfygw,f?
pGr;f &nf r&dw
S muawmh t"rRenf; ok@d r[kwf trSew
f &m;udk ud,
k pf m;jyKjcif;r&dw
S hJ tiftm;
udk tm;udk;avh &dSolawGrSm tifrwefcufcJ±_yfaxG; El;nHhodrfarG@ euf±_dif;+yD; ESvHk;&nfudpP

83
oufoufomjzpfwhJ pm;yG0J ikd ;f awG@qn
Hk E‡d id_ ;f aqG;aEG;yGjJ zpfajrmuf taumiftxnf ay:vm
atmif vkyfaqmifEdkifpGrf; uif;rJhavh&SdwJh obm0a=umifhygyJ?
urBmay:u tm%modrf;tpdk;& tm;vHk;eD;yg;[m tm%mqkdwm vlxkqDu
tajccHw,fqw
kd hJ t,ltqudk ,H=k unfoal wG r[kwb
f J tm%mqdw
k m aoewfajymif;0
u qif;oufwmjzpfw,fqw
kd hJ t,ltqudk ,H=k unfoal wG jzpfygw,f? tJ'D obm0t&
olwkd@tjrifrSm EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJqdkwm wzufeJ@wzuf ^m%feD^m%feufeJ@ tusyfudkif
zdtm;ay;r_udk vdktyfovdk wvSnfhpDoHk;+yD; wzufu wzufudk tEdkif,lwJhupm;enf;
(lose or win Game)omjzpfygw,f? EkdifwJhvlu tukefvkH;&+yD; ±_H;wJhvlu wckrS r&wJh
tºuGif;oknupm;enf; (zero sum game)om jzpfygw,f? EdkifiHtusdK;twGuf wzufeJ@
wzuf apwemrSefrSefxm;+yD; tay;t,l tav#mhtwif;vkyf nd‡E_dif;appyfh tajz&SmwJh
aqG;aEG;yGrJ sKd ; (wenf;) ESpzf ufpvH;k u tEdik &f wJh upm;enf; ( win - win Game ) rsKd ;vnf;&dS
w,fqdkwm olwkd@em;vnfEdkifpGrf; r&Sd=uygbl;?
tm%m&SifawG[m tJ'DvdkrsdK; obm0&dSwJhtwGuf olwkd@tbd"mefrSm oabm
xm;rwlwhJ Edik if aH &; vkyaf zmfuikd zf ufqw
kd m r&dyS gb;l ? “vGwv
f yfpmG oabmxm; uGv
J cJG iG ”hf
“+idrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJaexkdifr_”qdkwmawGudk olwkd@yg;pyfu atmfcsifatmfaer,f?
'gayr,fh tJ'gawGukd olw@dk vH;k 0 t,Ht
k =unf r&dyS gb;l ? olw@dk trSew
f u,f ukid pf x
JG m;wJh
0g'u “ige@J rwl ig&h efo”l qdw
k hJ 0g'omjzpfygw,f? tJ'aD wmh olw@dk rmS Edik if aH &;aqG;aEG;zuf
qdw
k mvnf; r&dyS gb;l ? olw@dk rsupf x
d rJ mS Edik if aH &; aqG;aEG;yGv
J yk zf @dk awmif;qdo
k q
l w
kd m olw@dk
udk tm%myv†ifay:u wGef;csr,fh olawGomjzpfygw,f?
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csr,fh olawGtjzpfom jrifyg
w,f? Edik if aH umif; zk@d vkyaf ewJh
Ed k i f i H a &;orm;awG tjzpf
olwkd@rjrifEdkifygbl;? tJ'Dawmh
urB m ay:u tm%mod r f ; tpd k ; &
Ed k i f i H w umu rsuf p d a 'guf
tm;vH k ; eD ; yg;[m tm%mqk d w m
axmuf+yD; =unfhaewmukd cH
vlxkqDu tajccHw,fqdkwJh
ae&wJhtwGuf tJ'Dvdk vlrsdK;
t,ltqudk ,Hk=unfolawG r[kwfbJ
tm;vH k ; ud k axmif x J x nh f
tm%mqd k w m aoewf a jymif ; 0 u
rxm;Edkifayr,fh tajctae
ay;+yDqdkwmeJ@ olwkd@udk &mZ
qif;oufwmjzpfw,fqdkwJh
0wfa=umif;t& yk'frtrsdK;rsdK;
t,ltqudk ,Hk=unfolawG jzpfygw,f?
wyf + yD ; axmif x J x nf h a wmh
wmygyJ? 'DvdkeJ@ tJ'DvlawG[m

84

EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; r&dSbl;vkd@
(etz)u ajymaewm&J Πta=umif ; &if ; ES p f c k u
jref r mjynf r S m Ed k i f i H a &;jy\emr&d S b l ; vk d @
ajymcsif w J h r±k d ; ajzmif h r _ e J @
wdkif;jynfrSm igwkd@vkyfwmom EdkifiHa&;
wjcm;olawGvkyfwm &mZ0wfr_qdkwJh
tjrifarSmufrSm;r_wkd@ jzpfw,f æ
tvdktavsmuf Oya'csdK;azmuf usL;vGefwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;awG jzpfoGm;ygawmhw,f?
tm%modrf;+yD;aemuf tm%m&Sifpepfudk usifhoHk;avh&dSwJh ppftpdk;&awG[m olwkd@ vuf
xufrSm EdkifiHa&;orm;qdkwJh tokH;tE_ef;udkawmif oHk;avh&dSwm r[kwfygbl;? 'gayr,fh
jrefrmjynfu (etz)uawmh rwwfomvkd@ ygwDpHkpepfudk cGifhjyKxm;&wJhtwGuf EdkifiHa&;
orm;qdkwJh tokH;tE_ef;udk aqmihf}uD;atmifh}uD; rvdkwrmpdwfeJ@ oHk;ae&+yD; tJ'D tokH;
tE_e;f udak wmifrS “Oya'csKd ;azmuf usL;vGew
f hJ Edik if aH &;orm;”qdw
k hJ wae&mwnf;rSmom
&Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; oHk;avh&Sd=uwmudk awG@=u&rSm jzpfygw,f? jynfol@qENeJ@ wufvmwJh tpdk;&
awGuawmh EdkifiH&dS&if EdkifiHa&; jy\em&dSw,fqdkwJh tcsufudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; oabm
ayguf vufcH=uygw,f? EdkifiHa&; jy\em&dS&if EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; qdkwmvnf; &dSr,f
qdw
k m olw@dk u odygw,f? 'ga=umifh rdred @J oabmxm;csi;f rwdu
k q
f ikd o
f al wGukd vufeuf
pGJudkif ykefuefr_rjyKoa&GΠolwkd@u &efolvkd@ rjrifygbl;? EdkifiHtudsK;twGuf rdrdeJ@ rwlwJh
vrf;a=umif;u aqmif&GufaeolawGvkd@ jrifygw,f? 'ga=umifh tajctaet& olwkd@udk
zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f wJt
h cg &mZ0wftusO;f om;awGxuf tqift
h wef; ydjk rifw
h hJ tcGit
hf a&;
awG ay;ygw,f? 'grsdK;udk (1948)u (1962)txd (Adkvfae0if; tdrfapmifhtpdk;& tkyfcsKyfwJh
ESpf ESpfryg) wnf&dScJhwJh 'Drdkua&pDacwfrSm awG@Ekdifygw,f? jrefrmjynfudk ESpfaygif; (100)
ausmf u|efjyKoGm;cJhwJh +Adwdo#udkvdkeD tpdk;&uawmif tJ'Dpepfudk usifhoHk;cJhygw,f?
tJ'Dawmh usaemfh &Sif;jycsufawGudk tESpfcsKyf+yD; jyefvnfazmfjy&&if jrefrmjynf
rSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; r&dSbl;vkd@ (etz)u ajymaewm&JΠta=umif;&if;ESpfcku jrefrm
jynfrSm EdkifiHa&;jy\em r&dSbl;vkd@ ajymcsifwJh r±kd;ajzmifhr_eJ@ wdkif;jynfrSm igwkd@vkyfwmom
EdkifiHa&; wjcm;olawGvkyfwm &mZ0wfr_qdkwJh tjrifarSmufrSm;r_wkd@ jzpfw,fvkd@
ajz=um;vkdygw,f?
Õ

85
ar; ? ? (e-t-z)uawmh tJ'DEkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;
qdkolawG[m Oya'udk csdK;azmufvdk@ ta&;,lcH=u&wm
om jzpfw,f? rdrdwkd@[m bmyJvkyfvkyf w&m;Oya'eJ@
tnDom vkyo
f al wGjzpfw,f? b,forl qdk w&m;Oya'eJ@
tnD aexdik &f if ab;&efuif;uGmrSm jzpfw,fv@dk ajymavh&Sd
wmeJ@ ywfouf+yD; ajymjyygOD;?
ajz ?
? jrefrmjynfrSm (e0w)(etz)wkd@&JΠt}udrfaygif; ra&rwGufEdkifatmif
t"rRjyKusifhcH&r_a=umifh vl±kyfawmif ray:awmhwJh orD;ysdKwOD;udk jyygqdk&if tJ'D
w&m;Oya'qdkwJh orD;ysdKudk jy&rSmjzpfygw,f? jynfol@qENudk udk,fpm;rjyKwJh tpdk;&
rSefor# w&m;±kH;/ &JtzGJ@/ tusOf;axmifqdkwmawGudk olwkd@tm%m wnf+rJa&;
twGuf vlxkudk zdESdyfwJh ,E W&m;awGtjzpf toHk;jyK=uwm rqef;wJhudpPjzpfwm
rSefayr,fh (e0w)(etz)wkd@&JΠw&m;Oya'udk vdkovdk toHk;csyHkuawmh urBmrSm
pHcsdefopfvkd@ qdk&rSmyg? olwkd@ tm%modrf;+yD; wufvmcJhwJh (1988)uae tcktxd
tESpf (20)umvtwGi;f w&m;Oya' orD;ysKd udk olw@dk t"rRjyK vkycf w
hJ hJ t}udraf ygi;f
&maxmifcsD &dScJhwmudk rjywfowdjyK avhvmaeolwdkif; rSwfrdae=urSmyg? tJ'Djzpf&yf
awG[m avxJrSm aysmufuG,foGm;=uwm r[kwfygbl;? taotcsm rSwfwrf;rSwf
&mawGeJ@ &dSaewmyg? wcsdefrSm rv$JraoG w&m;Oya'a&SŒarSmufudk a&muf&dS xGufay:
vmrSm jzpfygw,f?
tckqdk&if yk'frtrsdK;rsdK;eJ@ rw&m;pGyfpGJ+yD; w&m;pGJqdkjcif; cHae&wJh EdkifiHa&;
orm;awGbufu vdu
k yf gaqmif&u
G af y;aewJh a&SŒaeawGuakd wmif r[kwrf [wfpyG pf JG
+yD; axmif'%fcsrSwfwJhtxd jrefrmjynfu w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;&JΠtajctae[m
urf;ukefatmif qdk;0g;aeyg+yD? a&SŒaeOD;nDnDaxG;/ OD;atmifodef;/ OD;cifarmif&dSefwkd@udk
jypf'%fcsrSwfvdkufwm[m jrefrmEdkifiHu w&m;Oya' ±kyftavmif;udk xnfhoGif;
xm;wJh acgif;wvm;tzHk;ay:rSm aemufqHk;±kdufvdkufwJh oHcsufjzpfygw,f?
usaemfwkd@ bmyJvkyfvkyf w&m;Oya'eJ@tnDyJ vkyfygw,fvkd@ ajymavh
&Sd=uwJh (etz)0kdif;awmfom;awG&JΠacgif;aqmif}uD;udk Oya'eJ@ywfouf+yD; av#mh
av#mah ygah ygh ar;cGe;f uav;wckyJ ar;csiyf gw,f? jrefrmEdik if rH mS jyXmef;xm;wJh touf
(60)ausmf&if EdkifiH0efxrf;tjzpfu t+idrf;pm;,l&r,fqdkwJh w&m;Oya'[m ol tyg
t0if tcsKdŒaom ol@0dkif;awmfom;awGeJ@ oufqdkifjcif; &dSr&dSqdkwJh ar;cGef;av;yg? Akdvf
cif!Gef@udk z,f&Sm;pOfu w&m;Oya'&JΠtxufrSmb,folrS r&Sdbl;vkd@ vlod&Sif=um;
ajymqkdcJhwJh Akdvfa&$ref;vnf; tJ'Dar;cGef;udk ajz=unfhapcsifygw,f?
Õ

86
ar; ?
? jrefrmjynfu ppftpdk;& tqufqufeJ@ ywfouf+yD; usaemf ar;
wma&m/ cifAsm;ajzwma&m tawmfav;pHkoavmuf &dSoGm;+yD? aemufydkif;rS
pOf;pm;vkd@&&ifvnf; quf+yD; ar;ao;wmaygh? tckawmh 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pk
awGbuf vSnfh=u&atmif? (NLD)[m (1990)a&G;aumufyGJrSm v$wfawmf
udk,fpm;vS,fae&m pkpkaygif;&JΠ(82)&mckdifE_ef; tEdkif&&dScJhw,f? udk,fpm;vS,f
ta&twGuft& ajym&if (396)OD;aygh? 'gayr,fh a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;(18)ESpf
wm umvtwGif;(NLD)[m tpdk;&jzpfrvmcJhwJhtjyif tckqdk&if (NLD)
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f ta&twGuf[mvnf; tJ'Dwkef;uxuf trsm;}uD;
avsmhenf;oGm;cJh+yD? 'Dvdkjzpf&wm[m (NLD) acgif;aqmifawG&JΠnHhzsif;
tm;enf;r_awGa=umifh jzpfw,fvkd@ 'Drdkua&pDbufawmfom;wcsKd@u ,lq
ae=uw,f? olw@dk u(NLD)[m *ENDcef;r nDvmcHrSm tpdk;&rzGJ@cJhjcif;jzihf ppf
tm%m&Sipf epf csKyf+idr;f oGm;apEdik rf ,fh taumif;qH;k tcGit
hf a&;udk vufvw
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qHk;±_H;cJh&w,fvkd@vnf; axmufjycJh=uw,f? tJ'Dtjriftay: cifAsm;oabm
xm;u b,fvdkvJ?
ajz ?
? au'g awGpepfwus arG;jrL+yD; uspfvspfodyfonf; cdkifrmpGm zGJ@pnf;xm;wJh
ygwDawGawmif {&mrtrSm;}uD;awG usL;vGefcJh=uzl;wmudk jrefrmhordkif;rSma&m/ urBmh
ordkif;rSmyg cifAsm;awG@cJhrSmyg? Akdvfae0if;&JΠEdkifiHa&;om;a=umjzwfwJh '%fudk (26)ESpfwdkif
cHcJh&+yD;aemuf tvdktavsmuf ay:aygufvmwJh vlxktHkºuGr_}uD; wcktwGif; EdkifiHa&;
aemufcHtrsdK;rsdK;/ t,ltqtrsdKrsdK;/ a&csdef tedrfhtjrifh trsdK;rsdK;&dSwJhvlawG &nfrSef;csuf
wcktwGuf aygi;f pnf;rd=u&mu rD;±SL;oef@pif zGm;jrifvmcJw
h mjzpfwhJ (NLD)rSm c|w,
f iG ;f
tm;enf;csufawG tajrmuftjrm;&dSrSm aocsmygw,f?
'gayr,fh a&G;aumufy+JG yD;oGm;vd@k (18)ESp=f umvmwJhJ tcsed t
f xd jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ
ar#mfrSef;csufawG rjynfh0ao;wm&JΠt"du ta=umif;&if;uawmh (e0w) (etz)
ppftkyfpk&JŒ uwdopPm ysuf,Gif;r_yJ jzpfygw,f? “rif;rSmopPm/ vlrSmuwd”qdkwJh jrefrm
wkd@&JŒ qdk±kd;pum;twdkif; wdkif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfwJhvlawG opPmysuf,Gif;+yDqdk&if
tJ''D %fukd jynfoal wG axmif;varmif;ausatmif cH=u&p+rJyg? a&G;aumufy+JG yD;&if ppfwyf
u ppfwef;vsm;jyefr,f/ tEdkif&wJhygwDudk tm%mv$Jay;r,f/ v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f
awG tajccHOya'qG=J u/ ppfwyfuw&m;cH tjzpfrcHb;l qdw
k hJ pum;awGukd (NLD)u ajymcJh
wm r[kwfygbl;? vuf&dS (etz)qdkwJh tpdk;&udk arG;zGm;ay;cJhwJh (e0w)qdkwJh tzGJ@&JŒ
acgif;aqmifqdkolu ajymcJhwmjzpfygw,f?

87
rD ; awmif a yguf u G J & if rD ;
awmife@J a0;wJah e&mudk xGuaf jy;jcif;jzifh
rdrd &yfwnfae&m
a&S m if w d r f ; Ed k i f y gw,f ? a&}uD ; &if a&
vGwfwJh ukef;jrifhay: wuf+yD; a&Smifwdrf;
ajcaxmuf a tmuf u
Edkifygw,f? rkefwkdif;wdkuf&if rkefwdkif;'%f
ajr}uD;u rwnfr+idrf
cHEdkifwJh taqmuftOD;awGxJ 0ifa&muf
v_yfcg&rf;wJhtcg }uKH&ovkdrsdK;
ckdv_H+yD; wdrf;a&SmifEdkifygw,f? ajrivsif
opPmysuf,Gif;wJh
v_yf&ifawmh b,fvdkrS ra&Smifwdrf;Edkifyg
tpd k ; &vuf a tmuf u
bl;? ajy;av&m a&mufav&m rSefor#
jynf o l a wG [ m
ajrtm;vHk; v_yfaewmrkd@ vlawG[m
'kuQ}uD;pGm
aqmufwnf&mr& jzpf=u&ygw,f?
a&muf = u&ygw,f ?
tJovdkygyJ? rif;r_xrf;awG
opPmysuf&if jynfolawGtaeeJ@ vSnfh
ywf}uHzef+yD; cHomatmif cHEkdif=uao;
ayr,fh tkyfcsKyfolrif;tpdk;& udk,fwdkif
opPmysu,
f iG ;f +yD qd&k ifawmh jynfoal wG[m tJ''D %fukd r±SLom ru,fomatmif rcsrd qHh
cH=u&ygawmhw,f? rdrd &yfwnfae&m ajcaxmufatmufu ajr}uD;u rwnfr+idrf v_yfcg
&rf;wJhtcg }uKH&ovkdrsdK; opPmysuf,Gif;wJh tpdk;&vufatmufu jynfolawG[m 'kuQ}uD;
pGm a&muf=u&ygw,f?
jynfoltay: opPmysuf,Gif;wJh tpkd;&w&yf ±_dŒor#rD;udk urBmay:rSm tawmf
qH;k qdw
k v
hJ al wG yg0ifz@JG pnf;xm;wJh taumif;qH;k ygww
D &yfuawmif tuket
f pif vdu
k v
f H
+idrf;owfEdkifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tJ'DygwDudk,fwdkifawmif tJ'DrD;v#HawGxJ jymusaysmufqHk;
roGm;&avatmif tyef;w}uD; }udK;pm;ae&r,fhtjzpfudk awG;qpmem=unfhEdkifygw,f?
*E<Dcef;r nDvmcHeJ@ ywfoufvkd@uawmh usaemf a&SŒwae&mrSm ajymcJhovdkyJ
(tu,fIæ v#ifæ cJhvdrfhrnf)qdkwJh awG;qcsufawG trsdK;rsdK; &dSEdkifygw,f? usaemf avh
vmrdor# nDvmcHt+yD; xkwfjyefwJh a=unmcsufxJrSm “pufwifbmv (30)&ufae@
aemufqHk;xm;+yD; v$wfawmf ac:ay;&ef”qdkwJh pmom;udk xnfhzkd@awmif tjiif;tcHkawG
tawmfav; jzpfcJh&w,fvkd@ od&ygw,f? nDvmcH vkyfcdsefrSm vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmif
qef;pk=unf[mvnf; tdrt
f us,cf sKyf cscx
H m;&wm jzpfygw,f? nDvmcHxrJ mS a':atmif
qef;pk=unf&dSae&if tJ'Da=unmcsufxufydkaumif;/ ydkjywfwJhvkyfaqmifcsuf xGufay:
vmEdkifw,fvkd@ ar#mfvifh Edkifp&m&dSayr,fh olrygwJh ( NLD ) acgif;aqmifydkif;qDuawmh
tpdk;&zGJ@wJh vkyf&yfvdkrsdK; tifrwef avmif;a=u;jrifhwJhupm;enf;udk upm;vdrfhr,fvkd@
rar#mfvifhEdkifygbl;? tawG@t}uKHºuG,f0 odyfonf;uspfvspfcdkifrmwJh ygwDwck r[kwfbJ
pnf;urf;cyfavsmah vsmeh @J zG@J pnf;xm;wJh r[mrdw!
f eG @f aygi;f tzG@J wckr#omjzpfwhJ (NLD)

88
taeeJ@ *ENn
D v
D mcHrvkyrf D uref;uwrf; ay:xGuv
f mwJh (1§90)a=unmcsut
f & (e0w)
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atmif ru|Hatmif owdxm; xdef;odrf;+yD; a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk tcdkiftrm qkyfudkifxm;
jcif;jzifhom atmifyGJudk t&,lzkd@ ydkif;jzwfxm;cJhyHk&ygw,f? (e0w)taeeJ@ a&G;aumufyGJ
rwdkifrD wdkif;odjynfod urBmoday;xm;cJhwJh uwdu0wfawGudk vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; ajymif
ajymifwif;wif; csKd ;azmufwhJ txdawmh yufyufpufpufvyk rf mS r[kwb
f ;l vk@d ,H=k unfxm;
wmuvnf; wa=umif;a=umifh udk,fhbufu ajcvSrf;u|HoGm;wmrdsK; (tpdk;& zGJ@vkdufwm
rsdK;) rjzpfatmif owd}uD;}uD;xm;cJhwmvnf; jzpfEdkifygw,f?
'guawmh tJ't
D csed w
f ek ;f u (NLD) acgi;f aqmifawGukd av#mah v#mah ygah ygh ouf
oufn‡mn‡mawG;+yD; oHk;oyf=unfhwJh tydkif;yg? tJ'DtjrifeJ@ qef@usifbufu =unfhr,f
qdk&ifawmh tJ'Dwkef;u (NLD) acgif;aqmifydkif;[m tEdkif,l&JwJh (wenf;) tm%m&,l
&JwJh owWdr&dSolrsm;/ wHk;wdkufwdkuf usm;udkufudkuf jywfom;cdkifrmwJh pdwf"mwfr&dSolrsm;
tjzpf ,lqEdkifygw,f? tJ'D ±_axmifhu =unfh&if (NLD) acgif;aqmifawG[m ppftkyfpk&JŒ
obm0eJ@ tusifhp±kduf/ (90)a&G;aumufyGJ rwdkifrDeJ@ +yD;wJhaemuf ajymwJhpum;awG a&SŒ
aemufrnD jzpfvmwmawG/ olw@dk a&SŒqufr,fh ajcvSr;f udk xif&mS ;&Si;f vif;pGm jrifomapwJh
(1§90)a=unmcsufudk *ENDcef;rnDvmcH rvkyfrDuav;rSm tvsifpvdk xkwfjyefvkdufwm
awG pwJhvkyf&yfawGudk =unfh+yD; “igwkd@awmh vufOD;r_,l+yD; jywfom;wJh ajcvSrf;udk
vSrf;rSjzpfawmhr,f”vkd@ pOf;pm;qHk;jzwf vkyfaqmifoifhygw,f? tJ'Djywfom;wJh ajcvSrf;
[m bmqdkwm qHk;jzwfzkd@ tifrwefcufcJrSm jzpfayr,fh jynfolvlxk}uD;u tm;udk;
,H=k unfavmufwhJ acgi;f aqmifaumif; qdw
k mrsKd ;[m tJovdk tcufcq
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awG bmjzpfcsifaeovJ qdkwmudk tjrefqHk;
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jynfolvlxk}uD;u tm;udk;
tJ'DqENudk udk,fpm;jyKwJh qHk;jzwfcsufrsdK;udk
,Hk=unfavmufwJh
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w,f? teD;pyfqHk; Oyrmjy&&ifawmh zufqpf
acgif ; aqmif a umif ;
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qdkwmrsdK;[m tJovdk
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tcuf c J q H k ; tcsd e f r S m
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jynfolawG
qpf*syefudk awmfvSefzkd@ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
bmjzpf c sif a eovJ
qH k ; jzwf v k y f a qmif c J h o vk d r sd K ; jzpf y gw,f ?
qdkwmudk tjrefqHk;
wu,fawmh zufqpfawmfveS af &; atmifjrif
od j rif e m;vnf
oGm;cJhvkd@om AdkvfcsKyf[m ol@ukd trsdK;om;
oabmayguf + yD ; æ
acgi;f aqmiftjzpfo@dk jynfjh ynf0h 0 a&muf&aSd pcJh
wJh aemufydkif;vkyf&yfawGudk qufvkyfEdkifcJhwm

89

(18)ESpft=umrSm 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkawGvnf;
vHk;yg;yg;? EdkifiHvnf; a&tdk;atmufu
u&GwfacGvdk yHkrysufayr,fh w&d&daqG;ae&wJh tjzpfrsdK;eJ@
}uKH a e&csd e f r S m

yg? tJ'w
D ek ;f u awmfveS af &;rpcif owif;aygu=f um; oGm;cJv
h @dk uawmh Adv
k cf sKyf
[m *syefuifaywdik &f ŒJ vufxrJ mS r±_rvS aoyG0J if&rSm aocsmoavmuf jzpfyg
w,f? uifaywdik &f ŒJ &ufpufvw
S hJ vky&f yfawGta=umif; aumif;aumif;odaewJh
AdkvfcsKyf[m ol@toufudk y"merxm;bJ tifrwefrS tE W&m,f}uD;vSwJh
qHk;jzwfcsufudk cdkifrmjywfom;pGm csrSwfvkyfaqmifcJhol jzpfygw,f?
tJ'D±_axmifhu =unfh&ifawmh *ENDcef;rnDvmcHumvu (NLD)
acgi;f aqmifawG[m Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;vdk &J&ifjh ywfom;olawG r[kwcf =hJ uwm
jynfolawGtwGuf }uD;pGmaom uHraumif; ta=umif;rvSr_ wckygyJ? tJ'D
nDvmcHrSm (NLD)u &J&ifhjywfom;wJh vkyf&yfwck (tpdk;& zGJ@vkdufwmvnf;
jzpfcsifjzpfr,f? 'grSr[kwf tJovkd oufa&mufr_rsdK;&dSwJh tvm;wl vkyf&yfrsdK;
wckvnf; jzpfcsifjzpfr,f?) vkyfcJhr,fqdk&if ppftkyfpkyJ +yKduGJoGm;rvm;? 'grSr
[kwf (NLD) OD;aqmifwhJ 'Dru
kd a&pD tiftm;pkawGyJ pdpn
d ufnufaus+yD; +yKduJG
oGm;rvm;qdkwm b,folrSawmh aocsmayguf rajymEdkifygbl;? 'gayr,fh tJ'D
nDvmcH +yD;qH;k oGm;cJ+h yD;aemuf (18)ESpt
f =umrSm 'Dru
kd a&pD tiftm;pkawGvnf;
vH;k yg;yg;? Edik if v
H nf; a&td;k atmufu u&Gwaf cGvkd yHrk ysuaf yr,fh w&d&d aqG;ae
&wJh tjzpfrsdK;eJ@ }uKHae&csdefrSm 'gawGtm;vHk;[m *E<Dcef;rnDvmcHwkef;u
(NLD) acgif;aqmifawG&JΠowWdr&dSr_/ awGa0r_/ jynfol@qENudk odjrifoabm
ayguf em;vnfEikd pf rG ;f enf;yg;r_w@dk a=umifh jzpfw,fqw
kd hJ tjrifwck &dw
S ,fq&kd if
tJ't
D jrif[m vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm; rSm;,Gi;f wJh tjrifom jzpfw,fv@dk usaemfawmh
r,lqcsifygbl;?
Õ

90
ar; ?
? (NLD) [m tck t xd ygwD o uf w rf ; (19)ES p f
wavsmuf trSm;vkyfcJhrdwmawG &dSovm;? &dScJhw,fqdk&if tJ'D
trS m ;awG u bmawG v J ? tJ ' D t rS m ;awG a =umif h ygwD t ay:
wdkif;jynftay: b,fvdk qdk;usKd;oufa&mufr_awG &dScJhovJ?
ajz ?
? usaemf[m (NLD) ygwD0ifwa,muf r[kwfwJhtwGuf usaemfh
&JŒtjrifu tjyifujrifwJh tjrifyJ jzpfygvdrfhr,f? tjyifutjrif jzpfwJhtwGuf
tcsKdŒaomudpPawG (txl;ojzifh ygwDxdyfwef; acgif;aqmifydkif;awG&JŒ awG;ac:
qifjcifr_awG/ olwkd@t=um; qufoG,fr_awG&JΠjzpfay:wdk;wufr_awGpojzifh)
ta=umif; usaemfrodEdkifygbl;? ygwD0ifawGu olwkd@ygwDta=umif; olwkd@&JŒ
tjrifawGudk ajym=uqkd=uwmawG usaemf=um;zl;ayr,fh olwkd@tjrifawGu
vnf; t+rJwrf; xyfwlus=uwmawmh r[kwfygbl;? tajctae ta=umif;
a=umif;a=umifh ygwu
D nDvmcHvnf;w}udrrf S usi;f yEdik cf jhJ cif; r&dcS w
hJ mrk@d ygwu
D kd
yJu
h ikd x
f ed ;f ausmif; armif;ESiv
f mcJo
h al wGu ygw&D ŒJ twdwu
f kd oH;k oyf/ ypPKy`Kefukd
qef;ppf/ tem*wfudk ar#mfrSef;+yD; a&;om;jyKpkwifjywJh tpD&ifcHpmrsdK;vnf;
usaemfwkd@ zwf&wm r[kwfygbl;? tJovdkrsdK; ygwD&JΠudk,fhudk,fudk a0zefwJh
tpD&ifcHpmrsdK; &dScJh&ifawmh tJ'DxJu ygwD&JΠrdrdudk,fudk a0zefa&;tjrifudk
qef;ppfavhvm+yD; usaemf&JΠa0zefa&;udk ydk+yD; "rR"dXmefusatmif jyKvkyfEdkifrSm
jzpfygw,f? tckawmh tajctae t&yf&yfa=umifh ygwDoufwrf;wavsmuf
ygwDudk yJhudkifarmif;ESifvmcJholrsm;&JΠtqdkygtpD&ifcHpmrsdK;vnf; xGufay:vm
Edik jf cif; r&dw
S t
hJ wGuf usaemf&h ŒJ (NLD)ygwt
D ay: tjrifrsm;[m tcsut
f vuf
rcdkifrmr_eJ@ usaemfh&JΠtwWaemrwdwkd@tay: rlwnf+yD; rSefuefr_eJ@ ormorwf
usrp_ wJh tydik ;f awGrmS tm;enf;aeEdik yf gw,f? tJovdq
k &kd if (NLD)udk OD;aqmif
wm0ef,lcJholrsm;eJ@ OD;aqmifwm0ef,laeolrsm;taeeJ@ em;vnfcGifhv$wf=uzkd@
y%mr yef=um;vdkygw,f?
ygwDwck&JΠvkyf&yfawG rSefw,frSm;w,fqdk+yD; qef;ppfa0zefr_ jyK
vkyfwJh ae&mrSm t"dutm;jzifh tydkif;ESpfydkif;ukd =unfh+yD; a0zef=uwm jzpfyg
w,f? wydkif;u ygwD&JΠrl0g'vrf;pOftykdif;jzpf+yD; aemufwykdif;u tJ'Drl0g'
vrf;pOfukd taumiftxnfazmf&mrSm usio
hf ;kH wJh pnf;±k;H a&;enf;emeJ@ vky[
f ef
rsm;tykdif; jzpfygw,f?
jynfol@tudsK;pD;yGm;udk OD;xdyfxm; aqmif&Gufr,fqdk+yD; zGJ@pnf;xm;
=uwJh ygwDtzGJ@tpnf; rSefor#[m jynfol@qENudk udk,fpm;jyK+yD; jynfol@
ar#mfrSef;csufudk xif[yfwJh rl0g'vrf;pOfukd csrSwf=u&p+rJ jzpfygw,f? ukdvkdeD

91
acwf aESmif;ykdif;rSm ay:aygufvmwJh wkd;
wufwJh ygwDtzGJ@tpnf; rSefor#&JΠrl0g'
vrf;pOfu vGwfvyfa&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;/ qdk&S,f
vpfa&; jzpfygw,f? zufqpfvufatmuf
wydkif;u ygwD&JŒ
rSm ay:aygufcJhwJh (zwyv)tzGJ@rSmusawmh
rl 0 g'vrf ; pOf t yk d i f ; jzpf + yD ;
tJ'Dar#mfrSef;csufawGtjyif zufqpfwdkuf
aemuf w yk d i f ; u
zsufa&;qdkwJh ar#mfrSef;csuftopfwck yg0if
tJ'D rl0g'vrf;pOfudk
vmcJh+yD; vGwfvyfa&; &+yD;aemuf ay:ayguf
taumif t xnf a zmf & mrS m
vmcJhwJh ygwDawG/ tzGJ@tpnf;awG&JΠrl0g'
usifhoHk;wJh
vrf;pOfawGrmS awmh 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;qdw
k hJ ar#mf
pnf ; ±k H ; a&;enf ; emeJ @
rSef;csuf topfwck xyfygvmcJhum vGwf
vk y f [ ef r sm;tyk d i f ;
vyfa&;qdkwJh pum;&yf aysmufuG,foGm;cJhyg
w,f?
a,bk,stm;jzifh ajym&&ifawmh
ajray:rSm w&m;0if zGJ@pnf;&yfwnfEdkifwJh
ygwD trsm;pk[m jynfo@l qENukd xif[yfjcif;
r&dSwJh rl0g'vrf;pOf csrSwfrdr_qdkwJh trSm;udkawmh a&Smif&Sm;Ekdif=uavh&dSygw,f? ta=umif;
uawmh rdrdwkd@csrSwfcJhwJh vrf;pOf rSefuefjcif; &dSr&dSqdkwmudk jynfolawGxH csjytppfaq;cH
jcif;jzifh od&dSEkdifvkd@ jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh tpdk;&udk vufeufpGJudkif ykefuefaewJh ygwDrsdK;awG
usawmh rdrdwkd@udk,fwdkifu awmxJawmifxJrSm aexkdifae&+yD; rdrdwkd@ xdawG@ae&wJh jynf
olvlxkqdkwmvnf; tpdwftydkif;w&yfomjzpfwmrkd@ rdrdwkd@&JΠrl0g'vrf;pOf rSefrrSef jynf
olawGqD csjytppfaq;cHzkd@qdkwJhudpPrSm }uD;rm;wJh tuef@towf&dSygw,f? tJ'D tajc
tae&JΠtusdK;quftjzpf tJ'DvkdrsdK;ygwDawG[m (olwkd@tqdk) rl0g'/ vrf;pOf trSm;awG
csrSwfrdwmrsdK; awG&dSwwfygw,f? jrefrmjynfolawGtwGuf tjrifomqHk; Oyrmwck jy&
r,fqdk&if ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD(Auy)udk jy&rSmjzpfygw,f? (Auy)[m vufeufpGJudkif
awmfvSefr_udk pwifcJhwJh (1948)ckESpfrSm ESpfESpftwGif; ppftEdkifwdkufa&;/ tm%modrf;a&;
vrf;pOfudk csrSwfcJhygw,f? (Auy) awmckd+yD; &ufykdif;vydkif;twGif;rSm ppfwyfxJu tpdwf
tydkif;tcsKdŒ/ ppfwyfxJu u&ifwyf&if;awGeJ@ &JabmfjzLawGyg awmcdkvmcJh=uwJhtwGuf
(zqyv)tpd;k &&JΠtm%mpuf[m &efuek ef @J teD;wpf0u
kd rf mS yJ oufa&mufwt
hJ xd tajc
taeudk a&muf&dS oGm;cJhwma=umifh (Auy)&JΠtJ'Dvrf;pOf[m rSefoa,mif &dScJhygw,f?
'gayr,fh r=umcifrSmyJ (zqyv)tpdk;&[m wpdwfwydkif;tm;jzifh tdENd,EdkifiHu ae±l;
tpdk;& axmufyHhcJhwJh vufeufawGa=umifh tiftm;jyefvnf ckdifrmawmifhwif;vmr_&JŒ
tusKd;quftjzpf (Auy)tygt0if awmwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkawG[m odrf;ydkuf
xm;wJh e,fajrawGudk wpwpjyefvnf qHk;±_H;oGm;cJh=u&ygw,f? tJ'Daemuf (1955)

92
ckESpfrSmawmh (Auy)[m vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ pGef@v$wf+yD; Oya'abmiftwGif; 0ifa&muf
um w&m;0ifygwt
D jzpf &yfwnfa&;udak r#mrf eS ;f wJh (55 vrf;pOf)qdw
k mudk ajymif;vJ csrw
S f
cJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'v
D rf;pOfuvnf; ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh taumiftxnf ay:r
vmcJhbJ aemufqHk;rSmawmh tJ'Dvrf;pOfudk rSm;,Gif;w,fvkd@ oHk;oyf+yD; (1964)ckESpfrSm
ppftEdkifwdkufa&;/ tm%modrf;a&;vrf;pOfudk jyefvnfudkifpGJchJygw,f?
tckwifjycJhwmu ygwDawG[m a,bk,stm;jzifh rl0g'vrf;pOfydkif;rSm rSm;,Gif;
csrw
S w
f mrsKd ; tjzpfenf;avh&w
Sd ,f qdak yr,fh tcsKŒd aom ¹cGi;f csuu
f pd rP sm;rSmawmh vrf;pOf
rSm;,Gif;wmrsdK;awGvnf; &dSwwfw,fqdkwmudk OyrmeJ@wuG jyocJhwmjzpfygw,f?
ajymcJhovdkyJ ygwDawG[m rl0g'vrf;pOftydkif;rSm rSm;,Gif;wmrsdK; tjzpfenf;
avh&Sdw,fqdkayr,fh aemufwydkif;jzpfwJh pnf;±kH;a&; tydkif;rSmawmh trSm;rusL;vGefrdwJh
ygwD r&dSbl;vkd@ qdk&rSmjzpfygw,f? ta=umif;uawmh vrf;pOfqdkwmu a,bk,stm;jzifh
rSm;Edkifajc enf;yg;wJh taumiftxnfrJh xdawG@vkd@r&wJh (intangible) oabmw&m;ydkif;
jzpf+yD; pnf;±k;H a&;qdw
k muawmh tJ'D vrf;pOfukd tjynf0h qH;k eJ@ tjrefq;kH taumiftxnf
azmfEdkifa&;twGuf rSm;Edkifajcrsm;jym;wJh taumiftxnf&dS xdawG@vkd@&wJh (tangible)/
0d^mOfouf&dS vlyk*~KdvfawGudk pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif; vkyfaqmif&wJhtydkif; jzpfaevkd@ygyJ?
rwljcm;em;wJh vdif/ touft&G,f/ vlrsdK;/ bmom/ vlwef;pm;/ tv$m/ todynma&csdef
&Sd=uwJh vlawGudk wckwnf;aom yef;wdkifqDokd@ OD;wnf av#mufvSrf;wJh vrf;rSm wnD
w!Gwf wpnf;wvHk;wnf; ygvmatmif pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;&wJhtvkyf[m b,favmuf
odrfarG@euf±_dif; cufcJrvJqdkwmudk rSef;q=unfh±kHeJ@ odEdkifrSmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf;
ygwD tzGJ@tpnf;trsm;pkwkd@[m csrSwfxm;
wJh rl0g'vrf;pOf rSefyifrSefjim;aomfvnf;
rwljcm;em;wJh vdif/
pnf ; ±k H ; a&; enf ; y&d , m,f y d k i f ; u trS m ;
touft&G,f/ vlrsdK;/
t,Gif;awGa=umifh vrf;pOfudk taumif
txnf razmfEdkifawmhbJ wcsKdŒqdk vrf;ck
bmom/ vlwef;pm;/ tv$m/
vwfrSmwif +yKduGJysufpD;/ wcsKdŒqdk vrf;ck
todynma&csdef &Sd=uwJh
vwfrSm w0JvnfvnfeJ@ a&SŒrqufEdkif jzpf
vlawGudk wckwnf;aom
ae=uwmudk awG@jrifae=u&wm jzpfygw,f?
yef;wdkifqDokd@
(NLD) ta=umif; jyefoGm;=u&
OD;wnfav#mufvSrf;wJh
atmif? (NLD) [m tm%m&Sifpepf zsuf
vrf;rSm wnDw!Gwf
odr;f a&;/ 'Dru
kd a&pD ay:xGe;f a&;udk awmif;qdk
wpnf;wvH;k wnf;ygvmatmif
wJh vlxktHkºuGv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;u arG;zGm;ay;
pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;&wJh
vdkufwJh tiftm;t}uD;qHk; OD;aqmifygwD
tvkyf[m æ
w&yfjzpfwmeJ@tnD ygwD&JΠrl0g' vrf;pOfudk
vnf; jynfolawG&JΠtJ'DqENudk xif[yf+yD;

93
csrSwfcJhjcif; jzpfwma=umifh vrf;pOfydkif;rSm tjynfht0 rSefuefcJhw,fvkd@ qdkEdkifygw,f?
wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk udk,fwdkif udk,fus OD;aqmifyg0if v_yf&Sm;
cJh=uolrsm;vnf;jzpfwJh ygwDacgif;aqmifawG[m ta&;awmfyHk}uD;u ay;tyfvkdufwJh
cGeftm;eJ@ Edk;=um;wufºuGr_awGeJ@twl wufusdK;&if vufxkd;avSmf+yD; yef;wdkifta&muf
csDwufvdkwJh ydkif;jzwfr_&dSae=uwJh jynfol vlxkudk tpnf;ajyroGm;atmif/ awGa0
,drf;,dkifroGm;atmif a&OD;ykdif;rSm tjynfh
t0 xdef;xm;EdkifcJhwJhtwGuf ygwD[m pnf;
wbufu a&SŒwdk;=unfhvkd@
±kH;a&;tydkif;rSmvnf; rSefrSefuefuef udkif
wbufu
wG,faqmif&GufcJhw,f qdkwmudk awG@jrifEdkif
aemufqkwfoGm;&if
ygw,f? (NLD)[m tJ'Dvdk vrf;pOfydkif;rSm
a&m pnf;±kH;a&;ydkif;rSmyg rSefuefcJhwJh twGuf
wbufu a&SŒudk
vnf; (e0w)u enf;vrf;aygif;pHkeJ@ ESdyfuGyf
qufwkd;rSmyJ jzpfygw,f?
aewJh=um;u jynfolawGtwGuf E_dif;,SOf
wbufu aemufrqkwfbJ
a&G;cs,fp&m 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pk0if ygwD
wif;cH&if wbufuvnf;
awG trsm;}uD ; &d S a ewJ h = um;u (90)a&G ;
t&rf ; pG w f + yD ;
aumufyrJG mS ajr+yKdurf;+yKd tEdik &f &dcS w
hJ m jzpf
a&S Πrwd k ; 0H h y gbl ; ?
ygw,f?
'gayr,f h a&G ; aumuf y G J t +yD ;
(e0w)u enf;y&d,m,fajymif;+yD; ESdyfuGyfvmwJh tcgrSmawmh (NLD)[m vrf;pOfydkif;
qkid &f m rSm;,Gi;f wJh ajcvSr;f awGukd pwifvrS ;f rdvm ygawmhw,f? yxrqk;H ajcvSr;f uawmh
(e0w)&JŒ a=unmcsuftrSwf (1§90)udk vufrSwfa&;xkd;vkdufwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
vufrSwfrxdk;&if ygwDzsufodrf;cH&rSmpdk;wJhtwGuf vufrSwfxdk;vdkuf&wm jzpfw,fvkd@
(tJ'Dwkef;u) ygwDA[dkacgif;aqmifawGu ta=umif;jycJh=uw,fqdkwJh toHawGudk =um;cJh
=u&ygw,f? (e0w)rSm tJ'D&nf&G,fcsuf trSefwu,f &dScsifvnf;&dSygvdrfhr,f? 'grSr[kwf
olw@dk u (NLD) acgi;f aqmifawG b,favmuf ,H=k unfcsuf cdik rf mjywfom;w,fqw
kd mudk
prf;vdkufwmvnf; jzpfcsifjzpfEdkifygw,f? wu,fawmh (1989)ckESpf tmZmenfae@ tcrf;
tem;wufwJh udpPwkef;uwnf;u (e0w)u (NLD) acgif;aqmifawG (a':atmifqef;
pk=unf/ OD;0if;wifeJ@ OD;wifOD;ryg)&JŒ “rm*k%fowWd”udk odcJh+yD;jzpfwmrkd@ (1§90)udk ydkifpkd;
ydkifeif;xkwfjyefvdkufwm jzpfEdkifygw,f? tJ'Da=unmcsuftrSwf (1§90)[m &Spfav;vHk;
ta&;awmfyHk}uD;twGif; jynfolawG azmfxkwfjyocJh=uwJh qENudk t+yD;wdkif eif;acsypf
awmhr,fh (e0w)vkyif ef;pOf&ŒJ yxrqH;k tqifjh zpfw,f qdw
k mudk omrefjynfoal wGawmif
od=uwJt
h wGuf (NLD) acgif;aqmifawG rodbJaerSm r[kwfygbl;? tJovdk odod}uD;eJ@
rdrdudk wkyfaESmifxm;awmhr,fh }udK;wacsmif;eJ@wlwJh tJ'Da=unmcsufudk vufrSwfxdk;cJhwJh
ygwaD cgi;f aqmifawG&ŒJ “ygwD zsuo
f rd ;f cH&rSmpk;d vk@d ” qdw
k hJ ta=umif;jycsu[
f m jynfoal wG

94
bufu=unfh&if vHk;0vufcHEdkifp&mr&dSygbl;? wu,fawmh EdkifiHa&;qdkwm ±_axmifhwcku
=unfh&if qef@usifbuf tiftm;pkcsif; tm;prf; =uwJh upm;yGJwck jzpfygw,f? wbufu
a&SŒwd;k =unfv
h @dk wbufu aemufqw
k o
f mG ;&if wbufu a&SŒudk qufw;dk rSmyJ jzpfygw,f?
wbufu aemufrqkwfbJ wif;cH&if wbuf uvnf; t&rf;pGwf+yD; a&SŒrwdk;0Hhygbl;?
EdkifiHa&;rSm b,fbufurS rif;wkd@ aocsmayguf Edkifvdrfhr,fqdkwJh bk&m;ocif&JŒ
Asm'dwfawmfudk &&dSxm;wmr[kwfygbl;? pum;t& ajym &&if jynfolvlxktrsm;pk}uD;udk
ud k , f p m;jyKxm;wJ h b uf u awmif tJ ' D A sm'd w f a wmf u d k &&d S x m;ao;w,f v k d @
qdk&rSmjzpfygw,f?
wu,fawmh (e0w)[m tJ'D (1§90)a=unmcsufudk olwkd@ trSefwu,f
av#mufvSrf;r,fh vrf;a=umif;tjzpf b,fwkef;urS &nf&G,fcJhwmr[kwfygbl;? *E<Dcef;r
nDvmcHxJu olwkd@udk aoG;ysufoGm;apEdkifwJh vkyf&yfwckck xGufay:vmrSm pdk;wJhtwGuf
uref;uwef;a&;+yD; uref;uwef;xkwfjyefvdkufwJh aq;+yD;wkda=unmcsuf wckomjzpfyg
w,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; aemufydkif;rSm tJ'D a=unmcsuftwkdif; vkyfaqmifzkd@ (NLD)u
i,foyH gatmif atmf+yD; awmif;qdak eayr,hf ppftyk pf u
k tJ'aD =unmcsuf ta=umif;av;
awmif rv_yfawmhwmjzpfygw,f?
(NLD) acgi;f aqmifawG[m xufjrufyg;eyfr,fq&kd if (e0w)tJovdk ajcvSr;f
awGvSrf;vmr,fqdkwmudk tJ'Duwnf;u odoifh+yD; &J0HhpGef@pm;r_&Sdr,fqdk&if tJ'Da=unm
csuu
f kd tJ'u
D wnf;u y,fcsco
hJ if=h uygw,f? 'gayr,fh vufawG@rmS tJ'v
D kd jzpfrvmcJw
h hJ
twGuf (NLD) acgif;aqmifawG[m xufjrufyg;eyfr_yJ r&dScJhavovm;/ &J0HhpGef@pm;r_yJ
r&dScJhavovm; pOf;pm;p&m jzpfcJh&wmuawmh trSefygyJ?
tJ't
D &nftaoG; wckcck sKŒd wJv
h @dk yjJ zpfjzpf ESpcf pk vH;k csKŒd wJv
h @dk yjJ zpfjzpf (1§90)udk
vufrw
S x
f ;dk cJ=h uwJh (NLD)ygwD A[dak cgi;f aqmifawGtay: olw@dk vyk &f yf&ŒJ oufa&mufr_
u odyfrodomvSayr,fh ygwDeJ@ jynfolawGtay: oufa&mufr_uawmh }uD;rm;euf±_dif;
jyif;xefvSygw,f? rn‡mwrf;ajym&&if ygwDeJ@ jynfolawGt=um; us,fjyef@euf&d_if;wJh
uGm[r_eJ@ ygwDeJ@jynfolawGtwGif; }uD;rm;jyif;xefwJh +yKduGJtm;enf;r_[m acgif;aqmif
awG&JŒ tJ'Dvkyf&yfu pwifcJhw,fvkd@ qdk&ygvdrfhr,f? (1§90)udk vufrSwfrxkd;cJh&if ygwD
zsufodrf;cH&r,f rcH&bl;qdkwm raocsmayr,fh aocsmwmwckuawmh tJ'Dvkyf&yf
aemufykdif;rSm ygwD[m (e0w)(etz) ppftkyfpk&JΠqihfuJqifhuJ xdk;ESufr_awGudk cHcJh&+yD;
q,fpEk pS f ESpcf =k umwJt
h csed rf mS '%f&my&yG aoG;tvl;vl;eJ@ vl±yk af wmif ray: awmhatmif
jzpfaewJh tcsufygyJ? 'DvdktajctaerSm tJ'Dwkef;u (NLD)acgif;aqmifawGom (1§90)
udk vufrSwfrxdk;cJh&ifqdkwJh tawG;eJ@ pdwful;zJ±kduf=unfhwmomv#if oem;p&m jrefrm
jynfolawGtwGuf ajzodrfhp&m pdwfxGufaygufwck jzpfygvdrfhr,f?
(1§90)udk vufrw
S x
f ;kd cJw
h hJ vrf;pOftrSm; +y;D wJah emuf ( NLD) acgi;f aqmifawG
xyfrSm;wJh vrf;pOftrSm;uawmh (1993)rSm pwifcJhwJh (e0w)&JΠtrsdK;om;nDvmcHudk

95
wufcJhjcif;ygyJ? (1§90)udk (NLD)u vufrSwfxdk;vkdufvkd@ olwkd@ aemifa&;twGuf (70)
&mckdifE_ef;avmuf pdwfat;vufat; jzpfoGm;wJh ppftkyfpk[m usefwJh(30)&mckdifE_ef;udk
jznfhqnf; taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ qufvuf}udK;yrf;&mrSm tJ'D trsdK;om;nDvmcH[m
ta&;ygwJh tqifhwqifh jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvkyf&yfrSmawmh ppftkyfpk[m (1§90)wkef;u
xufawmif ydktwifh&Jvm+yD; olwkd@&JŒ tE Wdr&nfrSef;csufudk a&SŒvkyfief;pOf}uD; (6)&yf&JŒ
qXrajrmufvkyfief;pOftjzpf ajymifajymifwif;wif; xnfhoGif;vmygawmhw,f? 'Dw}udrf
rSmvnf; (NLD) acgif;aqmifawG[m ppftkyfpk&JΠzdtm;ay;r_atmufrSm 'l;axmuf OD;
!GwfcJh=ujyefygw,f? jynfolawGtwGuf wpHkwckaom twdkif;twmtxd ajymqdkEdkifzkd@
nDvmcH wufcJhwm jzpfw,fvkd@ olwkd@u
ta=umif;jycJh=uayr,fh wu,fhvufawG@
rSm tJ'D&nfrSef;csufvnf; atmifjrifcJhwm
r[kwfygbl;? wu,fawmh tJ'D &nfrSef;csuf
qdk;&Gm;wJh EdkifiHa&;&moDOwk
atmifjrifw,f qdk&ifawmif (NLD)[m
tajctaeatmuf r S m
tJ'D qXrajrmuf tcsufudk vufcHoabm
(NLD)vdk r[mrdwf
wlvkd@ nDvmcHwufwmjzpfw,fvkd@ ,lqEdkif
wyf a ygif ; pk q ef q ef
wm jzpfwJhtwGuf &vdkufwmeJ@ ay;vdkuf&
tzGJ@tpnf;wck rqdkxm;eJ@
wm wefw,fvkd@ b,fvdkrS rqdkEdkifygbl;?
bk & m;ocif & J @
'gayr,fh jrefrmjynfolawGtwGuf
ygwD q k d & if a wmif
uHaumif;axmufrpGmyJ (NLD)[m (1995)
pnf ; ±k H ; a&;qd k i f & m
a':atmifqef;pk=unf tdrftus,fcsKyfu
trSm;awGudk usL;vGefrdrSm
jyefvnf vGwfajrmufvm+yD;aemufrSm tJ'D
aocsmygw,f
vrf;pOfrSm;udk jyefvnfjyKjyif wnfhrwfEdkifcJh
ygw,f? trsdK;om;nDvmcHu E_wfxGuf
vdu
k w
f hJ tJ'D trSm;jyifqifcsuf aemufyikd ;f rSm
awmh (NLD)[m aemufxyf jynfo@l qENukd
udk,fpm;rjyKwJh vrf;pOfcsrSwfrdwJh trSm;rsdK; usL;vGefrdjcif; r&dSawmhwm tcktxdygyJ?
(etz)&JΠaemufqHk;trsdK;om;nDvmcH jyefpumeD;uav;rSm trSm;usL;vGefEdkifwJh tajc
taersdK; xyfrHay:aygufvmcJhao;ayr,fh 'Dw}udrfrSmawmh (NLD)acgif;aqmifawG[m
cdkifrmwnf=unf &J0hHjywfom;wJh ol&Jaumif; pdwf"mwftjynfheJ@ tJ'DtrSm;udk rusL;vGef
rdatmif a&Smif&mS ;Edik cf =hJ uygw,f? 'Dvyk &f yftwGuf (NLD) acgi;f aqmifawG[m orkid ;f rSm
*k%fjyKrSwfwrf;wifjcif; cH=u&rSm jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh vrf;pOftydik ;f eJ@ ywfouf+yD; ajym&&if (NLD)[m (1§90) vufrw
S f
xdk;wkef;u w}udrf? (1993)rSm trsdK;om;nDvmcH wufwkef;uw}udrf vrf;pOftrSm;udk
ESpf}udrfwdkifcsrSwfcJhw,fvkd@ usaemfjrifygw,f? 'gayr,fh (NLD)[m trsdK;om; nDvmcH

96

wufwJh trSm;udkjyefjyifEdkifcJhovdk (1§90)trSm;[mvnf; (etz)u oludk,fwkdif
vufeJ@a&;wmudk oludk,fwdkifajceJ@zsuf+yD; (1§90) a=unmcsufudk ausmcdkif;cJh+yDrkd@
(NLD)taeeJ@ txl;xyfrH+yD; trSm;jyifp&m rvdkawmhbl;vkd@ qdk&rSma=umifh tck
vuf&dSrSm (NLD)[m rSefuefwJh vrf;pOfay:rSm av#mufvSrf;ae+yDvkd@ qdk&ygvdrfh
r,f?
pnf;±kH;a&;tydkif;eJ@ ywfoufvkd@uawmh usaemftxufrSm ajymcJhwJh
twdkif; tjcm;aomygwDrsm;vkdyJ (NLD)[m trSm;rsm;pGm usL;vGefcJhygw,f?
okd@aomfvnf; (e0w)(etz)ppftkyfpk&JΠajymr,Hk }uKHzl;rSodvkd@ qdk&avmuf
atmif jyif;xefqdk;&Gm;vSwJh zdEdSyfr_ enf;vrf;aygif;pHkatmufrSm &yfwnf &Sifoef
ae&wmjzpfw,fqw
kd hJ ay;xm;csut
f & (NLD)taeeJ@ tJovdk pnf;±kH;a&;trSm;
rsm;pGmudk usL;vGefrdwm[m obm0uswJh tjcif;t&mwckyJjzpfygw,f? ygwD
zGJ@pnf;yHku cdkifcdkifrmrmr&Sd/ ygwDnDvmcHvnf; vkyfr&/ xufjrufwJh ygwDacgif;
aqmifawG ESp&f n
S f tusO;f csc&H / ygwaD cgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfu axmif
uswmxufawmif ydkqdk;wJh tajctaeatmufrSm ESpf&Snfvrsm; aexkdif&/ +rdK@e,f/
wdkif;tqifh ygwDqdkif;bkwfawG jzKwfcscH&/ ygwD0ifawG enf;rsdK;pHkeJ@ +cdrf;ajcmuf
[ef@wm; aESmifh,SufcH&pwJh qdk;&Gm;wJh EdkifiHa&; &moDOwk tajctae atmufrSm
(NLD)vdk r[mrdwf wyfaygi;f pkqefqef tzG@J tpnf;wck rqdx
k m;eJ@ bk&m;ocif&ŒJ
ygwDqkd&ifawmif pnf;±kH;a&;qdkif&m trSm;awGudk usL;vGefrdrSm aocsmygw,f?
'ga=umifh (e0w)(etz)vufatmufrSm rao±kHwr,f toufvk&SLae&wJh
(NLD)ygw&D ŒJ pnf;±k;H a&;qdik &f m trSm;awGta=umif; axmufjy aqG;aEG; a0zefwm
rsdK; vkyfzkd@qENr&dSygbl;? pnf±kH;a&; trSm;awG &dScJhw,f? 'gayr,fh vrf;pOfudk xdcdkuf
apavmufwJh pnf;±kH;a&; trSm;rsdK;awmh r&dScJhbl;vkd@yJ ajymyg&ap? Õ

97
ar; ?
? a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh jrefrmjynfolawGu
vlxkacgif;aqmif/ trsdK;om;acgif;aqmiftjzpf ,lqxm;=u+yD; EdkifiHwum
todkif;t0dkif;u jrefrmEdkifiH&JΠ'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmiftjzpfac:a0: okH;E_ef;ae
=uayr,fh (e0w)(etz) ppftpd;k & acgi;f aqmifawGuawmh ol[m udv
k ekd v
D uf
opf tiftm;}uD;EdkifiHawG&JŒ ±kyfao;±kyfom jzpfw,f? ol@udk jrefrmEdkifiHom;
wcsKd@u txif}uD;ae=uwm[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;orD;qdkwJh *k%fyk'fa=umifh
om jzpfw,f? ol jrefrmjynfjyef a&mufvmwmvnf; emrusef; jzpfaewJh
ol@rdcifudk jyKpkzkd@om jzpfw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm EdkifiHa&;orm;awGu yg;eyf vdrRm
pGm qGJoGif;vkd@ EdkifiHa&;e,fxJudk r&nf&G,fbJ a&mufvmwmom jzpfw,fvkd@
ajymae=uw,f? tJ'DtjrifESpfckrSm b,ftjrifurSefovJ? cifAsm;&JŒtjrifudk
jynfhjynfhpHkpHk &Sif;jyygOD;?
ajz ?
? w±kwfpma&;q&mwOD; a&;xm;wJh jzpf&yfrSef Zmwfvrf;wckudk jref
rmpma&;q&moHk;OD;u bmomjyefxm;wJh pmtkyf ESpftkyf&dSw,f? wcku a&$
wnfavsmif bmomjyefwJh “om;aumif;wa,muf”pmtkyfjzpfw,f? aemuf
wcku xufjrufeJ@ Edkif0if;aqGwkd@ yl;wGJbmomjyefwJh “tdk,ef[dkif;&JŒ aw;oH”
pmtkyf jzpfw,f? tJ'pD mtky&f ŒJ yifrausm±k;d u c&D;onfwif &xm;wpif; t&deS ef @J
armif;ESiv
f mpOf &xm;vrf;ay:rSm &yfaewJh jrif;waumifukd toufay;+yD; wGe;f
z,foGm;cJhwJh tdk,ef[dkif; trnf&dS w±kwf vli,fav; wa,mufta=umif;
jzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dpmtkyfyg a&;om;azmfjycsufawG&JΠtESpfcsKyfuawmh tJ'Dvli,f
av;[m &xm;vrf;ay:rSm &yfaewJhjrif;udk wGef;z,f&if; ol@toufudk pGef@&
aumif; pGef@&Edkifw,fqdkwm odw,f? jrif;udk rwGef;z,fvkd@vnf; ol@ukd b,fol
urS tjypfajym=urSm r[kwfbl;? 'gayr,fh &xm;u jrif;udk wdkufrd+yD; vrf;acsmf
wdr;f arSmuf oGm;cJ&h if &xm;ay:ygvmwJh c&D;onf &maygi;f rsm;pGmwk@d toufq;kH
±_H;zkd@ aocsmoavmuf&dSw,f? &xm;u t&dSefeJ@ vmae+yD/ &xm;vrf;ay:u
jrif;uvnf; z,fray;bl;/ tdk,ef[dkif;taeeJ@ bmvkyfrvJqdkwmudk pOf;pm;zkd@
puUef@ydkif;yJ tcsdef&w,f/ tJ'DpuUef@ydkif;rSm ol[m ol@toufukdpGef@+yD; c&D;onf
&maygif;rsm;pGm&JΠtoufudk u,fzkd@ qHk;jzwfvdkufw,f? 'g[m rsufpdwrdSwf
v#yfwjyufavmufyJ =umwJhtcsdeftwGif; obm0 yuwdpdwf (by instinct)
t& ±kwfw&uf wrk[kwfcsif; pOf;pm;qHk;jzwfvdkufwm jzpfayr,fh tJovdk ol
qH;k jzwfjzpfatmif t"du wGe;f aqmfcw
hJ mu td,
k ef[ikd ;f &ifxrJ mS &daS ewJh trsm;

98
tudsK; jynfol@tusdK;udk udk,fusdK;pGef@ xrf;aqmifo,fydk;vdkwJh pdwf"mwfjzpfw,f? ol@rSm
tJovdkrsdK; pdwf"mwf&dSw,fqdkwmudk tJ'D jzpf&yfrwdkifrD ol@&JΠvkyfaqmifcsufawGrSm
awG@Ekdifw,f qdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
wu,fawmh tcsdefwdkav;twGif; vlwa,muf csufcsif;qHk;jzwf+yD; ajymqdk
vkyfaqmifvdkufwJh uHESpfyg; trlt&m[m tJ'D vkyf&yfrwdkifrD tJ'Dvl awG;ac:cH,lxm;wJh
tawG;tac: t,ltq&JΠxif[yfcsuf w&yfom jzpfygw,f? tJ'D 0pDuHr_/ um,uHr_
[m pOf;pm;aezkd@awmif tcsdefr&wJh w'*FumvtwGif; ±kwfw&ufcsufcsif; xGufay:vm
wm jzpfayr,fh tJ'Dajymqdk vkyfaqmifr_awG[m tJ'Dvl&JŒ tpÇwW twGif;o¾mefudk
uGufuGufuGif;uGif; txif;om; t&Sif;om; azmfjyaewJh trlt&mawG jzpfygw,f?
wu,fvkd@ tdk,ef[dkif;ae&mrSm wb0vHk; udk,fusdK;om=unfhcJhwJh twWorm;wa,muf
qd&k if b,fvkd qH;k jzwfr,f xifovJ? tajzu pOf;pm;p&m rvdak vmufatmif &Si;f aerSmyg?
'ga=umifh a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m emrusef;jzpfaewJh rdcifudk jyKpkzkd@ jrefrm
jynfudk jyefa&mufvmcJhwm rSefayr,fh jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;xJ olr yg0ifvmwm[m (e0w)
(etz)wkd@ tapmydkif;rSm ajymcJh=uovkd (rqv)udk rausreyfjzpfae=uwJh EdkifiHa&; orm;
awGu vdrRmyg;eyfpGm usHK;oGif;wmukd cHcJh&wmjzpfw,fqdkwJh tcsufuawmh vHk;0rrSefyg
bl;? a':atmifqef;pk=unf&ŒJ &ifxrJ mS tpdik t
f cJvu
kd f xke@J xnfe@J wnf&aSd ewJh jrefrmjynf
olawGtay: cspcf if=uifemwJph w
d /f pmemoem;wJh pdwaf wGa=umifo
h m jzpfygw,f? olr[m
tajctaet& b0wavsmufvHk;eD;yg; trdEdkifiHeJ@ a0;uGmaecJh&ayr,fh olr&JŒ&ifxJrSm
jrefrmEdkifiHeJ@ jrefrmjynfolawG t+rJ&dSae
w,fqw
kd hJ tcsuu
f kd olr&JŒ “a=umuf&ŒHG
jcif;rS uif;vGwaf &;” pmtkyaf &SŒydik ;f rSmyg
wJh bdvyfjyefoef;ac: 'dk&moef;at;&JŒ
tcsd e f w d k a v;twG i f ;
trSmpm tygt0if a&SŒrDaemufrD yk*~dKvf
vl w a,muf
}uD;rsm;&JΠajymqdka&;om; csufrsm;t&
csuf c sif ; qH k ; jzwf + yD ;
od&dSEdkifygw,f? 'gu a':atmifqef;pk
ajymqdk vkyfaqmifvdkufwJh
=unf[m jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;xJudk trSwf
uH E S p f y g; trl t &m[m
wrJh (unwittingly) 0ifa&mufvmrdcJh
tJ'D vkyf&yfrwdkifrD
wm jzpfw,fqdkwJh ajymqdkcsufeJ@ ywf
tJ'Dvl awG;ac:cH,lxm;wJh
oufwJh usaemfh&JΠtjrifjzpfygw,f?
tawG ; tac: t,l t q&J Œ
a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf [ m
xif[yfcsuf w&yfom
trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;&JŒorD; jzpfaer_a=umifh jrefrmEdkifiH
jzpf y gw,f ?
om;wcsKd@u txif}uD; ae=uwmjzpf
w,fqdkwJh (e0w)(etz)wkd@&JΠajymqdk

99
csufeJ@ywfouf+yD; usaemfhtjrifudk ajymyg
r,f? a&$w*d b
kH &k m; taemufbuf rkcu
f a[m
ajymyGJrwdkifrDtxd tJ'Dajymqdkcsufu rSefuef
ygw,f? tm;vHk; od=uwJhtwdkif; &Spfav;vHk;
ta&;awmfyHk}uD;&JΠjrpfzsm;ydkif;rSm jrefrmjynf
olawG&ŒJ 'Dru
kd a&pD acgi;f aqmifu Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf
a[mif; OD;atmif}uD; jzpfygw,f?
usaemhftjrif ajym&&if a':atmif
qef;pk=unf&JΠa&$wd*Hk vlxktpnf;ta0;udk
vlxktiftm; axmifaygif;rsm;pGm (wcsKd@u
ig;odef;vkd@ cef@rSef;=u+yD; wcsKd@uq,fodef;vkd@
cef@rSef;=uygw,f?) wufa&mufvm=uwm
[mvnf; a[majymr,fhol[m trsdK;om;
acgif;aqmif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JΠorD;jzpf
w,fqdkwJhtcsufeJ@ jrefrmjynfolawG&JŒ “rif;
avmif;ar#mf” tawG;tac:a=umifhuvGJ+yD; bmrS r[kwfygbl;? 'gayr,fh y'krRmuGif;u
OD;atmif}uD;&JŒ a[majymcsuaf wGtay: vlx&k ŒJ tm;rvdk tm;r&jzpfr?_ a&$w*d akH [majymyGJ
rwdkifrD vufodyfxdk; jzef@a0cJhwJh a':atmifqef;pk=unfeJ@ ywfoufwJh (rqv) axmuf
vSrf;a&;awG&JΠtremy a&;om;csufawGa=umifh (rqv) tpdk;&tay: &GH&Smpufqkyfr_eJ@
a':atmifqef;pk=unftay: u±k%moufr_/ a&$wd*Hk a[majymyGJrSm ajym=um;cJhwJh rdef@cGef;
xJrSmawG@&wJh a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒ ±kd;om;jzLpifr_eJ@ jynfol@qENeJ@ wxyfwnf;
usr_pwJh tcsufawG aygif;pnf;oGm;cJhwma=umifhom a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m vlxk
acgif;aqmifqdkwJhae&mudk &&dSoGm;cJhwmjzpfygw,f?
'gayr,fh tJ'D a&$wd*Hk vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD; +yD;oGm;wJh tcsdefxdatmif jrefrm
vlxku a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk ol@zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ cGJ+yD; jrifEkdif=uao;wm
r[kwyf gb;l ? Adv
k cf sKyfukd cspcf ifav;pm;wJh pdwt
f cHay:rSm ol@uakd xmufct
H m;ay; ae=uwm
jzpfygw,f?
'gayr,fh a':atmifqef;pk=unftaeeJ@ ol[mol@zcif t&dyfudkrSDcdk+yD; &Sifoef
aewJh yef;wyGifhr[kwfwJh ta=umif;jyozkd@ tcsdef odyfrapmifhcJh&ygbl;? ppfwyfu tm%m
odrf;/ ygwDawG zGJ@pnf;+yD;aemuf r=umcif ygwDwGif; tpnf;ta0;awG/ pnf;±kH;a&;c&D;pOf
awG/ r[mrdwf zGJ@pnf;a&; tpnf;ta0;awGeJ@ tm%mzDqefa&; v_yf&Sm;r_awGtwGif;
olr&JΠ&J&ifhajymifajrmufwJh vkyfaqmifcsufawG/ a[majymcsufawG xGufay:vmwJh tcg
rSmawmh a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk jrefrmvlxku “AdkvfcsKyforD;”qdkwJh tjrifxuf “igwkd@
acgi;f aqmif”qdw
k hJ tjrifrsKd ;eJ@ ajymif;vJ±j_ rifp jyKvmcJ=h uyg+yD? tJ'aD emuf (6)ESpef ;D yg;=um

100
tdrftus,fcsKyf tcscH&r_ jzpf&yft+yD; qufwdkufqdkovdk jyocJhwJh olr&JΠ&J0Hhjywfom;r_eJ@
ud,
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S yg;) tjiif;
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'Dae&mrSm trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifqdkwJh pum;vHk; tokH;tE_ef;eJ@ ywfouf+yD;
aqG;aEG;vdkygw,f? trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifqdkwm tJ'Da0g[m& tokH;tE_ef; udk,fE_dufrSm
yg0ifaewJh tESpfom&t& EdkifiHwck&JΠjynfolw&yfvHk; (wenf;)wrsdK;om;vHk;eJ@ oufqdkif
wJh tusyt
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f mcsed rf mS tJ'D tusyt
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l k trsm;pk}uD;u av;av;eufeuf ,H=k unftm;ud;k +yD; olw@dk
&JΠar#mfvifhcsufawGudk tyfESHjcif;cH&wJh acgif;aqmifrsdK; jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dacgif;aqmif[m
tJ'D tusyftwnf;udk t+yD;wdkif ajz&Sif;oGm;EdkifcJhwJh tajctaetxd a&mufcsifrS a&muf
cJhrSm jzpfayr,fh jynfolawG&JΠ,Hk=unfudk;pm;r_ trsm;qHk; &&dSxm;oljzpfwmeJ@tnD tJ'D
tusyftwnf; ta&;udpPudk t+yD;wdkif ajz&Sif;Edkifr,fh ta&;t}uD;qHk; aomhcsufvkyfief;
awGudk vkyfaqmifoGm;EdkifcJhol jzpfavh&dSygw,f?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkrSm 'Duae@txd orRwaygif;rsm;pGm &dScJhayr,fh trsdK;
om; acgif;aqmifvkd@ qdkEdkifol ESpfa,mufom &dSygw,f? olwkd@uawmh trsdK;om;vGwf
ajrmufa&; wdu
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awmiftmz&durSm e,fvfqifrif'Jvm;/ wl&uDrSm urJvftwmwyfpf/ puFmylrSm vDuGrf;
,lpwJh olawG[m trdsK;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;
tjzpf (tjiif;yGm;p&m tenf;qHk;),lqEdkif
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wrsdK;om;vHk;eJ@ oufqdkifwJh
jrefrmEdik if rH mS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;
tusyf t wnf ;
udk trsKd ;om;acgi;f aqmiftjzpf jynfov
l x
l k
ta&;ud p P } uD ; wck c k
trsm;pk}uD;u vufcHxm;=uw,fvkd@ qdk&if
ay:ayguf v mcsd e f r S m tJ ' D
tjiif;yGm;r,fhol odyfr&dSEdkifygbl;? jrefrm
tusyftwnf;udk ajz&Sif;
jynf o l w &yf v H k ; e,f c sJ Π+Ad w d o #vuf
ay;Edkifvdrfhr,fvkd@
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o
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v=umjrifh vmwmeJ@tr# vGwfvyfa&;udk
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tcsdefudkuf ay:xGufvmcJhwJh AdkvfcsKyfatmif
,Hk=unftm;udk;+yD; olwkd@&JŒ
qef;[m EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;eJ@ ywfoufwJh
ar#mf v if h c suf a wG u d k
ol@&JΠrqkwfrepf cdkifrmjywfom;wJh qHk;jzwf
tyfESHjcif;cH&wJh
vkyfaqmifr_awGtjyif ol@&JΠolrwlatmif
acgif ; aqmif r sd K ;æ
xl;jcm;wJh ±k;d om; ajzmifrh wf wnf=unfra_ wG

101
xJrSm vGwfvyfa&;twGuf ae@rtm; nrem; aqmif&GufaecsdefrSm vkyf}uH
owfjzwfcHcJh&r_udkyg xnfhaygif;vdkufwJhtcg jrefrmjynfolw&yfvHk;&J@
&ifxt
J onf;xJrmS urBmwnfoa&GΠxm0&wnf&Sd aeawmhr,fh trsKd ;om;
acgif;aqmiftjzpfokd@ a&muf&dSoGm;cJhwm obm0usygw,f?
'Dae&mrSm pum;pyfrdvkd@ ajym&&if Akdvfae0if;[mvnf; trsdK;
om;acgi;f aqmifb0udk tdyrf ufrufcahJ o;w,fv@dk qd&k ygvrd rhf ,f? wdik ;f jynf
vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;cJhwJhaemuf jynfolw&yfvHk; 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;eJ@
qdk&S,fvpfa&; yef;wdkifrsm;qDokd@ ar#mf±_ae=ucsdefrSm Akdvfae0if;u ol@ukd
jynfolawG&JΠtJ'D ar#mfrSef;csufawGudk taumif
txnf azmfay;Edkifr,fholtjzpf jynfolawG xifjrif
,lqvmatmif }udK;yrf;cJhwJh vkyf&yfawG &dScJhvkd@ygyJ?
urBmhordkif;/
tm%modrf;,lcJh+yD;aemuf tJ'Dtcsdefu qdk&S,fvpf
jref r mh o rd k i f ;
trnfcHcJh=uwJh EdkifiHwcsKdŒ&JŒ vkyf[efwcsKdŒudk twkcdk;
ordkif;tqufqufu
vkyaf qmifcw
hJ m/ (1963)ckEpS rf mS +idr;f csr;f a&; aqG;aEG;yGJ
jyocJhwJh
usif;yay;cJhwm/ (1980)rSm omoemawmf oef@&Sif;
trSew
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wnfwjhH yef@ymG ;a&; aºuG;a=umfoeH @J oHCm*k%
d ;f aygi;f pHk
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nDvmcH}uD; usif;yay;cJh+yD; tJ'DyGJ txdrf;trSwfeJ@
qdkwm
taxGaxG vGwf+idrf;cGifh xkwfjyefay;cJhwmawG[m
vkyf,lvkd@r&/
trsdK;om; acgif;aqmifjzpfzkd@ pdwful;,Of[ef&dSwJh Akdvf
arG ; zG m ;vmwm
ae0if;&JΠtaygif;vuQ%maqmif vkyf&yfawGjzpfyg
w,f? Akdvfae0if;[m tpnf;ta0;awG/ tcrf;tem;
omjzpfw,f æ
awGrSm olajymcJhwJh rdef@cGef;awGudk olydkif yHkEdSyfwkdufu
ae aygif;csKyfpmtkyfawGtjzpf ±kdufEdSyf xkwfa0apcJh
jcif;jzifhvnf; jynfolawG&JΠtonf;ESvHk;xJrSm ae&m
,lEdkifatmif }udK;yrf;cJhygao;w,f?
'gayr,fh urBmhordkif;/ jrefrmhordkif; ordkif;tqufqufu jyocJh
wJh trSefw&m;wckuawmh “trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif qdkwm vkyf,lvkd@r&/
arG;zGm;vmwmomjzpfw,f (A national leader cannot be made but
is born)” qdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f? trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifqdkwm "m;rdk;xm;+yD;
trdef@tm%meJ@ “jzpfapownf;”vkd@ vkyf,lvkd@&wJh t&mrsdK;r[kwfygbl;?
jynfoal wGu ausauseyfeyf =unf=unfjzLjzLeJ@ todtrSwjf yK vufc=H urS
om jzpfwJht&mrsdK;yg? 'Dtcsufudk Akdvfae0if;&JŒb0 tygt0if urBmhEdkifiH
wcsKdŒu vlawG&JŒ tjzpftysufawGu jyocJh+yD;jzpfygw,f?

102
'Dvdkqdk&if a':atmifqef;pk=unfua&m trsdK;om; acgif;aqmif
wa,muf jzpfcJh+yDvm;? 'Dar;cGef;udk ajzzkd@twGuf a':atmifqef;pk=unf ay:
xGufvmcsdefrSm jrefrmjynfrSm ay:aygufaewJh trsdK;om;a&; tusyftwnf;
(National Crisis)u bmvJ qdw
k mudk qef;ppfz@dk vydk gw,f? oGm;avol (rqv)
eJ@ ol@udkqufcHwJh (e0w)(etz)wkd@u &Spfav;vHk; ta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk EdkifiHa&;
awma=umifawG&JŒ ajcxdk;r_/ (rqv)tjyKwfawG&JŒ vufoD;ykef;xdk;r_/ (Auy)&JŒ
aoG;xd;k v_@H aqmfr/_ ausmif;om;qd;k awG&ŒJ qlyrl _ &mckid Ef e_ ;f rsm;rsm;eJ@ jynfoal wG&ŒJ
taxGaxG rauseyfr_ &mckdifE_ef;enf;enf; aygif;pyfrdoGm;cJhwJh qlylt=urf;zufr_
ta&;tcif;wcktjzpf azmfenf;um;xkwf+yD; tJ'Dta&;tcif;upvkd@ tck
tcsdeftxd ay:aygufaewJh trsdK;om; tusyftwnf;udk trSDjyK+yD; ykHo¿mef
wrsdK;eJ@ odrf;ydkufu|efjyKvdk=uwJh udkvdkeDvufopf EdkifiH}uD;awG&JΠvufyg;ap
a':atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmifwhJ jynfwiG ;f u azmufjyefa&; orm;awGe@J Edik if u
H kd
aemufw}udrf u|efjzpfapr,fh tE W&m,fu tumtuG,fay;aewJh olwkd@ OD;
aqmifwJh rsdK;cspf0g'DawGt=um; jzpfyGm;ay:aygufaewJh yÉdyuQ tusyftwnf;
tjzpf }udK;pm;yrf;pm; yHkazmfae=uayr,fh wu,fh vufawG@rSmawmh vuf&Sd
trsdK;om; tusyftwnf;[m jynfolrsm;&JŒ vl@tcGifhta&; qHk;±_H;r_rsm;tay:
tajccHwJh 'Drkdua&pDa&; tusyftwnf;om jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh jrefrmjynf&JŒ
vuf&t
Sd ajctaerSm t"du yÉdyuQ[m 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;twGuf wku
d yf 0JG ifae=uwJh
tiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk wnfwHhcdkif+rJatmif }udK;yrf;ae=uwJh 'Drdk
ua&pD qef@usifolrsm;t=um;u yÉdyuQom jzpfygw,f?
tJ'D yÉdyuQ&JŒ tjrifhqHk; yHko¿mefjzpfwJh &Spfav;vHk; vlxktHkºuGr_
ta&;awmfy}kH uD;rSm ay:xGuv
f mcJ=h uwJh acgi;f aqmifawG[m vlx&k ŒJ oabmqEN
udk ukd,fpm;jyK+yD; ay:xGufvmcJh=uolawGjzpfwmrkd@ olwkd@tm;vHk;[m oufqdkif
&m tqifhtvdkuf vlxkacgif;aqmifawG jzpf=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh trsdK;om;a&;
tusyt
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kd muawmh wa,muf
wnf;yJ &dw
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k trsKd ;om;acgi;f aqmifukd vlxak cgi;f aqmifawGxu
J
(tvdktavsmuf) a&G;cs,fowfrSwf=uygw,f? tm;vHk;od=uwJhtwkdif; &Spfav;
vHk; ta&;awmfyHk}uD;qDokd@ OD;wnfaewJh umvawGrSm vlxk}uD; cHpm;ae=u&wJh
vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufcH&r_udk vlod&Sif=um; &J&J0Hh0Hh a&;om;azmfjycJhwJhtwGuf
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ta&;awmfyHk}uD;t&dSef&vmcsdefrSm xif&Sm;ausmf=um;wJh vlxkacgif;aqmifawG
trsm;tjym;ay:xGufvmcJh+yD; olwkd@xJu txif&Sm;qHk; yk*~KdvfawGuawmh OD;Ek/
OD;wifOD;/ Adkvf&efEdkifeJ@ a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkd@ jzpf=uygw,f? jynfolawGu
a&$w*d b
kH &k m; a[majymyGrJ mS a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd wcJeuf axmufct
H m;ay;cJh

103
=u+yD; ygwaD wGpwif zG@J pnf;csed rf mS ol@&ŒJ (NLD) ygwu
D kd 0ifa&mufoal wGu trsm;
qHk;jzpfcJhayr,fh tJ'Dtcsdeftxdol[m tjcm;aom0g&ifh orBm&ifh EdkifiHa&;acgif;
aqmifrsm;xuf odoo
d mom xl;xl;jcm;jcm; c|e+f yD; xk;d xGuv
f mwm (outstanding) r&dSao;ygbl;?
rsuEf mS zH;k trsKd ;rsKd ;eJ@ ppftm%m&Sipf epfatmufrmS q,fpEk pS f (2)cke;D yg;
“+idrf;0yfydjym;+yD; ta=umufw&m;eJ@ ,Ofyg;cJh=u&wJh jrefrmjynfolawG tJ'Dtcsdef
rSm tawmifw
h qH;k t&mu ra=umufoifw
h hJ t&mrSeo
f r#ukd vH;k 0ta=umuft&GŒH
txdwftvef@ r&dSbJ &J&ifhjywfom; wnf=unfckdifrmwJh pdwf"mwfeJ@ udk,fwdkif
a&SŒqHk;u vkyfaqmifjyjcif;jzifh olwkd@&ifxJu “a=umufpdwf”qdkwJh opfyif}uD;udk
tjrpfu qGJE_wfay;Edkifr,fh acgif;aqmifrsdK; jzpfygw,f?
&Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHkumv/ ygwDawGpwifzGJ@pnf;pumvawGrSm
&m*%ef;csDwJh vlxkacgif;aqmifrsm;xJu acgif;aqmifwa,mufr#omjzpfcJhwJh
a':atmifqef;pk=unf tJ'Dvdkacgif;aqmifrsdK;jzpfvmzkd@ pwifwufvSrf;cJhwJh jzpf&yf
awGuawmh ygwDpnf;±kH;a&; c&D;pOfrsm;yJ jzpfygw,f? (e0w)ppftkyfpk&JŒ trsdK;rsdK;
aom +cdrf;ajcmuf[ef@wm; aESmifh,Sufr_awGudk tJ'Dc&D;pOfawGtwGif; a':atmif
qef;pk=unf &ifqdkifausmfv$m;cJhwJhowif;awGu ol@udk tjcm;tjcm;aom acgif;
aqmifrsm;&JŒ a&SŒqkH;qDokd@ wpwp ykd@aqmifay;cJhygw,f? tJ'Dc&D;pOfawGtwGif;
ol@&ŒJ emrnf*%
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acgif;aqmifawG rsufpdusdef;avmufatmif) wae@
wjcm; ydkydk+yD; xGef;vif;awmufyvmcJhygawmhw,f?
ES p f a ygif ; ES p f q ,f
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jyocJhwJh &JpGrf;owWd/
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jywf o m;wnf = unf
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cd k i f r mr_ / oabmxm;eJ @
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tajrmf t jrif } uD ; r_ /
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(1989)ckESpf Zlvdkifv (20)&ufae@rSmrS pwifcJhwm
jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dae@upwifcJhwJh (6)ESpfeD;yg;=um
tdrftus,fcsKyfumvudk ol&ifqdkifausmfv$m; jzwf
oef;cJhyHkawG/ tdrftus,fcsKyfu vGwfajrmufcJh+yD;

104

aemuf ol@&JŒajymqdkjyKrl vkyfaqmifcJhcsufawG/ aemufykdif;rSm tdrftus,fcsKyf
t}udrf}udrf tcscH&wmawG/ ppftkyfpk&JŒ yHko¿meftrsdK;rsdK;eJ@ aESmifh,Suf
[ef@wm; +cdrf;ajcmufESdyfuGyfr_awGtay: ol@&JŒwkH@jyefcJhyHkawG/ aemufqHk; ukv
or*~ oHwref *rfbm&D =um;0ifvmcJh+yD;aemuf jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD;
ol@&JŒudkifwG,f ajz&Sif;yHkawG+yD;wJh aemufrSmawmh a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m
vlxkacgif;aqmif wa,muftjzpfuae trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif wa,muf
tjzpfokd@ a&muf&dSoGm;cJh+yD jzpfw,fvkd@ usaemf,lqygw,f?
trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifqdkwm wrsdK;om;vHk;&JΠacgif;aqmifjzpfyg
w,f? ArmawGuyJ/ &Srf;awGuyJ/ u&ifawGuyJ/ c&pf,mefawGuyJ/ rlpvif
awGuyJ olwkd@acgif;aqmiftjzpfowfrSwf=uwJh acgif;aqmifrsdK;r[kwfygbl;?
vlrsdK;/ bmom/ tv$m/ twef;tpm;ra&G; trsdK;om;w&yfvHk;u ausaus
eyfeyf tlv_dufonf;v_duf olwkd@acgif;aqmiftjzpfvufcH=uwJh acgif;aqmif
om trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifjzpfygw,f? acgif;aqmifwa,mufrSm &dSoifh&dS
xdkufwJh t&nftaoG;tm;vHk;&dS±kHomru wrsdK;om;vkH;uyg vufcH=unfjzL
rSom trsdK;om;acgif;aqmifqdkwJh tjrifhrm;qHk; *k%fj'yfeJ@ xdkufwefwmjzpf
ygw,f? tJ'Doabmw&m;t& 'Duae@a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m ol@zcif
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;&&dx
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kd hJ *k%yf 'k rf sK;d eJ@ rxku
d f
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f ckrS usaemf&mS vk@d rawG@wm trSeyf gy?J
usaemfxyfqif+h yD; ajymvdw
k hJ tcsuw
f ckuawmh jrefrmhEikd if aH &;rSm
olyg0ifjzwfoef; av#mufvrS ;f cJw
h hJ ESpaf ygi;f ESpq
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EdkifiHwck/ a'owck&JΠacgif;aqmifwa,mufr#omrubJ urBmhacgif;aqmif
wOD;vkd@ ac:qdkEdkifavmufatmif xdkufwefr_ tjynfht0&dSolwOD;jzpfw,f
qdkwmygyJ?
Õ

105
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tcktxd q,fpEk pS f ESpcf w
k mumvtwGi;f a':atmifqef;
pk = unf & J Πaumif ; uG u f a wG / tm;aumif ; csuf a wG
ta=umif;awmh usaemfwkd@ tv#Hy,f =um;cJhodcJh=u&+yD;
yg+yD? 'DumvtwGi;f ol[m trSm;t,Gi;f wcsK@d vkyrf cd w
hJ m
r&dSbl;vm;? ol@rSm tm;enf;csuf wpHkw&m r&dSbl;vm;?
cifAsm;taeeJ@ &dScJhw,fvkd@ ,lq&if tJ'DtrSm;awG/ tm;
enf;csufawG[m bmawGjzpfw,fqkdwmudk &Sif;jyygvm;?
ar; ?

ajz ?
? 'Dar;cGef;udk ajz&rSm tifrwef pGef@pm;vGef;&m usygw,f? wu,f
awmh Edik if aH &;rSm trSet
f rSm;qdw
k m vG,v
f ,
G af ygah ygh cGjJ cm;ajymqdv
k @dk &wJt
h &m
rsKd ; r[kwb
f ;l qdw
k m qifjcif^m%f&o
Sd w
l ikd ;f od=uygw,f? wcsKŒd udpaP wGu trSef
trSm; odEdkifzkd@ &mpkESpfeJ@awmif csD+yD; apmifhcJh&wm jzpfygw,f? wcsKdŒudpPawGqdk
+yD;qHk;oGm;cJhwm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm =umcJhayr,fh tckwdkif trSeftrSm;udpP tjiif;
yGm;ae=uqJ &dSygao;w,f? 'g[m vlr_ody`H ynm&yf&JŒ ±_yfaxG;odrfarG@ euf±_dif;
cufcJwJh obm0a=umifh jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; 'Dobm0udk odxm;=uwJh
ordkif;ynm&SifawG[m EdkifiHa&;e,fy,frSm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh=uolawG&JΠvkyf&yf
awG rSeo
f vm;/ rSm;ovm;qdw
k meJ@ ywfouf+yD; ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGm =um+yD;aemuf
rSmawmifrS ,wdjywfajymavhr&dSbJ xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf; ajymavh&Sd=uwm jzpf
ygw,f?
'gayr,fh usaemfuawmh ordkif;ynm&Sifwa,muf r[kwfwmu
wa=umif;/ vlyk*~dKvf tusdK;xuf EkdifiHtusdK;udk ydk+yD; OD;pm;ay;&r,fqdkwJh EdkifiH
om;wa,muf&ŒJ usi0hf wft&wa=umif; usaemft
h ay: usa&mufvmEdik zf ,
G &f Sd
wJh 'Dru
kd a&pD tiftm;pkrsm;&JΠtxiftjrif vGrJ mS ;Edik rf _ tE &W m,fukd ab;csw
d f
+yD; cifAsm;ar;cGef;udk ajzygr,f?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠjrefrmjynfolawGtay: cspfcifjrwfEdk;wJh
pdwf/ ol@&JΠ&JpGrf;owWd&dSr_eJ@ udk,fusdK;pGef@ tepfemcHr_awGuawmh enf;enf;u
av;rS ar;cGef;xkwfzkd@ rvdktyfwm tm;vHk;todyJ jzpfygw,f? rdef;rom;
wa,muftaeeJ@ ol jzwfoef;ausmfv$m;cJhwJh tcuftcJ taESmifht,Suf
twm;tqD;awG[m ajymr,Hk }uKHzl;rSodvkd@ qdk&avmufatmif }uD;rm;av;
eufcJhygw,f? b0wckvHk;udk ay;qyfpGef@v$wf+yD; vGwfvyfr_/ w&m;r#wr_/
vl@tcGifhta&;pwJh aumif;jrwfjcif;w&m;awGtwGuf ra=umufr&GHΠaemuf

106
rwGef@wrf; wdkufyGJ0ifcJhwJh ol@&JŒyHk&dyf[m
urBmwnfoa&GΠwnf&dSaerSm taot
csm jzpfygw,f?
'gayr,f h a':atmif q ef ; pk
=unf[m vlom;wa,muf jzpfwmeJ@
tnD ol @ rS m vnf ; / tjcm;ol a wG v d k y J
trSm;awG&dScJhw,fvkd@ usaemf ,lqyg
w,f? 'Dae&mrSm}uKHvkd@ pum;pyf&&if
usaemfwkd@tm;vHk; 'Duae@ vGwfvyfa&;
zcif}uD; trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; tjzpf
owfrSwfxm;=uwJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
awmif *syefawGudk ac:oGif;vmcJhwm rSm;
w,f q d k w J h t a=umif ; 0ef c H c J h z l ; wmud k
trSwf&rdygw,f?
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu ol@&JŒ
rde@f ceG ;f wckxrJ mS “usrudk jrefrmjynf Edik if H
a&;ta=umif; rodbl;vkd@ ajym=uw,f?
odveG ;f vk@d cufaew,f”vd@k ajymqdck ahJ yr,fh usaemfuawmh ol[m jrefrmhEikd if aH &;e,fy,f
xJ 0ifa&mufvmcgprSm jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;&JŒ obm0udk (txl;ojzifh ppftkyfpk&JŒobm0udk)
eufeuf±id_ ;f ±_id ;f em;rvnfcahJ o;bl;vk@d yJ xifygw,f? b0t& ol}uKHawG@ jzwfoef;vmcJw
h hJ
Edik if aH &;u orm;±k;d us tvSnt
hf ywf tcsKd ;tauG@ tvSnt
hf ajymif; r&do
S avmufjzpfwhJ
EdkifiHa&;rsdK;jzpf+yD; jrefrmjynfu EdkifiHa&; (txl;ojzifh jrefrmjynf ppftm%m&Sifpepf&JŒ
xl;jcm;wJh p±kdufvuQ%mrsm;)ta=umif; olodxm;wJh todtrsm;pkuvnf; pmod(0g)
}uHqodawGom jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifv
h nf; &Spaf v;vH;k vkd tifrwefrS xl;jcm;/ tifrwefrS
}uD;us,fvSwJh ta&;awmfyHk}uD;w&yf twGif;okd@ }udKwifar#mfvifh jyifqifxm;jcif; r&dSbJ
0ifa&mufvmrdwt
hJ cg awmfveS af &;w&yfv;kH &JΠtESpo
f m&udk ydik yf idk Ef ikd Ef ikd f qkyu
f ikd Ef ikd cf jhJ cif;
r&dSbJ vlxk&JŒ a&csdefudk trDrvkdufEdkifcJhwm jzpfygw,f? 'Dtcsufudk (rqv)tpdk;&&JŒ
oabmwlnDcsuf rygbJ =um;jzwftpdk;& zGJ@pnf;a&;tay: ol@&JΠwGifwGifjiif;aer_rSmawG@&dS
Edkifygw,f? jrefrmjynfEdkifiHa&;ta=umif; wu,fyJ aumif;aumif;odwJh OD;Eku “usaemf
omv#if 0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfa=umif;”qdkwJh pum;eJ@twl tJ'DumvrSm tvkyfoifh tvkyf
xku
d q
f ;kH tvkyu
f kd touftE &W m,fuakd wmif *±krpdu
k b
f J vkycf jhJ yefawmhvnf; a':atmif
qef;pk=unfu tJ'Dvkyf&yfudk ae@rul;cifrSmyJ qef@usifuef@uGufcJhygw,f? OD;Ek&JŒtJ'Dvkyf
&yf ratmifjrifcJhr_rSm tJ'Dvkyf&yfudk,fE_duf&JΠvkyfyHkvkyfenf;qdkif&m tm;enf;csuf
(Technical drawbacks)awG ygaer_u wpdww
f ydik ;f wm0ef&w
Sd m rSeaf yr,fh tJ't
D csed rf mS

107
vlxkoabmxm;tay: v$rf;rkd;r_ &&dSvmpjyKae+yD
jzpfwJh a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠ&yfwnfcsufu ykd
ta&;}uD;ygw,f? tJ'D tcsdefrSm ol@taeeJ@ OD;Ek&JŒ
vkyf&yfudk wcgxJ wef;+yD;y,fcsjcif;rjyKbJ OD;Ek eJ@
oGm;a&muf awG@qkHn‡dE_dif;+yD; ykdrkdus,fjyef@/ ykdrkd,kH
=unftm;xm;avmufzG,f&SdwJh tpkd;&rsKd;zGJ@pnf;
Ekid v
f u
dk rf ,fq&dk if tajctae[m wrsK;d jzpfcsif jzpf
oGm;cJhrSmyg? 'gayr,fholu tJovdk rvkyfcJhwJh
tjyif “ausmif ; om;jynf o l &[ef ; &S i f v l a wG
toufaoG;ac|;eJ@ paw;&if;ES;D +yD;&&dv
S mwJh atmif
yGJudk b,fEdkifiHa&; orm;u tjrwfxkwfwmudkrS
usr cHrmS r[kwb
f ;l ”vd@k ajymvdu
k jf yefawmh OD;Ek&ŒJ
pif;vHk;acsm r[kwfayr,fh &J&ifhajymifajrmufwJh
vkyf&yftay: jynfolawG ydkrdk±_yfaxG;oGm;=uygawmhw,f?
aemufw}udrfu pufwifbmv(14)&ufae@rSm (Auo)rsm;tzGJ@
csKyfu acgif;aqmif(5)OD; (OD;Ek/ OD;atmif}uD;/ OD;wifOD;/ Adkvf&efEdkifeJ@ a':atmif
qef;pk=unf)wkd@udk pkay;+yD; =um;jzwftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;a&; aqG;aEG;apwJhudpPrSm
jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dtpnf;ta0;rSmvnf; =um;jzwftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;a&; &nfrSef;
csuf txrajrmufcJhygbl;? tJovdk txrajrmufcJhwm rSm;w,fvkd@ ,lqr,f
qd&k if tJ't
D rSm;twGuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfrmS vnf; (20 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f ) wm0ef
&dSw,fvkd@ qdk&ygvdrfhr,f?
aemufa':atmifqef;pk=unf&ŒJ trSm;wckv@dk usaemfjrifwu
hJ pd w
P ck
vnf; &dSygao;w,f? (1995)Zlvdkifv(10)&ufae@rSm a':atmifqef;pk=unf
yxrt}udrf tdrftus,fcsKyfu vGwfajrmufvmcJhygw,f? tJ'Dae@upvkd@
ol@trd af &SŒrSm tywfpOf a[majymyGaJ wG vkycf iG &hf cJw
h m (1)ESp0f ef;usif =umjrifch hJ
ygw,f? tJ'Da[majymyGJu oltygt0if (NLD)acgif;aqmif (3)OD;&JΠa[m
ajymcsufawGu vlxk&JΠpdwf"mwf jyefvnfjrifhrm;a&;twGuf xdxda&muf
a&muf yHhydk;wGef;tm;ay;cJhw,fqdkwJhtcsuftay: tjiif;yGm;p&m r&dSayr,fh
a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m tJ'Davmuf (E_dif;,SOfcsuft&) vGwfvyfcGifh &Snf
&Sn=f um=um &&dcS w
hJ hJ tifrwef tzd;k wefvw
S hJ umvukd tifrwef ta&;}uD;wJh
tvkyw
f ckvyk zf @dk twGuf toH;k csEikd jf cif; r&dcS yhJ gb;l ? tJ'guawmh (NLD) ygwu
D kd
uspfvspfckdifrmodyfonf;wJh ygwDw&yftjzpf pepfwus zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmuf
jcif;rSwpfqifh 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pktm;vHk; yg0ifwJh EdkifiHa&; wyfaygif;pk}uD;
w&yf wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;yJ jzpfygw,f? (1)ESpfqdkwJh umv[m ygwDzGJ@

108
pnf;yHkpnf;rsOf;udk tcdkiftrm a&;qGJjyXmef;/ &yf/ aus;/ +rdKŒe,f/ c±kdif/ wdkif;/
A[dk tqifq
h ifn
h v
D mcHawG usi;f y+yD; 'Dru
kd a&pDenf;us a&G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufwhJ
ygwaD cgi;f aqmifra_ wG ay:ayguv
f matmif vkyaf qmifEikd zf @dk vHak vmufwt
hJ csed f
jzpfygw,f?
'gayr,fh th=H op&m aumif;avmufatmifyJ a':atmifqef;pk=unf
[m tJ'Dvkyfief;udk vHk;0vkyfaqmifcJhjcif; r&dSygbl;? wu,fvkd@om ol@taeeJ@
jcHa&SŒu a[majymyGaJ wGukd “csKd ” +yD; tJ'yD gww
D nfaqmufa&;vkyif ef;rSm “yd”k
vdkufr,fqdk&if (etz)u olay;xm;wJh vGwfvyfr_umvudk wdk;csJŒaumif;
wkd;csJŒEdkifzG,f&dSygw,f? jcHa&SŒu a[majymyGJawG wESpfavmufeJ@ ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;
cJh&wm[m a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠtJ'DtrSm;a=umifh [kwfr[kwfqdkwm
raocsmayr,fh aocsmwmwckuawmh &Sm;yg;tzdk;wefvSwJh tJ'D umv
twGif; jrefrmjynfolawG olwkd@&JΠOD;aqmifygwD}uD;udk cdkifcdkifrmrm uspfuspf
vspfvspf pepfwus (systematically well organized) zGJ@pnf;xm;wJh
wu,fh 'Drdkua&pDygwD}uD; w&yftjzpf awG@jrifEdkif=ur,fh tcGifhxl;}uD;ukd
qHk;±_H;oGm;cJh=uw,fvdk@ qdkwmygyJ? usaemfht,ltqt&ajym&&if tJ'D
aemufyikd ;f a':atmifqef;pk=unf tjyifrmS r&dw
S hJ umvawGrmS jzKwf=u/ xkwf
=u/ xGuf=u/ uGJ=u/ +yJ=upwJh jy\emawGudk ay:aygufapcJhwJh ygwDacgif;
aqmifr_ tusyt
f wnf; (Leadership Crisis) [m a':atmifqef;pk=unf&ŒJ
tJ'DtrSm;rSm wpdwfwydkif; jrpfzsm;cHygw,f? e*dkuwnf;u wwfodeJ@
rsdK;cspfqdk+yD; tufa=umif;&dScJhwJh ygwDwckrSm
ygwDeJ@ vlxkw&yfvHk;&JΠ(Mandate)udk &&dS
xm;wJh acgi;f aqmifu tJ't
D ufa=umif;udk
tqifhqifhnDvmcHawG
(tajctaeay; tcsdeftcg oifhygvsuf)
usif ; y+yD ;
wqufwnf;/ wxyfwnf;/ wom;wnf;/
jzpfomG ;atmif vkyrf ay;cJw
h t
hJ wGuf (NLD)
'Drdkua&pDenf;us
[m (twdkif;twm wcktxd) tiftm;
a&G ; cs,f w if a jr‡ m uf w J h
avsmhenf;oGm; cJh&wJhtjyif pkaygif;acgif;
ygwD a cgif ; aqmif r _ a wG
aqmifr_ csKdŒwJhjcif;&JŒ tusdK;quftjzpf
ay:ayguf v matmif
&Spaf v;vH;k ta&;awmfykH aemufyikd ;f vlx&k ŒJ
vkyfaqmifEdkifzkd@
xufoefwufºuGr_ tjrifhqHk;umvjzpfwJh
vHkavmufwJhtcsdef
a&$0ga&mifawmfveS f a&;umvtwGi;f jynf
jzpf y gw,f ?
ol@OD;aqmifygwD}uD;qdkwJh *k%fyk'feJ@tnD
cdik rf mjywfom; &J&ifph mG vlxu
k kd OD;aqmif+yD;

109

yef;wdkifta&muf csDwufoGm;EdkifpGrf; uif;rJhcJh&wm jzpfw,fvkd@yJ usaemf
jrifygw,f?
a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m tJ'DtrSm;udk trSm;vkd@ ,lqyHkr&ygbl;?
'ga=umifhvnf; tJ'Daemufydkif; tjyifrSm ae&csdefawGrSmvnf; tJ'D ygwDwnf
aqmufa&;udpPudk vkyfzkd@ wcgrS pum;r[cJhwm jzpfygw,f? rdrdygwD&JΠacgif;
aqmif tajymif;tvJudpP[m a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&SifeJ@ bmrSrqdkifbJ rdrdwkd@
ygw&D ŒJ udpo
P m jzpfw,fqw
kd mudk tm;vH;k vdyk o
J x
d m;rSm aocsmwJh a':atmif
qef;pk=unf[m aemufydkif; oltjyifrSm &dSaecGifh&wJh umvawGrSmvnf;
tm;vH;k u touf(80)ausmaf wG jzpfae=u+yjD zpfwhJ (NLD ) acgi;f aqmifyikd ;f &JŒ
pGrf;aqmif&nfeJ@ywfouf+yD; ar;cGef;xkwfr_awGtay: cg;cg;onf;onf;
wkH@jyefcJhwJhtjyif tJ'Dacgif;aqmifr_udk w&m;0iftm;jznfhzkd@ udpPudkvnf;
pOf;awmifpOf;pm;cJhyHk r&ygbl;? (etz)&JΠjyif;xefwJh zdEdSyfr_atmufrSm ygwD
acgi;f aqmifru
_ kd tm;jznfw
h m[m orifarG;&if; usm;pm;&if;qdw
k hJ pum;yHyk rm
jzpfavrvm;vkd@ awG;+yD; tJovdk rvkyfcJhwm jzpfrvm;vkd@ usaemf ajzawG;/
awG;=unfhrdygw,f? 'gayr,fh ol&dSwJh tcsdefom v_yf&Sm;r_&dS+yD; olr&dSwJh tcsdef
rSm avjzwfwJh vlvdkjzpfaewJh ygwDwcku vlr_pepf}uD; wckvHk; ajymif;vJypf
&r,fh vkyif ef;pOfrmS vlxu
k kd cdik rf m&J&ifh jywfom;pGm b,fvkd OD;aqmifEikd rf mS vJ
qdw
k t
hJ csuu
f kd a':atmifqef;pk=unf taeeJ@ OD;pm;ay; pOf;pm;oifch w
hJ ,fv@dk yJ
usaemfjrifygw,f? tJ'Dvdk rpOf;pm;cJhwm[mol@&JΠt"du trSm;jzpfw,fvkd@
usaemf,lqygw,f?
Õ

110
ar; ?
? jrefrmEdkifiHtjyifrSm aexdkifvsuf&dS+yD; 'Drdkua&pDa&; aqmif
&Guaf e=uwJh tiftm;pkawG[m nD!w
G rf r_ &S=d ubl;? tuGu
J JG tjym;jym;
jzpfae=uw,f? olwkd@[m jynfwGif;u tiftm;pkawGavmufawmif
nD!Gwfr_r&dSbl;qdk+yD; wcsKd@u jypfwifa0zefae=uw,f? tJ'DudpPeJ@
ywfouf+yD; cifAsm;&JΠtjrifu b,fvdk&dSovJ?
ajz ?
? 'Dae&mrSm nD!Gwfa&;qdkwJh pum;vHk;&JΠwu,fhtESpfom&udk aoao
csmcsm oabmaygufem;vnfzkd@ vdkygw,f? nD!Gwfjcif;onf cGeftm;qdkwm rSefyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh t*wdw&m; (4)yg;teuf wyg;yg;a=umifh nD!w
G w
f m[m ppfreS w
f hJ
nD!Gwfjcif; r[kwfygbl;? tJ'DvdkrsdK; nD!Gwfjcif;u b,fvdk cGeftm;rsdK;rSvnf; ay:
xGufvmrSm r[kwfygbl;? ppfrSefwJh nD!Gwfjcif;qdkwm rdrdwkd@&JΠoD;jcm; udk,fykdif
tawG;tac: t,ltqawGudk vGwfvyf+idrf;csrf;pGm azmfxkwfcGifh &&dSjcif;rSwqifh
bHt
k usKd ;pD;yGg; wcktwGuf oufqikd o
f t
l m;vH;k nD!w
G pf mG aygi;f pnf;a&maESm aysm0f if
oGm;jcif;udk qdv
k w
kd mjzpfygw,f? vmwJo
h u
l kd bmay;r,f nmay;r,f rvmwJh olu
awmh tudsK;qufukd &ifqikd &f vdrrhf ,fqw
kd hJ acsmv
h ;kH / ajcmufv;kH awGe@J abmvH;k uGi;f xJ
qGJxnfhjcif;cHxm;&wJh vlawGu pifjrifhay:u vlwdkifay;wJh aºuG;a=umfoHudk ,drf;
wdkufxm;ovdk vufoD;vufarmif;wef;+yD; udk,fwjcm;/ pdwfwjcm; vkdufatmfae
=uwm[m wefzdk;&dSwJh nD!Gwfa&;&JΠjy,k*fr[kwfygbl;?
jrefrmEdkifiH tjyifbufu 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkawGqdkwJh acgif;pOfatmuf
rSm trsm;pk}uD;u 'Drdkua&pDudk vdkvm;olawG jzpf=uayr,fh tjcm;aom &nf&G,f
csufawGeJ@ a&muf&dSae=uwJh olawGvnf; &dSaeygw,f? tJ'DolawGxJrSm ppftkyfpku
taotcsm avhusifhoif=um;ay;+yD; apv$wfxm;wJh vlawGvnf; yg0ifaew,f
qdkwJh tcsufuawmh ar;cGef;xkwfp&m rvdkatmif aocsmwJhudpPyg? olwkd@uawmh
enf;vrf;aygi;f pHo
k ;kH +yD; 'Dru
kd a&pDa&; v_y&f mS ;r_awGukd [ef@wm;aESmif,
h u
S f zsuq
f ;D rSm
ygyJ? olwkd@tzkd@ 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkrsm; twGif;eJ@ 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkrsm;t=um;
nD!w
G af &;qdw
k m aorde@f yjJ zpfwmrk@d nD!w
G af &; wnfaqmufv@dk r&atmif enf;rsKd ;
pHkoHk; }udK;yrf;=urSmygyJ? 'guwcsufyg?
aemufwcsufu EdkifiHtjyifbuf a&mufvm=uwJh 'Drdkua&pD bufawmf
om;awG&JΠtouft&G,f/ tawG@t}uKH/ ynm t&nftcsif;/ EdkifiHa&; a&csdefpwJh
aemufcHawG rwl=uwmygyJ? tJ'D rwlr_awGu olwkd@toD;oD;&JΠvkyf&yfawGudk
jyXmef;wmrkd@ olwkd@=um;rSm tºuGif;rJh nD!Gwfa&;qdkwm b,fawmhrS wnf&dSvmrSm
r[kwfygbl;?

111
tm%modrf; (e0w)tpdk;&u ygwDawG zGJ@cGifh
urB m ausmf
jyKvdkufawmh ygwD(200)ausmf ay:vmwmudk wcsKd@
*E W 0 if v uf & mtjzpf
u ESmacgif;±_HŒ+yD; “awG@vm; æ enf;enf;av; zGifh
ay;vdkufwmeJ@ jrefrmawG[m uGJ=uawmhwmyJæ
owfrSwfcHxm;&wJh
jrefrmvlrsdK;[m nD!Gwfatmifvkyfay;vkd@ r&wJh
b,f y ef ; csD u m;rS
vlrsdK;yg”vdk@ ar;aighcJh=uw,f? tJovdk ajymwm[m
ta&mif w a&mif w nf ;
*syefEdkifiHrSm vuf&dSwnf+idrfcdkifrmwJh EdkifiHa&; pepf
toH k ; jyK+yD ;
wckqDokd@ av#mufvSrf;cJhwJh c&D;tprSm ygwD (200)
a&;qG J x m;wJ h
ausmf &dScJhzl;w,fqdkwJh A[kokw uif;rJhvkd@ ajymwm
yef ; csD u m; r&S d y gbl ; ?
jzpfygw,f? vGefcJhwJh wESpf ESpfESpfavmufuyJ *syef
v$waf wmfxrJ mS trwfawG wa,mufe@J wa,muf
vufoD;pGrf; jy=uw,fqdkwJh owif;wck =um;vdkuf
&w,f? tJ'g[m nD!Gwfa&; +yKduGJwmvm;? *syef
EdkifiHudk pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_ +yKduGJaewJh EdkifiHwEdkifiHtjzpf b,fynm&SifurS owfrSwfazmfjy
wmrsdK; usaemf r=um;zl;ygbl;?
tar&duef EdkifiHudk =unfhvkdufygOD;? 'Drdku&ufwpfeJ@ &DywfbvDuifqdk+yD; ygwD
}uD;ESpfck uGJaew,f? tJ'g[m EdkifiH&JΠpnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ +yKduGJaewmvkd@ ajymrSmvm;?
orRwa&G;aumufyGJeD;vkd@ tJ'DygwD}uD;ESpfcku ygwDudk,fpm;jyKorRwavmif; a&G;awmh
r,fqdk&if ,SOf+yKdifr,fhol (10)a,mufxufrenf; ay:xGufvmavh&dSw,f? 'gudk tJ'D
ygwDwGif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ +yKduGJaewJh vuQ%m wckvkd@ qdk&rSmvm;? ygwDwGif; orRw
avmif; a&G;aumufyrJG mS a&m/ orRwa&G;aumufyrJG mS yg t}udwt
f e,f jzpfavh&=dS u+yD; rJawG
vnf; rwdrf;r,drf; &avh&Sd=uwm avhvmolwdkif; todjzpfygw,f? 'gwifrubl; vuf&dS
orRw&JΠrl0g'wckckudk rauseyfvkd@ EdkifiHw0Srf; jynfolawG aomif;eJ@ odef;eJ@csD+yD; qENjy=u
wm rsdK;awGudkvnf; awG@cJh=urSmyg? Oyrm tD&wfppfyGJudk qef@usifwJh qENjyyGJvdk rsdK;aygh?
tJ'Dvkd oabmxm;csif; rwdkufqdkifr_awG&dSayr,fh 'Duae@ tar&duefEdkifiHudk trsdK;om;
aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ +yKduGJ+yD; bufaygif;pHk tiftm;csnfheJ@ aewJh EdkifiHwcktjzpf b,folurS
!$ef;qdkjcif; r&Sd=uygbl;?
tcsdefumv&JΠprf;oyfr_ rSwfausmufwkdufr_udk cH,lEdkifcJh+yD; ,ae@wkdif urBm
ausmf *E W0ifvuf&mtjzpf owfrSwfcHxm;&wJh b,fyef;csDum;rS ta&mifwa&mifwnf;
toHk;jyK+yD; a&;qGJxm;wJh yef;csDum; r&Sdygbl;? ta&mifrsKd;pkHudk tcsdK;tq tzdtazmh
twdrf teufrSefrSef toHk;jyK+yD; a&;qGJxm;=uwm jzpfygw,f? wenf;ajym&&if tJ'D
yef;csDum;awG[m ta&mifawGudk pepfwus pnf;vHk; nD!Gwfapjcif;jzifh zefwD;xm;wJh
kd a&pDqw
kd m
tEkynmvuf&mawG jzpfygw,f/ (unity of diversities)? wu,fawmh 'Dru
ud,
k Ef u
d_ u
f usm;/ r/ touft&G,/f vlrsKd ;/ bmom/ tawG;tac: t,ltq/ b0aemufcH

112
trsKd ;rsKd ;&S=d uwJh jynfoal wG&ŒJ tusKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf tJ'jD ynfoal wGuom tm%mydik pf ;kd wJh
tJ'DjynfolawG&JΠtpdk;&pepfyJ r[kwfvm;/ (by the people, for the people, of the
people)? trsKd ;rsKd ;aom rwlujJG ym;jcm;em;r_awG ud,
k pf &D =dS uwJv
h al wGaexdik w
f hJ Edik if w
H ckrmS
tºuGi;f rJh tvH;k pHk nD!w
G af &;qdw
k m b,fv&kd ESd ikd rf mS vJ? jynfow
l @dk &ŒJ axmufcrH J (99²99µ)
jzifh twnfjyKvdkufonfqdkwmrsdK;[m ordefaygoGyf pum;vHk; iSm;+yD;ajym&&if “ayg&J
vdkufwm” qdkwJh aygawmawm tm%m&SifEdkifiHawGrSmuvGJ+yD; urBmhwjcm; b,fEdkifiH
rsdK;rSmrS &dSwwfwJh t&mrsdK;r[kwfygbl;?
'ga=umifch ifAsm;ar;wJah r;cGe;f xJu nD!w
G af &;qdw
k m b,fvn
kd !
D w
G af &;rsKd ;vJ?
(99²99µ)qdw
k hJ aygawmnD!w
G af &;rsKd ;vm;? tJ'n
D !
D w
G af &;rsKd ;uawmh tjcm;tjcm;aom
'Drdkua&pDEkdifiH/ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;vdkyJ jynfya&mufjrefrmh'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkrsm;
twGif;eJ@ t=um;rSmvnf;r&dSrSm aocsmygw,f? 'DtwGufvnf;bmrS tm;rvdk tm;r&
jzpfaep&m rvdkygbl;? ay;xm;csuf umvwckrSm &dSaewJhjynfoltrsm;pk}uD;&JΠtrsdK;om;
tudsK;pD;yGm;udk [ef@wm;aESmifh,Sufqef@usifzsufqD;r_ rjyKvkyfor# umvywfvHk; vGwf
vyfpGmoabmxm;uGJvGJcGifh &dSygw,f? (agree to disagree)? ppftkyfpku apv$wfxm;wJh
olv#dK'vefawG&JΠnD!Gwfa&;+yKduGJatmifzefwD;r_awGeJ@ ywfoufvkd@uawmh 'Drdkua&pD
tiftm;pktm;vHk;u Edk;=um;wJh awmfvSefa&;owd (oHo, vGefuJvGef;jcif;r[kwf)eJ@
avhvmtuJcwfae=ur,fqdk&if wcsdefr[kwfwcsdefv,fjyifrSm qifoGm;ovdkyJ bGm;
bGm;}uD;ay:xGufvmrSm jzpfygw,f?
jynfyu tiftm;pkawGu jynfwGif;u tiftm;pkawGavmufawmif rnD!Gwf
bl;qdkwJh a0zefcsufeJ@ ywfoufvkd@uawmh
aoaocsmcsm pOf ; pm;oH k ; oyf = unf h & if
jynfwGif;uvlawGtzkd@ xl;xl;jcm;jcm; *k%f
,l0ifhºuGm;aeavmufp&m udpPwck r[kwf
jynfolwkd@&JŒaxmufcHrJ
ygbl;? jynfwGif;uvlawG[m ppftkyfpk&JŒ
(99²99µ)jzif h
ppfzdeyfeJ@ wdwdususteif;cHxm;=u&wJh/
twnfjyKvdkufonf
'Drdkua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;vHk;0 r&dSwJh
qd k w mrsd K ;[m
tajctaerSm aexdkifae=u&wma=umifh
ordefaygoGyf pum;vHk;
olwkd@twGufnD!Gwfa&;[m toufjzpfyg
w,f? nD!Gwfa&;r&dS&if EdkifiHa&;t& quf
iS m ;+yD ; ajym&&if
vuf&Sifoef&yfwnfzkd@ vHk;0rjzpfEdkifygbl;?
“ayg&Jvdkufwm” qdkwJh
wa,mufeJ@wa,muf ausmcsif;uyf &if
aygawmawm
csif;tyf vufcsif;csdwfxm;=urSom rdrdwkd@
tm%m&S i f E d k i f i H a wG r S m æ
acgi;f ay:ueif;xm;wJh ppfzed yf&ŒJ tav;csed f
udk wpHkw&m oufomavsmhyg;apEdkifrSm

113

trsm;upd w f x J r S m
oabmwl v uf c H x m;=u+yD ; jzpf w J h
twdkif;twm tuef@towfudk rausmfvGefoa&GŒ
tJ'Dvdk rwluGJjym;jcm;em;wJh
t,l tqawG u d k rjzpf r ae ay:xG u f v matmif a wmif
0d k i f ; 0ef ; }ud K ;yrf ; =u&rS m jzpf y gw,f

jzpfwma=umifh cHpm;odt& nD!Gwf=u&wm jzpfygw,f? tjyifrSm&dSwJh vl
awGuawmh “usnv
f w
G ef ,fajr” (bullet free zone) rSm&daS e=uwJh olrsm;
jzpf=uwJh tm;avsmfpGm/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;eJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;udk wpHk w&yfaom
twdik ;f twmtxd &&dx
S m;=uolrsm;jzpfwhJ tm;avsmpf mG (E_id ;f ,SOcf sut
f &)
jynfwGif;u vlawGxuf ta=umufw&m;u ydkrdkuif;a0;ae=uwJhtwGuf
rdrdwkd@&JŒtawG;tjrift,ltqawGudk jynfwGif;u vlawGxufykd+yD; vGwf
vGwfvyfvyf yGifhyGifhvif;vif; azmfxkwfEkdif=uygw,f? 'Dvdk azmfxkwf
=uwJt
h cg xH;k pHtwdik ;f wcke@J wck wd;k rdwu
kd rf /d xdrcd wfr=d urSm obm0ygy?J
rnD!Gwfwm r[kwfygbl;? 'Drdkua&pDudk usifhoHk;cGifh&wJh tajctaerSm 'Drdk
ua&pDudk usifhoHk;=uwmom jzpfygw,f? pm&Gufay: csra&;xm;aomf
vnf; trsm;updwfxJrSm oabmwlvufcHxm;=u+yD;jzpfwJh twdkif;twm
tuef@towfudk rausmfvGefoa&GΠtJ'Dvdk rwluGJjym;jcm;em;wJh t,l
tqawGudk rjzpfrae ay:xGufvmatmifawmif 0dkif;0ef;}udK;yrf;=u&rSm
jzpf y gw,f ? vl t rsm;pk } uD ; u vuf c H o abmwl x m;+yD ; jzpf w J h vrf ;
a=umif;u aoGzDoGm;wJhvlawG twGufuawmh ajymp&mr&dSygbl;? olwkd@
oabmolwkd@ aqmifoGm;=uygvdrfhr,f?
tJ'aD wmh cifAsm;ar;cGe;f udk csKyf+yD;ajym&&if vuf&rSd mS jrefrmEdik if H
tjyifbufrSm a&muf&dSaewJh 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawG twGif;eJ@t=um;rSm
nD!Gwfa&;+yKduGJae+yDvkd@ ajymEkdifavmufwJh tajctaersdK;awG jzpfxGef;
ay:aygufaejcif;r&dSbl;vkd@yJ usaemf,lqygw,f? Õ

114
ar; ?
? (1962)ck E S p f r S m Ad k v f a e0if ; u tm%mod r f ; awmh “jynf a xmif p k } uD ;
+yKduGJr,fhtE W&,fa=umifh” qdk+yD; ta=umif;jycJhw,f? (e0w) (etz)wkd@uvnf; olwkd@&JŒ
wkd@wm0efta&;(3)yg;qdkwJh txJrSm jynfaxmifpkr+yKduGJa&;eJ@ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;
nD!Gwfr_ r+yKduGJa&;qdkwmudk xdyfuwifxm;w,f? Adkvfae0if;trSL;jyKwJh ppfacgif;aqmif
tqufqufu z,f'&,frlac:wJh jynfaxmifpkppfppfrlqdkwm jynfaxmifpkudk +yKduGJap
r,fhrl jzpfw,fvkd@ ajymqdkae=uw,f? +yD;cJhwJh q,fpkESpf ESpfckwmumvtwGif; urBmrSm
vnf; qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpw
k @dk / ,l*pkd vm;AD;,m;jynfaxmifpw
k @dk pwJEh ikd if aH wGrmS A[dck sKyf
udkifr_udk av#mhay;vdkufwmeJ@ EdkifiH+yKduGJoGm;cJhwJh jzpfpOfawGudk jrifawG@cJh=u&w,f? tJ'D
tajctaeawGukd =unf+h y;D ajym&if jrefrmppfacgi;f aqmifawG&ŒJ ajymqdck su[
f m a=umif;usKd ;
qDavsmrf _ &dw
S ,fv@dk rqdEk ikd b
f ;l vm;? jrefrmppfacgi;f aqmifawG[m Edik if +H yKdurJG ,fh tE &W m,f
udk trSefwu,fyJ pdk;&drfa=umifhus ae=uwma=umifh tckvuf&dSrSm EdkifiHawmftm%mudk
wif;wif;usyfusyf csKyfudkifxm;+yD; tem*wfrSmvnf; 'DyHkpHtwdkif;yJoGm;zkd@ }udK;yrf;ae=u
wm rjzpfEdkifbl;vm;?
ajz ?
? tJ't
D a=umif;jycsu[
f m urBmay:rSm tm%modr;f wJh ppfacgi;f aqmif
trsm;pk toH;k jyK=uavh&+Sd yD; jynfoal wGt=um;rSmvnf; [kwEf ;kd eJ@ xifa,mifxif
rSm; jzpfavh&dSwwfwJh ta=umif;jycsufjzpfaewma=umifh tJ'Dta=umif;jycsuf[m
wu,fyJ a=umif;usdK;qDavsmfr_ &dSr&dS aoaocsmcsm *Ce% od&dSzkd@ trSefyJ vkd
tyfygw,f? 'ghtjyif 'DudpP[m usaemfwkd@ EdkifiHwckwnf; omrubJ vlrsdK;aygif;pHk
a&maESmaexdkifvsuf&dSae=uwJh EdkifiHawG (urBmhEdkifiHtrsm;pkuvnf; tJovdkrsdK;
EdkifiHawG jzpf=uygw,f)twGufyg ta&;}uD;wJh udpPw&yf jzpfaewmrkd@ 'Dar;cGef;udk
jynfjh ynfph pkH kH aphaphpyfpyf ajzr,fq&kd if 'Dar;cGe;f wckwnf;&JΠtajzeJ@wif pmwtkyf
jzpfoGm;Edkifygw,f? 'gayr,fh cifAsm;&JΠtar;udkawmh usaemhf taeeJ@ jzpfEdkifor#
±_axmifhaygif;pHku csOf;uyf+yD; tESpfcsKyf ajzqdkEdkifzkd@ }udK;yrf;=unfhygr,f?
vuf&dSusaemfwkd@ EdkifiHrSm jrefrmvlrsdK;/ Ak'<bmom0ifawGu trsm;pk
vlrsdK;}uD;jzpf+yD; usefwJh &Srf;/ ucsif/ csif;/ u&if/ u,m;/ &cdkifpwJhvlrsdK;awGeJ@ rlp
vif/ c&pf,mef/ [dENLpwJh bmom0ifawGu vlenf;pk vlrsdK;pkawG jzpf=uygw,f?
'gayr,fh wcsdefu &cdkifvlrsdK;awG[m ol@xD; ol@eef; ol@=uiSef; ol@,Of
aus;r_ "avhxHk;wrf;awGeJ@ aexkdifvmcJhwJh vlrsdK;jzpfw,fqdkwmudk usaemfwkd@
rarhoifhygbl;? &cdkif,Ofaus;r_&JΠoufwrf;[m jrefrm,Ofaus;r_ oufwrf;xuf
trsm;}uD;ydk+yD; &Snf=um &ifhanmif;w,f qdkwmudk usaemfwkd@ rarhoifhygbl;?

115
rGefvlrsdK;awG&JΠrGefEdkifiHawGqdk&ifvnf; wcdsefu jrefrmEdkifiHeJ@ yckH;csif;,SOf &ifaygif
wef;+yD; wnf&dScJhzl;wm tm;vHk;todygyJ? &Srf;a'oqdk&ifvnf; ol@qdkif&mqdkif&m
apmfbmG ; apmfcaH wGe@J oD;jcm;vGwv
f yfwhJ Edik if iH ,f uav;rsm;tjzpf wcsed u
f tcdik f
trm &yfwnfEdkifcJh=uw,f qdkwmudk usaemfwkd@ raroifhygbl;?
'gayr,fh jrefrmEdkifiH&JΠordkif;a=umif;udk avhvmoHk;oyf=unfhr,fqdk&if
jrefrmvlrsdK;[m tjcm;aom vlrsdK;awGxuf ppfaoG; ppfrmef ydkrdkwufºuGcJhzG,f&dSyg
w,f? tJ'D"mwfcH&JΠtudsK;quftjzpf ppfa&;ppf&m
rSmvnf; tjcm;vlrsdK;awGxuf ydk+yD;u|rf;usif ydkifEdkif
ppfrSefwJh wdkif;&if;om;
cJh=uyHk&ygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; taemf&xm/ bk&ifh
aemif/ tavmif;bk&m;qdkwJh ppfbk&ifawG vufxuf
pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;
rSm us,fjyef@}uD;rm;wJh EdkifiHudk wnfaqmufEdkifcJh=u
qdkwm "m;rdk;xm;wJh
wm jzpfygw,f? 'Dae&mrSm wcsuf eufeuf±_dif;±_dif;
nD ! G w f a &;rsd K ;
awG;qifjcif =unf=h uzk@d aumif;wmu tJ'pD pfb&k ifawG
r[kwfbJ EdkifiHtwGif;
&JΠvkyf&yfudk jrefrmvlrsdK;awGbufu =unfh&if EdkifiH
rSDwif;ae xdkif=uwJh
awmfudk pnf;vHk;nD!Gwf cdkifrmatmif wnfaqmuf
vl r sd K ;awG t m;vH k ;
wmjzpfw,fv@dk ±_jrif=urSm jzpfayr,fh usaemf txuf
txl ; ojzif h
rSm ajymcJhwJh vlenf;pk vlrsKd;awG bufu =unfh&if
vl r sd K ;pk t m;vH k ; &J Œ
b,fvdk ±_jrif=uovJqdkwJh tcsufyg? olwkd@rsufpdxJ
v_dufvSJ!GwfEl;wJh
rSm 'g[m jrefrmbk&if/ jrefrmvlrsdK;awGu r[mvlrsdK;
yl ; aygif ; yg0if
}uD;0g' tawG;tac:eJ@ olwkd@tay: tEdkifusifh Adkvf
wnf a qmuf r _ e J @ om
uswJh vkyf&yfyJvkd@ ±_jrifcJh=uaumif; ±_jrifcJh=uygvdrhf
&&dSEdkifr,fæ
r,f? tm;rwefvkd@ rmefav#mhvdkuf&ayr,fh tJ'D
vlrsKd;pkawGxJu ppfaoG;ppfrmef xufoefwJh vlwcsKd@
pdwfxJrSmawmh “rdk;aumif;wkef; &Gmxm;OD;aygh”qdk+yD;
aw;xm;=urSm rvGyJ gb;l ? wzufu=unhaf wmh trsKd ;om; aoG;pnf;nD!w
G f cdik rf m
tm;aumif;a&;? wzufu=unfhawmh tEdkifusifhAdkvfus usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufr_/ rwl
uGJjym;jcm;em;wJh vlrsdK;awGpk+yD; aexkdif=uwJh EdkifiHawGrSm tJovdkrsdK;tjzpfawG
ay:aygufavh&dSwwfwm obm0ygyJ?
jrefrmEdik if t
H wGi;f tpOftquf aexdik v
f mcJ=h uwJh vlrsKd ;pkawGpw
d x
f rJ mS
jrefrmvlrsdK;tay: tJovdk cHpm;csufawG &dSaumif; &dSaeEdkifw,fqdkwJh tcsufudk
usaemf awm&rf;r,fbGJ@ rSef;qcsufoufoufeJ@ ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef; OD;aqmifwJh (zqyv)tzGJ@}uD;u +Adwdo#udkvdkeD tkyfpdk;olawGvufxJ
u jrefrmEkdifiH&JΠvGwfvyfa&;udk jyef,lr,fvkyfawmh tJ'DvlrsdK;pktcsKd@&JΠacgif;
aqmiftcsKdΠjynfreJ@twl vGwfvyfa&;r,lbl;vkd@ oabmxm;ay;cJh=uwmawG/

116
aemufqHk; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ uwdopPmeJ@ ±kd;om;ajzmifhrwf wnf=unfr_
tay: ,Hk=unfpjyKvm=u+yD; twlwl wvHk;wpnf;wnf; vGwfvyfa&;,l=u
r,fvkd@ oabmwlcJh=u+yD; aemufrSmawmifrS jrefrmvlrsdK;tay: &dSaeao;wJh
oHo, tºuGif;tusef&JŒ v_H@aqmfwkdufwGef;r_a=umifh aemif(10)ESpft=umrSm
rdrdwkd@u qEN&dS&if jynfaxmifpkxJu cGJxGufcGifhjyK&r,fqdkwJhpmydk'fudk zGJ@pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'xJrSm xnfhay;cJh&wmawGpwJh tcsufawGudk =unfh&if usaemfh&JŒ
rSef;qcsuf[m tajctjrpfrJh r[kwfbl;qdkwmudkawG@&rSmyg?
'Dae&mrSm pum;pyfrdvkd@ ajymp&mwck&dSygw,f? tJ'guawmh Adkvf
ae0if;eJ@ oljyKpkysdK;axmifay;cJhwJh ppftm%m&Sif tqufqufwkd@u (1962)ckESpf
tm%modrf;r_udk w&m;0ifjzpfapzkd@ &nf&G,f+yD; jyoavh&dSwJh ta=umif;jycsuf
jzpfygw,f? olw@dk u (1947) zG@J pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'[m +Adwo
d #w@dk vufatmufrmS
qGJcJh&wJh tajccHOya'jzpfwJhtwGuf tm;enf;csufawG &dScJhw,f? tJ'D tm;enf;
csufa=umifh (1962)ckESpfrSm trsdK;om;a&; tusyftwnf;}uD; ay:aygufvmcJh&
um tJ'Dtusyftwnf;udk ajz&Sif;zkd@wyfrawmfu tm%modrf;cJh&wm jzpfw,f
vk@d wGiw
f iG af jymavh &dcS =hJ uygw,f? olw@dk ajymwJh tm;enf;csuq
f w
kd m txufrmS
azmfjycJhwJh “cGJxGufcGifh” udpPjzpfygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; trSL;jyKwJh Edik if aH cgi;f aqmif}u;D awG[m vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk
pka0;aexdik =f uwJh jrefrmEdik if &H ŒJ ordik ;f a=umif;udk ajcajcjrpfjrpf *Ce% em;vnf
oabmaygufwJh ppfrSefwJh rsdK;cspfyk*~dKvf}uD;awGjzpf=uovdk tifrwefrSvnf;
tajrmftjrif}uD;wJh ynm&Sif}uD;awG jzpf=uygw,f? ppfrSefwJh wdkif;&if;om; pnf;
vH;k nD!w
G af &;qdw
k m "m;rd;k xm;wJh nD!w
G af &;rsKd ; r[kwb
f J Edik if t
H wGi;f rSw
D if;ae
xdkif=uwJh vlrsdK;awGtm;vHk; txl;ojzifh vlrsdK;pktm;vHk;&JΠv_dufvSJ!GwfEl;wJh
yl;aygif;yg0if wnfaqmufr_eJ@om &&dSEdkifr,f qdkwmudk eufeuf±_dif;±_dif; oabm
ayguf em;vnfxm;=uolawG jzpfygw,f? 'Dvkd acgi;f aqmifrsKd ;awG ta=utvnf
wkdifyifn‡dE_dif; a&;qGJxm;wJh tajccHOya'[m c|wf,Gif;csuf/ tm;enf;csufawGeJ@
tjypftemtqm ruif;wJh tajccHOya' b,fvjkd zpfEikd rf mS vJ? tJ'D tcsed t
f cgrmS
wnf&dSaewJh tajctaeay:rlwnf+yD; taumif;qHk; a&;qGJxm;cJh=uwJh tajccHOy
a' jzpfygw,f? tJ'D cGJxGufcGifheJ@ ywfoufvkd@vnf; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u “tJ'D
q,fESpftwGif; usKyfwkd@ArmvlrsdK;u vlrsdK;pkawGrSm &dSaewJh oHo,awG uif;pif
yaysmufomG ;atmif }udK;yrf;vkyaf qmif=u&rSmaygæ
h ? tJovdk vkyEf ikd =f ur,fq&kd if
q,fESpfjynfhvnf; olwkd@ cGJxGufcsif=uawmhrSm r[kwfbl;”qdk+yD; tJ'Dpmydk'fudk
xnfo
h iG ;f zk@d oabmwlcw
hJ m jzpfygw,f? tJ'pD myd'k u
f kd xnfo
h iG ;f cGihf jyKcJ=h uayr,fh
vlrsdK;pkawG&JΠjynfoltrsm;pk}uD;&JΠqENrygbJ cGJxGufvkd@ r&atmif tJ'Dacgif;
aqmif}uD;awGu t&Htwm;awG tcdkiftrm vkyfxm; cJhw,fqdkwmvnf; tJ'D

117
tajccHOya'udk omrefavhvm±kHeJ@ od&dSEdkifygw,f?
EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;twGuf
'ga=umifh Adkvfae0if;eJ@ ppftm%m&Sif tqufquf
toufay;oGm;cJh=u&wJh
[m jrefrmEdkifiHxJ ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk oGwfoGif;xl
aus;Zl ; &S i f } uD ; awG & J Œ
axmif+yD; &moufyef oufqdk;&Snfapzkd@ &nf&G,fvkyf
aus;Zl ; opP m ud k
aqmifcJhwJh olwkd@&JŒvkyf&yf w&m;r#w rSefuefw,f
trSefwu,fyJ
qdkwmudk ta=umif;jyEdkifzkd@ &nf&G,fcsuf wckwnf;eJ@
apmifhod±kdaow,fqdk&if
Edik if jH yK acgi;f aqmif}uD;awG a&;qGcJ w
hJ hJ tajccHOya'udk
tJ'D aus;Zl;&SifawG
ta=umif;&Sm tjypfzkd@ ajym qdkae=uwmuawmh
vkyfaqmifoGm;wJh
tifrwef &ifemp&m aumif; vSygw,f?
vkyf&yfawGudk æ
wu,fawmh tajccHOya'qdw
k m tkycf sKyfcH
jynfoleJ@ tkyfcsKyfwJh tpdk;&t=um; ESpfOD;oabmwl
csKyfqkd=uwJh uefx±kduf pmcsKyfwckom jzpfygw,f?
vlom;awG&ŒJ ordik ;f a=umif;[m wajzmifw
h nf; worwfwnf; roGm;bJ tvSnt
hf ajymif;
tauG@tcsKd ;awG &dw
S t
hJ wGuf vlawGqx
JG m;=uwJh tajccHOya'awG[mvnf; jzKwf&/ jznf&h /
jyif&wmawG &dSwwfwm obm0yg? urBmay:rSm b,fEdkifiH&JΠtajccH Oya'rS pwifjyXmef;
wJh tcsdefup+yD; aemifESpfaygif; &maxmif=umonfhwdkif rjzKwf&/ rjznfh/ rjyif&wJh tajccH
Oya'qdw
k m r&dyS gb;l / Ak'o
< moemrSm 'Duae@&aSd ewJh 0denf;awmfawGukd a*gwrAk'j< rwfpmG
bk&m;u w}udrfwnf;rSm tm;vHk;udk jyXmef;cJhwm r[kwfygbl;? jrwfpGmbk&m; oufawmf
xif&Sm;&dSpOf umvwavsmufvHk;/ jznfhpGuf/ jyifqifcJh+yD;aemufrSmrS tckavmuf rsm;jym;
ayr,fh ckdifrmpGm wnf&dSaewm jzpfygw,f? tJovdk jznfhpGuf/ jyifqifwmawG vkyfcJhwJh
twGuf a&SŒujyXmef;cJw
h hJ jrwfpmG bk&m;&JΠ0denf;awmfawG[m tm;enf;csu/f c|w,
f iG ;f csuf
tjypftem tqmawG&dSaewJh 0denf;awmfawGvkd@ ajym=urSmvm;? EdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;
twGuf toufay;oGm;cJh=u&wJh aus;Zl;&Sif}uD;awG&JΠaus;Zl;opPmudk trSefwu,fyJ
apmifhod±kdaow,fqdk&if tJ'D aus;Zl;&SifawG vkyfaqmifoGm;wJh vkyf&yfawGudk jzKwfy,f/
jznfhpGuf jyifqif±kHavmufom vkyf&rSmyg? olwkd@ vkyfoGm;wJhtvkyfudk tjypfr&dS tjypf&Sm
axmufjy ajymqd+k yD; olw@dk vufe@J a&;oGm;wmudk ajceJ@zsuw
f m/ Oya'wckv;Hk ukd zsuo
f rd ;f
ypfwm[m aus;Zl;qyfwm r[kwfwJhtjyif aus;Zl;odwwfwmawmif r[kwfygbl;?
aus;Zl;uef;wmom jzpfygw,f?
cifAsm;&JΠar;cGef;qDudk jyefoGm;=u&atmif? 'Duae@ urBmrSm jynfaxmifpk EdkifiH
wcsKdΠ+yKduGJoGm;cJhwmudk axmufjy+yD; jynfaxmifpk r+yKduGJa&;twGuf tm%modrf;&wm
jzpfygw,f? tm%mudk qufvuf qkyfudkifxm;&wm jzpfygw,f? tm%mudk &mouf
yef qufvuf qkyfudkifoGm;zkd@ }udK;yrf;ae&wm jzpfygw,fqdkwJh Adkvfae0if; trSL;jyKwJh
ppftm%m&SifawG&JΠta=umif;jycsuf[m usdK;a=umif; qDavsmfr_ r&dSbl;vm;? olwkd@[m
tJ'u
D pd t
P wGuf wu,fyJ pd;k &dryf yl efae=uwm rjzpfEikd b
f ;l vm;vk@d cifAsm; ar;xm;ygw,f?

118
rSeyf gw,f? cifAsm;ajymcJw
h t
hJ wdik ;f jynfaxmifpEk ikd if w
H csKŒd +yKduo
JG mG ;cJ=h uygw,f?
tJ'DxJrSm txif&Sm;qHk;uawmh qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkeJ@ ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m; jynfaxmifpk
wk@d ygy?J 'gt
h jyif csuu
f pkd vdAk ufu;D ,m; Edik if [
H mvnf; csuef @J pvkAd ufq+kd yD; ESpEf ikd if H uGo
J mG ;
cJhygw,f? 'ghtjyif 'Duae@urBmay:rSm cGJxGufcGifhjy\emeJ@ }uKHawG@&ifqdkifae&wJh EdkifiHawG
tawmfrsm;rsm; &dSaew,fqdkwJh tcsufudkvnf; usaemfwkd@ owdjyKrdygw,f? wl&uDu
um'fawG/ qdkufy&yfpfu *&dEG,fzGm;awGeJ@ wl&uDEG,fzGm;awG/ pydefu bufpfjynfe,f/
oD&v
d uFmu wrDvu
f sm;olyek af wG/ tEN,
d Edik if u
H tmoHe@J r%dy&l jynfe,fawG/ xkid ;f Edik if H
u rlpvifolykefawG/ zdvpfydkifEdkifiHu rlpvifolykefawG/ &S&Sm;u acscsif;nm jynfe,f/
a*smf*sD,mu tufbfcgZD;,m;eJ@ awmifykdif; tdkqufwD;,m; jynfe,fawG pojzifh cGJxGuf
a&;jy\emeJ@ eyef;vHk;ae&wJh EdkifiHawG urBmrSm ta&twGuf tawmftwef&dSae=uwm
avhvmoltrsm;tod jzpfygw,f?
cGJxGufa&; jy\em[m 'Duae@ urBm}uD; &ifqdkifae&wJh jy\emawGxJu
av;euf}uD;rm;wJh jy\emwckjzpfygw,f? aoaocsmcsm awG;=unfh&if a&ajrobm0
&moDOwkay: rlwnf+yD; uGJjym;jcm;em;pGm ay:xGef;pkpnf;vmcJh=uwJh vlrsdK;aygif;rsm;pGm
wnf&dSaewJh usaemfwkd@ urBm}uD;rSm EdkifiHwdkif;EdkifiHwdkif;[m ('D*&Drwlwmom &dSr,f) tJ'D
vlrsdK;pk jy\emudk yHko¿mef wrsdK;r[kwf wrsdK;eJ@ }uKHawG@&ifqkdif ae=u&wmcsnf; jzpfyg
w,f? EkdifiHwkdif;rSm vlrsKd;wrsKd;eJ@wrsKd; xdrdcdkufrd wdk;rdwdkufrd (crash)wmawG uawmh
t+rJvdkvdk &dSaewmyJ jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh EdkifiHa&;pepf rSefuef+yD; (avmuygvw&m;
v$r;f rk;d wJh Edik if aH &;pepfukd qdv
k w
kd m jzpfygw,f) ^m%fynm tajrmftjrif}uD;rm;wJh Edik if aH &;
acgif;aqmifawG tkyfcsKyfwJh EdkifiHawGrSmawmh tJ'Djy\em[m &SOfhvnf;av#mufom ysm;
vnf; pGo
J m (win-win)enf;vrf;eJ@ ajz&Si;f vk@d &wJh jy\emi,fwck tjzpfom wnf&aSd e
avh+yD; EdkifiHa&;pepfuvnf; rrSefuef/ EdkifiH acgif;
aqmifawGuvnf; ^m%fynm tajrmftjrif enf;
^m%f y nm tajrmf t jrif
yg;wJh EdkifiHawGrSmawmh tJ'Djy\em[m Oo#pfoD;
}uD;rm;wJh EdkifiHa&;
ESpfvHk;xk/ ESpfvkH;pvHk;uGJ qdkovdk aygufuGJvGifhpif
acgif ; aqmif a wG
a=urG+yD; b,fbufurS tEdkifr&rSm aocsmwJh jy
tk y f c sKyf w J h
\emwcktjzpf tcsdefra&G; aygufuGJEdkifwJh tcdk;
taiG@awGe@J jynfu
h syf wif;rmaewJh bdKG ifvmtd;k }uD;
Ed k i f i H a wG r S m awmh
wckvdk wnf&dSaeavh&dSwm jzpfygw,f?
tJ ' D j y\em[m
'Duae@acwfopf urBmrSm jynfaxmifpk +yKduGJ
&SOfhvnf;av#mufom
oGm;w,fqw
kd hJ Edik if w
H csKŒd &dcS w
hJ m/ cGx
J u
G af &; jy\
ysm;vnf; pGJom
emeJ
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@
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;
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@
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q
d
k
i
f
a
e&wJ
h EdkifiHwcsKdŒ
(win-win) enf;vrf;eJ@
&d S a ewm wu,f h t ppf t rS e f tcsuf t vuf
ajz&Sif;vkd@&wJh
(fact) jzpfw,f? wu,fhtjzpfrSef yuwd t&dS

jy\emi,f w ck æ

119
w&m; (Reality) jzpfw,fqw
kd m a&SŒwae&mrSm usaemfazmfjycJh +yD;yg+yD? tJ'x
D rJ mS
rS jynfaxmifpkr+yKduGJa&; (wenf;) EdkifiHr+yKduGJa&;twGuf tm%modrf;&ygw,f
vkd@ ajymavh&Sd=uwJh ppfacgif;aqmifawG (txl;ojzifh usaemfwkd@ EdkifiHu Adkvf
armifarmif/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvfapmarmif/ Adkvfoef;a&$wkd@ OD;aqmifwJh ppfacgif;
aqmifawG) emrnf xkwfrajymayr,fh tm;vHk;od+yD;om; &nf!$ef;ajymqdkavh&Sd
=uwmuawmh qdAk ,
D uf jynfaxmifp+k yKdurJG /_ ,l*pkd vm;AD;,m; jynfaxmifp+k yKdurJG /_
ta&SŒwDarmEdkifiH ay:xGufvmr_/ udkqdkAdkEdkifiHopf ay:xGufvmr_wkd@yJ jzpfygw,f?
AdkvfarmifarmifeJ@ Adkvfae0if;wkd@ta=umif;uawmh 'Dpmtkyf a&SŒydkif;wae&mrSm
tawmftwef azmfjycJh+yD;jzpfwmrkd@ 'Dae&mrSm csefvSyfxm;cJh+yD; AdkvfapmarmifeJ@
Adkvfoef;a&$wkd@&JΠta=umif;jycsufawGudkyJ tav;ay;aqG;aEG;oGm;ygr,f? olwkd@
ESpfOD;eJ@ olwkd@&JΠaemufvdkuf aemufygawGu jrefrmEdkifiHudk wyfrawmfu tckvdk
wif;wif;usyfusyf xdef;csKyfxm;vkd@om pnf;vHk;nD!GwfwJh EdkifiHwcktjzpf quf
vufwnf&dSaewm jzpfw,f? wu,fvkd@ twdkuftcHawG awmif;qdkaewJh twdkif;
'Drdkua&pDqdkwmudkom xGef;um;cGifh jyKvdkuf&if (wenf;)wif;wif;usyfusyf csKyf
udkifxm;r_awGudkom av#mhayghay;vdkufr,fqdk&if jrefrmEdkifiH[m qdkAD,uf jynf
axmifpkvdk/ ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m; jynfaxmifpkvdk +yKduGJoGm;vdrfhr,f? tJovdk rjzpf
awmif tenf;qH;k awmh ta&SŒwDarm Edik if o
H pf/ udq
k Akd Ekd ikd if o
H pfawG ay:xGuf vmo
vdk &Srf;EdkifiHopf/ u&ifEdkifiHopf/ rGefEdkifiHopfawG ay:xGufvmvdrfhr,fvkd@ ajymqdk
ae=uygw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSm olwkd@u tJ'D jynfaxmifpkawG +yKduGJjcif;&JΠt"du
ta=umif;&if;u jynfy ya,m*jzpfw,f (wenf;) EGm;uGJatmifvkyf+yD;rS 0ifqGJwJh
usm;ipOf;vJ&JΠenf;vrf;twdkif; trsdK;om;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&; +yKduGJ+yD; tiftm;
csnfheJ@oGm;wJh EdkifiHi,fawGukd acwfrDenf;opfeJ@ u|efjyKvdkwJh udkvdkeD vufopf
EdkifiH}uD;awG&JΠya,m*jzpfw,fvkd@ ajymqdkae=uygw,f?
tJ'Dawmh tJ'DajymqdkcsufawG[mvnf; (fact) jzpfovm;? (Reality)
jzpfovm;? 'grSr[kwf av#mhav#mhayghaygh (at best)ajym&&if todynmEHkeJ@olawG/
S al wG&ŒJ ta=umif;jycsuf
rn‡mpwrf; (at worst) ajym&&if ±k;d om;ajzmifrh wfr_ r&do
oufouf jzpfovm; qdkwmudk pOf;pm;=unfh=u&atmif? yxrqHk; qdkAD,uf
jynfaxmifpkta=umif; pOf;pm;=u&atmif? ('Dae&mrSm qdkAD,uf jynfaxmifpk
wnf&cdS w
hJ hJ ESpaf ygi;f (70)umvta=umif; wckv;kH udk bufpakH xmifph u
kH tao;pdwf
oHk;oyfazmfjyrSm r[kwfbJ usaemfh tajzeJ@ oufqdkifwJh tydkif;awGavmufudkom
a&G;xkwfqef;ppf oHk;oyfoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f? usefwJhjynfaxmifpkeJ@ EdkifiHawGeJ@
ywfoufvkd@vnf; tJovdkyJ wifjyoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f?) qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk
[m um;vfrmhcfpfeJ@ tdef*s,fwkd@ wDxGifcJhwJh uGefjrLepf0g'ac: vlr_tawG;tac:
wckukd vDeifu vufawG@ taumiftxnfazmf&mu ay:ayguv
f mwJh yx0D qdik &f m

120
wnf&dSr_ (geographical entity) wck jzpfygw,f? uGefjrLepf0g'&JΠtajccHu
tusO;f tm;jzifh 'Dvykd g? urBmay:rSm tajccHtm;jzifh zdEydS w
f hJ vlwef;pm;eJ@ tzdEydS cf H
vlwef;pm;qdk+yD; vlwef;pm; ESpf&yfyJ&dSw,f? zdESdyfwJh vlwef;pm;qdkwmu ukef
xkwfud&d,mawGudk ydkifqdkifxm;+yD; ukefxkwfqufqHa&;pepfudk appm;armif;ESif
um ukefxkwfpGrf;tm;pk&JΠtcsdK;tpm; {&mrtrsm;pk}uD;udk &&dScHpm;aewJh
t&if;&Sif vlwef;pm;jzpfw,f? tJ'Dvlwef;pm;u ol&JŒrw&m; aoG;pkyf tjrwf
xkwfr_udk tumtuG,fay;zkd@twGuf EdkifiHawmfqdkwmudk xlaxmifxm;+yD;
ppfwyf/ &Jwyfz@JG / w&m;±k;H / tusO;f axmifpwmawGu tJ'ED ikd if aH wmf&ŒJ aomhcsuf
us tpdwftydkif; (Key apparatus)awG jzpf=uw,f? tzdESdyfcH vlwef;pm;
qdw
k muawmh zdEydS w
f hJ vlwef;pm;u Edik if aH wmfqw
kd hJ zdEydS af &;,E &W m;udk toH;k jyK
+yD; zdEdSyfaoG;pkyf tjrwfxkwfwmr_udk cHae&wJh jynfolvlxk trsm;pk}uD;
jzpfw,f? t&if;&SifawGu EkdifiHawmftm%mudk t+rJwrf;&,lodrf; ydkufxm;wJh
tJ'D t&if;&Sifpepf[m urBmhvlom;tm;vHk; (t&nftcsif;eJ@ ZGJ/ vHk@v/ 0d&d,
tay:rlwnf+yD; ) nDwlr#wl &,lcHpm; ydkifcGifh&dSwJh urBm}uD;&JΠ"eOpPmawGudk
w&m;r#wr_ r&dSpGm jzef@a0xm;wJhpepfjzpfwJhtwGuf wenf;ajym&&if t&if;&Sif
pepf v$rf;rkd;wJh urBm}uD;[m yHkysufyef;ysuf jzpfaewJh rlrrSefwJh urBm}uD;jzpfae
wJt
h wGuf (tajccHtm;jzifh ordik ;f OD;bHak jr acwfuvdk ) rlreS u
f rBm}uD; jyefjzpfvm
atmif awmfvSefajymif;vJ ypf&r,f? tJ'DawmfvSefa&;udk t&if;&SifawG&JΠzdESdyf
aoG;pkyfr_udk tcH&qHk; jzpfovdk tvdktavsmuf pkpnf;rd+yD;om;vnf;jzpfaewJh
tvkyform;vlwef;pm;u OD;aqmif&r,f? awmfvSefa&;&JΠyxrtqifhtaeeJ@
t&if;&Siftm%mudk t=urf;enf;eJ@ +zdKzsuf+yD; tvkyform;tm%mac: t&if;rJh
tm%m&Sipf epf ( proletariat dictatorship)udk xlaxmif&r,f? 'gayr,fh tcsed f
wcsdefus&ifawmh tJ'D tm%m&Sifpepf[mvnf; csKyf+idrf;oGm;+yD; uGefjrLepf0g'&JŒ
tE Wdr ar#mfrSef;csufjzpfwJh ajr}uD;ay:u avmuedAŠmef jzpfwJh “EdkifiHrJh vl@tzGJ@
tpnf; (Stateless Society) ay:aygufvmr,f? tJovdk jzpfygw,f?
'gudk=unfh&if tE Wdrar#mfrSef;csuf yef;wdkifqDta&mufoGm;wJh vrf;rSm
uGejf rKepf0g'&JΠta&;ygwhJ tqifw
h qifu
h tiftm; toH;k jyK xde;f odr;f umuG,f
apmifha&Smufxm;wJh t&if;&Sif(okd@) ya'o&mZf vlwef;pm;&JΠtm%mudk tvkyf
orm; vlwef;pm;u tiftm;toHk;jyK vk,l&rSm jzpfw,fqdkwmudk awG@&yg
vdrrhf ,f? wenf;tm;jzifh ypPn;f rJh (0g) t&if;rJh tm%m&Sipf epf wnfaqmufa&;
jzpfygw,f? tJ'Denf;vrf;t& vDeifOD;aqmifwJh ±k&Sm;uGefjrLepfygwD[m (1917)
ckEpS f azazmf0g&v
D rSm vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; w&yfqifEu
J$ m Zmbk&if&ŒJ ya'
o&mZfpepfudk +zdKcsvdkuf+yD; tJ'DESpf atmufwdkbmvrSm wcg wefjyefawmf

121
vSefa&;orm;awGudk z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;wJh awmfvSefa&;w&yfudk xyfrH qifE$J
um ypPnf;rJh tm%m&Sifpepfudk wnfaqmufcJhygw,f?
ypPnf;rJh tm%m&SifpepfqdkwJh pum;&yfeJ@tnD tm%m& uGefjrL
epfygwaD cgi;f aqmifawG[m t&if;&Sif (ok@d ) ya'o&mZf tm%mudk ud,
k pf m;
jyKw,fvkd@ oHo,&dSolawGtay: =urf;=urf;wrf;wrf; jyif;jyif;xefxef
EdSyfuGyfcJh=uwmudk awG@&dS&ygw,f? 'Dtcsufudk awmfvSefa&;t+yD; odyfr=um
cifrmS uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;cJw
h hJ vDeifvufxufrmS odyx
f ifxif&mS ;&Sm; rawG@c&hJ ay
r,fh ol@udkqufcHwJh acgif;aqmifawG (txl;ojzifh pwmvif) vufxufrSm
awmh &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;}uD;udk jrifawG@cJh=u&ygw,f? olwkd@vufxufrSm
uGefjrLepfygwD tpdk;&[m jynfwGif; vHk+cHKa&;wyfzGJ@ac: v#Kd@0SufykvdyftzGJ@udk
toHk;jyK+yD; jynfolawGtay: wif;wif;usyfusyf xdef;csKyfcJhovdk wyfeDawmf
ac: ppfwyfukd toH;k jyK+yD; Edik if aH wmf&ŒJ ydik ef ufe,fajreJ@ “tcsKyftjcmtm%m
wnfwchH ikd +f rJa&;twGuf cyf=urf;=urf; aqmif&u
G cf yhJ gw,f? wenf;ajym&&if
wcsdefu tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif EdkifiHawGjzpfcJh=uwJh 'grSr[kwf acwf
tqufquf }uD;rm;rsm;jym;vSwhJ ud,
k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfciG ahf wG &&dcS =hJ uwJh e,fajr
a'oawGudk qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkqdkwJh acgif;pOfatmufrSm t"rRpkpnf;
aexkdifapcJhygw,f? 'ghtjyif taemuftkyfpkEdkifiHawG&JΠaewdk;tzGJ@udk wef
jyefz@dk zG@J pnf;cJw
h hJ 0gaqm pmcsKyftzG@J ukd toH;k jyK +yD;awmhvnf; ta&SŒOa&my
EdkifiHawGudk rdrd&JΠ=u,f&HEdkifiHrsm;tjzpf xm;&dScJhygw,f? tJovdk =u,f&H
tjzpfxm;&dSwJh udpPrSmvnf; tiftm; toHk;jyK
cJhw,fqdkwJhtcsufudk (1968)ckESpf csufudkpvdk
tif t m;ud k toH k ; jyK+yD ;
AufuD;,m;EdkifiHeJ@ (1956)ckESpf [efa*&DEdkifiHwkd@
rSm jzpfysufcJhwJh tjzpftysufawGu oufaojy
tm%m&S i f p epf tay:
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tajccH (wenf ; )
tckwifjycJhor#udk tESpfcsKyf+yD; ajym
vl x k q EN t ay:tajcrcH /
&&if qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkeJ@ ol@&JΠtifydkif,m
tifyg,m0if EdkifiHawG&JŒ
[m w&m;Oya'eJ@ avsmfnDr_ r&dSwJh (unlegitiqEN t ay: tajcrcH b J
mate) tiftm;udk toHk;jyK+yD; tm%m&Sifpepf
wnf a qmuf x m;cJ w J h t &m
tay: tajccH (wenf;) vlxq
k ENtay:tajcrcH/
jzpf w ma=umif h tpyd k i f ; rS m
tifyg,m0if EdkifiHawG&JΠqENtay: tajcrcHbJ
b,f a wmh r S
wnfaqmufxm;cJwJht&m jzpfwma=umifh tp
+zdKzsufvkd@r&EdkifwJh æ
ydkif;rSm b,fawmhrS +zdKzsufvkd@r&EdkifwJh (un
destructible) tifyg,m}uD;wckyrm ,lqp&m
jzpfcJhayr,fh q,fpkESpf(7)ckavmuf t=umrSmyJ

122
“wdrfwcJeuf ±_&if;ysuf”qdkovdk AHk;AHk;vJ +yKdus ysufpD;oGm;cJh&wm jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
aoaocsmcsm tEkvykH ÉdvkH avhvmqef;ppf oH;k oyf=unfrh ,fq&kd if qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpek @J
ol@&ŒJ tifyg,m+yKduyJG supf ;D &jcif; ta=umif;&if;[m 'Duae@txd wcsKŒd aom a&S;±k;d pGJ uGejf rL
epfawG ,lqae=uovdk a*:bmcsuf&JŒ *vyfpfaemheJ@ yD&Dpx±kdufumvnf; r[kwf/
taemuftkyfpk&JΠajcxdk;aESmifh,Suf zsufqD;r_ (subversive ness)vnf; r[kwfygbl;?
usaemfw@dk ywfywfvnfu avxkxrJ mS a&m*gy;kd r$m;awG ukaËukËm &daS eayr,hf
olwkd@u udk,fcHtm;enf;aewJh vlawGudkom wdkufcdkufEdkifw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;todygyJ?
tJ'Dawmh qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk+yKduGJ &wm[m “ rsdK;aphrrSef yifroef”wJh oabmom
jzpfygw,f?
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,ufjynfaxmifp+k yKdurJG e_ @J twlwyl J jzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfveS af &;acgi;f aqmif rm&S,f
wD;wdk; xlaxmifcJhwJh tJ'Djynfaxmifpk[mvnf; “puwnf;u ,Ofoudk”Zmwfvrf;awG
&dScJhwmygyJ?
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tJ'D jynfaxmifp[
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f nf; &daS ewJyh pkH H
jrifcJh=u&ayr,fh aemif &mpkw0ufeD;yg;t=um jynfaxmifpktwGif; yg0ifaewJhEdkifiHawGrSm
trsdK;om;EdkifiH pdwf"mwfawGu wzGm;zGm; jrifhwufvmwJh tcsdef/ jynfaxmifpkrSmu
pvdb
k 'kd efrv
D pkd AD pfvkd oabmxm; jyif;xefwif;rmwJh jynfaxmifp0k g'aD wGu tm%m&vm
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ygawmhw,f? 'Djynfaxmifpk +yKduGJoGm;&r_rSmawmh a&S;±dk;pGJ uGefjrLepfawG vufnd‡K;xkd;p&m
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w&m;cHazmfenf;um;t& taemuftkyfpk&JΠajcxdk;aESmifh,Sufr_qdkwm wckyJ &dSygw,f?
'gudkawmh em*pfrkefwdkif; OyrmeJ@ ajz&Sif;Edkifygw,f? em*pfuawmh ol@vrf;a=umif;rSm
&dSaeor# t&mtm;vHk;udk odrf;usKH;wkdufcdkuf zsufqD;ypfzkd@ }udK;pm;cJhwmygyJ? 'gayr,fh
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rsm;eJ@twl +yKduGJoGm;cJh&ovdk oludk,fwkdif[mvnf; ukvor*~ ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;qdkif&m
w&m;±kH;rSm tppfaq;cHzkd@ txdef;odrf;cHxm;&pOf umvtwGif; aoqHk;oGm;cJh&ygw,f?
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awG&JΠtodtrSwfjyKr_eJ@twl jynfaxmifpkxJu cGJxGuf+yD; vGwfvyfwJh EdkifiHwckjzpfoGm;
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123
taemuftkyfpk&J@ ya,m*a=umifhvdk@ vufnd‡K;xdk;cJh
tif ' d k e D ; &S m ;u
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wDarm[mvnf; ay:wl*v
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ay;cJhwJh tcgrSmvnf; EdkifiHom; {&mrtrsm;pk}uD;u vGwfvyfa&;,lzkd@bufu
axmufcq
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fields)aemufyikd ;f ta&SŒawmiftm&S&ŒJ t&ufpuf t=urf;=uKwfq;kH vlowfy}JG uD;
pwifcyhJ gw,f? ta&SŒwDarmudk vufvw
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dk hJ tif'ekd ;D &Sm;ppfwyf&ŒJ urRux
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[m vGwfvyfa&;vdkvm;wJh ta&SŒwDarmom;awGudk &&mvufeufawG pGJudkif+yD;
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H
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ta&SŒwDarmEdkifiHopf ay:xGufvmjcif;[m tif'dkeD;&Sm;u t"rR0g'DawG ±_axmifh
u=unfh&if jynfaxmifpk +yKduGJr_ jzpfayr,fh vlom;&JΠarG;&myg tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
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cJhjcif;r#om jzpfygw,f?

124
a&SŒwae&mrSm usaemfajymcJhovdkyJ 'Duae@urBmay:u EdkifiHtrsm;pk
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pnf;wnfaqmufxm;wJh jynfaxmifpak wG jzpfygw,f? wcsK@d jynfaxmifpak wGq&kd if
oufwrf;ESpf &meJ@cs+D yD; &Sn=f um&ifah nmif;vS+yD jzpfygw,f? tJovdk rsm;jym;vSwhJ
jynfaxmifpak wGxrJ mS rS bma=umifh qdAk ,
D ufe@J ,l*pkd vm;AD;,m; jynfaxmifpEk pS cf k
xl;xl;jcm;jcm; +yKduyJG supf ;D oGm;cJ=h u&wmvJ? 'g[m tawmfav;xl;qef;wJh tjzpf
tysufawG jzpfraebl;vm;?
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+yKduGJoGm;cJh=uwm ESpfumvt& t=urf;zsif;ajym&if q,fpkESpf ESpfck0ef;usif
avmuf &dScJhyg+yD? ESpfESpfq,feD;yg;qdkwJh tcsdef[m orkdif;qdkif&m aumufcsufwck
rSefw,f rSm;w,fvkd@ oHk;oyf qHk;jzwfEkdifzkd@ ynm&SifawGtwGuf vHkavmufwJh
umvwck r[kwfbl;qdkwJhtcsuf rSefEkdifayr,fh tjzpftysufwckudk jzpfysuf+yD;p
tcsed u
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h suu
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f hJ
umv twdkif;twmwckvkd@ qdkEdkifr,f xifygw,f?
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+yKduGJr_/ ta&SŒwDarmEdkifiHopf ay:xGufvmr_wkd@&JŒ t"duyifr ta=umif;w&m;u
bmvJ? taemuftkyfpk&JΠajcxdk;aoG;cGJr_vm;/ a*:bmcsuf&JΠtqef;xGifr_vm;/
a*:bmcsuu
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t&yfbuf acgif;aqmifwpfpk&JŒ oabmxm;wif;rmr_vm;/ abmhpeD;,m;eJ@ c±kd
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ppfAdkvfcsKyfawGvm;?
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rDvdkpDApf vufxufrSm r+yKdus&ifvnf; r=umcif

125
wae@rSm +yKdusoGm;rSm {uefyg? EdkifiHacgif;aqmif vlyk*~dKvfqdkwmu tJ'DvdkrsdK;
jynfaxmifpkawG +yKduGJroGm;atmif [ef@wm;umuG,fEdkifwJh wefckd;&SifawG
r[kwfygbl;? olwkd@&JΠt&nftcsif;u jynfaxmifpkoufwrf;eJ@ +yKduGJysufpD;r_
yrm%tay: oufa&mufr_ enf;enf;yJ&dSygw,f?
'gq&kd if qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpw
k @dk / ,l*pkd vm;AD;,m;jynfaxmifpw
k @dk
u +yKduGJoGm;cJh=uayr,fh tjcm;rsm;pGmaom jynfaxmifpkawGuawmh bm
a=umifh r+yKduGJ&wmvJ? tay:vGifqHk; E_dif;,SOfjyp&mwckuawmh tar&duef
jynfaxmifpkygyJ? tar&duef jynfaxmifpk&JΠoufwrf;[m (1776)ckESpfu
pcJhwmrkd@ tckqdk&if ESpfaygif;(230)ausmfoGm;cJhyg+yD? 'ghtjyif jynfe,f
(13)cke@J pwif zG@J pnf;wnfaqmufcw
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jynfaxmifpk[m 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;rSm ol&,lcJhwJh urBmhacgif;aqmifqdkwJh
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tjcm;Edik if t
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aqmif rsdK;qufopfawGtaeeJ@ twdwfu acgif;aqmifawG&JΠvkyf&yfawGudk
ydrk jkd ynfph akH tmif rGr;f rHjyifqif jznfph u
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tusOf;pcef;awG)/ tdrfeD;csif; =u,f&HEdkifiHawG tay: AdkvfustEdkifusifhr_awG
([efa*&DeJ@ csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;)eJ@ jynfhESufae+yD; oufwrf;ESpf (70)
avmufeJ@ wppD +yKduGJysufpD;oGm;cJhayr,fh tjcm;jynfaxmifpkwckuawmh
wae@wjcm; pnfyifom,m0ajym wdk;wuftm;aumif;cdkifrmvmcJh+yD; ouf
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tJ'Dawmh usaemfwkd@ csdefcGifv#m&JŒ wzufu cGufxJrSm Adkvfoef;a&$&JŒ
EdkifiHawmf wnfaqmufjyKjyifa&;vkyfief; qdkwmawGudkxnfh/ usefwJhwzufrSm
tckajymcJhwJh tcsufESpfcsuft& jrif&wJh(etz)&JΠyHk&dyfudkxnfh+yD; csdef=unfhvdkuf
&if b,fbufu tav;omr,f xifovJ? rSef;q okH;oyf=unfh=uzkd@ roifhbl;
vm;?
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%m&Sif tpdk;&awGuawmh t+rJvufoHk;jyKajymqdkavh &Sd=uwJhpum; wcGef;&dSyg
w,f? tJ'guawmh “vHjk cHKa&;[m vGwv
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jzpfygw,f? t"dy`g,fu jynfolawG&JΠvGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkcGifh/ pka0;cGifh/ toif;
tyif; zGJ@pnf;cGifh/ yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifh/ ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fcGifhpwJh vGwfvyfcGifhawGxuf
jynfolawG vHkvHk+cHK+cHK +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;aexdkif toufarG;0rf;ausmif;Edkifzkd@u ykd
ta&;}uD;w,f? 'ga=umifh jynfolawG&JΠvHk+cHKa&; tusdK;iSg jynfolawG&JΠvGwf
vyfcGifhawGudk [ef@wm;ydwfyif csKyfcs,fuef@owf&wm jzpfw,fvkd@ qdkygw,f?
(etz)AdkvfcsKyfawGu wav#mufvHk; tJovdk ajymae=uwmyg?
tJovdkqdk&if usaemfwkd@ 'Dvdkwcsuf awG;=unfh=u&atmifyg (etz)
AdkvfcsKyfawG tygt0if tJ'Dpum;udk t+rJvufoHk;jyKavh&dSwJh olawGudk tcef;
usOf;wckxJrSm xnfhxm;r,f/ tcef;tjyif xGufcGifhuvGJ+yD; olwkd@vdkwm rSefor#
tm;vHk;ay;xm;r,f/ tJovdkqdk&if tJ'DvlawG tJ'Dtcef;xJrSm aervm;vkd@
usaemfwkd@ ar;prf;=unfh=u&atmif?
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ta&;awG jzpfygw,f? arG;&myg tcGifhta&;qdkwm b,fvdk yk*~dKvfrsdK;urS vlom;
udk oem;ojzifh cs;D jr‡iahf jr‡mufpm;xm;wJh tcGit
hf a&;r[kwyf gb;l ? vlom;&JΠud,
k f
ydkiftcGifhta&; ppfppfjzpfygw,f? vl@ordkif; jzpfay:wdk;wufr_t& vl@tzGJ@tpnf;
qdkwm ay:xGef;vm+yD; tJ'D tcGifhta&; (wenf;) vlom;wOD;pD&JΠvkyfydkifcGifh
(authority) awG[m vlwOD;(bk&if) ok@d r[kwf tzG@J wck (tpd;k &) qDp+k yHKa&muf&Sd
oGm;cJw
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tqifhtwef; owfrSwfcsuf wenf;ajym&&if tJ'Dvl[m w&m;0iftkyfcsKyfcGifh

137
&xm;wJholvm; 'grSr[kwf w&m;r0if tkyfcsKyfaewJholvm;qdkwJh tcsufudk azmf!$ef;
aeygw,f?
vlom;twGuf vdktyfcsuf[m vuf&dSordkif;acwfrSm rqdkxm;eJ@ vlom;pwif
ay:aygufvmp acwfrSmawmif touf&Sifoefa&; wckwnf;&dScJhwm r[kwfygbl;? touf
&Sifoefa&;[m y"mejzpfwmrSefayr,fh vGwfvyfcGifh[mvnf; vlom;twGuf touf
&SifoefcGifheD;yg; ta&;ygwJh t&mjzpfygw,f? vlwa,muftwGuf vGwfvyfcGifhr&dSbJ
touf&iS af e±kH oufoufqw
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h @dk awmif &Edik pf &mr&dyS gb;l ?
'Duae@acwfrSm tJ'Dtcsuf[m wae@wjcm; ydkvkd@awmif xif&Sm;ay:vGifaeyg
w,f? 'Duae@ wcsKŒd Edik if aH wGrmS jynfoal wG awmif;qdak e=uwm touf&iS o
f efa&;twGuf
y"me vdktyfcsufjzpfwJh pm;0wfaea&; jynfhpHkzlvHkatmif tpdk;&u jyKvkyfay;zkd@ r[kwfyg
bl;? wenf;ajym&&if tJ'DjynfolawGu olwkd@tpdk;&qDu “xrif;”awmif;ae=uwm
r[kwfygbl;? “vGwfvyfcGifh”vdk@ t"dy`g,f&wJh “'Drdkua&pD”udk awmif;qdkae=uwm jzpfyg
w,f? a&eHa=umifh ±kwcf sn;f csr;f om ºuG,0f vm=uwJh ta&SŒtv,fyikd ;f tm&yf Edik if aH wGu
EkdifiHa&; jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;r_awGeJ@ pufr_zGH@+zdK;+yD; taemufEdkifiHwcsKd@u
EdkifiHom; tcGifhta&; v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk avhvm&if 'Dtcsufudk awG@Ekdifygw,f? (1989) ck
ESpfu w±kwfEdkifiH ab*sif;+rdKŒ/ wdeftefrif&ifjyifrSm ay:aygufcJhwJh vlxktHkºuGr_}uD;[m
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jrefrmEdkifiH[m e,fy,fwdkif;
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rwfvmzkd@ vHkavmuf±kHru ydkv#Hae+yD vkd@
aemufusjzpf+yD; usqkH;aewJhEdkifiH
awmif qkdavmufwJh tJ'Dtcsdef umv
(Failed State) wckjzpfae+yDqdkwm
twGi;f jrefrmjynfoal wG&ŒJ pD;yGm;a&;b0
(etz)eJ@ol@udk 0dkif;0ef;ajr‡mufyifh
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toif ; tyif ; / a&ay:qD
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138
olawG tdref ;D csi;f Edik if aH wGrmS u|eo
f mG ;cHz@dk wae@xufwae@ ydyk +kd yD; xufoef wuf
ºuGvmae=uwm bma=umifhvJ? tESdyfcef;u tp/ nuvyftv,f/ aqmif=um
+rdKiftqHk;rSm b0awG bHk;bHk;vJ +yKduGJysufpD; qHk;±_H;cJh=u&wJh jrefrmtrsdK;aumif;
orD;av;awG/ tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHawGudk ta&mif;pm;cHcJh=u&wJh jrefrmtrsdK;aumif;
orD;av;awG&ŒJ ta&twGuf wae@wjcm; wk;d oxuf wk;d vmaewm bma=umifv
h ?J
usaemfwkd@EdkifiHrSm (HIV)ydk; pGJuyfaeolawG ta&twGuf xdwfvef@
wkefv_yfp&m aumif;avmufatmif wdk;vm aewm[m tJ'DjzpfpOf&JΠtusdK;quf
r[kwfbl;vm;? u|efcHzkd@ oGm;=uwmcsif;twlwl ocifEdkifiHawGu avqdyfawGu
vl0ifr_}uD;=uyfa&; t&m&dSawGu ywfpykd@pmtkyfxJrSm jrefrmqdkwJh pum;vHk;udk
awG@vkdufwmeJ@ ywfpykd@udkifaqmifoludk txifao; tjrifao;eJ@ =unfhavh&Sd=u
wm bma=umifhvJ? “Zmwdykn/ *k%frme[k/ oHy[kef;pkef;/ bufrJh}uKH; om;”vkd@
&Gwfqdk}uKH;0g;avh&dScJh=uwJh jrefrmvlrsdK;awG&JΠ*k%fusufoa&awG (e0w) (etz)
acwfrSm b,fa&mufoGm;=u+yDvJ? trsdK;om; zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_&JΠxif[yfcsuf
wckjzpfwJh tm;upm; e,fy,fudk =unfhvkdufygOD;? (e0w)(etz)wkd@ vufxuf
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eDe/D a':vm/ oufO;D av;/ jrefrmajy;ckeyf pform;awG jzpf=uwJh &Siaf rG*ef;/ +rDw;kH aemf/
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i,fESyfpm; (WHO)u,Hk=unf+yD; xkwfjyefcJhwJh xkwfjyefcsuf wckyJvm;? quf
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u¾wdkif;rSm atmufusaemufus jzpf+yD;usqkH;aewJhEdkifiH (Failed State)
wckjzpfae+yDqdkwm (etz)eJ@ol@udk 0dkif;0ef;ajr‡mufyifh nm0g; +zD;jzef;pm;ae=uwJh
aqGawmfrsdK;awmf ta¹cGt&Htoif;tyif;/ a&ay:qD wpkuvGJ&if usefjrefrm
EdkifiHom; tm;vHk;eJ@ urBmhacgif;aqmiftm;vHk; od=uygw,f?

139
Adkvfoef;a&$&JΠyHk&dyfudk csdefpuf=unfhr,fhcsdefcGifv#m&JΠwzufu
cGufxJrSm rxnfhrjzpfxnfh&r,fh vkyf&yfaygif;rsm;pGmxJu tenf;i,fr#udk
arhwwfolawG arhroGm;atmif azmfjyowday;csifygao;w,f? yxrqHk;
tcsufu EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om;awG udpPyg? Adkvfoef;a&$vufxuf tusOf;
axmifawGxJrSm toufay;oGm;=u&wJh EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om;awG&JΠta&
twGuf b,favmuf &dw
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kd m (etz)u b,fwek ;f urS w&m;0if xkwf
jyefcJhjcif;r&dSvkd@ usaemfwkd@rod&ygbl;? 'gayr,fh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;
wa,muf axmifxJrSm aoqHk;oGm;wm[m zHk;zdxm;vkd@&wJh udpPr[kwfav
awmh (etz)xkwaf zmf 0efcjH cif; r&daS yr,fh vltrsm; odvm=u&wJh pm&if;awG
t& (etz)acwfaxmifxrJ mS usq;kH oGm;wJh Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awG&ŒJ ta&
twGuf[m (rqv)acwf (26)ESpf/ (zqv)acwf (14)ESpf/ udkvdkeDacwf ESpf
(100)ausmf/ zufqpf*syef acwf(3)ESpfawGuxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm ydkw,f
qdkwJhtcsufudk b,foljiif;&JygovJ? 'gawmifrS 'Dpm&if;xJrSm axmifxJu
ygvmwJh a&m*gb,eJ@ '%f&m'%fcsufawGa=umifh axmiftjyifa&muf+yD;
r=umcif aoqHk;oGm;cJh=u&olawG rygao;ygbl;?
vlwdkif; jcifudkuf/ =urf;ydk;udkuf cHcJh=u&zl;rSmyg? tJ'DaumifawG
tudkufcH&wJhtcg olawmfpif olawmfjrwfawGuvGJvkd@ omrefvltrsm;pk
}uD;u b,fvdkwkH@jyef=uovJ? jcifqdk&if vuf0g;eJ@zsef;ceJ ±kdufowf/ =urf;ydk;
qd&k if vufnKd‡ ;vufrxJ n‡yzf +d y;D owfvu
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vm;? tJ'Djcif okd@r[kwf =urf;ydk;udk ±kdufowfzdowf+yD;wJh aemufrSm awmifrS
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wcg jymudk tajrmufajymif;xJxnfhypf/ tJovdk wkH@jyefw,fqdk&if tJ'Dvludk
b,fvdk tuJjzwf=urvJ? (etz)acwf EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG[m tJ'D
jcifv/kd =urf;yd;k vdk cHpm;cJh cHpm;ae=u&w,fq&kd if b,fojl iif;rvJ? “a':atmif
qef;pk=unf usef;rmygap”vdk@ atmfwJholudk axmif(7)ESpf/ vl@ tcGifhta&;
ta=umif; &Si;f jyvk@d &GmutxGuf vlpek @J 0ikd ;f +yD; t±ku
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olawGudk axmif(65)ESpf/ EdkifiHa&;orm;awG bufuvdkufay;wJh a&SŒaeudk
axmifcs/ vl@tcGifhta&;twGuf aqmif&Gufaeoludk azmufcGJr_eJ@ ay;pm;+yD;
axmif(25)ESpfcs/ wlrudk oGm;zrf;wmrrdvkd@ ta':udk zrf;/ zcifudk zrf;+yD;wJh
tjyif touf(4)vt&G,f vlrr,fuav;i,fav;&JΠrdcifjzpfoludkyg r&
&atmif vdkuf&Smzrf;/ “Oya'onf aemufa=umif;jyefcGifh r&dS”qdkwJh Oya'&JŒ
aomhcsufr¾Kdifwckudk vspfvsL±_+yD; axmifxJa&mufae+yD;om; vlwa,muf

140
udk ydwfodrf;+yD;om; tr_awGeJ@ jyefpGJcsufwif+yD; axmifxyfcs/ touf(80)eD;yg;t&G,f
axmifxJrSm tESpf(20)eD;yg; aecJh&+yD;jzpfwJh vlwa,mufudk v$wfr,fqdk+yD; axmifbl;0
ac:vm+yD;rS wdkufxJjyefoGif;/ tjyifu rdom;pkawG 'kuQawG@Ekdifor# awG@apzkd@ &nf&G,f+yD;
Edik if aH &; tusO;f om;awGukd rdom;pkawGe@J a0;&m &moDOwk jyif;xefq;kd 0g;wJh axmifawGuykd @dk /
axmif0ifpmudpPeJ@ ywfouf+yD; pOf;pm;vkd@ &or# enf;vrf;aygif;pHk toHk;jyK+yD; taESmifh
t,Sufay;/ qufa&;&&if 'Du¾wckxJeJ@wif pmtkyfawG twGJvdkuf xGufvmygvdrfhr,f?
tJovdk r=um;0HhremomudpPawG jzpfysufcJh/ jzpfysufaewJh EdkifiH[m urBmay:rSm jrefrm
wEkdifiHwnf; &dSygw,f? 'g[m teE WarwWm u±k%m&Sif jrwfpGmbk&m;&JŒ w&m;a'oem
awG xGef;um;aeygw,fqdkwJh jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ay:aygufcJh ay:aygufaeqJjzpfw,fqdkwJh
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jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;zcif/ trsdK;om;
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awmif0wf rdef;rom;wOD;udk aemufqHk;
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jrefrmjynfuvGJ+yD; wjcm;b,fwdkif;jynfrSmrS awG@EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;?
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S =f urSmjzpfayr,fh
taz/ tar/ tpfudkvwfeJ@ cifyGef;jzpfolawGu vl@jynfrSm r&dSawmh/ tpfudk}uD;u pmem
axmufxm;r_ r&dS/ om;ESpfa,mufu EdkifiHjcm;rSm/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JΠtdrftus,f

141
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bma=umifhvJ? olwkd@u olwkd@OD;pD;usif;ycJhwJh trsdK;om;nDvmcH[m
rsuEf mS csi;f qdik f awG@qaHk qG;aEG;yGyJ v
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ajymqdkcsuf wckvm;? [kwfw,f 'grSr[kwf r[kwfbl; qdk&ifbma=umifhvJ?
ajz ?
? cifAsm;ar;cGef;&JΠyxrtykdif;udk t&Sif;qHk;eJ@twdkqHk;ajz&r,fqdk&ifawmh ol
wyg;ydkif ypPnf;udkvk,l odrf;ydkufxm;ol[m ypPnf;&JŒrlvydkif&SifeJ@ rsufESmcsif;qdkif awG@
qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ b,fvkyf&JyghrvJqdkwJh OyrmudkyJ ay;&ygvdrfhr,f? ypPnf;&JŒrlvydkif&SifeJ@ tJ'D
ypPnf;udk vk,lodrf;ydkufxm;olwkd@[m vGwfvyfyGifhvif;+yD; w&m;r#wwJh 0ef;usifwckrSm
wef;wl&nfwl awG@qkHaqG;aEG;=u+yDqdkwmeJ@ olwkd@ESpfOD; yxrqHk; rvGJraoG aqG;aEG;&r,fh
udpP[m awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ&JΠyifrta=umif;w&m;jzpfwJh vk,lodrf;ydkufcHxm;&wJh ypPnf;
udpPyJjzpfygw,f? 'ghxufydk+yD; wkduf±kdufususajym&&ifawmh tJ'DypPnf;udk vk,lodrf;ydkuf
xm;olu rlvydik &f iS x
f H b,fawmhb,fvjdk yefay;rvJqw
kd u
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jzpfay:vm+yDqw
kd meJ@ 'Dtcsuu
f kd a&Smifvv
J$ @dk r&ygb;l ? t"dyg` ,u
f aqG;aEG;yGjJ zpfay: vm+yD
qdkwmeJ@ t"rRorm;[mol vk,lodrf;ydkufxm;wJh ypPnf;udk(100µ)xdef;csKyfxm; Edkif&mu
ae wckvHk; 'grSr[kwf wpdwfwykdif;udkawmh pGef@v$wf&awmhr,fqdkwm a&Smifv$Jvkd@ r&wJh
oabmygyJ?
,ae@acwf urBmrSm wGifus,fv$rf;rkd;aewJh EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m;&JΠzGifhqdkcsuf
t& EdkifiHawmftm%m&JΠrlvydkif&Sif[m jynfolawGjzpfygw,f? vuf&dSjrefrmEdkifiHrSm EdkifiH
awmftm%mudk (1990)ckESpfrSm usif;ywJh vGwfvyfw&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyGJrS wqifh
jynfoal wGu w&m;0iftyfEiS ;f jcif;cHxm;&wJh tzG@J tpnf;u (NLD) jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh
tm;vH;k od=uwJt
h wdik ;f tJ'D a&G;aumufyu
JG kd cHo
k rm"dv}l uD;tjzpf OD;pD;usi;f yay;ygr,fv@dk
ajymqdkchJwhJ (e0w)(etz)ppftkyfpku tm%mudk rlvydkif&SifjzpfwJh jrefrmjynfolawG&JŒ
w&m;0ifudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfwJh (NLD)udk v$Jay;zkd@ jyifqifwJh y%mrvkyfief;pOftjzpf jynf
ol@v$wfawmfudk ac:,lusif;yay;zkd@a0;pG? tEdkif&ygwDu tajctaeudk em;vnfr_&dS&dSeJ@
v$waf wmfac:,la&;a&SŒrSm wqifch +H yD; awG@qaHk qG;aEG;a&;vkyzf @dk awmif;qdak ewmudak wmif
rsufESmajymifwdkuf jiif;qefae±kHomru a&G;aumufyGJ tEdkif&ygwD}uD;awGeJ@ v$wfawmf
udk,fpm;vS,fawGudk ajymr,Hk}uKHzl;rSodr,hf enf;vrf;aygif;pHktoHk;jyK+yD; EdSyfuGyfn‡Of;yef;
aewm uef@vef@umaemufuG,frSm v#KdŒv#KdŒ0Suf0Sufvnf; r[kwfwmrkd@ tm;vHk; jrifae
=um;ae=u&wJhtwdkif;ygyJ?

147
'Dae&mrSm pum;pyfrdvkd@ jynfwGif;jynfyu 'Drdkua&pDbufawmf
om;wcsKdŒ&JŒ jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;udk eufeuf±_dif;±_dif; em;rvnfvkd@yJvm;? 'grSr[kwf
tawG;acgiv
f eG ;f vk@d yv
J m; rod&wJh tawG;tac: tajymtqdw
k csKŒd ta=umif;
aqG;aEG;csifygw,f?
olw@dk u jrefrmEdik if rH mS ppfreS w
f EhJ ikd if aH &;awG@qyHk JG ay:aygurf vmao;
wm&JΠta=umif;&if;udk &Sm=u&mrSm 'Drdkua&pD tiftm;pkawG/ 'ghxufykd+yD;
wdkuf±kdufususajym&&if 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawG&JŒ OD;aqmifygwD}uD;jzpfwJh
(NLD) 'ghxufydk+yD; wdkuf±kdufususajym&&if (NLD) acgif;aqmif a':atmif
qef;pk=unf&JΠc|wf,Gif;csufa=umihf
jzpfw,fvkd@ ,lqae=uyHk&ygw,f?
avmavmq,f r S m
olwkd@qdkvdkwJh c|wf,Gif;csufqdkwm
(etz)ay;or#,l
uawmh a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m
awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJudk (etz),Hk=unf
au|;or#pm;+yD ;
ouf 0 if v matmif azsmif ; zsqG J
aemif t cgusrS
aqmifpnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;Ekdifjcif; r&dS
tajctaeay;&if ay;ovd k
bl;? wenf;ajym&&if a':atmifqef;
rdrdwkd@&JΠ'Drdkua&pDe,fy,fudk
pk=unf[m awG@qakH qG;aEG;a&; pm;yGJ
wvuf r csif ;
0kdif;qD(etz) a&mufvmapzkd@ t
csJŒxGif,loGm;&r,fvkd@
wGuf vHak vmufwt
hJ av#mah y;r_ udk
olwkd@u qdkygw,f?
(etz)xH w&m;0ifvlod&Sif=um;
urf;vSrf;jcif; r&dScJhbl;qdkwm jzpfyg
w,f? wu,fvkd@ a':atmifqef;pk
=unfuom awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpf
ay:vmwJt
hJ cg rdrw
d @dk bufu bmawGtav#mah y;r,fqw
kd mudk }udKwif+yD; vlod
&Si=f um; wdwu
d susurf;vSr;f r,fq&kd if (etz)[molw@dk &ŒJ tem*wfb0 vH+k cHK
a&;twGuf pdwcf svufcsjzpfomG ;+yDr@dk awG@qaHk qG;aEG;a&; pm;yG0J ikd ;f udk a&mufvm
vdrrhf ,f? pdwcf svufcsjzpfomG ;wm r&daS o;bl;qd&k ifawmifrS (NLD) urf;vSr;f
r_&ŒJ tvGew
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f m&a=umifh (etz)[m tJ'u
D rf;vSr;f r_
udk rjiif;qefomavmufwJh zdtm;atmufudka&muf&dSoGm;+yD; tenf;qHk;
pm;yGJ0dkif;&dS&mudkawmh pwdoabmjzpfjzpf a&muf&dSvmvdrfhr,f? tJ'DtcgusrS
'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmif/ wdkif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifawG[m (e0w)udk wjznf;
jznf;azsmif;zspnf;±kH;+yD; ppfrSefwJhawG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJrsm; ay:xGef;vmatmif
azmfaqmifjcif;jzifh &Spfq,fh&Spf ta&;awmfyHktwGif; jrefrmjynfolawG awmif;
qdkcJh=uwJh 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ vl@tcGifhta&; &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk +yD;ajrmuf

148
atmifjrifapvdrfhr,f? olwkd@u tJovdk awG;ac:,lqajymqdkae=uwmjzpfyg
w,f?
tJ'DtawG;tac:&JΠta=umif;&if; a&aomufjrpfubmvJ? tESpf ESpf
q,fv;kH vH;k jynfwiG ;f ua&m jynfyuyg zdtm;awG aygi;f pHak y;cJw
h =hJ um;u (etz)
[m aysmhaysmif;tm;enf;oGm;jcif;r&dSwJhtjyif ydkvkd@awmif wif;rmtm;aumif;
vmcJw
h ,f? vuf&rSd mS taxGaxG Edik if w
H umtajctaeuvnf; jrefrmh 'Dru
kd a&
pD bufawmfom;awGtwGuf tcGio
hf mapr,fh taetxm;rSm r&db
S ;l ? 'ga=umifh
zdtm;qufay;r,fqdk&if (etz)[m EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;eJ@ykd+yD; a0;uGmo
xuf a0;uGmvmr,f? tJ'g&JŒ tusdK;quftjzpf jynfolawGtay: (etz)&JŒ
zdEdSyfr_[m jyif;xefoxufjyif;xefvm+yD; tqHk;wae@rSm wEdkifiHvHk; aygufuGJ
vGifhpif a=urGoGm;um jynfaxmifpkvnf; +yKduGJ/ jynfolawGvnf; tqHk; r&dSwJh
'kuQyifv,fatmuf epfjrKyfoGm;=u&vdrfhr,fqdkwJh awG;ac:qifjcifyHk enf;vrf;
(Way of Thinking) jzpfygw,f? tJovdkrjzpfzkd@twGuf vuf&dS tajc taerSm
taumif;qHk;enf;vrf;u 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGtaeeJ@ (etz)udk tpGrf;ukef
tav#mhay; vdkufavsm+yD; ajyvnfr_&,la&;rl0g' (Appeasement Policy)
jzpfygw,f? avmavmq,frSm (etz)ay;or#,l au|;or#pm;+yD; aemiftcgus
rS tajctaeay;&if ay;ovdk rdrdwkd@&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDe,fy,fudk wvufrcsif; csJŒ
xGif,loGm;&r,fvkd@ olwkd@u qdkygw,f? tJ'D tawG;tac:t& olwkd@ t"du
xm; &SmazGwmu b,fvdkajymqdk jyKrlvkyfudkif&if (etz)oabmusrvJ qdkwm
jzpfygw,f? (etz)[m olwkd@oabmruswJholawGudk EdkifiHa&;t& vHk;vHk;
vsm;vsm; &yfwnfv@dk r&atmif t+yD;tjywf acsre_ ;f ypfvrd rhf ,f? tJovdk acsre_ ;f
ypfEdkifwJh pGrf;yum;vnf;(etz)rSm &dSw,f? olwkd@oabmuswJh olawGudkawmh
olwkd@csKyfudkifxm;wJh tm%m&JŒtpdwftydkif;tcsKdŒudk cGJa0ay;vdrfhr,f? vuf&Sd
jynfwGif;jynfy tajctaeawGt& vufpwHk;acsr_ef; ypfwmudkcH&wmeJ@ pm&if
(etz)ray;rjzpfvkd@ay;&wJh ig;rwfom;/ ESpfusyfcGJom; 'Drdkua&pDudk ,lwmu
ydk+yD;vufawG@usw,f? vuf&dStajctaerSm (90)a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudkyJ tao
qkyfudkifxm;+yD; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;a&;udkyJ wpmpm awmif;qdkaewm[m vufawG@
rusbl;? pdwful;,Of qefvGef;w,f? b,fawmhrS taumiftxnf ay:rvm
r,fh tdyrf ufjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Dru
dk a&pDacgi;f aqmifawG txl;ojzifh (NLD)/
txl;ojzifh a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m tdyrf ufu Ed;k x+yD;wu,fh vufawG@b0
rSm pwifaexdkif&r,fvkd@ tJ'DtawG;tac: *kd%f;0ifawGu olwkd@udk,fwdkifvnf;
,Hk=unfae=u+yD; tjcm;olawGudkvnf; ,Hk=unfvmatmif wdkufwGef;vSHKŒaqmf
ae=uygw,f?

149
tJ'DtawG;tac:*kd%f;u xufoefwufºuGr_vnf;ydk&dS/ tajctae
vnf; ydak y;jcif;cH&olawGq&kd if tJ't
D awG;tac:udk vufawG@ taumiftxnf
azmfr_wcktjzpf (etz)tay: pD;yGm;a&;/ oHwrefa&;t& '%fcwfydwfqkd@ta&;
,lxm;r_awGukd jyefvnf±yk o
f rd ;f ay;zk@d oufqidk &f mtpk;d &awGukd csO;f uyfpnf;±k;H
ae=uw,fqdkwm jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;udk pdwf0ifpm;+yD; pOfqufrjywf avhvmtuJ
cwfaeolwikd ;f odae=uwJh w&m;0if ra=unmwJh vlwidk ;f od owif;wyk'f (open
secret) jzpfygw,f?
(1993)rSm (etz)&JΠtrsdK;om;nDvmcHudkwufa&mufcJhwJh trSm;udk
usL;vGefcJh+yD;wJhaemuf aemufxyfvrf;pOfqdkif&m trSm;wckrS xyfrHusL;vGefjcif;
r&daS wmhwhJ vuf&Sd (NLD)acgi;f aqmifrsm;ua&m/ yifu,
kd x
f ufjrufx;l c|erf x
_ J
rSm q,fpEk pS f ESpcf w
k mumv tawG@t}uKHrsm; xyfraH ygi;f xnfx
h m;r_t& jrefrm
ppftm%m&Sifpepf&JΠobm0udk rkef@wD[if;vdk &Sif;&Sif; vif;vif; uGif;uGif;uGuf
uGuf jrifawG@omG ;cJ+h yDjzpfwhJ a':atmifqef;pk=unfuyg tJ't
D awG;tac:*k%
d ;f &JŒ
tajccHt&udk vGrJ mS ;aer_ukd aumif;aumif;em;vnf oabmaygu=f uyH&k ygw,f?
'gayr,fh 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pktwGif;nD!Gwfa&;udk txl;OD;pm;ay;wJh rdrdwkd@&JŒ
t&if;cH pdwx
f m;vnf;ay:vGiaf p/ tJ'D tawG;tac:*k%
d ;f om;rsm;vnf; auseyf
r_&/ EdkifiHwumtjrifrSm rdrdwkd@bufu twwfEdkifqHk; tav#mhay; vdkufavsm
urf;vSrf;cJhw,fqdkwJh tcsufvnf;ay:vGifapqdkwJhoabmeJ@ a':atmifqef;pk
=unfe@J (NLD)acgif;aqmifawG[m usaemftxufwae&mrSm wifjycJhovdkyJ
thHzG,fol&J vdkufavsmr_wckudk (etz)xH urf;vSrf;cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh (etz)
&JΠwHk@jyefr_u txufygtawG;tac: *kd%f;om;rsm; tygt0if tm;vHk; todyg
yJ?
jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ppftm%m&Sifpepf csKyf+idrf;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDjyefvnf ay:
xGe;f a&;vkyif ef;[m ta&SŒtv,fyikd ;f u tpPa&; ygvufpwdik ;f jy\emavmuf
euf±_dif;}uD;rm;us,fjyef@jcif;r&dSbl;vkd@ usaemfa&SŒwae&mrSm qdkcJhygw,f? jrefrmh
jy\em[m tpPa&; ygvufpwdkif; jy\emvdk “urBmem”wckr[kwfbl;vkd@
usaemf qdkcJhygw,f? t"dy`g,fu ta&SŒtv,fydkif; jy\em[m ESpfoufwrf;
&maxmifcsD&dScJh+yDjzpf+yD; vHk;0ajyvnfoGm;zkd@uvnf; aemufESpfaygif; &maxmifcsD
r[kwfonfhwdkif q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tcsdef,l+yD; cufcufcJcJ ememusifusif
ajz&Si;f &r,fh jy\emwckjzpfayr,fh jrefrmjy\emuawmh tJoavmuf eufeJ
cufcJwJh jy\emwck r[kwfbl;vkd@ qdkvdkwm jzpfygw,f? vuf&dSrSm jrefrmh jy
\em Edik if w
H umrD;armif;atmuf a&muf&aSd ejcif;[m jy\em&JŒ euf±id_ ;f odraf rG@
us,fjyef@}uD;rm;r_a=umifh r[kwfbJ tajrmftjrifenf;yg;+yD; b,folaoao
iawrm&if+yD;a&m pdwf"mwf&dSwJh jrefrmhwyfrawmfxdyfydkif;u ppfAdkvfwpk&JŒ

150

awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfay:rvmwm[m (NLD)a=umifh/ 'grSr[kwf
ESpfzufpvHk;a=umifhvkd@ ±_jrifw,fqdk&if tJ'DcsOf;uyfenf;uwqifh
b,fawmhrS tajzrSef&zkd@r&dSwJhtjyif æ

acgi;f rmr_a=umifo
h m jzpfw,fqw
kd t
hJ csu[
f m wae@wjcm; ydrk kd ay:vGix
f if&mS ; vmvsu&f Sd
ygw,f?
jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDjy\em[m ta&SŒtv,fydkif;jy\emavmuf euf±_dif;us,f
jyef@jcif;r&dSbl;qdkayr,hf usefurBmhEdkifiHawGu txl;ojzifh tdrfeD;csif; ta&SŒawmif tm&S
EdkifiHawGu 'Drdkua&pDa&;jy\emawGavmufawmh vG,fulacsmarG@jcif; r&dSEdkifbl;qdkwJh
tcsufudk oabmaygufxm;zkd@vnf; vdktyfygw,f? 'Dvdkjzpf&wm[m jrefrmEdkifiH&JΠyx0D
EdkifiHa&;t& ta&;ygr_/ EdkifiH&JŒ o,HZmw&if;jrpf aygºuG,f0r_eJ@ tJ'DtcsufawGudk aumif;
aumif;}uD; oabmaygufxm;+yD; olwkd@tkyfpktusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf u|rf;usifyg;eyfpGm
toHk;csae=uwJh jrefrmxdyfwef; ppfAdkvfwpka=umifhjzpfw,fqkdwJhtcsufudk eufeuf ±_dif;
±_dif; oabmaygufrSom jrefrmhjy\em ajyvnfa&;twGuf yxrqHk;eJ@ r&dSrjzpf ta&;
t}uD;qHk;tqifhjzpfwJh ppfrSefwJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ ay:aygufvmEdkifapr,fh enf;vrf;rsm;udk
pOf;pm;}uHqEdkifrSm jzpfygw,f?
'Duae@ppfrSefwJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJwck ay:aygufvma&;udk ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;jy
+yD; a&Smifv$Jaewm[m (etz)ppftkyfpk jzpfygw,f? 'Dtcsufudk OD;aESmufyHkrSef&dSolwdkif;u
od=uygw,f? ukeu
f ek af jym&if (etz)ud,
k w
f ikd u
f awmif odygw,f? 'ga=umifh awG@qaHk qG;
aEG;yGJ jzpfay:rvmwm[m (NLD)a=umifh/ 'grSr[kwf ESpfzufpvHk;a=umifhvkd@ ±_jrifw,fqdk
&if tJ'DcsOf;uyfenf;uwqifh b,fawmhrS tajzrSef&zkd@r&dSwJhtjyif tajzrSefeJ@ =umav
a0;avawmif jzpfrSmaocsmygw,f? csOf;uyfenf; trSefu awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ ay:ayguf
rvmwm[m (etz)wzufwnf; (wzufwnf;)a=umifhom jzpfw,fvkd@ yxrqHk; ±_jrif&
ygr,f? +yD;awmhrS 'kw,
d tqifh taeeJ@ (etz)[m awG@qaHk qG;aEG;yGu
J kd bma=umifh jiif;qef
aeovJqw
kd mudk pOf;pm;&r,f? tJ'v
D pkd Of;pm;wJah e&mrSm (etz)&JΠrlvZpfjrpf (origin)eJ@
ol@&ŒJ xl;jcm;wJh ud,
k yf ikd pf ±ku
d v
f uQ%mawG (characteristics)udk qef;ppf oH;k oyf&ygr,f?
awG@qaHk qG;aEG;yGu
J kd (etz)u jiif;qefae&wJh ta=umif;&if;udk od+yDqrkd S tJ'gawGukd b,fvkd
z,f&Sm;+yD; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ ay:aygufvmatmif b,fvdkaqmif&Gufr,f qdkwmudk od&dSrSm
jzpfw,f? 'Dvdkjzpfygw,f?
usaemftxufrSm azmfjycJhwJh tawG;tac:*kd%f;&JΠ*kd%f;0ifawGu awG@qkHaqG;
aEG;yGJ jzpfrvmwm[m (etz)a=umifhawmif r[kwfwJhtjyif ESpfzufpvHk;a=umifhvnf;
r[kwb
f J (NLD) wzufwnf;a=umifo
h mjzpfw,fv@dk xkwrf ajymayr,fh tJovdk ,lqae

151
=uyHk&ygw,f? 'gudkolwkd@&JΠvkyf&yfawGrSm jrifawG@Ekdifygw,f? tJ'guawmh
(etz) pGypf o
JG vdk olw@dk uvnf; (NLD)[m tar&duefe@J taemufEikd if aH wGukd
(etz)tay: '%fcwfydwfqkd@ta&;,lr_awG csrSwfusifhoHk;zkd@ wkdufwGef;awmif;
qdkcJhw,fvkd@ ,lq+yD; tJ'Dta&;,lr_awG jyefvnf±kyfodrf;oGm;atmif olwkd@
enf;olw@dk [efe@J }udK;pm;yrf;pm; aqmif&u
G af e=ujcif;yJ jzpfygw,f? tJ'D vky&f yf
awGtwGuf olwkd@xkwfazmfajymqdkwJh ta=umif;jycsufwcku '%fcwf ydwfqkd@
ta&;,lr_awG[m (etz)xuf jrefrmjynfolawGudk ydk+yD;txdemapvsuf&dS
w,f? 'ga=umifh olwkd@vkyf&yf&JΠt"du&nfrSef;csufu jynfolawG cHpm; ae&wJh
'kuQa0'emawG avsmhyg;oufomapzkd@ jzpfw,fqdk
wm jzpfygw,f? olw@dk xw
k af zmfajymqdjk cif; r&daS yr,fh
trsm;oabmaygufae=uwJh tcsufu '%fcwfydwf
qkd@ ta&;,lr_awG avsmhyg;oufomvmwmeJ@tr#
twdu
k t
f cH'rD u
kd a&pD tiftm;pkawG tay:rSm&daS ewJh
(etz)&JΠcg;onf;em=unf;wJh cHpm;r_[mvnf;
wjznf;jznf; avsmhyg;ysufjy,fvm+yD; aemufqHk;rSm
ppfrSefwJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxGef;ay:ayguf vmEdkif
w,fqdkwJh ar#mfrSef;csuf olwkd@rSm&dSw,f qdkwmjzpfyg
w,f? tJ'DawG;ac:qifjcifyHkenf;vrf; (Way of
Thinking)t& olw@dk [m tJ'aD r#mrf eS ;f csuaf wGukd xd
cdkufapr,fh(wenf;) (etz) txiftjrif vGJrSm; pdwf
qd;k a'goxGuaf pr,fh tajymtqdk tjyKtrlrsKd ;awGukd
rajymrd/ rjyKrdatmif txl;owdxm; a&Smif=uOf+yD;
(etz)oabm b0ifckdufapr,fh tajymtqkd tjyK
trlawGudk pOf;pm;&Sm}uH ajymqdkjyKrl=uygw,f?
ppfreS w
f hJ awG@qaHk qG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxeG ;f rvmwm (e0w)(etz) ppftyk pf k
a=umifhom jzpfw,fqdkwJh tcsuf[m (90)a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifrD tcsdefupvkd@
wae@wjcm;xif&Sm;ay:vGifvmcJhwm rSefayr,hf 'DbufwESpf ESpfESpftwGif;
rSmawmh v,fjyifrSm qifoGm;ovdkydk+yD; uGufuGufuGif;uGif; xif&Sm;vmcJh+yD;
ukvor*~ twGif;a&;r_;csKyf&JΠtxl;oHwref*rfbm&D&JΠc&D;pOfawGtwGif;rSm
awmh 'Dtcsu[
f m b,fvrkd q
S uf+yD;zH;k xm;vk@d r&awmhbJ yGiu
hf s oGm;cJyh gw,f?
(etz)&JŒ jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD; Adkvfausmfqef;&JŒ “u|efawmfwkd@rSm (NLD)eJ@
awG@qaHk qG;aEG;zk@d tpDtpOfr&dyS gb;l ”qdw
k hJ pum;udk rSwrf ad e=uolawGe@J awG@qHk
aqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxGef;zkd@twGuf a':atmifqef;pk=unfbufu 'gawGvdkufavsm
&r,fqdk+yD; awmif;qkdcsuf(4)csufeJ@twl xkwfjyefvdkufwJh Adkvfoef;a&$&JŒ

152
a=unmcsuu
f kd rarhEidk =f uao;olawGuawmh usaemfo
h abmxm; udk vufcEH idk f
=urSmyg?
Adkvfausmfqef;&JŒ ajymifajymifwif;wif; ajymqkdcsufeJ@ Adkvfoef;a&$&JŒ
^m%feD^m%feufawGeJ@ jynfhESufaewJh a=unmcsufawGtjyif (e0w)(etz)
wkd@ olwkd@&JΠoufwrf;wavsmufvHk; vkyfcJhwJhvkyf&yfawGu olwkd@[m ppfrSefwJh
awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxGef;vmrSmudk vHk;0tvdkr&dSbl;qdkwm tcdkiftrmjyoae
ygw,f?
(NLD)tygt0if'rD u
kd a&pD tiftm;pktm;vH;k u awG@qaHk qG;aEG;a&;
udk awmif;qdkvmcJhwm (e0w)pwif ay:aygufvmpuwnf;u jzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dwkef;u Adkvfapmarmifu b,fvdkwkH@jyefcJhovJ? “ygwDawGu trsm;}uD;/
usKyfu wa,mufwnf; b,fvdkjzpfEdkifrvJ”wJh? tJ'Dqifajcudk acszsufzkd@ ygwD
aygif;(200)ausmfu a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk wOD;wnf;aom udk,fpm;vS,f
tjzpf a&G;cs,fwm0efay;=ujyefwJhtcgusawmhvnf; (NLD)[m uvdef
uuspef nf;oH;k +yD; ygwaD wG&ŒJ vufrw
S af wGukd &,lcw
hJ ,fv@dk (e0w)&JΠa=u;pm;
uavmif&SifawGu a&;jyefygw,f? a&G;aumufyGJ+yD;wJhaemuf tEdkif& (NLD)
ygwDu awG@qkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ qufvufawmif;qdkwJhtcgusawmhvnf; (e0w)u
olwkd@ wufokwf ±kdufxkwfjyefvdkufwJh (1§90) a=unmcsufudkom ygwDawGudk
twif;tusyfvufrSwfxkd;ap+yD; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;a&;udk a&Smifv$JcJhjyefygw,f?
(1§90)udk vufrw
S af &; xd;k cJ+h y;D wJh aemufrmS vnf; (NLD)u awG@qaHk qG;aEG;a&;
udk qufvufawmif;qdkwJhtcg trsdK;om;nDvmcHtwkudk zefwD;+yD; a&Smifwdrf;
cJjh yefygw,f? (2000)ckEpS x
f rJ mS a':atmifqef;pk=unfe@J xdyw
f ef;ppfAv
kd }f uD;wpk
wkd@ xrif;pm;yGJ ywfywfvnfrSm&yfae=uwJh "mwfyHkudk olwkd@ydkif owif;pmawG
xJrSm xkwfjy+yD; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfaeoa,mifyHkrSm; ±kdufcJhayr,fh tJ'g[m
tusO;f om;eJ@ axmifrLS ; awG@qHk ajymqk=d uwJh tvGwo
f abm pum;0dik ;f avmuf
yJ &dScJhw,fqdkwmudk aemufydkif;rSm ay:xGufvmwJh jzpf&yfawGuazmfjycJhygw,f?
rif'Jvm;eJ@ 'Duvyfwkd@vnf; rif'Jvm;axmifxJrSm &dSaewkef;uwnf;u
awG@qkHaqG;aEG;cJh=uwmyJ r[kwfbl;vm;vkd@ apm'u wufcsifolawG &dSaumif;
&dSEdkifygw,f? 'gayr,fh awmiftmz&duEdkifiHu tJ'D awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJeJ@ jrefrm
Edik if u
H awG@qaHk qG;aEG;yGJ tESpo
f m&csi;f vH;k 0rwlb;l qdw
k mukd aemufyikd ;f jzpf&yf
awGu txift&Sm;oufaojycJh+yD; jzpfygw,f? rif'Jvm;eJ@ 'Duvyfwkd@&JΠtJ'D
aqG;aEG;yGJu awmiftmz&duEdkifiHopfudk rD;±SL;oef@pifzGm;jrifay;cJhayr,fh
a':atmifqef;pk=unfeJ@ (etz)&JŒ tJ'DawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJuawmh “'DyJ,if; vl
owfyGJ}uD;”udkom arG;xkwfay;cJhwm tm;vHk;todygyJ?

153
ppfrSefwJhawG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxGef;ay:aygufvmapzkd@ (etz)rSm qENr&dSwJh
ta=umif;udk jyefqufygr,f? tJovdk awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJudk ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;jy+yD; jiif;
y,fvmcJh&mu (etz)[m aemufqHk; vSnfhywfa&Smif&Sm;p&m enf;vrf;ukefcef;oGm;wJh
tcgrSmawmh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfrvmatmif vkyfaewm[m olwkd@r[kwfbJ a':atmif
qef;pk=unfom jzpfygw,fqw
kd hJ taetxm;rsKd ; a&mufomG ;apr,fh enfvrf;udk toH;k jyKcJh
ygawmhw,f? tJ'guawmh Adkvfoef;a&$&JΠa=unmcsufygyJ? tJ'Da=unmcsuf&JΠtESpfom
&uawmh oleJ@ awG@qkHaqG;aEG;csifw,fqdk&if a':atmifqef;pk=unftaeeJ@ olb,fwkef;
urS rvkyfcJhzl;wJh vkyf&yfawGudk aemifrvkyfawmhygbl;vkd@ uwday;&r,fqdkwmjzpfygw,f?
wcgrS rcdk;zl;wJholudk aemifrckd;awmhygbl;vkd@ uwday;cdkif;wJh oabmygyJ? a':atmifqef;pk
=unfudk qkwfvnf;pl;/ pm;vnf;±l;/ a&SŒwdk;xrf;ydk;/ aemufqkwfvSnf;wkwf tajctaersdK;
xJa&muf+yD; tusyftwnf;awG@atmif zefwD;vdkufwmjzpfygw,f? awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ
jzpfEdkifzkd@twGuf tJ'D¹cGif;csuf(4)ckudk a':atmifqef;pk=unfu b,fenf;eJ@rS vdkufavsm
oabmwlnrD mS r[kwb
f ;l qdw
k mudk (etz)u aumif;aumif; odygw,f? tJovdk oabm
rwljcif;tm;jzifh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ rjzpfwm[m a':atmifqef;pk=unfa=umihfvkd@ olwkd@u
vufnd‡K;xdk;=urSm jzpfygw,f?
wu,fawmh usaemftxufrSm wifjycJhwJh (Appeasement Policy) 0g'DawG
yrm'avc+yD; rod=u&ifom&drS ,f jrefrmjynfow
l &yfv;kH eJ@ ,Ofaus;wJEh ikd if w
H um todik ;f
t0dkif;wckvHk;u odae=uwmwck&dSygw,f? tJ'guawmh (etz) trSefwu,f vdkcsifae
wmu awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxGef;ay:aygufzkd@twGuf twdkuftcH 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawG
bufu wpHkwckaom twdkif;twmtxd tav#mh
ay;vdkufavsmr_awGvnf;r[kwf? awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJ
vnf; r[kwyf gb;l ? twdu
k t
f cH 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;
pkawGbufu vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; vufeufcst±_H;ay;
rnf o nf h j y\emrsd K ;
a&;om jzpf y gw,f ? (etz)[m tJ ' guvG J + yD ;
twGufrqdk a&&SnfcH
wjym;rS avsmhwmudk rvdkcsifygbl;? jynfolvlxk&JŒ
}uHhcdkif awmifhwif;wJh
axmufcHqENrJ(90µ)ausmfeJ@ twnfjyKvdkufw,f
(Sustainable)
qdw
k hJ olw@dk &ŒJ tajccHOya'qdw
k mudk aoaocsmcsm
tajzwck &&dSzkd@qdk&if
av;av;eufeuf avhvm=unfh&if tJ'Dtcsufudk
ppfrSefwJh
jrifawG@Ekdifygw,f?
awG
@
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H
a
qG ; aEG ; yG J
twdkuftcH 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawG
tqifhudk rvGJraoG
bufu tºuGi;f rJv
h ufeufcs t±_;H ay;zk@d qw
kd m b,f
jzwfoef;&r,fqdkwm
vdjk zpfEikd yf grh vJ? 'g[m usK;d a=umif; qDavsmrf v
_ nf;
r&dS/ w&m;r#wr_vnf;r&SdwJh awmif;qdkr_yJ? 'Dvdk
awmif;qkdr_rsdK;udk (etz)u vkyfyghrvm;vkd@ ,kwdW

154
aA' ±_axmifhu =unfh+yD; apm'uwufcsifolawG &dSEdkifygw,f? ,kwdW&dS r&dS/
obm0us rusawmh rodb;l ? (etz)u olw@dk &ŒJ tajccHOya'qkw
d hJ t&mtm;
jzifh tJ'aD wmif;qdrk a_ wG jyKvkyx
f m;wmuawmh vufawG@ygy?J olw@dk u tm%m
&&dSaewJh tESpf(20)=umumvwavsmuf jynfwGif;u twdkuftcHawGudk (E_dif;
,SOcf sut
f &) v_yrf &atmif zdEydS x
f m;Edik cf w
hJ hJ tawG@t}uKH/ vufeufuikd f awmf
vSefa&; tiftm;pk trsm;pkudk “wkwfeJ@rkefvmO”enf;vrf; toHk;jyK+yD; “udk,f
usyftusô” (Straight Jacket) 0wfay;xm;EdkifwJh tawG@t}uKHawGtjyif 'D
umvtwGi;f Ekid if w
H um todik ;f t0dik ;f &JΠtm;enf;aysmn
h rHh a_ wGuykd g od&o
Sd mG ;
cJhwJh tawG@t}uKHawGt& olwkd@&JΠ(ppftm%m&Sifpepf&moufyef r[kwf&if
awmif tenf;qHk;aemufxyf q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm qufvufwnfwHha&;)
ar#mfrSef;csuf rkcsatmifjrifvdrfhr,fvkd@ (tcktxdawmh) ,Hk=unfae=uyHk&yg
w,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; todtrSwfjyK axmufcHa=umif; vlod&Sif=um; &J&J wif;
wif;ajymqdk0HhwJh av;pm;avmufwJh vlyk*~dKvfeJ@tzGJ@tpnf; jynfwGif;rSma&m/
jynfyrSmyg wa,muf wzGJ@rS r&dSwmawmif olwkd@&JΠ(2010)a&G;aumufyGJudk
rjzpf jzpfatmif vkyfaqmifoGm;r,fvkd@ [def;a[muf}uKH;0g;aewm jzpfygw,f?
jrefrmhorkdif;rSmomru urBmordkif;wavsmufrSmyg &&dScJhwJh tawG@
t}uKHawGt& rnfonfhjy\emrsdK;twGufrqdk a&&SnfcH }uHhcdkifawmifhwif;wJh
(Sustainable) tajzwck &&dSzkd@qdk&if ppfrSefwJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJtqifhudk rvGJ
raoGjzwfoef;&r,fqdkwm EdkifiHa&;vdk odrfarG@eufeJwJh e,fy,frSm usifvnf
v_yf&Sm;aeolawG rqdkxm;eJ@ omrefvlawGawmif odxm;=uwJh udpPwckyg?
'ga=umifh 'gudk(etz)vnf; odxm;rSm aocsmygw,f? 'gqdk&if (etz)u
awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJudk bma=umifh auG@ywf a&Smifajy;ae&wmvJ?
wu,fhta=umif;&if;trSefu ta=umufw&m;eJ@ pGJvrf;wyfruf
r_wkd@yJjzpfygw,f? rdrdwkd@ udk,frdrdwkd@ 'Drdkua&pD bufawmfom;awGvkd@ ,Hk=unf
,lqolae=uawGtaeeJ@ 'Dtcsufudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; oabmaygufxm;zkd@vdk
ovdk (jynfya&muf tiftm;pkawGtaeeJ@) &J&J ajym=uzkd@vdkygw,f? (rqv)&JŒ
aemufqHk;orRw a'gufwmarmifarmif aemufqHk;ajymcJhwJh rdef@cGef;(5)ckxJrSm
rSefuefwJh oHk;oyfcsufwcsKdŒyg&dSygw,f? tJ'DxJu wckuawmh “tm%m[m
vludk zsufqD;wwfw,fæ tºuGif;rhJtm%m[m vludk tºuGif;rJh zsufqD;
wwfw,fæ”qdkwJh pum;jzpfygw,f? (etz)[m tckqdk&if tm%m&vmwm
ESpf(20)ausmfoGm;yg+yD? 'DumvtwGif; (etz)[m EdkifiHudk rm&S,favmeJ@ tkyf
csKyfcJhwmjzpfygw,f? (etz)&JΠrm&S,favmqdkwm wjcm;EdkifiHawGu rm&S,f
avmawGeJ@ rwlygbl;? Adkvfapmarmif&JΠzGifhqdkcsufu jrefrmEdkifiHu rm&S,favm
ud k tyD j yif q H k ; jzpf a tmif zG i f h q d k a y;cJ h y gw,f ? ol u rm&S , f a vmqd k w m

155
“Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;&JŒ qEN” (General's will) ygyw
J ?hJ
wu,fvnf; (e0w) (etz)wkd@[m EdkifiHudk
tJ'Dtwdkif; tkyfcsKyfcJh=uwm jzpfygw,f? xdyf
qHk;u AdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;&JΠqEN[m wdkif;jynf&JΠuH
'D r d k u a&pD
=urRmjzpfcJhygw,f? wenf;ajym&&if jrefrmEdkif
Ed k i f i H a wG r S m
iH[m (1988)ckESpf pufwifbmv(18)&ufae@
umuG , f a &;
upvk d @ 'D u ae@txd (rqv)wk e f ; uxuf
OD ; pD ; csKyf q d k w m
awmif trsm;}uD;ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;wJh tzHk;tumrJh
tm%mwef ; pD Z ,m;rS m
ppftm%m&Sipf epf (naked military dictatoreH y gwf ( 10)
ship) atmufrSm aecJh&wm jzpfygw,f? tJ'D
tjyifbufrSmom&dSwJh
awmh a'guw
f marmifarmifajymcJo
h vdyk J (etz)
&mxl ; wck y J ?
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k o
f ef;a&$[m ol tJ'&D mxl;udk
&&dScJhwJh (1992)ckESpfupvkd@ tcktxd ESpfaygif;
(20)eD;yg;twGif; ol&,lcsKyf udkifcJhwJh tºuGif;rJh
tm%m&JŒ tºuGif;rhJzsufqD;r_udk cHxm;&wJh vl
wa,mufjzpfaeyg+yD? tjyifyef;tjrift& (etz)[m tzGJ@tpnf;wck jzpfaewmrkd@ EdkifiH
udkpkaygif;acgif;aqmifr_ yHko¿mefeJ@tkyfcsKyfaew,fvkd@ ,lqp&m&Sdayr,fh wu,fh vuf
awG@rSmawmh ol[m(etz) tzGJ@0if wjcm;b,fAdkvfcsKyfurS rsufarG;axmf armfvkd@awmif
r=unfh&JwJh ESpfq,hfwpf&mpk&JΠvufwqkyfpmr#aom oufOD;qHydkif ya'o&mZfawGxJu
wyg;jzpfaewm tm;vHk;todyg yJ? 'Dtcsufudk (parade) r*~Zif;u jyKpkxkwfjyefavh&dSwJh
urBmt
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f ;kH em; w0ku
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tm%m&SifawGxJrSmrS xdyfqHk;wef;u tm%m&SifwOD;jzpfwJh Adkvfoef;a&$[m
tm%m&Sifwkd@&JŒ xHk;pHtwdkif; “ighjrif;igpdkif;/ ighavSigxdk;”cJhwm tm;vHk;todygyJ? tJ'Dvdk
vkyfcJhvkd@vnf; jrefrmEdkifiHrSm +Adwdo#udkvdkeDacwf/ zufqpf*syefacwf/ EdkifiHa&;tpdk;& acwf
awG rqdkxm;eJ@ (rqv)acwfrSmawmif ray:aygufcJhzl;wJh ausmfraumif; =um;raumif;
vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_}uD;awGay:xGufcJhwm tm;vHk;todygyJ? tJ'Djzpf&yfawGxJrSm
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awmhrSvdrfvkd@ r&bl;qdkwJh pum;&dSygw,f? Adkvfoef;a&$[m ol&,lxm;wJh tºuGif;rJh
tm%m&JΠarmif;ESirf a_ =umifh tJ'v
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hf a&; csKd ;azmufr}_ uD;awGukd usL;
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Sd mwJh touft&G,af =umifah &m/ oleufeuf ±_id ;f ±_id ;f
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tqH;k tr=o0g'awGa=umifyh g olvyk af ewJv
h yk &f yfawG rSm;,Gi;f ae+yDqw
kd mudk wae@wjcm;

156
odrvmbJ aerSmr[kwfygbl;? tJovdk wjznf; jznf; odvmwmeJ@tr# ol@&if
xJrmS ta=umufw&m;(b,m)awG[m wa&GŒa&GŒ zG@J pnf;jzpfwnfvmrSm rvGJ
ygb;l ? aemifb0eJ@ oHo&mqdw
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hJ mawGta=umif; ol taotcsm awG;rdrmS jzpfygw,f? ±kad r;eD;
,m;u acsmifqufpul; tp/ csDvDu yDEdkacs;/ yem;rm;u Edk&D*g/ tD&wfu
quf'rf[lpdef/ ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;u rDvdkpDApf/ vdkufab;&D;,m;u csm;vfpf
awvm/ uarBm'D;,m;u ydkvfaygh/ tif'dkeD;&Sm;u ql[mwdk/ qm;bD;,m;u
&m'dAk efu&mZpf/ &0rf'gu tpd;k &tzG@J a[mif; xdyw
f ef;acgi;f aqmifawG tv,f
ol@&JŒ uef@ulvufvSnfhq&m}uD; OD;ae0if; tqHk; tm%m&Sifa[mif;}uD;awG&JŒ
Zmwfodrf;rvSyHkawG[m ol=uyf=uyf oifcef;pm,lxm;wJh jzpf&yfawGjzpfyHk&
ygw,f? tJ'yD *k Kd~ vfawG&ŒJ Zmwford ;f awGu “Adv
k o
f ef;a&$ cifAsm;vnf; tm%m
udk vufv$wfvdkufwmeJ@ usKyfwkd@oGm;&m vrf;udk vkduf&vdrfhr,f”vdk@ ol@ukd
=o0g'ay;aew,fvkd@ Adkvfoef;a&$ tcdkiftrm ,lqxm;wm aocsmygw,f?
'ga=umifhvnf; aemufqHk;wae@rSm ol tm%mvHk;0 vufvGwfoGm;&wJhtxd
OD;wnfoGm; apEdkifw,fvkd@ ol,lqxm;wJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJudk Adkvfoef;a&$
ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;jy+yD; vSnfhywfa&Smif&Sm;aewm jzpfygw,f? 'gu (b,m)
udpP jzpfygw,f?
pGv
J rf;wyfrufr(_ w%Sm)a=umifh awG@qaHk qG;aEG;yGu
J kd a&Smif&mS ;aewm
jzpfw,fqdkwJh tqdkuvnf;&Sif;ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawGrSm umuG,fa&;
OD;pD;csKyfqw
kd m tm%mwef;pDZ,m;rSm eHygw(f 10)tjyifbufrmS om&dw
S hJ &mxl;
wckyg? ol@&ŒJ cHpm;cGiq
hf w
kd muvnf; ol&ŒJ vpmeJ@ tJ'&D mxl;wm0ef xrf; aqmif
aecdu
k rf mS Edik if aH wmfu axmufyx
hH m;wJh taqmifta,mif (Facilities) tcsKŒd
om jzpfygw,f? ol@&JŒvkyfydkifcGifh tm%m[mvnf; ol@txuftqifhqifh&dS
t&m&dSawGu ppfaq;xdef;nd‡ (Check and Balance)rleJ@ cGJa0ay;xm;wJh
t&momjzpfwma=umifh rsm;ajrmifvSaom tuef@towfawGeJ@om jzpfyg
w,f?
vuf&jSd refrmEdik if rH mS awmh tm;vH;k od=uwJt
h wdik ;f ygy?J umuG,af &;
OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k o
f ef;a&$ txufrmS b,forl rS &dyS gb;l ? olu ol@uEdk ikd if aH wmf t}uD;
tuJv@dk jynfwiG ;f ua&m jynfyuyg ac:a0:ok;H E_e;f ±ko
H mru cH,l oabmxm;

157
vmatmifyg }udK;yrf; vkyaf qmifaeygw,f? 'Duae@ vuf&aSd cwfrmS v$r;f rk;d wGiu
f s,af ewJh
EdkifiHa&; oabmw&m;awGt& EdkifiHwEdkifiHrSm vlwa,mufwnf;u ppfwyft}uD;tuJ
&mxl;udak &m/ Edik if aH wmftm%m,E &W m;&JΠxdyq
f ;kH u &mxl;udyk g w+yKdief ufwnf; &,lxm;
jcif;[m tJ'ED ikd if t
H wGuf tifrweftE &W m,frsm;ygw,f? tJ't
D ajctae =um&Snaf v;jrifh
jzpfae+yDqdk&ifawmhtJ'D yk*~Kdvf[m jyefvrf;r&SdawmhwJh vl (doomed person)eJ@ tJ'DEdkifiH
[m “tvHk;pHk a=urGysufokOf;aewJhEkdifiH” (Failed State)jzpfawmhr,hf tE W&m,f acsmuf
urf;yg;pGef;ay: a&mufaewJh EkdifiHjzpfae+yDvkd@ qkdygw,f?
Adkvfoef;a&$eJ@ ol@&JŒAdkvfcsKyfwpk tJ'DtE W&m,fudk rjrifEdkifatmif umxm;wJh
t&mwcku w%SmqdkwJh wyfrufpGJvrf;r_yg? olwkd@wawG[m 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHwckrSmom
qd&k if b,fvrkd S rar#mrf eS ;f Edik w
f hJ vkyyf ikd cf iG hf tm%mawGe@J tJ'g&ŒJ tusKd ;qufjzpfwhJ pnf;pdrf
OpPmawGukd jrefrmjynfrmS &&dcS pH m;ae=u&ygw,f? olw@dk [m ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd arG;au|;
jyKpkysdK;axmifcJhwJh Adkvfae0if;wkd@ vlpkawmifr&,lrcHpm;&JwJh pnf;pdrfOpPmawGudk &,lcH
pm;ae=uygw,f? (etz)xdyfwef;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;awG rqdkxm;eJ@ olwkd@tdrfu xrif;csuf
&JŒ om;}uD;jzpfol&JŒ oli,fcsif;&JŒarmifESpfr0rf;uGJ awmfpyfwJhvlrsdK;awGuawmif tHhrcef;
csrf;omºuG,f0ae=uwm vltrsm;od=uygw,f? 'gudk=unfh+yD; tJ'DAdkvfcsKyf}uD;awG udk,f
wdkifb,favmufcsrf;om ºuG,f0ae=ur,fqdkwm rSef;q=unfhvkd@ &ygw,f? (etz) Adkvf
csKyf}uD;awGu olwkd@&JŒ csrf;omºuG,f0r_udk jynfolawGrodapzkd@ wwfEdkifor# tpDtrH
awG jyKvkyf+yD; }udK;pm;zHk;uG,fxm;=uayr,fh olwkd@a&ay:qDtv$mxJuyJ pdrfhxGufvmwJh
owif;awGt& tJ'AD v
kd cf sKyf}uD;awG&ŒJ csr;f omºuG,0f r_[m a=umufcref;vdvyd gy?J Edik if &H ŒJ
ukefxkwft&if;tESD;eJ@ ukefxkwfqufqHa&;pepf wckvHk;udk tjynfht0xdef;csKyfxm;+yD;
ukex
f w
k pf rG ;f tm;pktm;vH;k udk olw@dk pw
d }f udKufcaJG 0ydik q
f ikd x
f m;=uwmrk@d wu,fh vufawG@
rSmawmh jrefrmjynfolw&yfvHk;[m olwkd@&JŒ “ol&if;iSm;”yrm jzpfaeygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawGrSm w&m;ol}uD;csKyf/ a&SŒaecsKyf/ pm&if;ppfcsKyfqdkwJh &mxl;
awG[m jynfol@v$wfawmf&JΠoabmwlcsufeJ@ EdkifiHawmforRw 'grSr[kwf EdkifiHawmf
0ef}uD;csKyfu cef@tyf&wJh &mxl;awGjzpfygw,f? olw@dk &ŒJ t"duwm0efwcku Edik if aH wmfyikd f
pD;yGm;a&;,E &W m;awG rSerf eS u
f efuef acsmacsmarG@arG@ w&m;Oya'eJ@ tnDvnfywf v_y&f mS ;
aejcif;&dS r&dS rjywfapmifh=unfhppfaq;aezkd@eJ@ atmufqHk;upvkd@ txufqHk;txd tqifh
toD;oD;rSm wm0efxrf;aqmifae=uwJh EdkifiH0efxrf;awG t*wdw&m;uif;&Sif;r_ &dS r&dS/
tusifhysufjcpm;r_ &dS r&dS apmifh=unfhppfaq;+yD; tusifhysufjcpm;a=umif; awG@&dSygu ±kH;wif
w&m;pGJqdk tjypfay;zkd@ jzpfygw,f?
(etz)acwfjrefrmEdkifiHrSmawmh tm;vHk;od=uwJhtwdkif;ygyJ? tJ'D&mxl;awGrSm
wm0efxrf;aqmif=ur,fholawGudk Adkvfoef;a&$u pdwf}udKufa&G;cs,f+yD; olwkd@udk pdppf
twnfjyKay;r,fh v$wfawmfrsm;vnf; (v$wfawmf taqmufttHk}uD;vnf;&dS/ w&m;0if
a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcHxm;=u&wJh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;&dSygvsufeJ@) r&dSwJhtwGuf

158
Adv
k o
f ef;a&$ a&G;cs,w
f hJ olawG[m 'Dru
kd a&pDEikd if aH wGrmS qd&k if t&nftcsi;f jrifrh m;zk@d txl;
vdktyf+yD; tifrwefrSvnf; *k%foduQm}uD;rm;vSwJh tJ'D&mxl;awGudk Adkvfoef;a&$ tay:
opPmcH,lqdkwJh t&nftaoG;wckwnf;&Sd±kHeJ@ vG,fvG,fulul &&dSoGm;=uygw,f? tJovdk
taetxm;rSm &dSaerSawmh tJ'D&mxl;&Sifyk*~dKvf}uD;(3)OD;[m Adkvfoef;a&$eJ@ ol@&JŒopPmcH
AdkvfcsKyfwpk tusihfysufjcpm;r_ &dS r&dS apmifh=unfhppfaq; ta&;,lzkd@a0;pG? Adkvfoef;a&$
a&SŒa&muf&if toufawmifjyif;jyif;r±SL&JwJh tajctaerSm&dSae=uwm wwkdif;wjynfvHk;
odwJh udpPwckyg? tjcm;wzufrSmawmh tJ'Dw&m;ol}uD;csKyf/ a&SŒaecsKyf/ pm&if;ppfcsKyf
}uD;awG[m Adkvfoef;a&$tay: opPmcHwJhtwGuf aemifq,foufq,fb0 pm;rukefoHk;r
ukef jzKef;rukefatmif csrf;omºuG,f0ae=uawmhvnf; (jynfolawGudk rsufpdxJrxm;&if)
opPmcH&wm wefw,favvkd@qdk&r,fh taetxm;yg?
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawGrSm tpdk;&tzGJ@0iftm;vHk;[m EkdifiHawmf&mxl;wm0efrsm;udk
pwifxrf;aqmifjcif; rjyKrDolwkd@&JΠydkifqdkifr_t&yf&yfudk w&m;0ifazmfjya=unm=u&yg
w,f? 'Dvdkvkyfzkd@ jyXmef;xm;wJh Oya'&JŒ &nf&G,fcsufu a&SŒaecsKyfu tJ'D tpdk;&tzGJ@0if
awG &mxl;uxGucf mG wJt
h cg &daS ewJyh ikd q
f ikd rf t
_ &yf&yfe@J &mxl;r,lcif&cSd w
hJ hJ ydik q
f ikd rf t
_ &yf&yf
udk csdefnd‡ppfaq;+yD; oHo,jzpfavmufzG,f uGm[r_udkawG@&dSygu ±kH;wifw&m;pGJqdkEdkifzkd@
jzpfygw,f? 'ghtjyiftpdk;& tzGJ@0ifawG[m olwkd@EdkifiHawmf&JΠ&mxl;wm0ef xrf;aqmifpOf
rSm Edik if aH wmfu axmufyx
hH m;wJh tdr/f um;pwJh taqmifta,mifreS o
f r#uv
kd nf; &mxl;
u xGufcGmwJhtcg EdkifiHawmfudk jyefvnftyfESHcJh =u&ygw,f? 0g&Sifwef+rdKŒu tdrfjzLawmf/
vef'ef +rdKŒu a'gif;eif;vrf; trSwf(10)wkd@[m
b,f tar&dueforRw/ b,f+Adwdo#0ef}uD;csKyf
&JΠudk,fydkifypPnf;rS r[kwfygbl;?
(etz)Ad k v f c sKyf a wG [ m
'DudpPeJ@ywfoufvkd@a&m (etz)
olwkd@&JΠt&nftcsif;/
acwf jrefrmEdkifiHrSm b,fvdk&dSovJ? (etz)Adkvf
vk y f i ef ; wm0ef
csKyfawGudk tJ'DOya'ta=umif;oGm; ajym&if
xrf ; aqmif r _ a wG e J @
uHoyd af umif;rS em;&if;tkycf &H ±kaH vmufe@J +yD;oGm;
E_dif;pmvdkuf&if tqaygif;
rSmyg? tJ'DvdkrsdK;tajctae&JΠxif[yfcsufwck
ajrmuf j rm;pG m
tjzpf (etz)AdkvfcsKyfawG tdrfb,fESvHk;/ um;
ydkrdk&&dSxm;wJh
b,fESpD;/ ajrb,fES{u/ aiGb,fESukaË/ a&$
tJ'DvkyfydkifcGifhawG/
b,fESyd\m ydkifqdkifw,fqdkwm b,folrS rod
pnf;pdrfOpPmawGudk
=uygbl;? wpGef;wp v#HxGufpdrfhxGufvmwJh
bdef;pGJovdk
owif;awGt&wif od&wmu Edik if &H ŒJ taumif;
wyfrufpGJvrf;ae=u+yD;
qHk; aom t&mawGrSefor#[m (etz) AdkvfcsKyf
tJ'gawGudkpGef@v$wfzkd@qkdwm
awG vufxJrSm wdkuf±kduf okd@r[kwf oG,f0dkuf

159
aomenf;vrf;tm;jzifh a&muf&aSd e=uwm tm;vH;k odwJh v#Kd@0Sufcsuf (open
secret) jzpfaeyg+yD?
tJ'Dawmh (etz)AdkvfcsKyfawG[m olwkd@&JΠt&nftcsif;/ vkyfief;
wm0efxrf;aqmifra_ wGe@J E_id ;f pmvdu
k &f if tqaygi;f ajrmufjrm;pGm ydrk &kd &dS xm;
wJh tJ'DvkyfydkifcGifhawG/ pnf;pdrfOpPmawGudk bdef;pGJovdk wyfrufpGJvrf;ae =u+yD;
tJ'gawGudk pGef@v$wfzkd@qkdwm tdyfrufxJrSmawmif rpOf;pm;wJh udpPjzpfaeyg
w,f? 'Dawmhvnf; tJ'gawGudkpGef@v$wf&r,fh taetxm;qDokd@ tqHk;wae@
rSm OD;wnfomG ;apEdik w
f hJ “awG@qaHk qG;aEG;r_”qdw
k hJ pum;vH;k udk olw@dk “em;cg;”
ae=uwm bmrSrqef;ygbl;?
wu,f a wmh Ad k v f o ef ; a&$ OD ;
buf + yKd i f a ewJ h
aqmifwhJ (etz)Adv
k cf sKyfwpk awG@qaHk qG;aEG;
a&;udk jiif;qefae=uwm[m usaemftxuf
tiftm;pkESpfck=um; ppfrSefwJh
rSm jynfjh ynfph pkH w
kH ifjycJo
h vdk b,meJ@ w%Sm
awG @qk H aqG ;aEG ;yG J w ck
a=umifhuvGJ+yD; wjcm;bma=umifhrS r[kwfyg
ay:ayguf v ma&;twG u f æ
bl;? 'gudkolwkd@u tcsKd@aom olawGudk
vSnfhpm;zkd@twGuf jynfaxmifpk r+yKduGJa&;
tiftm;enf;wJhbufu
wkd@/ ol@u|eftjzpfEGHepfrcHa&;wkd@qdkwmawG
tiftm;}uD;wJhbufudk
[pf a ºuG ; ae=uwmjzpf y gw,f ? tJ ' D [ pf
wwfEdkifor# tpGrf;ukef
aºuG;oHawGbufu vSnfhywfukwf uyf+yD;
vk d u f a vsmjznf h q nf ; ay;+yD ;
a&SŒaevdu
k af y;aewm awG@jrif=um; odae=u
acsmh a rmh E S p f o d r f h a &;rl 0 g'
&ayr,fh tJ'Da&SŒaeawGxJu trSefwu,f
(Appeasement Policy)
±kd;om;olawG oabmaygufoifhwm wcku
r[k w f y gbl ;
(etz)taeeJ@ tJ'DtE W&m,fawGudk w
u,fyJ ±kd;±kd;om;om; pdk;&drfylyefw,fqdk&if
olwkd@ vkyfp&m wckyJ&dSygw,f? tJ'guawmh
jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,fawGeJ@ ppfrSefwJh awG@qkH
aqG;aEG;yGJvkyfzkd@uvGJ+yD; wjcm;enf;vrf;r&dSbl;qdkwmygyJ?
wu,fawmh buf+yKdifaewJh tiftm;pkESpfck=um; ppfrSefwJh awG@qkH
aqG;aEG;yGJ wckay:aygufvma&;twGuf r&dSrjzpfvdktyfwJht&mu +Adwdo# 0ef
}uD;csKyfa[mif; csdefbmvdefupvkd@ vuf&dSjrefrmhEdkifiHa&;rSm yg0ifywfouf ae
=uwJh tcsKdŒtcsKdŒaom EdkifiHa&;orm;qdkolawGtqkH; ,lqajymqdkae=uovdk
tiftm;enf;wJhbufu tiftm;}uD;wJhbufudk wwfEdkifor# tpGrf;ukef vkduf
avsmjznfhqnf;ay;+yD; acsmharmhESpfodrfha&;rl0g' (Appeasement Policy)
r[kwyf gb;l ? urBmo
h rdik ;f rSm b,ftiftm;aumif;wJh t"rR0g'w
D OD;wa,mufrS

160

ppfrSefwJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ ay:xGef;vmapcsifw,fqdk&if
'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGbufu vkyf&rSmu
(t=urf;rzufa&;enf;vrf;udk usifhoHk;zkd@vnf;ykdif;jzwfxm;wma=umifh)
EdkifiHwum&JŒtm;/ jynfolvlxk&JŒtm;udk tjynfht0&,lEdkifa&;
pG e f @ v$ w f p G e f @ pm;r_ r sm;pG m &if ; ES D ; ay;qyf + yD ;
(etz)udk bufaygif;pHkrSm tusyftwnf;awG@atmif æ

tJ'Drl0g'a=umifh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ pum;0dkif;udk a&mufvmwmrsdK; r&dScJhygbl;?
emZD*smreD tm%m&Si[
f pfwvm[m txif&mS ; tjrifomqH;k Oyrmwck jzpfyg
w,f?
tJ'Dawmh tm;enf;wJh "rR0g'DawGeJ@ tm;aumif;wJh t"rR0g'DawG
t=um; ppfrSefwJhawG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ jzpfxGef;ay:aygufvmapzkd@twGuf t"duvdk
tyfcsufu bmvJ? tiftm;pkESpfcktm;csif; nDr#oGm;wJh tajctae (equilibrium) w&yfqDa&mufoGm;atmif tiftm;enf;wJhbufu rjzpfrae }udK;pm;
zk@d ygy?J 'guvG+J yD; wjcm;enf;vrf;r&dyS gb;l ? pdwu
f ;l ,Ofaevk@d r&ygb;l ? 'ga=umifh
usaemfwkd@ EdkifiHrSm ppfrSefwJh awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJ ay:xGef;vmapcsifw,fqdk&if 'Drdk
ua&pDtiftm;pkawGbufu vkyf&rSmu (t=urf;rzufa&;enf;vrf;udk usifh
oHk; zkd@vnf;ykdif;jzwfxm;wma=umifh) EdkifiHwum&JŒtm;/ jynfolvlxk&JŒtm;udk
tjynft
h 0&,lEikd af &; pGe@f vw
$ pf eG @f pm;r_rsm;pGm &if;ES;D ay;qyf+yD; (etz)udk buf
aygif;pHkrSm tusyftwnf;awG@atmif zdtm;ay;zkd@yJ jzpfygw,f?
Õ

161

ar; ? ? jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ tm;/ Edik if w
H um&JŒtm;vk@d qd&k mrSm jynfov
l x
l k
&JŒtm; qdkwmuawmh &Sif;ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD vdkvm;wJh jynfolvlxk}uD;
w&yfvHk;udk pkpnf;uspfvspf cdkifrm}uD;rm;us,fjyef@ jyif;xefwJhtiftm;}uD;
w&yf (Dynamic Power) jzpfvmatmif pnf;±kH;zGJ@pnf;+yD; &Spfq,fh
&Spfta&;awmfyHkwkef;uxuf ravsmhwJhv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;w&yf azmfaqmif&
r,fvkd@ qdkvdkwm r[kwfvm;? &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; r&dSwmu EdkifiHwumtm;
qdkwmyJ? cifAsm;vnf;odwJhtwdkif; EdkifiHwum qdkwJhtwdkif; EdkifiHawGu
trsm;}uD;/ tJ'DrSm EdkifiHwdkif;u udk,fhtrsdK;om; tusdK;pD;yGm;udkyJ t"du
xm;=uw,f? wcsKd@tkyfpkawG=um;rSmvnf; tusdK;pD;yGm;csif;u qef@usif
ae=uvkd@ 0da&m"dawGjzpfae=uw,f? urBmhEdkifiHtm;vHk;eD;yg; yg0ifaewJh
ukvor*~ tzG@J }uD;&JΠtm%mykid ,
f E &W m;jzpfwhJ vk+H cHKa&; aumifprD mS vnf;
rsm;aomtm;jzifh tar&duef/ +Adwdef/ jyifopfwkd@u wzuf/ w±kwfeJ@ ±k&Sm;
wkd@uwzuf/ oabmxm;uGJvGJae=u+yD; ta&;}uD;whJ jy\em awmfawmf
rsm;rsm;rSm a0g[m& tokH;tE_ef;udpPrSmwif nd‡E_dif;r&=uvkd@ qHk;jzwfcsuf
rcsEikd f jzpfc&hJ wmawG txift&Sm;yJ r[kwv
f m;? tJovdrk sKd ; tajctaerSm
jrefrmh'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkawG[m pkpnf;nD!GwfwJh EdkifiHwum&JŒtm;udk
&,lEikd rf ,fh tajctaea&m &d&S ŒJ vm;? &,lEikd cf w
hJ ,f qd&k ifawmif (etz)u
tJ'DEdkifiHwumtm;udk *±kpdkufyghrvm;? usaemfh ar;cGef;awGudk tESpfcsKyf
vdu
k &f if wckwnf;yg? tJ'guawmh vuf&ESd ikd if w
H um tajctae[m jrefrmh
'Drdkua&pD toGiful;ajymif;a&;tay: =oZmoufa&mufr_ b,favmuf
&dSovJ qdkwmygyJ?

162
ajz ?
? cifAsm;ajymwm rSeyf gw,f? awmif}uD;uawmh armh=unfv
h u
dk w
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164
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165
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172
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173
rSmawmh tJ'D ta&;,lr_awGudk ydk+yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef wif;usyfcJhygw,f? tar&duef
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174
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rjzpfEkdifawmhwJhtqkH; ukvor*~udk ausmckdif;+yD; tD&wfEkdifiHudk usL;ausmf 0ifa&muf
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175
EkdifiHawG&JΠ*k%foduQm taetxm;uawmh EkdifiHwumtjrifrSm ododomom jrifhwuf
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176
EkdifiHtcsif;csif; qufqH&mrSmvnf; 'Dtwkdif;ygyJ? urBmwv$m;u 'Drkdua&pDa&;
tajctaersm;udk rjywfapmifh=unfh tuJcwf+yD; tpD&ifcHpmawG ESpfpOfxkwfjyefavh&SdwJh
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177
trsKd;rsKd;aom vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_awG taxmiftaomif; &SdcJhayr,fh b,fvl@
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tenf;eJ@ trsm; txdemcJh&wmawmh trSefygyJ? tJ'Dtjrif[m tar&duefjynfolawG
twGif;rSmvnf; wpwp ykdrkdus,fjyef@ vmcJhwm aocsmygw,f? (2008)orRw a&G;
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178
ua&pD bufawmfom;awGu (engagement) enf;vrf;bufu tompD;&atmif tjyif;
txef }uKd;yrf;=uygvdrfhr,f?
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oabmxm; jzpfygw,f? 'Dru
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(potential danger)
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179
tar&dueftpdk;&taeeJ@ jrefrmh'Drkdua&pD bufawmfom;awGudk pdwf"gwfa&;&m axmuf
ulyyhH ;dk r_ (Spiritual Support)omru ±ky0f wWKa&;&m axmufuyl yhH ;dk r_ (material support)
awGudkyg ay;tyfvmatmif wkdufwGef;=u&ygr,f?
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dk a&pDa&;/ vl@tcGihf
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(etz)&JΠpdrfh0ifxkd;azmufzkd@ }uKd;yrf;r_uvnf; trsm;}uD; r[kwfonfhwkdif twkdif;twm
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urB m }uD ; vk H + cKH a &;/
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dk a&pD bufawmfom;
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awG (EU)ukd av;eufcidk rf mpGm ay;yk@d &r,fh
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qkdif&m rl0g'udk 'Dtwkdif; qufxm;+yD;

180
a&SŒtem*wfrSm ay:xGufvmr,fh 'Drkdua&pDa&; tajctaersm;t& (etz)eJ@ qufqHa&;
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}uD;ESpfckudk jzwfoef;cJh&+yD;wJhaemuf urBm}uD;vkH+cKHa&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;eJ@ zGH@+zKd; wkd;wufa&;
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&yfwnfcsuf wcku “wavmuvkH;qkdif&m vl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;” (The
Universal Declaration of Human Rights) jzpfygw,f? tJ'aD =unmpmwrf;yg azmfjy
csurf sm;t& ukvor*~tzG@J }uD;u (1990)a&G;aumufyrJG mS azmfjycJw
h hJ jrefrmjynfoal wG&ŒJ
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Nations)xuf ukvor*~u omw,fvkd@ ckdifckdifrmrm jywfjywfom;om; ajymEkdifwm
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181
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&efukef+rKdŒ&JŒ vrf;rawGay:rSm wpfausmhjyefjrifawG@cJh&wJh tajctaeu enf;ynm&JŒ
armif;ESiftm;eJ@ twl wae@xufwae@ ykdykd+yD; ,Ofaus; (civilize) jzpfvmaeyg+yDqkdwJh
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182
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183
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185
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186
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187
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188
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189
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190
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191
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f mcJ&h ygw,f? 'ga=umifh tckq&dk if tmpD,H
csmwm/ tmpD,Hvl@tcGifhta&; aumfr&SifqkdwmawG ay:xGufvmcJh+yD; jzpfygw,f?
tmpD,Hu wzGJ@vkH;taeeJ@ rdrdukd,frdrd EkdifiHwum pHcsdefpH!¸ef;rsm;eJ@ ukdufnDwJh
tzGJ@tpnf;wck jzpfvmatmif jyKjyifajymif;vJ wkd;csJ@jyifqifr_awG vkyfaecsdefrSm rdrdtzGJ@
twGif; t+rJwrf; ckd;vkd;ckvkjzpfae&wJh udpPwckuawmh jrefrmEkdifiHudpPygyJ? tzGJ@twGif;
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196
rjzpfrae tquftqH jyKae&wJh tmpD,H EkdifiHacgif;aqmiftrsm;pkudk acgif;cJapcJhwm
tzGJ@twGif;okd@ jrefrmEkdifiH 0ifa&mufvmpuwnf;u jzpfygw,f? ,Ofaus;wJh urBmeJ@
tquftqH enf;yg;jcif;eJ@twl &ifhoD;armufrm cufxef=urf;=uKwfwJh jrefrm ppfacgif;
aqmifawGudk tzGJ@twGif;okd@ qGJxnfhjcif;rSwqihf wjznf;jznf; ,Ofaus;aysmhaysmif;
vmatmif vkyfr,fqkdwJh &nf&G,fcsufeJ@ tar&duefeJ@ taemufEkdifiHawGu twefwef
wm;aewJ=h um;u jrefrmEkid if u
H kd tzG@J twGi;f ok@d xnfo
h iG ;f cJ=h uwJh tmpD,aH cgi;f aqmifawG
[m tckawmh “udk,fazmfwJhaq; ukd,frpm;0Hh” tjzpfrsKd;eJ@ }uKHawG@ae=u&yg+yD? bmrqkd
wkwfxkd;tkd;ayguf ajymifajymifajymavh&SdwJh rav;&Sm;0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; r[moD,mrkd
[mruf wa,mufom jrefrmEkid if eH @J ywfowfwhJ ol@trSm;ukd 0efc&H ma&mufwhJ pum;awG
ajymcJhayr,fh jrefrmEkdifiHukd tzGJ@xJqGJoGif;cJhwJh usef tmpD,H acgif;aqmifawG[mvnf;
tck t csd e f r S m awmh ol w k d @ trS m ;twG u f
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tmpD,H acgif;aqmifawGudk,fwkdif
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aq;uawmh “wEkid if jH ynfwiG ;f a&;wGif tjcm;
jref r mjy\emuawmh
wEkdifiHu 0ifa&mufpGufzufcGifh r&Sd”qkdwJh
“q&mrEk d i f ES p f a qmif + yKd i f ”
aq;yJjzpfygw,f? ukvor*~ yÉd^mOfpmwrf;
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}uKHawG@ae&wm jzpfygw,f?
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ay:aygufvmwJh jy\emawGudk ta&SŒenf;eJ@om ajz&Sif;vkdygw,f? Oyrmtm;jzifh jy\
em&SdaewJh EkdifiHukd vlod&Sif=um; a0zefaxmufjywmrsKd; rvkyfbJ ESpfudk,f=um; wkd;wkd;
wdwfwdwf azsmif;jzajymqkdwmrsKd; jzpfygw,f? ESpfEkdifiH=um; jy\em&Sd&ifvnf; &yfausmf
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h wif;vky+f yD;

197
ajz&Sif;avh&Sd=uygw,f? tmpD,H[mvnf; EkdifiHaygif;pkHyg0ifwJh tzGJ@wckjzpf
wmeJ@tnD tzG@J 0if Ekid if w
H cke@J wck=um;rSm jy\emav; awG&ydS gw,f? AD,uferf
eJ@ uarBm'D;,m;=um;rSm e,fajrjy\em/ uarBm'D;,m;eJ@ xkdif; =um;rSm bk&m;
ausmif;jy\em/ xkdif;eJ@rav;&Sm;=um;rSm xkdif;EkdifiHawmifykdif;u rlpvifcGJxGuf
a&;orm;awGukd ta=umif;jyK+yD;ay:ayguaf ewJh jy\em/ rav;&Sm;eJ@ puFmyl=um;
rSm a&jy\em pwmawGtjyif tmpD,HtzGJ@0if EkdifiHwcsKdΠyg0if ywfoufaewJh
py&ufwavu|ef;pk jy\emvnf; &Sdaeygw,f? tmpD,H[m tJ'Djy\emawG
udk Ekid if w
H um jy\emtqift
h xd a&mufroGm;atmif “ta&SŒ enf;” (wenf;)
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jzpfvmaew,fqkdwJhtcsufukd tmpD,Hacgif;aqmifawG wae@wjcm; wkd;wkd;+yD;
odvm? 0efcHvmae =u&ygw,f? jrefrmEkdifiHu qkd;&Gm;jyif;xef av;eufwJh vl@
tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_ jy\em[m olwkd@t&ifu }uKHawG@zl; ajz&Sif;zl;wJh jy\
emawGe@J tvsm;teH teufcsi;f vk;H 0rwlb;l qkw
d m tmpD,aH cgi;f aqmifawG tod
trSwf rjyKrjzpf jyKvmae=u&yg+yD? 'ga=umifhvnf; olwkd@[m 'DbufESpfykdif;rSm
(etz)vkd tpdk;&rsKd;awGudk xdef;csKyfEkdifr,fh tmpD,HcsmwmeJ@ tmpD,H vl@tcGifh
ta&;aumfr&Sif pwmawG ay:xGef;vmzkd@ wGef;tm;ay; vkyfaqmifvmcJh=uwm
jzpfygw,f? tckqkd&if tJ'D &nf&G,fcsufeJ@ }udK;yrf;r_awG taumiftxnfay:
p jyKvmaewmudk jrifawG@ae=u&ygw,f?
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=unfh=unfh &yfwnfcsuf oabmxm;awG[m “ckpmuav;a=umf ckqDxrif;”
qkdovkd rwnfr+idrfeJ@ tawmfhudk udk;±kdŒum;,m; EkdifcJhygw,f?
tJ'Dvkd jzpf&wm&JŒta=umif;&if;uawmh tmpD,H&JŒ rl&if;tzGJ@0ifEkdifiH
awG&JΠyifukd,fobm0a=umifh jzpfygw,f? tmpD,Hudk pwifzGJ@pnf;cJhwJh rl&if;EkdifiH
(5)cku xkdif;/ zdvpfykdif/ puFmyl/ rav;&Sm;eJ@ tif'kdeD;&Sm;wkd@jzpf=uygw,f? tzGJ@
pwif ay:aygufcJhcsdefwkef;u tJ'DEdkifiH(5)ck&JΠtaetxm;udk avhvm=unfh&if
xkdif;wEkdifiHrSmom tawmftwef yDjyifwJh 'Drkdua&pDpepf&Sd+yD; usefwJh EkdifiHawGu
awmh tm%m&Sief @J tm%m&Siw
f ydik ;f Ekid if aH wGcsn;f jzpf=uygw,f? 'ga=umifv
h nf;
tmpD,HtzGJ@&JŒ ausm±kd;tajccHrlrsm;xJrSm tD;,lvkd 'Drkdua&pDa&;/ vl@tcGifhta&;
awG ryg0ifcJhwm jzpfygw,f? 'ghtjyifaemufykdif;rSm tzGJ@0ifjzpfvm=uwJh b±lEkdif;/
AD,uferf/ vmtkd/ uarBm'D;,m;/ jrefrmEkdifiHawGxJrSmvnf; 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiH wckrS
rygcJhygbl;?

198
aemufykdif;rSm tmpD,HtzGJ@ tusyf
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'Drkdua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;udk tajcrjyK
wJh (rn‡mwrf; ajym&&if vk;H vk;H vsm;vsm;
tav;rxm;wJh) tzGJ@tpnf;wck jzpfae
ayr,f h tjcm;wzuf r S m awmh rd r d & J @
t"du pD;yGm;zufawG (tar&duefeJ@ tD;
,l)u 'Drkdua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;udk
tav;xm;wJh Ekid if aH wGjzpfaewma=umifh
tJ'D pD;yGm;zufawG&ŒJ w&m; enf;vrf;us
wJh a0zefaxmufjyr_awGudk av;pm;or_
a=umifheJ@yJjzpfjzpf/ rdrd&JΠtusKd;pD;yGm;
oufoufa=umifhyJjzpfjzpf tjyKoabm
wkH@jyefzkd@ wae@wjcm; wkd;wkd;+yD; vkdtyf
vmjcif;yJ jzpfygw,f? rlvtmpD,HEkdifiH
trsm;pku acgif;aqmifawG[m rdrdwkd@
ukd,fwkdifu tm%m&SifeJ@ tm%m&Sifwykdif; (ql[mwkd/ rm;udk@pf/ r[moD,m/ vDuGrf;,l
ponf)awG jzpfae=uwma=umifh a&SŒykid ;f rSm pD;yGm;zuf 'Dru
dk a&pDEidk if aH wG&ŒJ vl@tcGit
hf a&;
eJ@ 'Dru
dk a&pDa&;qkid &f m axmufjya0zefra_ wGtay: odyt
f av;xm; wk@H jyefc=hJ uwm r[kwf
ygbl;? rdrdwkd@udk,fwkdifu 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHawG r[kwfwJhtwGuf a'owGif;u tjcm;'Drkd
ua&pDr&Sw
d hJ Ekid if aH wGuv
kd nf; taemuf'rD u
dk a&pDEidk if aH wGu owday;aewh=J um;u pk;d &dryf l
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w,f?
'gayr,fh tajctaeawGu worwfwnf; &yfwef@aewm r[kwfygbl;? tcsdef
umvawG a&G@vsm;ukev
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opf tm%m&Sifwykdif; EkdifiHawGjzpf=uwJh b±lEkdif;/ AD,uferf/ vmtkdeJ@ uarBm'D;,m;
Ekid if w
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dk a&pDa&; tajctaeawGu wk;d wufrvmbl;qk&d ifawmif
odyf+yD; qkd;qkd;&Gm;&Gm; jzpfrvmcJhayr,fh tar&duefeJ@ tD;,l&JΠowday;csufawGudk vkH;vkH;
vsm;vsm; vspfvsL±_ypfy,f+yD; tzGJ@twGif;okd@ 0ifcGifhjyKcJhwJh jrefrmEkdifiHu tajctaeawG
uawmh wae@wjcm; ykyd +dk yD; qk;d vmaewmudk olw@dk rsuaf rSmuf jyKcJ=h u&ygw,f? wzufrmS
u rdrw
d @dk u,
kd w
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dk a&pDpepf&ŒJ tusK;d w&m;rsm;udk ykrd o
dk abmayguf em;vnfvmr_e@J
rdwf&if; aqG&if; pD;yGm;zufEkdifiHrsm;&JΠzdtm;/ wzufrSmu wae@xufwae@ ykdykd+yD; ighjrif;
igpdkif; ighavSigxkd;vkyfvmwJh tzGJ@0ifEkdifiHwcku tpkd;&/ tJ'DrSmwif tmpD,HtzGJ@[m tck

wzufrSm u rdrdwkd@udk,fwkdif
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tusKd ; w&m;rsm;ud k
yk d r k d o abmayguf
em;vnf v mr_ e J @
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pD ; yG m ;zuf E k d i f i H r sm;&J Πzd t m;/
wzufrSmu wae@xufwae@
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tzGJ@0ifEkdifiHwcku tpkd;& æ

199
wrsKd; awmf=umwrsKd; rsufESm ESpfckxm;wJh tzGJ@wckjzpf vmawmhwmygyJ? tJ'D
oGijf yif vuQ%m[m 'Dy,
J if;ta&;tcif;eJ@ a&$0ga&mif awmfveS af &;wk@d rmS yk+d yD;ay:
vGifxif&Sm; vmcJhygw,f? tmpD,HtzGJ@[m tJ'Dta&; tcif;awG jzpfaecsdefeJ@
jzpf+yD;prSm wrsKd;ajym/ aoG;at;oGm;csdefrSm wrsKd;ajymeJ@ EkdifiHwumtv,frSm
&yfwnfcsuf a&SŒaemufrnDwJh tzGJ@tpnf; wcktjzpf rsufESmysuf t&Suf&p&m
jzpfcJh&ygw,f? tmpD,H[m rdrdwkd@eJ@ pD;yGm;zuf tD;,ltzGJ@t=um; qufqHa&;awG
r}uKHzl;avmufatmif r=umc% tzktxpfawG jzpfcJh&wmawGudkvnf; jrefrm
Ekid if u
H kd tzG@J 0iftjzpfvufc+H yD;aemufrmS rS }uKHawG@vmcJ&h ygw,f? 'gt
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[m rdrdwkd@ukd,fwkdifvnf; jrefrmppftpkd;&&JΠapmfum;r_ukd t}udrf}udrf cHvmcJh&
ygw,f?
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tcsdeftxd jrefrmEkdifiHeJ@ ywfoufwJh rdrdwkd@&JŒ rl0g'trSm;eJ@ rdrdwkd@&JŒ t±_H;ukd
0efrcHao;bJ “[efukd,fhzkd@” vkyfaeqJjzpfygw,f? wm0efodwwfr_/ wm0ef,lr_eJ@
yGifhvif;r_ tm;enf;wJha'ou tzGJ@tpnf; wckyDyD tmpD,H[m tJ'DtrSm;eJ@ tJ'D
t±_;H ukd b,fawmhrS 0efcrH mS vnf; r[kwyf gb;l ? jrefrmppftpk;d &[m olw@dk ajym&if
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twGufuawmh tmpD,H[m EkdifiHwum zdtm;awG'%fu uif;vGwfatmif 0if
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200
wmawG tawmfrsm;rsm;&Sad eygw,f? tJ'x
D rJ mS tck&+dS yD;om;jzpfwhJ (Alternative
Asean)tzGJ@[m tm;taumif;qkH; pifjrifhjzpfEkdifygw,f? 'ghtjyifvuf&Sd &Sdae
+yD;om; aemufxyf tzGJ@tpnf;wckjzpfwJh “jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m tmpD,H ygvDref
trwfrsm;tzGJ@”[mvnf; jrefrmh'Drkdua&pDa&;twGuf tifrwef tzkd;wefwJh
tzG@J tpnf;jzpfwmrk@d 'DtzG@J ukd ykrd }dk uD;xGm; tm;aumif;vmatmif jrefrmh'rD u
dk a&
pD tiftm;pkrsm;u tm;oGef}udK;yrf; oifh=uygw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSm a'owGif;
Ekid if aH wGu jrefrmh'rD u
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d af wGyg0ifwhJ pma&;q&m tzG@J awG/
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cifAsm;ar;cGef;twGuf usaemfykdif;xm;wJh aemufqkH;tydkif;uawmh
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tpkd;&qkd;awG tkyfcsKyfaevkd@ “EkdifiHqkd;awG (Rogue States)vkd@ owfrSwfxm;wJh
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zGm; jrif;pD;aoewfudkif vl&rf;um;awG tokH;jyK+yD; vlrqefpGm ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;
aewma=umifh jzpfygw,f? 'gzm;a'ou vlom;csif; pmemr_qkdif&m tusyf
twnf; (Humanitaran Crsis)u }uD;rm;jyif;xef euf±_dif;vGef;vSavawmh

201
usefwJh a'ou jynfolawGtay: ql'eftpkd;& b,fvkdqufqHjyKrlovJqkdwJh udpP[m
rD'D,mawGay: a&mufrvmawmhygbl;? 'ga=umifh ql'eftpkd;&[m ol@jynfoltm;vkH;
tay: w&m;eJ@tnD tkyfpkd;r_&Sd r&SdqkdwJh tcsufudk urBmu rodoavmuf jzpfae&ygw,f?
'gayr,fh 'gzm;u vkyf&yfudk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifhawmh ql'eftpkd;&&JΠtESpfom&udk cef@rSef;
Ekdifygw,f? aocsmwmwckuawmh ql'eftpdk;&[m tm%m&Sif tpkd;&rsm;&JΠxkH;pHtwkdif;
EkdifiHwum tokdif;t0kdif; txl;ojzifh ukvor*~udk rxDrJhjyifjyKvkd@ &&ifjyK/ jyKvkd@r&&if
trsKd;rsKd;vSnfhpm; aew,fqkdwmygyJ? 'gzm;a'orSm vuf&Sd&SdaewJh tmz&duor*~&JΠrjzpf
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202
&moufyef udkifpGJxm;vkdwJh orRwa&mbwfrl*gbDa=umifh jzpfygw,f? olpdwf±l;aygufwkdif;
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203
ar;?
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pDtiftm;pkawGtaeeJ@ txkid af [mif;u &yfwnfvy_ &f mS ;ykH ta[mif;ukd pGe@f vw
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wJh a&G;p&mvrf; r&Sdawmhbl;? 'DvkdrSenf;y&d,m,frajymif;&if rdrdwkd@rSm v_yf&Sm;p&m ae&m
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'Drkdua&pD tiftm;pkawGtwGif; tajccHtm;jzifh tJovkd oabmxm;
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om;wifay;vdkufovdkyJ axmifxJrSm q,fpkESpfwck/ ESpfck eD;yg;=umatmifae+yD; jyefxGuf
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ayr,fh odyftrsm;}uD;&dSrSmawmh r[kwfygbl;? usaemfwkd@EdkifiHrSmawmif tJovdkrsdK; ol&J

216
aumif; tmZmenfawG[m acwfwdkif;rSm aygrsm;cJhwm r[kwfygbl;? acwfopf jrefrmh
ordik ;f wavsmuf zdEySd rf t
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217
vli,fawGu olwkd@&JŒpdwf"mwfa&;&m acgif;aqmif (Spiritual Leader) tjzpf rSwf
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ukvor*~ tygt0if ,Hk=unfav;pm; tm;xm;avmufwJh oufqdkif&m EdkifiHwum

218
tzGJ@tpnf;awG&JΠxkwfjyefa=unmcsufawGrSmygaeus owif;jzpfwma=umifh ppftkyfpk
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aus;u|efomom tqifhrsdK;eJ@ &yfwnf&Sifoefvsuf&dSae=u&ygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;oGm; tvkyf
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219
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vkd@ arwWmapwemoufoufeJ@ ulnDapmifha&Smuf ay;aeolawGudkvnf; (etz)u EdkifiH
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220
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t&mrS qufvufwnfwEhH ikd cf jhJ cif; r&dw
S mudk (Oyrm 'dik Ef akd qmuho
J @dk aom {&mr owW0g}uD;
rsm;)jrifawG@cJh=u&+yD;jzpfwmrkd@ 'Duae@ordkif;acwfeJ@ udkufnDr_r&dSawmhbJ jy\emaygif;
rsm;pGmudkom qifhuJqifhuJ arG;xkwfay;aewJh ppftm%m&Sifpepf[m jrefrmEdkifiHrSm rvGJ
raoGcsKyf+idrf;+yD; 'Drdkua&pDpepfom jyefvnf&SifoefzGH@+zdK;vmrSm {uefjzpfygw,f?
'gawGuawmh “jrefrmjynfrmS 'Dru
kd a&pDwu
kd yf [
JG m atmifycJG EH ikd rf mS vm;”qdw
k hJ
cifAsm;ar;cGef;&JΠyxrtydkif;udk ajzcJhqdkcJhwmjzpfw,fvkd@ ,laomf&Edkifygw,f? 'ga=umifh
tckcifAsm;ar;cGef;&JΠ'kwd,ydkif;jzpfwJh 'Drdkua&pD&zdk@jynfolawGu bmawGvkyf=u&rSmvJ
qdkwmeJ@ ywfouf+yD; wifjyaqG;aEG;oGm;ygr,f?
vlom;[m trd0rf;u u|wfvmwmeJ@ jy\emESpfckeJ@ &ifqdkif}uKHawG@&awmh
wmygyJ? wcku qmavmifr_jzpf+yD; wcku &moDOwk'%fjzpfygw,f? pdwfydkif; ±kyfydkif;yHkrSef
usef;rma&;&dSwJh vlom;[m tJ'Djy\emESpfckudk “idkaºuG;jcif;”eJ@ wkH@jyefygw,f? tJ'D
wkH@jyefr_&JΠ&v'ftjzpf Ekd@eJ@+cHKp&m t0wfwck &&dSygw,f? wu,fvkd@om tJ'DESpfckpvHk;
r&cJh&if 'grSr[kwf wckwnf;om &&dScJhr,fqdk&if tJ'Dvlom;uav;i,f[mol@&JΠobm0
tavsmuf awmif;qdkr_jzpfwJh idkaºuG;jcif;udk qufvkyfrSmyJ jzpfygw,f? ol@&JŒ awmif;qkdr_
twGuf xGufay:vmr,fh tusKd;qufESpfckyJ&Sdygw,f? wcku olawmif;qdkwmudk &&dSr_jzpf
+yD; aemufwckuawmh awmif;qdkwmr&wJhtwGuf awmif;qdk&if; aoqHk;oGm;r_ (wenf;)
aoqHk;wJh txdawmif;qdkoGm;r_ jzpfygw,f? tpmeJ@ t0wf[m arG;puav;i,ftwGuf
ol@&JŒqENeJ@ uif;+yD;ay:aygufvmwJh r&rjzpfwJh “ZD0aA'qdkif&m vkdtyfcsuf” (Vital
Biological Need)jzpfwma=umifh uav;twGuf tJ'D vdt
k yfcsuEf pS cf u
k kd &atmifawmif;
qdrk vm;? 'grrS [kwf taocHrvm;qdw
k hJ vrf;ESpv
f rf;uvG+J yD; wjcm;a&G;p&mvrf;r&dyS gb;l ?
&Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;twGif;eJ@ (90)a&G;aumufyGJrSm jrefrmjynfol
awG[m olwkd@bmudkvdkcsifw,fqdkwmudk &Sif;vif;jywfom; ckdifrmpGmazmfjycJh=u+yD; jzpfyg
w,f? olwkd@vdkcsifwm/ olwkd@awmif;qdkcJh=uwmu +idrf;csrf;a&;eJ@ zGH@+zKd;wdk;wufr_udk rD;±SL;
oef@pifzGm;jrifay;Edkifvdrfhr,fvkd@ olwkd@tcdkiftrm,Hk=unfxm;=uwJh 'Drdkua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifh

221
ta&;jzpfygw,f? Adkvfae0if; ppftm%m&Sif tpdk;&vufatmuf (26)ESpfwmumvrSm
+idr;f csr;f a&;eJ@ zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr_ aysmufq;kH aecJ=h u&wJh jrefrmjynfoal wG twGuf 'Dru
kd a&pDe@J
h nf; tJ'aD wmif;qdk
vl@tcGit
hf a&;[m (Vital Biological Need) jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifv
csufudk &&dSzkd@twGuf jrefrmjynfolawG[m &Spfav;vHk; ta&;awmfyHk}uD;twGif;u vrf;r
awGay:rSm/ (90)a&G;aumufyGJwkef;u rJ±kHawGrSm wcJeuf wnDw!Gwfwnf; awmif;qdk
wdkufyGJ0ifcJh=uwm jzpfygw,f? ppftkyfpku jynfolawG&JŒ tJ'Dawmif;qdkr_ yHko¿mefawGudk
EdSyfuGyfacsr_ef;cJhayr,fh jynfolawG&JŒawmif;qdkwkdufyGJ0ifr_[m a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒ
pnf;±k;H a&;c&D;pOfawGe@J a[majymyGaJ wGrmS (96)ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_rmS / (2007)a&$0ga&mif
awmfvSefa&;twGif;rSm/ em*pf'%foifh jynfolawGudk ulnDwJhae&mrSmeJ@ tjcm;tjcm;
aom ae&mawGrSm rwljcm;em;wJh yHko¿mefawGeJ@ qufvuf&SifoefcJhygw,f? ppftkyfpk
u enf;vrf; aygif;pHkoHk;+yD; ESdyfuGyfacsr_ef;zkd@ tjyif;txef }udK;pm;aewJh=um;u jrefrm
jynfolawG&JΠ'Drdkua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;awmif;qdkr_[m 'Duae@txd bma=umifh quf
vuf &Sifoefae&wmvJ? ta=umif;&if;uawmh tJ'Dt&mawG[m jrefrmjynfolawG
twGuf r&dSrjzpfwJh “ZD0aA'qdkif&m vdktyfcsuf”jzpfaevkd@ygyJ? arG;uif;puav;i,f
wa,muftwGuf tJ'Dawmif;qdkcsufudk &&dSzkd@eJ@ awmif;qdk&if; r&bJ aoqHk;oGm;zkd@qdk+yD;
jzpfEdkifajcESpfck&dSayr,fh jynfolqdkwmuawmh jynfolw&yfvHk; aoqHk;oGm;w,fqdkwm
r&dw
S t
hJ wGuf jzpfEikd af jcr[kwb
f J aocsmayguf jzpfrmS wcky&J ySd gw,f? tJ'guawmh awmif;
qdkcsuf &&dSjcif;ygyJ?
jrefrmjynfol trsm;pk}uD; (txl;ojzifh olwkd@&JŒwyfOD;rSm &dSae=uwJh EdkifiHa&;
wufºuG v_yf&Sm;olrsm;)[m tckusaemf wifjycJhovdk wckeJ@wck a=umif;usdK;qufpyf+yD;
awG;qqifjcif oabmayguw
f mrsKd ; &dcS sirf &S =dS urSm jzpfayr,fh &Spaf v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH uD;
twGif; olwkd@awmif;qdkcJh=uwJht&mudk wae@rSmrvGJraoG ydkifydkifEdkifEdkif&&dSr,fqdkwmudk
awmh tESpfESpfq,f umvwavsmuf olwkd@jzwfoef;&&dScJhwJh tawG@t}uKHawGt& tcdkif
trm odjrifxm;=uw,fvkd@ usaemf,Hk=unfygw,f?
ppftm%m&Sifpepf wae@rSm rvGJraoG jrefrmhajray:uae csKyf+idrf;aysmufuG,f
oGm;&r,fqdkwJh ,Hk=unfcsuf jrefrmjynfolawG &ifxJrSm cdkifcdkif+rJ+rJ &dSaew,fqdkwmudk
odwJhtwGufvnf; (etz)[m jrefrmjynfolawGtay: olwkd@odrf;ydkufxm;wJh &efolEdkifiH
wcku jynfolawGtay: jyKrlqufqHovdk jyKrlqufqHaewm jzpfygw,f? olwkd@&JŒ0g'
jzef@csdr_awGudk z,f&Sm;+yD;=unfhEdkifr,fqdk&if tJ'Dtcsufudk jrifawG@rSmjzpfygw,f? txl;
ojzifh em*pfudpPrSm 'Dtcsuf[m odyfudkxif&Sm;ygw,f? tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh (etz)&JŒ
rdrdwkd@tay: oabmxm; tppftrSefudk odxm;wJhtwGufvnf; jrefrmjynfolawG&JŒ
&Spaf v;vH;k ta&;awmfyt
kH wGi;f u awmif;qdck w
hJ hJ qENawG/ ar#mrf eS ;f csuaf wG[m q,fpEk pS f
ESpcf ak usmu
f mv vGeaf jrmufc+hJ yD;onfw
h ikd af tmif avsmyh g;,d,
k iG ;f oGm;jcif;r&db
S J e*dt
k wdik ;f
(Intact)&dSaewm jzpfygw,f? aemiftem*wfumvrSmvnf; ESpfawGb,favmuf=um

222
onfjzpfap tJ'DatmifyGJr&ao;oa&GΠtJ'DqENawG ar#mfrSef;csufawG avsmhenf;ysufjy,f
oGm;zkd@r&dSwJhtcsuf[m oHo,&dSp&m rvdkygbl;?
tJ'v
D kd ,H=k unfcsucf ikd rf mjywfom;wJh jynfoal wG[m olw@dk &ŒJ qENawG taumif
txnfay:vmapzkd@ bmvkyf&r,fqdkwmudk a,bk,stm;jzifh odxm;=urSmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dtod&vnf; jynfolawG[m 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJtwGif; olwkd@yg0ifEdkifwJh tqifha&muf
wdik ;f yg0ifvm=uwmudk awG@jrifEidk yf gw,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf&ŒJ pnf;±k;H a&;c&D;pOfawGe@J
+cHa&SŒa[majymyGJawGu tJ'Dtcsufudk xif[yfae+yD; (2007)a&$0ga&mifawmfvSef
a&;rSmqdk&if (etz)u (EkdifiHa&;t&)trsm;}uD; paw;ay;qyfpGef@pm;+yD; vufjrefajcjref
&uf&ufpufpuf EdyS u
f yG af csre_ ;f vdu
k v
f @dk om awmfveS af &;&JΠtqifw
h ck &yfwef@omG ;cJ&h wm
jzpfygw,f? wu,fvkd@rsm; aemufxyf oHk;av;&ufavmufom tcsdef&vdkuf&if jrefrm
jynftES@H u +rdKŒ}uD;+rdKŒi,fawGrmS jynfoal wGoed ;f oef;ukaËcs+D yD; vrf;rawGay: a&mufvm
=urSmjzpf+yD; tJ'Dus&if (etz)udk a=umufwJh ta=umufw&m;uvGJ+yD; cspfcifav;pm;wJh
cHpm;csufewˆdeJ@ wavsmufvHk; }udwfrSdwfatmifhtD; onf;cHvmcJh=u&wJh tv$maygif;pHku
emrnfausmfyk*~dKvfawG[mvnf; oHCmawmfawG/ jynfolawGeJ@twl aygif;pnf;yg0ifvm
=urSm {uefjzpfygw,f? 'gudkodvkd@vnf; (etz)u olwkd@twGuf }uD;rm;wJh EdkifiHa&;t±_H;
ay:r,fqdkwmudk odod}uD;eJ@ tJ'DawmfvSefa&;udk acsr_ef;ypfcJh&wm jzpfygw,f?
tJ'aD wmh (e0w)(etz)vufxuf tESpEf pS q
f ,f jzwfoef;r_u=kd unf&h if jrefrm
jynfolvlxktrsm;pk}uD;[m t+rJEdk;Edk;=um;=um; &dSae=u+yD; tcsdefusa&mufvmwdkif;rSm
olwkd@&JŒwm0efudk olwkd@ausyGefpGm xrf;aqmifcJh=uwmcsnf; jzpfygw,f? tm;remwrf;/
raxmufrn‡mwrf; ajym&&if ppftm%m&Sifacwfwavsmuf (txl;ojzifh e0w/ etz
acwfwavsmuf) 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJrSm jynfolvlxkeJ@ acgif;aqmifykdif;qdk+yD; tydkif;ESpfydkif;cGJ
=unfhvdkufwJhtcg tcsdefawmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm jynfolvlxku acgif;aqmifykdif;&JŒ a&SŒudk
a&muf+yD; acgif;aqmifykdif;u jynfolvlxk&JΠaemufudka&mufaewJh obm0ruswJh ajymif;
jyefaZmufxkd; taetxm; (wenf;ajym&&if) jrefrmh'Drdkua&pD acgif;aqmifydkif;awG&JŒ
tm;enf;r_udk txift&Sm; jrifawG@=u&rSm jzpfygw,f? xif&Sm;wJh EdkifiHa&; tawG;tac:
ynm&Sif}uD;wpfOD;u “vlxkacgif;aqmifqdkwm vlxkwdkufyGJu rD;±SL;oef@pif zGm;jrifay;
vdkufwm jzpfw,fqdkwJhtcsufuawmh rSefw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dvlxkacgif;aqmifawGuyJ
vlxkudk yef;wdkifa&mufatmifOD;aqmif ac:,loGm;=u&rSm jzpfw,f”vdk@ ajymqdkcJhygw,f?
oabmuawmh vlxkacgif;aqmif[m rlvu omrefvlwOD;om jzpfayr,fh vlxkacgif;
aqmifjzpfvmwJh tcsed u
f p+yD; vlxu
k akd cgi;f aqmifra_ y;&r,f? vlx&k ŒJ aemuf+rD;qGJ rjzpf&
bl;vk@d qdv
k w
kd m jzpfygw,f? wenf;ajym&&if vlxak cgi;f aqmifawG[m qEN&o
Sd nf jzpfap/
qENr&dSbJjzpfap vlxkacgif;aqmifae&mudk a&muf&dSvm+yD;wJhaemufrSm tajccHtm;jzifh
t+rJwrf; OD;aqmifr_ay;&r,f (Initiative)/ wDxGifzefwD;r_&dS&r,f (Creative) qdkwmyJ
jzpfygw,f?

223
±kyf&SifeJ@ ±kyfoHjyuGufawGxJrSm u|Jtkyf/ EGm;tkyf/ oriftkyf 'grSr[kwf jrif;usm;
tkyf}uD;wtkyfaemufudk jcaohFwaumifu ajy;vdkufwJhtcg tJ'Dwd&p>meftkyfwtkyfvHk;
0±kef;okef;um; xGufajy;=uwmudk awG@=u&ygw,f/ wu,fvkd@om tJ'Dwd&p>meftkyf[m
tJovdk0±kef;okef;um; xGufrajy;bJ owWd&dS&dS pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; nDnD!Gwf!GwfeJ@ &efoludk
&ifqdkif=ur,fqdk&if tJ'Dwd&p>mefawG&JΠcsdKzsm;'grSr[kwf cGmatmufrSm tJ'DjcaoFh[m
toufaysmufrmS aocsmygw,f? 'gayr,fh jcaoFu
h kd tJovdk nDn!
D w
G !
f w
G f &ifqikd =f uzk@d
tJ'Dwd&p>meftkyfudk acgif;aqmifpnf;±kH;r,fh wd&p>mefb,fawmhrS ay:vmrSm r[kwfovdk
tJ'w
D &d p>mefawG jcaoFu
h kd nD!w
G pf nf;vH;k pGm &ifqikd cf ck aH e=uwJjh rifuiG ;f udv
k nf; b,fawmh
rS jrif&rSm r[kwfygbl;? tJ'DtwGuf wckwnf;aom ta=umif;&if;uawmh olwkd@[m
wd&p>mefawG jzpfae=uvkd@ jzpfygw,f?
vle@J w&d p>mef=um;rSm wlncD sut
f rsm;tjym;&daS yr,fh vl[m wd&p>mefr[kwb
f ;l
qdkwmudkawmh txl;ajymzkd@ vdkr,frxifygbl;? &efoludk pkaygif;&ifqdkifEdkifa&;twGuf
wd&p>meftyk u
f kd acgi;f aqmifpnf;±k;H r,fh wd&p>mef&,fv@dk b,fawmhrS ay:xGuv
f mrSm r[kwf
ayr,fh vlxk}uD;w&yfuawmh olwkd@twGufacgif;aqmifudk rvGJraoG&&dSrSm jzpfovdk tJ'D
acgif;aqmif&JΠacgif;aqmifr_ rSefuefw,fqdk&if ol@aemufudk z0g;ajcxyfxuf=uyfruGm
vkduf=urSm jzpfygw,f? 'Dtcsufudk jrefrmEdkifiHrSm acgif;aqmifESpfOD; (AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@
a':atmifqef;pk=unf)u oufaojycJh+yD;jzpfygw,f? tjcm;wzufrSmawmh acgif;
aqmifawGtaeeJ@ rSeu
f efwahJ cgi;f aqmifr_ ray;Edik cf &hJ if jynfoal wG[m tJ'aD cgi;f aqmifawG
udkaemufrSm csefxm;ypfcJh+yD; acgif;aqmiftopf wifajr‡mufum olwkd@&JŒc&D;udk qufvuf
csDwuf oGm;=urSmyJ jzpfygw,f? jynfolwa,mufcsif;rSm pmemr_awG/ n‡mwmr_awG/ oH
a,mZOfawG/ tpGJtvrf;awG &dSEdkifayr,fh jynfolw&yfvHk;rSmawmh tJ'DqENpGJawGr&dSygbl;?
vlrb
_ 0u vlrt
_ odukd jyXmef; (Social being determines the social conciousness)
wmrk@d jynfov
l x
l w
k &yf[m tJ't
D odt&om olw@dk &ŒJ acgi;f aqmifawGukd wifajr‡mufwm/
z,f&Sm;wm jzpfygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkd@udk jrefrmjynfol
awGu olwkd@&JŒacgif;aqmiftjzpf owfrSwf+yD; olwkd@aemufrSm wpfcJeuf &yfwnfwm[m
tJ'Dacgif;aqmifawG&JΠacgif;aqmifr_ rSefuefvkd@ jzpfygw,f? acgif;aqmifr_ rrSefuefwJh
wae@rSm jynfolawGu b,facgif;aqmifudkrS n‡mwmaxmufxm;aerSm r[kwfygbl;? 'g
a=umifhacgif;aqmifwa,muftwGuf ol@&JŒacgif;aqmifr_ rSef rrSef qdkwmudk wdkif;wmzkd@
pH wckyJ&dSygw,f? tJ'guawmh ol@aemufrSm vlxk&dS r&dSqdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f? ol@vufxJrSm
ygwDqdkif;bkwfwck&dS r&dS r[kwfygbl;? ygwDqdkif;bkwf&dSayr,fh aemufudkvSnfh=unfhvkdufvkd@
vlxrk &dw
S mudk jrifwt
hJ cgvx
l u
k kd “nh&H efaum/ a=umuf&efaum”vd@k oH;k oyfvu
kd +f yDqw
kd m
eJ@ tJ'Dacgif;aqmif[m acgif;aqmifb0u pkawoGm;+yDjzpfygw,f? ta=umif;uawmh
jrefrmhordkif;/ urBmhordkif; tawG@t}uKHawGt& vlwa,muf/ vltkyfpkwpk[m rSm;Edkifay
r,fh jynfolvlxkqdkwmuawmh b,fawmhrSrrSm;wwfwJh trsdK;jzpfvkd@ygyJ?

224
'Dae&mrSm ta=umif;wdu
k q
f ikd v
f @dk acgi;f aqmifwa,mufta=umif; ajymjycsiyf g
w,f? oluawmh +AdwdefEdkifiHe,fedrdwfudk ausmfvGef+yD; urBmhtqifhtxd ausmf=um;cJhwJh
0ifpwefcsmcsD jzpfygw,f? 'kwd, urBmppftwGif;/ ajymqdkcJhwJh ol@&JŒemrnfausmf pum;
wcGe;f udk Edik if w
H umta&;udk pdw0f ifpm;ol trsm;pk=um;zl;=urSmyg? tJ'guawmh “usKyfw@dk
b,fawmhrS t±_H;ray;bl;” (We will never surrender)qdkwJh pum;jzpfygw,f? csmcsD
tJ'Dpum;ajymwJhtcsdef[m +AdwdefEdkifiHxJrSm vef'ef+rdKŒudk *smrefav,mOfawGu pdpdnuf
nufa=uatmif AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufaewJhtcsdef/ urBmwv$m;rSmvnf; emZD*smreD yefZmwifh
um; wyfr}uD;awGu r[mrdwfEdkifiHrsm;tzGJ@ydkif e,fajrawGudk wck+yD;wck odrf;ydkuf&if;
a&SŒudk w[kex
f ;kd csw
D ufaewJh tcsed jf zpfygw,f? tJovdk tcsed rf sKd ;rSm ajymvdu
k w
f hJ csmcs&D ŒJ
tJ'pD um;a=umifh tqH;k wpfae@ 'kw,
d urBmppfy}JG uD;rSm r[mrdwEf ikd if aH wGu tEdik &f &do
S mG ;
cJhwmjzpfw,fvkd@ aocsmayguf rajymEdkifayr,fh tJ'DtcsdefrSm a&SŒwdk;vmaewJh *smreDeJ@
tDwvDwyfawGukd wqkwx
f J qkwaf y;ae&wma=umifh wkev
f y_ af csmufcsm; ysuf jym;ae=u
wJh urBmwv$m;u r[mrdww
f yfz@JG 0ifawG&ŒJ pdw"f mwfuakd wmh csmcs&D ŒJ tJ'o
D EMXd mef cdik rf m
jywfom;wJh }uKH;0g;csufu tawmfav;}uD;rm;wJh twdkif;twmtxd jyefvnfwnf
aqmuf jr‡iw
fh ifay;Edik cf rhJ mS rvGyJ gb;l ? csmcs[
D m tJ'pD um;udk }uH&mr& *a,mifacsmufcsm;
pdwt
f aetxm; (desperate mood)t& ajymcJw
h m jzpfcsijf zpfr,f? 'grrS [kwf wu,fyJ
cdkifrmjywfom;wJh ydkif;jzwfcsuf (strong determination)t& ajymcJhwmjzpfcsifjzpfr,f?
b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf csmcsD&JΠtJ'D}uKH;0g;oH[m pdwf"mwfysufjym; acsmufcsm;ae=uwJh urBm
wv$m;u 'Dru
kd a&pDbufawmfom;awGukd ycH;k uudik af qmifh v_yEf ;d_ vdu
k o
f vdk jzpfomG ;apcJh
wmuawmh trSefygyJ? csmcsD&JŒ tJ'Drdef@cGef;ajymt+yD; r=umrDrSm ppf&JŒcsdefcGifv#m[m r[m
rdwEf ikd if aH wGbufukd wjznf;jznf;csi;f a&$Œajymif;vmcJw
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230
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231
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232
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234
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236
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237
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