PHYSICS

UNIT & DIMENSION
PHYSICAL QUANTITIES :
The quantities which can be measured by an instrument and by means of which we can describe the
laws of physics are called physical quantities. Till class X we have studied many physical quantities
eg. length, velocity, acceleration, force, time, pressure, mass, density etc.
Physical quantities are of three types

Fundamental
or
Basic quantities

1.

Derived
Quantities

Supplementary
Quantities

Fundamental (Basic) Quantities :

These are the elementary quantities which covers the entire span of physics.

Any other quantities can be derived from these.

All the basic quantities are chosen such that they should be different, that means independent of each other. (i.e., distance (d) , time (t) and velocity (v) cannot be chosen as basic
quantities (because they are related as V =

d
). An International Organization named CGPM
t

: General Conference on weight and Measures, chose seven physical quantities as basic or
fundamental.

Length
(L)

Time
(T)

Mass Temperature
(M)
(K)

Electrical
current
(A)

Luminous
Intensity
(Cd)

Amount
of
Substance
(mol)

These are the elementary quantities (in our planet) that’s why chosen as basic quantities.
In fact any set of independent quantities can be chosen as basic quantities by which all
other physical quantities can be derived.

i.e.,

Can be chosen as basic quantities (on some other planet, these might also be used as
basic quantities)

But

(L)
Length

(A)
Area

(V)
Velocity

cannot be used as basic quantities as
Area = (Length) 2 so they are not independent.

1

2.

Derived Quantities :
Physical quantities which can be expressed in terms of basic quantities (M,L,T....) are called derived
quantities.
i.e., Momentum
P = mv
= (m)

displaceme nt
=
time

ML
= M1 L1 T – 1
T

Here [ M1 L1 T – 1 ] is called dimensional formula of momentum , and we can say that momentum has
1 Dimension in M (mass)
1 Dimension in L (length)
and
–1 Dimension in T (time)
The representation of any quantity in terms of basic quantities (M,L,T....) is called dimensional formula and in the representation, the powers of the basic quantities are called dimensions.

3.

Supplementary quantities :
Besides seven fundamental quantities two supplementary quantities
are also defined. They are

Plane angle (The angle between two lines)

Solid angle

FINDING DIMENSIONS OF VARIOUS PHYSICAL QUANTITIES :

Height, width, radius, displacement etc. are a kind of length. So we can say that their dimension
is [L]

[Height]
[Width]
[radius]

[L]

[displacement]
here [Height] can be read as “Dimension of Height”

Area = Length × Width
So, dimension of area is [Area] = [Length] × [Width]
= [L] × [L]
= [L2]
For circle
Area = r2
[Area] = [] [r2]
= [1] [L2]
= [L2]
Here  is not a kind of length or mass or time so  shouldn’t affect the dimension of Area.
Hence its dimension should be 1 (M0L0T 0) and we can say that it is dimensionless. From
similar logic we can say that all the numbers are dimensionless.

[200]
[-1]
0 0

[3]
 1
 
 2

0

[M L T ] = 1
Dimensionless

[Volume] = [Length] × [Width] × [Height]
= L × L × L
= [L3]
For sphere

2

Volume 4 3 r 3 = 4  [Volume] =   [r3] 3  = (1) [L3] = [L3] So dimension of volume will be always [L3] whether it is volume of a cuboid or volume of sphere.   Density = mass volume [Density] = [mass] [ volume] Velocity (v) = M L3 = [M1L– 3] displaceme nt time [Displacement ] [time] [v] =  = Acceleration (a) = = L = [M0L1T –1] T dv dt [a] = =  Momentum (P) = mv [P] = [M] [v] = [M] [LT –1] = [M1L1T –1]  Force (F) = ma [F] = [m] [a] = [M] [LT –2] = [M1L1T –2]  Work or Energy [Work]  Power = work time [Power] = [ work ] M1L2 T 2 = = [M1L2T – 3] [ time] T  Pressure = [Pressure] = = = = = LT 1  LT  2 T force × displacement [force] [displacement] [M1L1T –2] [L] [M1L2T –2] Force Area [Force] M1L1T 2 = = M 1L – 1T – 2 [ Area] L2 3 . it doesn’t depend on which formula we are using for that quantity. Dimension of a physical quantity will be same.

PHYSICS 1. [Fg] = [M1L1T – 2] = [G][m1 ][m 2 ] [r 2 ] [G][M][M] [L2 ] [G] = M– 1 L3 T – 2  Specific heat capacity : To increase the temperature of a body by T. [d] M0L0 T 1 = [M0L0T – 2] = [dt ] T Torque = Force × Arm length [Torque] = [force] × [arm length] = [M1L1T –2] × [L] = [M1L2T –2] Dimensions of Physical Constants :  Gravitational Constant : m1 m2 r Fg Fg If two bodies of mass m 1 and m 2 are placed at r distance. Gravitational force F g = Gm1m 2 r2 where G is a constant called Gravitational constant. [Q] = [m] [s] [T] Here Q is heat : A kind of energy so [Q] = M1L2T –2 [M1L2T –2] = [M] [s] [K] [s] = [M0L2T –2K–1] 4 . Heat required is Q = ms T Here s is called specific heat capacity. Dimensions of angular quantities :  Angle () Arc radius (Angular displacement)  = [] =  Angular velocity () = [ Arc ] L = = [M0L0T 0] (Dimensionless) [radius] L  t [] 1 = = [M0L0T –1] [ t] T [] =  Angular acceleration () = d dt [] =  2. both feel gravitational attraction force. whose value is.

[P] [V] = [n] [R] [T] . (1) here [P] [V] = [Force] [Area × Length] [ Area] = [Force] × [Length] = [M1L1T–2] [L1] = M1L2T–2 From equation (1) [P] [V] = [n] [R] [T]  [M1L2T –2] = [mol] [R] [K]  [R] = [M1L2T –2 mol–1 K–1]  Coefficient of viscosity : fv If any spherical ball of radius r moves with velocity v in a viscous liquid.. called gas constant. F– a third force and its dimension 1 1 –2 will also be M L T should be a kind of 1 1 –2 force  [ = M L T "manishkumarphysics. relation between pressure (P) Value (V) .. So  [] = [L] Similarly consider a term (F – ) where F is force. So  should be a kind of force and its result (F –) should also be a kind of force... A force can be added/subtracted with a force only and give rises to a third force... so  should also be a kind of length.. Some special features of dimensions :  Suppose in any formula. (L + ) term is coming (where L is length). As length can be added only with a length.in" 5 .. Temperature (T) and moles of gas (n) is PV = nRT where R is a constant. Gas constant (R) : For an ideal gas. then viscous force acting on it is given by r Fv = 6rv r Here  is coefficient of viscosity V [Fv] = [6] [] [r] [v] 1 1 M L T – 2 = (1) [] [L] [LT – 1] [] = M1L– 1T – 1  Planck’s constant : If light of frequency  is falling .... energy of a photon is given by E = h Here h = Planck’s constant [E] = [h] [] 1 Time Period = [h] [T –1]  = frequency = so M 1L 2 T – 2  [] = 1  1 =   [Time Period] T  [h] = M1L2T – 1 3.

Example 1. should also have the same x   and dimension M1L2T – 3 [ ] so [t 2 ] = M 1L 2T – 3 [] = M1L2T – 1 Example 2. where P is gas pressure. For n moles of gas.   1 2 –3  2  should also be M L T x  so [] [x 2 ] = M 1 L 2T – 3 [] = M1L4T – 3    1 2 –3 Fv  2  will also have dimension M L T . Vander waal’s equation is a    P  2  (V – b) = nRT V   Find the dimensions of a and b. so L.  t 2 = Fv +  x2 Find dimensional formula for [] and [] ( here t = time.S. x = distance) Solution : Since dimension of Fv = [Fv] =[M1L1T –2] [L1T –1] = [M1L2T – 3] . V = volume of gas T = temperature of gas Solution : [a] So [a] [L ]2  [V 2 ] = M 1L – 1T – 2 So [b] = L3 = M–1 L–1 T – 2 [a] = M1 L5 T –2 6 . 1 : One quantity can be added / subtracted with a similar quantity only and give rise to the similar quantity.H. F = force.PHYSICS Rule No. v = velocity.

-) dimensionless dimensionless loge(.. 7 . = [] = Fv 2  2 2 [v ] =  2  loge  2   v  [M1L1T 2 ] [L1T 1 ]2 = M 1L – 1 T 0 where F = force .) is dimensionless and entire [sin (...-) dimensionless dimensionless e (..... t = time) Find the dimension of  and  Solution : [F] So Example 4......-) dimensionless dimensionless tan(..-) dimensionless dimensionless Example 3.-)  dimensionless dimensionless Similarly : cos(..)] is also dimensionless. F = force.. sin(.Rule No.. 2 : Consider a term sin()  Perpendicu lar   is also dimensionless. v = velocity Find the dimensions of  and . = F sin (t) v2 (here v = velocity. Here  is dimensionless and sin   Hypoteneou s   Whatever comes in sin(.

S and R. v = velocity . v = velocity .S are same.H. is at least dimensionally correct.PHYSICS Solution :   [2][] [v 2 ] [1][] L2 T 2 =1 =1  [] = L2T – 2 as [] = 4.H. t = time . 8 . Sometimes a question is asked which is beyond our syllabus. So this equation may be correct. But if dimensions of L.H.H.S is [m] [ v 2 ] [M] [LT -1 ] 2 = = [M1L1T – 2] [r ] [L] So this eqn. Example 5. thus we can say that this equation may be correct.S = [3] [F] [v 2 ] [ ] [t 2 ] [x] = [M1L1T -2 ] [L2 T -2 ] [T 2 ] [L] = M 1L 2T – 6 Dimension of L. then we can say that this eqn.H.S are not same.g.S is not same then the equation is not even dimensionally correct. e. [F][ v 2 ]  [] = [ ] 2 [M1L1T 2 ][L2 T 2 ]  [] = M1L – 1 T0 [L2 T 2 ] 2 USES OF DIMENSIONS :  To check the correctness of the formula : If the dimensions of the L. Solution : Pressure Pr = 3 Fv 2 2t 2 x (where Pr = Pressure . is at least dimensionally correct. F = force . So the relation cannot be correct.S is [F] = [M1L1T -2] Dimension of R.S = [Pr] = M1L– 1T – 2 Dimension of R.H. A formula is given centrifugal force F e = mv 2 r (where m = mass . r = radius) we have to check whether it is correct or not.H.H. then certainly it must be the question of dimensional analyses.S and R.H.S and R. Check whether this equation may be correct or not. Dimension of L.H. x = distance) Dimension of L. So it cannot be correct.

b = so T = (some Number) M0 L1/2 g– 1/2 T = (Some Number)  g The quantity “Some number” can be found experimentally. A Boomerang has mass m surface Area A. we can estimate. radius of curvature of lower surface = r and it is moving with velocity v in air of den sity . The resistive force on it should be –  m   log   Ar  (B)  Ar   (C*) 2v2A log   m  (D) (A) Solution :  2vA r2  A  2 v 2 A  log   m  r 2v 2 A r 2  Ar   log   m  Only C is dimensionally correct. c = – 2 2 so a = 0 . – 2c = 1 1 1 .8 “Some number” = 6.L and T. find its time period by stopwatch. 1 9 . M0L0T 1 = (1) [M1]a [L1]b [L1T–2]c M0L0T 1 = Ma Lb+c T – 2c Comparing the powers of M. Measure the length of a pendulum and oscillate it.PHYSICS Example 6. b + c = 0. Natural frequency (f) of a closed pipe 9 .28  2. Time period of a simple pendulum can depend on  So we can say that expression of T should be in this form T = (Some Number) (m)a ()b(g)c Equating the dimensions of LHS and RHS. so 2 = (Some Number)  Example 8. we get T = 2 sec. to what extent. We can derive a new formula roughly : If a quantity depends on many parameters. Suppose for  = 1m. the quantity depends on the given parameters ! Example 7. get a = 0 .

10 . We have studied that the dimension of force is [Force] = [M1L1T –2] As unit of M is kilogram (kg) . c = 1  E = (some Number) V1F1T 1 or [E] = [V1][F1][T 1]. 2 = a + b . – 2 = –a – 2b + c get a =1 . b = 1.1/2 . In CGS system. unit of L is meter (m) and unit of T is second (s) so unit of force can be written as (kg) 1 (m)1 (s)– 2 = kg m/s 2 in MKS system. f = (some number) c = 1/2 1 P   We can express any quantity in terms of the given basic quantities. T 0 = b + c 0 = a – 3b – c –1 = –2c get a = – 1 . b = 1 . unit of force can be written as (g) 1 (cm)1 (s)–2 = g cm/s 2. L. T  Let [E] = [some Number] [V]a [F]b [T]c  [ML2T–2] = [MºLºTº] [LT –1]a [MLT –2]b [T]c  [M1L2T –2] = [Mb La +  1 = b. b T –a – 2b + c] To find out unit of a physical quantity : Suppose we want to find the unit of force.F and T Solution : Let M = (some Number) (V) a (F)b (T)c Equating dimensions of both the sides M1L0T 0 = (1) [L1T–1]a [M1L1T M 1L 0T 0 = M b L a + b T get -2 b ] [T1]c – a – 2b + c a = – 1. If velocity (V). So  Example 9. c = 1 M = (Some Number) (V–1 F1 T 1)  [M] = [V–1 F1 T 1] Similarly we can also express energy in terms of V .So we can say that f = (some Number) () a ()b (P)c  1  T  = (1) [L]a [ML–3]b [M1L–1T –2]c   MºLºT –1 = Mb + c La – 3b – c T –2c comparing powers of M. force (F) and time (T) are chosen as fundamental quantities . b = . express (i) mass and (ii) energy in terms of V. F .

.e. and ‘V’ are dependent or not.e.  We equate the powers of M.L and T hence we get only three equations.so they cannot be taken as fundamental variables. To check whether the ‘P’ . ‘’ . not more than that.) T = or  g T = or  T = 2 g  g log (. So we can have only three variable (only three dependent quantities) So dimensional analysis will work only if the quantity depends only on three parameters. Example 10. Can Pressure (P).  we cannot get the relation 1 2 S = ut + at from dimensional analysis. and v are not independent. they can be related as P = v2 .logarithmic or exponential relation. density () and velocity (v) be taken as fundamental quantities ? Solution : P.  This method is useful only when a physical quantity depends on other quantities by multiplication and power relations..... (i.. f = xa yb zc) It fails if a physical quantity depends on sun or difference of two quantities (i.. The method works only if the dependence is by power functions. 2 This method will not work if a quantity depends on another quantity as sine or cosine ...e.. we can also use the following mathematical method : [P] = [M1L-1T -2] [] = [M1L-3 T 0] [V] = [M0L1T -1] Check the determinant of their powers : 11 .) or T =  g + (t0)  Dimensional analysis doesn’t give information about the “some Number” :The dimensional constant.PHYSICS LIMITATIONS OF DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS : From Dimensional analysis we get T = (Some Number)  g so the expression of T can be T =2  g or T = 50  g sin (.f = x + y – z) i..

 0 = permittivity in vacuum ) e (viii)  m (e = Electrical flux . c2 1 c 2 1 = (L / T )2 = L–2 T 2 Find the dimensions of (i) 0E2 (ii) B2 µ0 ( 0 = permittivity in vacuum . m = Magnetic flux) Solution : (i) Energy density = 1  E2 2 0 [Energy density] = [ 0E2] [energy] 1 M1L2 T 2 2 = M1L-1T –2  2  0E  = [ volume] =   L3 12 . µ 0 = magnetic permeability) 1 (iii) LC (iv) RC (v) L R (vi) E B (L = Inductance . C = Capacitance) (R = Resistance . L = Inductance) (E = Electric field . E = electric field) (B = Magnetic field . we can find dimensions of µ 0 and  0. but it will be very lengthy process. So these three terms are dependent.g. B = Magnetic field) (vii) G0 (G = Universal Gravitational constant . DIMENSIONS BY SOME STANDARD FORMULAE :In many cases. dimensions of some standard expression are asked e. C = Capacitance) (R = Resistance .= 1 (3) – (–1)(–1) – 2 (1) = 0. where this term (µ 0 0 ) comes. we should just search a formula. Instead of this. and multiply them. find the dimension of (µ 0 0) for this. 1 It comes in c = µ  (where c = speed of light) 0 0 1  µ0 0 = [µ0 0] = Example 11.

(ii) 1 B2 = Magnetic energy density 2 0 1 B 2   = [Magnetic Energy density]   2  0  B2  [energy] M1L2 T 2  = = = M1L-1T –2   0  [ volume] L3 1 (iii) LC = angular frequency of L – C oscillation  1  1   = [] = = T –1 LC T   (iv) RC = Time constant of RC circuit = a kind of time [RC] = [time] = T 1 (v) L = Time constant of L – R circuit R L   R  = [time] = T 1   (vi)  magnetic force F m = qvB . Electrostatic force F e = 1 q2 4 0 r 2  Gm2   1 q2   2  =  2   r   4 0 r   q2   (it )2    [G 0] = =  2  = A2T 2M–2 2  m   m  (viii)   e   ES   E  T –1   =  BS  =   = [v] (from part (vi)) = LT  B   m   Dimensions of quantities related to Electromagnetic and Heat (only for XII and XIII students) (i) Charge (q) : We know that electrical current i = dq a small ch arg e flow = small time int erval dt 13 . electric force F e = qE  [Fm] = [Fe]  [qvB] = [qE] E  T –1  B  = [v] = LT   (vii) Gravitational force F g = Gm 2 r2 .

PHYSICS (ii) [i]= [dq] [dt] [A] = [q]  [q] = [ A1 T1 ] t Permittivity in Vacuum (0) : Electrostatic force between two charges Fe = k q1q2 r 2 = q1q2 1 4 0 r 2 1 [q1 ][q2 ] [Fe] = [ 4] [ ] [r ] 2 0 1 [ AT ][ AT ] M1 L1 T–2 = (1)[ ] [L ] 2 0 [0 ] = M–1 L–3 T4 A2 (iii) Electric Field (E) :  Electrical force per unit charge E = F q [M1L1T –2 ] [F] = M1L1T–3A–1 [E] = = [ q] [ A 1 T1] (iv) Electrical Potential (V) :Electrical potential energy per unit charge V = [U] [M1L2 T –2 ] = M1L2 T–3A–1 = [q] [ A 1T1] [V] = (v) (vi) U q Resistance (R) : From Ohm’s law V = i R [V] = [i] [R] [M1L2T–3A–1 ] = [A1] [R] [R] = M1 L2 T–3A–2 Capacitance (C) : [q] [ A 1T1] q  [C] = = [ V ] [M1L2 T – 3 A 1] V C= [C] = M–1 L–2 T4 A2 (vii) Magnetic field (B) : magnetic force on a current carrying wire [M1L1T–2] = [A1] [L1] [B] [B] = M1LOT–2A–1 (viii) Magnetic permeability in vacuum (µ0) : F  o i1i 2 =  4 r 2 Force /length between two wires M1L1T –2 1 L (ix) = [ O ] [ A ][ A ] [ 4] [L] 2 Fm = i B [Fm] = [i] [] [B]  [0] = M1L2T–2 A–2 Inductance (L) : Magnetic potential energy stored in an inductor [U] = [1/2] [L] [i]2 [M1 L2 T–2] = (1) [L] (A)2 [L] = M1L2T–2 A–2 U =1/2 L i2 14 .

 SI Units : In 1971 .(x) Thermal Conductivity :  Rate of heat flow through a conductor dQ = dt  dT   A  dx  [dQ] [dT ] = [k] [A] [dt ] [dx ] [K ] [M1L2 T –2 ] = [ ] [L2] 1 [L ] [T] [ ] = M1 L–1 T–3 K–1 (xi) Stefan’s Constant () :  If a black body has temperature (T). spectral intensity . m = [m] = b (where T = temp. then Rate of radiation energy emitted dE =  A T4 dt [dE] = [] [A] [T4] [dt ] [M1L2 T –2 ] = [] [L2] [K4] [T] [] = [M1 Lo T–3 K–4] (xii) Wien’s Constant :  Wavelength corresponding to max. of the black body) T [b] [T ] [b] [K] [b] = [L1K1] [L] = UNIT :  Unit : Measurement of any physical quantity is expressed in terms of an internationally accepted certain basic standard called unit. which are internationally accepted. an international Organization “CGPM” : (General Conference on weight and Measure) decided the standard units. These units are called SI units (International system of units) 15 .

mass and time (quantities in mechanics). 631. respectively. at Sevres. mass and time are expressed in cm. in a given direction.Length. (1971) Luminous Intensity candela cd The candela is the luminous intensity.  For MKS system : In this system Length. is the fraction 1/273. if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length. It comes under SI system. mass and time are measured in foot. SI Units of Basic Quantities : S Units Base Quantity Length Mass Name Symbol metre m The metre is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299. 192. France. Two supplementar y units were also defined :   3. (1967) Amount of Substance mole mol The mole is the amount of substance of a system. CGS or FPS system.  For CGS system : In this system . (1948) Thermodynamic Temperature kelvin K The kelvin. then its unit can be written in MKS.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. (1889) s The second is the duration of 9. length. near Paris. kg and second. 458 of a second (1983) kg The kilogram is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram (a platinum-iridium alloy cylinder) kept at International Bureau of Weights and Measures. of negligible circular cross-section. of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian (1979). Plane angle – Unit = radian (rad) Solid angle – Unit = Steradian (sr) Other classif ication : If a quantity involves only length. 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom (1967) kilogram Time second Definition Electric Current ampere A The ampere is that constant current which. 16 . and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum. 2.PHYSICS 1. 792. respectively.  For FPS system : In this system. respectively.012 kilogram of carbon-12. pound and second. gram and second. will produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 Newton per metre of length. which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0. mass and time are expressed in meter.

the magnitude of physical quantities vary over a wide range.05 m -2 = 5 × 10 m centi(c) = 5 cm (here ‘c’ is the prefix used for (10–2)) Similarly.m A2 SI Prefix : Suppose distance between kota to Jaipur is 3000 m. “CGPM” recommended some standard prefixes for certain power of 10. m change in velocity m/s = = 2 time s s  Acceleration =  Momentum = mv so unit of momentum will be = (kg) (m/s) = kg m/s  Force = ma Unit will be = (kg) × (m/s 2) = kg m/s 2 called newton (N)  Work = FS unit = (N) × (m) = N m called joule (J)  Power = work time Unit = J / s called watt (W) Units of some physical Constants :  Unit of “Universal Gravitational Constant” (G) F = G(m1 )(m 2 ) r  2 kg  m s 2 = G(kg)(kg) m2 m3 so unit of G =  kg s 2 Unit of specific heat capacity (s) : Q = ms T J = (kg) (S) (K) Unit of s = J / kg K  Unit of 0 : force per unit length between two long parallel wires is:  0 ( A ) (A) N = (1) (m 2 ) m 6. so d = 3000 m = 3 × 1000 m kilo(k) = 3 km (here ‘k’ is the prefix used for 1000 (103)) Suppose thickness of a wire is 0. So in order to express the very large magnitude as well as very small magnitude more compactly. SI units of derived Quantities :  Velocity = So unit of velocity will be m/s 5. Unit of 0 = 0 F = 4  i1 i 2 r2 N.05 m d = 0.PHYSICS 4. 17 .

Power of 10 Prefix Symbol Power of 10 1018 exa E 10 15 peta P 10 12 tera 9 mega M 3 kilo K 10 10 2 hecto 10 1 Example 12.67 × 10 – 11 = (6.67 × 10 – 8 cm 3 g s2  = 2 g/cm 3 convert it into MKS system.5 nm Solution : (i) 5 m (ii) 3 km (iii) 20 mm (iv) 73 pm (v) 7. G = 6.67×10–11) Example 15. d centi c 3 milli m 6 micro  9 nano n 12 pico p 15 femto f 18 atto a 10 10 10 da Convert all in meters (m) : (i) 5 m. (in CGS system).67 × 10 Solution : G = 6.5 nm Example 13. Solution : = 5 × 10 – 6m = 3 × 103 m = 20 × 10 –3m = 73 ×10–12 m =7. (ii) 3 km deci 2 10 h deca 10 101 10 G 6 Symbol 10 T giga 10 Prefix 10 (iii) 20 mm (iv) 73 pm (v) 7. F = 5 kg  m = (5) s2 (10 3 g)(100 cm) s2 = 5 × 10 5 This unit ( g cm g cm s2 ) is also called dyne – 11 Example 14. Solution :  = 2 g/cm 3 = (2) 10 3 kg (10 -2 m)3 = 2 × 103 kg/m 3 18 .5 × 10 – 9 m F = 5 N convert it into CGS system. s2 m3 kg s 2 convert it into CGS system. m3 kg s 2 (100 cm)3 (1000 g) s 2 = 6.

Now lets convert both LHS & RHS into meter 7 × (10– 12) m = (x) x 10– 6 m get x = 7 × 10 –6 So 7 pm = (7×10 – 6)m Some SI units of derived quantities are named after the scientist. Sol. multiply by Example 17.Example 16. who has contributed in that field a lot. V = 90 km / hour convert it into m/s. 19 . Let 7 pm = (x) m . 18 Convert 7 pm into m. Solution : V = 90 km / hour = (90) (1000 m) (60  60 second)  1000  m  V = (90)   3600  s V = 90 × 5 m 18 s V = 25 m/s POINT TO REMEMBER : To convert km/hour into m/sec. 5 .

-1 2 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 Kg / s A 2 2 -1 20 . named after the scientist : SI Units S. Electrical Conductance 1 i (C = = ) R V siemens (mho) A/V s 3 A2 / kg m2 Magnetic field tesla T Wb / m 12. SI Derived units. Electric Potential Emf.PHYSICS 8. Force (F = ma) newton N ----- Kg m / s2 3. Capacitance q (C = ) v farad F C/V A s / kgm 9. Electrical Resistance (V = i R) ohm  V/A kg m / s A 10. Magnetic flux weber Wb V s or J/A kg m2 / s 2 1 A 13. S. Work. Pressure. Activity of radioactive material becquerel Bq Di sin tegration sec ond s 11. W ) (Power = t watt W J/s Kg m 2 / s3 6. Frequency 1 (f = ) T hertz Hz Oscillation s s 2. Electric charge (q = it) coulomb C ------ As 7. Inductance henry H Wb / A kg m / s 2 A 14. U (V = ) q volt V J/C Kg m / s A 8.N Physical Quantity Unit name Symbol of the unit Expression in terms of other units Expression in terms of base units 1. Heat (W = Fs) joule J Nm Kg m / s 4. Energy. Power. stress F (P = ) A pascal Pa N / m2 Kg / m s2 5.

PHYSICS 9. the numerical value became 7   1  times  7  100 100   So we can say Numerical value  1 unit We can also tell it in a formal way like the following :– 21 . Some SI units expressed in terms of the special names and also in terms of base units: SI Units Physical Quantity In terms of special names In terms of base units Torque (  = Fr) Nm Kg m / s Dynamic Viscosity dv (Fv =  A ) dr Poiseiulle (P  ) or Pa s Kg / m s Impulse (J = F  t) Ns Kg m / s Modulus of elasticity stress (Y = ) strain N/m Surface Tension Constant (T) F (T = )  N/m or J/m Specific Heat capacity (s) (Q = ms  T) J/kg K cal (old unit s ) g. º C m s K Thermal conductivity (K) dQ dT = KA ) ( dt dr W/mK m kg s K V/m or N/C m kg s A Electric field Intensity E = F q Gas constant (R) (PV = nRT) or molar Heat Capacity Q (C = ) MT 2 2 Kg / m s 2 J / K mol Kg / s 2 2 m kg s -2 -2 2 2 2 -1 -3 -1 -3 -1 -1 K mol -1 CHANGE OF NUMERICAL VALUE WITH THE CHANGE OF UNIT : Suppose we have  = 7 cm 7 If we convert m  = 100 it into metres. we get we can say that if the unit is increased to 100 times (cm  m).

1 unit If unit of length is doubled. (as numerical value  1 ) unit 22 . 1 . Because numerical value  Example 19. unit Force acting on a particle is 5N.. unit of Area will become four times... So numerical value  Example 18.If unit of length and time are doubled and unit of mass is halved than the numerical value of the force in the new unit will be.....it will not change if we express it in some other unit... Solution : As unit of length is doubled.. Solution : Force = 5 kg  m sec 2 If unit of length and time are doubled and the unit of mass is halved.....PHYSICS Magnitude of a physical quantity = (Its Numerical value) (unit) = (n) (u) Magnitude of a physical quantity always remains constant . the numerical value of Area will be .. 1   2 2  = 1 times Then the unit of force will be   ( 2) 2  4     Hence the numerical value of the force will be 4 times. So the numerical value of Area will became one fourth.