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Lecture 18 – Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism II

- Blue Arrows follows the Glycolytic pathway
of metabolism; double lined arrows
represent the irreversible steps of glycolysis
(that requires a bypass in order for
gluconeogenesis to occur)
- Red lines – Gluconeogenesis
- In the liver, Epinephrine (Adrenaline) and
insulin promotes Gluconeogenesis by
inhibiting the actions of PK (Pyruvate
kinase, L form) as well as inhibiting PFK
(Phosphofructokinase) – Promotes bypasses
1, 2, allows for the reverse action to occur
HOWEVER epinephrine is designed to
promote glycolysis in the skeletal muscles –
Prepares the body for a massive surge of
energy expenditure for Fight and Flight
- L and M form (Liver and muscle forms
respectively) functionally different
Difference between Liver and Skeletal Muscle
- In the liver there is gluconeogenesis, in the muscles
we don’t have gluconeogenesis; the muscles don’t have
these bypass steps


1) In
the liver,
when ATP
levels are
high, this inhibits PFK activity, ATP acts as a local control and turns down the
level of PFK when local levels (ATP) are low, i.e. negative feedback

2) Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
- 1,6 version is produced by glycolysis whereas the 2,6 version is not

This is how local hormonal actions come into play.6 acts as a positive stimulation of PFK activity and therefore inhibits the actions of F-1.Formed form the conversion of F6P as a direct conversion of glycolytic intermediate by a bifunctional enzyme .6-bisphosphotase .2.g. ATP .Fructose-2.6-bisphosphate .. Hormones effectively override the local control of e.