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Technical collection

Medium Voltage
technical guide

Basics for MV
cubicle design

Medium Voltage
technical guide

This guide is a catalogue
of technical know-how
intended for medium voltage
equipment designers.

Goal
b Present MV products and equipment and their environment.
b Facilitate their choice, according to a normative system of
reference.
b Provide design rules used to calculate the dimensions
or characteristics of an MV switchboard.

How?
b By proposing simple and clear calculation outlines to guide
the designer step by step.
b By showing actual calculation examples.
b By providing information on units of measure and international
standards.
b By comparing some of the main international standards.

In summary
This guide helps you to carry out the calculations required
to define and determine equipment dimensions and provides
useful information enabling you to design your MV switchboard.

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AMTED300014EN.indd

Medium Voltage
technical guide

AMTED300014EN.indd

General contents

Presentation

5

Design rules

13

Switchgear definition

47

Units of measure

71

Standards

75

References

82

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indd 6 6 6 8 9 9 10 5 .Medium Voltage technical guide Presentation Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Introduction Voltage Current Frequency Switchgear functions Accessibility and service continuity AMTED300014EN.

It is the network voltage where the equipment is fitted. Example: b Operating voltage: 20 kV b Rated voltage: 24 kV b Power frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz 1 min: 50 kV r ms b Impulse withstand voltage 1.B.Presentation To start with. the dielectric testing conditions. breakdown or shorting across an insulator.g. E. Voltage Operating voltage U (kV) It is applied across the equipment terminals. in article 6. here is some key information on MV switchboards! reference is made to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Knowing the voltage (kV) will allow us to define the dielectric withstand of the components.2/50 µs: 125 kV peak. The voltage wave that results is simulated in a laboratory and is called the rated lightning impulse withstand voltage. Insulation level Ud (kV r ms 1 min) and Up (kV peak) This defines the dielectric withstand of equipment to power frequency overvoltages and lightning impulses. 6 AMTED300014EN. accompany all changes in the circuit: opening or closing a circuit. is associated with an insulation level. the rated current and the rated frequency are often known or can easily be defined. article 4 sets the various voltage values together with. Disconnection. b Ud: overvoltages of internal origin.indd .: IEC 62271-1. but how can we calculate the short-circuit power or the short-circuit current at a given point in an installation? Knowing the short-circuit power of the network allows us to choose the various parts of a switchboard which must withstand significant temperature rises and electrodynamic constraints. Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Introduction In order to design a medium-voltage cubicle. you need to know the following basic magnitudes: b Voltage b Current b Frequency b Short-circuit power. insulators. b Accessibility to compartments by persons b Level of Loss of Service Continuity when a main circuit compartment is opened b Type of metallic or insulated barriers. between live parts and opened accessible compartment b Level of internal arc withstand in normal operating conditions.: circuit breakers. N. b Up: overvoltages of external origin or atmospheric origin occur when lightning falls on or near a line. Rated voltage Ur (kV) This is the maximum r ms (root mean square) value of the voltage that the equipment can withstand under normal operating conditions. CT. The classification of metal-enclosed switchgear is defined in the IEC standard 62271-200 with a functional approach. etc… It is simulated in a laboratory by the rated power-frequency withstand voltage for one minute. using several criteria. The rated voltage is always higher than the operating voltage and. control and protection of electrical networks are achieved by using switchgear. The voltage.

correction factors are applied for the test and in some cases.5 Um t Rated voltage Rated power frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz 1 min 1.3 kPa. Schneider Electric equipment are compliant with tables 1a and 1b of IEC standard 62271-1 common specifications.2/50 µs 50 Hz kV peak List 1 List 2 40 60 60 75 75 95 95 125 145 170 Rated power-frequency withstand voltage 1 min kV r ms Normal operating voltage kV r ms 20 28 38 50 70 3.6 10 to 11 13.5 24 36 1. derating has to be considered. Each insulation level corresponds to a distance in air which guarantees equipment withstand without a test certificate.8 to 15 20 to 22 25. 20°C.2 28 12 38 50 70 Ud AMTED300014EN. Rated voltage Rated impulse withstand voltage Distance/earth in air cm kV r ms 7.2 µs 50 µs Rated lightning withstand voltage 20 7.5 24 36 Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2 12 17.indd 0 17.2/50 µs 60 75 95 125 170 10 12 16 22 32 DE59002EN IEC standardised voltages U Um 0. For other conditions. Rated voltage kV r ms 7. 11 g/m3 humidity and a pressure of 101.3 to 6.8 to 36 The values of withstand voltages in the tables are considered for normal services conditions at altitudes of less than 1000 metres.2 12 17.Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Presentation Standards Apart from special cases.5 24 36 Ur 60 75 95 125 170 Up 7 .

Rated normal current: Type of mechanism of material Max. If we do not have the information to calculate it.9 AMTED300014EN. bare copper alloy or aluminium alloy 90 Silver or nickel plated 115 Tin-plated 105 Max. The table below gives the temperature rises authorised by the IEC 62271-1 according to the type of contacts. 2500 and 3150 A.5 • 1. – 40°C 35 65 50 50 75 65 N.9 • 0. without exceeding the temperature rise allowed in standards. v calculating the operating current of the motor feeder: cosϕ = power factor = 0. 1250. max.5 • 1. rise = t°. values Max. the customer has to provide us with its value. Operating current: I (A) This is calculated from the consumption of the devices connected to the considered circuit. It is the current that really flows through the equipment.9 I= 8 P 630 = = 82 A U3 cosϕη 5.5 kV operating voltage. The operating current can be calculated when we know the power of the current consumers. temp. Rated peak withstand current: Ip (A) Examples: b For a switchboard with a 630 kW motor feeder and a 1250 kVA transformer feeder at 5.indd . Rated short-time withstand current: Ik (A) This is the rms value of the current which the switchgear can carry in the closed position during a specified short time. 630.: rated currents usually used by Schneider Electric are: 400.732 • 0.Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Presentation Current Rated normal current: Ir (A) This is the r ms value of current that equipment can withstand when permanently closed.732 U3 = 130 A This is the peak current associated with the first major loop of the rated short-time withstand current which the switchgear can carry in the closed position. and sometimes 3 s.B. v calculating the operating current of the transformer feeder: Apparent power: S = UI3 I= 1250 S = 5. temperature of conductor (°C) Contacts in air Bare copper or copper alloy 75 Silver or nickel plated 105 Tin-plated 90 Bolted connections or equivalent devices in air Bare copper. Short time is generally 1 s.9 η = motor efficiency = 0.

indd 9 .) Peak value of maximal short-circuit: Idyn (kA peak) of an electrical installation (value of the initial peak in the transient period) (see explanation in “Short-circuit currents” chapter.) Frequency fr (Hz) b Two frequencies are usually used throughout the world: v 50 Hz in Europe v 60 Hz in America.Presentation Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Minimal short-circuit current: Isc min (kA r ms) of an electrical installation (see explanation in “Short-circuit currents” chapter. Switchgear functions Designation and symbol Function Current switching Operating current Fault current Disconnector Isolates Earthing disconnector (short-circuit making capacity) Connects to the earth Switch Disconnector switch Fixed circuit breaker Withdrawable circuit breaker Switches b Switches Isolates b Switches Protects b b Switches Protects Isolates if withdrawn b b Switches b Switches Isolates if withdrawn b Fixed contactor Withdrawable contactor Fuse Protects does not isolate b (once) b = Yes AMTED300014EN. Several countries use both frequencies indiscriminately.) R ms value of maximal short-circuit current: Ith (kA r ms 1 s or 3 s) of an electrical installation (see explanation in “Short-circuit currents” chapter.

according to “the extent to which the switchgear and controlgear are intended to remain operational in case access to a high-voltage compartment is provided”: b If any other functional unit than the one under intervention has to be switched off. and how safety is ensured. for instance. 10 AMTED300014EN. then suffix A or B can be used with classification LSC2 to distinguish whether the cables shall be dead or not when accessing this other compartment. The manufacturer shall state which are the parts of the switchgear which can be accessed. Several categories are defined. for various reasons from operation to maintenance. compartments have to be defined. If no accessible compartment is provided. and that proper procedures shall be applied. This category is restricted to compartments where no normal operation nor maintenance is specified. then service is optimal: LSC2 b If within a single functional unit.indd . and such an access could impair the overall operation of the switchgear then decreasing the availability. Three categories of accessible compartments are proposed: b Interlock based access: the interlocking features of the switchboard ensure that the opening is only possible under safe conditions b Procedure based access: the access is secured by means of. For that matter. and all other functional units can stay in service. the operator shall be aware that no provision is made to ensure a safe opening. But is there a good reason for requesting access to a given function? That’s a key point. then the LSC classification does not apply. and some of them are going to be said accessible. a padlock and the operator shall apply proper procedures to ensure a safe access b Tool based access: if any tool is needed to open a compartment. When the accessibility of the various compartments are known. other(s) compartment(s) than the connection compartment is accessible. if any. The IEC 62271-200 proposes user-oriented definitions and classifications intended to describe how a given switchgear can be accessed. then the consequences of opening a compartment on the operation of the installation can be assessed. it is the idea of Loss of Service Continuity which leads to the LSC classification proposed by the IEC: “category defining the possibility to keep other high-voltage compartments and/or functional units energised when opening a accessible high-voltage compartment”. then service is partial only: LSC1 b If at least one set of busbars can remain live.Presentation Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Accessibility and service continuity Some parts of a switchgear may be made accessible for the user. and what will be the consequences on the installation.

Then. even if that is not considered as normal operation nor normal maintenance. Access to one functional unit within a switchboard does not require any other functional unit to be switched off. there is no accessible compartment to be considered for LSC classification. The other HV compartments are not accessible. The circuit breaker can be extracted (tool access compartment). This compartment is accessible and interlocked with the earthing function.PE57700 Example 1: Here is a GIS solution with in (D) what is said to be “Base section with cable connection area” (AREVA WI). thanks to the disconnector. DE59017 Example 2: Here is a GIS solution (Schneider Electric CGset) with an air insulated connection (and possibly VT) compartment.indd 11 . and an air insulated main switching device which can be extracted with the busbar live. Single line diagram is similar to example 2. This compartment is accessible (with tools). and access to any of them means the cables are first switched off and earthed. and the only HV compartments are gas filled. and service continuity during normal operation and maintenance is expected to be total. Access to the connection compartment is possible with the busbar(s) live. The LSC classification applies. Such solution is LSC2A. There is no connection compartment. PE57703 Presentation Example 4: A mixed technology (Schneider Electric GenieEvo) with an air insulated connection compartment. AMTED300014EN. and such solution is LSC2. If both the connection compartment and the circuit breaker compartment are accessible. Category is LSC2A. meaning all other functional units can be kept operating. DE59016 Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Example 3: Here is a GIS solution (Schneider Electric GMset) with an air insulated connection (and possibly VT) compartment. LSC is not relevant in that case.

DE56780 Prefabricated metal-enclosed switchgear Example 5: A very classic structure of withdrawable air-insulated switchgear (Schneider Electric MCset).indd . The withdrawing function provides the independence of the main switching device compartment from the other HV compartments. with only one interlock accessible compartment for the connection (Schneider Electric SM6). and category is LSC2B. the cables (and of course the busbar) can remain live when accessing the breaker. When accessing one compartment within the switchboard. then preventing any service continuity of the assembly. PE57702 Example 7: An unusual functional unit. The LSC classification applies. with interlock accessible compartments for the connections (and CTs) and the main switching device. all other functional units are kept in service. accessible to possibly change the transformers. This functional unit is LSC1. available in some ranges: the metering unit which provides VTs and CTs on the busbar of an assembly (here a Schneider Electric RM6). When accessing such a compartment. or their ratio. DE59003 Presentation Example 6: A typical secondary distribution switch-disconnector switchgear. the busbar of the assembly shall be dead. This unit has only one compartment. then. 12 AMTED300014EN. Similar situation occurs with most of the Ring Main Units solutions. Category is again LSC2.

indd Design rules Short-circuit power Introduction 14 14 Short-circuit currents Transformer Synchronous generators Asynchronous motor Reminder concerning the calculation of three-phase short-circuit currents Example of three-phase calculation 15 16 17 17 18 20 Busbar calculation Introduction Thermal withstand Electrodynamic withstand Intrinsic resonant frequency Busbar calculation example 24 24 27 30 32 33 Dielectric withstand The shape of parts Distance between parts 41 43 43 Protection index IP code IK code 44 44 46 13 .Medium Voltage technical guide AMTED300014EN.

. Determination of the short-circuit power requires analysis of the power flows feeding the short-circuit in the worst possible case. expressed in MVA or in kA r ms for a given operating voltage. 63 kV 63 kV T1 Isc1 Example 2: v circuit breaker D1 (s/c at A) Isc2 + Isc3 + Isc4 + Isc5 v circuit breaker D2 (c/c at B) Isc1 + Isc3 + Isc4 + Isc5 v circuit breaker D3 (c/c at C) Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc4 + Isc5 Isc2 Isc3 A B C D1 D2 D3 10 kV b Feedback via LV Isc5 is only possible if the transformer (T4) is powered by another source.indd . B Ssc = 3 • U • Isc Possible sources are: b Network incomer via power transformers. transformers. DE59005EN b Power feedback due to rotary sets (motors.Short-circuit power Design rules Introduction b The short-circuit power depends directly on the network configuration and the impedance of its components: lines.. or via MV/LV transformers. etc). 14 AMTED300014EN. b Generator incomer. through which the short-circuit current flows. b Three sources are flowing in the switchboard (T1-A-T2) T2 A D4 D6 D5 D7 MV T3 Isc5 M Isc4 LV T4 LV MV We have to calculate each of the Isc currents. motors. cables. b The customer generally imposes the value of short-circuit power because we rarely have the information required to calculate it. Example 1: b It is the maximum power that the network can provide to an installation during a fault. 25 kA at an operating voltage of 11 kV DE59004 R E Zsc L A Isc U Isc U Zs Operating voltage (kV) Short-circuit current (kA r ms) Ref: following pages The short-circuit power can be assimilated to an apparent power.

2. v The IEC uses the following values: 8 .5 kA peak for a DC time-constant of 45 ms and a rated frequency of 50 Hz (IEC 62271-100) DE59006EN Ith Isc min R X MV cable DE59007EN Figure 1 2. b Peak value of the maximum short-circuit current: (value of the initial peak in the transient period) Idyn = (kA peak) (example: 2.1).50 kA r ms.20 .25 . v another explanation is possible: in medium and high voltage. The short-circuit current shall be calculated at each stage in the installation for the various configurations that are possible within the network. 2.2 kA r ms 3 • 10 The difference depends on how we round up the value and on local habits. whenever there is an electrical discontinuity.B.1 • AMTED300014EN.5 .5 • 25 kA = 62.7 • Isc (IEC) for higher DC time-constants It determines the breaking capacity and closing capacity of circuit breakers and switches.40 .6 • Isc at 60 Hz (IEC) and 45 ms DC time-constant or.indd U = 3 + Zsc E Zsc 15 .1) and not just behind the breaking device.: b A specification may give one value in kA r ms and one value in MVA as below: Isc = 19 kA r ms or 350 MVA at 10 kV Current v if we calculate the equivalent current at 350 MVA we find: I peak = Idyn Direct component 22Isc v Idyn is equal to: Isc = 22Isc Time 360 = 20. three short-circuit values must be known: b Minimal short-circuit current: Isc min = (kA r ms) (example: 25 kA r ms) v This corresponds to a short-circuit at one end of the protected link (fault at the end of a feeder (see fig. Its value allows us to choose the setting of thresholds for overcurrent protection relays and fuses.12. N. These are generally used in the specifications. The value 19 kA r ms is probably the most realistic.5 • Isc at 50 Hz (IEC) and 45 ms DC time-constant or. without exception.1 when calculating maximal Isc. IEC 60909-0 applies a coefficient of 1. in order to determine the characteristics of the equipment that has to withstand or break this fault current.5 . Isc = 1.31. b r ms value of maximal short-circuit current: Ith = (kA r ms 1 s or 3 s) (example: 25 kA r ms 1 s) This corresponds to a short-circuit in the immediate vicinity of the downstream terminals of the switching device (see fig. which more generally corresponds to a change in conductor cross-section. as well as the electrodynamic withstand of busbars and switchgear. especially when the length of the cables is high and/or when the source is relatively impedant (generator.Short-circuit currents Design rules All electrical installations have to be protected against short-circuits. UPS). In order to choose the right switchgear (circuit breakers or fuses) and set the protection functions.16 . It is defined in kA for 1 or 3 second(s) and is used to define the thermal withstand of the equipment.

is given by the following equation: Ir Isc = usc % AMTED300014EN.indd . generators.Short-circuit currents Design rules Transformer In order to determine the short-circuit current across the terminals of a transformer. The value U read across the primary is then equal to Usc Example: b b b b Ir = Sr = 3 U no-load Isc = 16 Transformer 20 MVA Voltage 10 kV usc = 10% Upstream power: infinite 20 000 = 1150 A 3 • 10 1150 Ir = = 11 500 A = 11. etc). The short-circuit current depends on the type of equipment installed on the network (transformers. expressed in kA.5 kA usc 10 / 100 Then usc % = Usc Ur primary b The short-circuit current. we need to know the short-circuit voltage (usc %). DE59008EN b usc % is defined in the following way: U: 0 to Usc Potentiometer V Primary Secondary A I: 0 to Ir 1 The voltage transformer is not powered: U = 0 2 Place the secondary in short-circuit 3 Gradually increase voltage U at the primary up to the rated current Ir in the transformer secondary circuit. lines. motors.

350% Asynchronous motor For asynchronous motors b The short-circuit current across the terminals equals the start-up current Isc ≈ 5 at 8 Ir b The contribution of the motors (current feedback) to the short-circuit current is equal to: I ≈ 3 ∑ Ir The coefficient of 3. the current reduces passing through three characteristic periods: v subtransient (enabling determination of the closing capacity of circuit breakers and electrodynamic contraints). AMTED300014EN. b When the power gradually increases.Short-circuit currents Design rules Synchronous generators (alternators and motors) Calculating the short-circuit current across the terminals of a synchronous generator is very complicated because the internal impedance of the latter varies according to time. average duration 250 ms v permanent (this is the value of the short-circuit current in steady state). takes into account motors when they are stopped and the impedance to go up to the fault.35 kA 20/100 Healthy Subtransient state state Transient state Permanent state Short-circuit b The short-circuit current is given by the following equation: Isc = Xsc Ir Xsc Short-circuit reactance c/c b The most common values for a synchronous generator are: State Xsc Subtransient X"d 10 .indd 17 . average duration. Example: Current Calculation method for an alternator or a synchronous motor b Alternator 15 MVA b Voltage U = 10 kV b X'd = 20% Ir = Isc = Sr 3•U = 15 = 870 A 3 • 10 000 Ir = Xsc trans Ir Isc Time Fault appears 870 = 4350 A = 4.25% Permanent Xd 200 . 10 ms v transient (sets the equipment’s thermal contraints).20% Transient X'd 15 . DE59009EN b The short-circuit current is calculated in the same way as for transformers but the different states must be taken account of.

: 20 kV/410 V.1 • U • Isc • 3 = Isc = 1.3 Ω/km ρ = 1.15 Ω/km 18 AMTED300014EN.8 • 10-6 Ω cm ρ = 3.15 W/km Three-phased or single-phased b Busbars X = 0. Sr = 630 kVA.Short-circuit currents Design rules DE59010 Reminder concerning the calculation of three-phase short-circuit currents b Three-phase short-circuit Ssc = 1.2 at 20 kV 0.g.5 MV/LV 5000 to 5000 8 to 12 HV/LV b Cables X = 0.3 • 10-6 Ω cm HV MV/LV Copper Aluminium Almélec b Synchronous generators Z (Ω) = X (Ω) = Xsc Turbo Exposed poles U2 Sr • Xsc (%) 100 Subtransient 10 to 20% 15 to 25% Transient 15 to 25% 25 to 35% Permanent 200 to 350% 70 to 120% b Transformers (Order of magnitude: for real values.1 at 150 kV b Overhead lines L S R=ρ• X = 0. Usc = 4% 63 kV/11 kV. refer to data given by manufacturer) E.8 • 10-6 Ω cm ρ = 2.4 Ω/km X = 0. Usc = 9% Z (Ω) = U2 Sr • Xsc (%) 100 Sr (kVA) Usc (%) 100 to 3150 4 to 7.3 at 6 kV 0.10 at 0. Sr = 10 MVA.1 • U with 3 • Zsc U2 Zsc Zsc = R2 + X2 b Upstream network Z= U2 Ssc R = X { 0.indd .

X2 HV cable R1. contribution to Isc by current feedback (with I rated = Ir) b Fault arcing Id = Isc 1. in other words.3 to 2 b Equivalent impedance of a component through a transformer v for example. for a low voltage fault. even through several series-mounted transformers A n Power source Ra.indd 19 . XT (impedance at primary) v Impedance seen from the fault location A: ∑ R = R2 + RT + R1 + Ra n2 n2 n2 ∑ X = X2 + XT + X1 + Xa n2 n2 n2 n: transformation ratio b Triangle of impedances Z= (R2 + X2) Z X ϕ R AMTED300014EN. X1 Transformer RT.Short-circuit currents DE59010 Design rules b Synchronous motors and compensators Xsc High speed motors Low speed motors Compensators Subtransient 15% 35% 25% Transient 25% 50% 40% Permanent 80% 100% 160% b Asynchronous motors only subtransient Z (Ω) = Ir Id • U2 Sr Isc ≈ 5 to 8 Ir Isc ≈ 3 ∑ Ir. Xa LV cable R2. the contribution of an HV cable upstream of an HV/LV transformer will be: R2 = R1 ( U2 2 U2 2 ) and X2 = X1 ( ) U1 U1 thus Z2 = Z1 ( U2 2 ) U1 DE59011EN This equation is valid for all voltage levels in the cable.

X. to example 1 opposite) b v v v – – – DE59012EN Example 1: Network layout Tr1 The method involves: breaking down the network into sections calculating the values of R and X for each component calculating for the network: the equivalent value of R or X the equivalent value of impedance the short-circuit current. alternator. Example of a three-phase calculation Impedance method All the components of a network (supply network.27 Ω b U = 10 kV Isc = 20 10 = 21. cables.Short-circuit currents Design rules The complexity in calculating the three-phase short-circuit current basically lies in determining the impedance value in the network upstream of the fault location. R and Z are expressed in ohms. bars.indd .27 AMTED300014EN. motors. to example 2 below) Za Zsc = Z // Za Z • Za Zsc = Z + Za Example 2: b Zsc = 0. etc) are characterised by an impedance (Z) comprising a resistive component (R) and an inductive component (X) or so-called reactance. transformer.38 kA 3 • 0. b The relation between these different values is given by: Z= (R2 + X2) (Cf. Tr2 b The three-phase short-circuit current is: A Equivalent layouts Isc = Zr Zt1 Zt2 Za Isc U Zsc Z = Zr + Zt1 // Zt2 Zt1 • Zt2 Z = Zr + Zt1 + Zt2 U 3 • Zsc Short-circuit current kA Phase to phase voltage at the point in question before the appearance of the fault Short-circuit impedance kV Ω (Cf.

b Equipment characteristics: v Transformers: – voltage 63 kV / 10 kV – apparent power: 1 to 15 MVA.Design rules Short-circuit currents Here is a problem to solve! Exercice data Supply at 63 kV Short-circuit power of the source: 2000 MVA b Network configuration: Two parallel mounted transformers and an alternator.indd Transformer 20 MVA usc = 10% D5 Busbars D6 D7 21 . 1 to 20 MVA – short-circuit voltage: usc = 10% Alternator: – voltage: 10 kV – apparent power: 15 MVA – X'd transient: 20% – X"d subtransient: 15% b Question: v determine the value of short-circuit current at the busbars v the breaking and closing capacities of the circuit breakers D1 to D7. DE59014EN Single line diagram 63 kV Alternator 15 MVA X'd = 20% X''d = 15% G1 T1 D3 63 kV Transformer 15 MVA usc = 10% T2 D1 D2 10 kV D4 AMTED300014EN.

The network can be shown as follows: Zr = network impedance Za = alternator impedance different according to state (transient or subtransient) Z15 = transformer impedance 15 MVA Z20 = transformer impedance 20 MVA Busbars Experience shows that the resistance is generally low compared with. 22 AMTED300014EN.B.Design rules Here is the solution to the problem with the calculation method. T2 and G1. so we can therefore deduce that the reactance is equal to the impedance (X = Z). we can deduce the value of Zt by applying the equation: Z= (∑ R2 + ∑ X2) N. D5. reactance. D6. We are supposing that there can be no feedback of power through D4. b To determine the short-circuit power. D6 and D7. D7). We have to calculate the values for each component. DE59015EN b Equivalent diagram Each component comprises a resistance and an inductance. Short-circuit currents Solving the exercise b Determining the various short-circuit currents The three sources which could supply power to the short-circuit are the two transformers and the alternator. then the short-circuit current flowing through it is supplied by T1. we have to calculate the various values of resistances and inductances. D5. In the case of a short-circuit downstream of a circuit breaker ( D4. then separately calculate the arithmetic sum: Rt = R Xt = X b Knowing Rt and Xt. we can say that Z = X.indd .: since R is negligible compared with X.

the calculations must be validated by laboratory tests.B.34 + 1.05 Z15 • Z20 0.39 Subtransient state Z = 0.05 + 0.33 Zas = 1 Zer • Zat 0. The breaking capacity is defined at the transient state. U2 102 = Ssc 2000 Za = Transient state (Xsc = 20%) N.34 Zt = Zr + (Z15//Z20) D1 15 MVA transformer Zr Za Z20 Transient state Z = 0. = 10 kV Z15 = U2 102 10 • • Usc = Sr 15 100 0.47 Subtransient state Z = 0.8 • 2. Subtransient period is very short (10 ms) and approximatively is the necessary duration for the protection relay to analyse the fault and give the trip order.35 Zt = (Zr + Z20)//Za D2 20 MVA transformer Zr Za Z20 Transient state Z = 0.33 Zer • Zat 0.5 15 MVA alternator U op.27 Zr Za 0. = 10 kV Subtransient state (Xsc = 15%) U2 • Xsc Sr 102 20 • Zat = 15 100 102 15 • Zas = 15 100 Busbars Parallel-mounted with the transformers Z15 // Z20 = Series-mounted with the network and the transformer impedance Zr + Zet = 0.5 = 53. = 10 kV Zr = 15 MVA transformer (usc = 10%) U op.5 Isc (in kA peak) 21.34 • 1.indd 23 .: a circuit breaker is defined for a certain breaking capacity of an r ms value in a steady state.3 • 2.27 ≈ 0.5 = 37 12.25 Zr For alternators the aperiodic component is very high. Z15 Z20 Z = 0.7 Transient state Z = 0.42 Zt = (Zr + Z15)//Za AMTED300014EN.34 • 1 = Zer // Zat = Zer + Zat 0.67 + 0.8 14. = 10 kV Z20 = U2 102 10 • • Usc = Sr 20 100 0.67 • 0. and as a percentage of the aperiodic component which depends on the circuit breaker’s opening time and on R X of the network Z = X (ohms) Z20 Zt = [ Zr + (Z15//Z20) ] //Za D3 alternator Subtransient state Z = 0.5 = Z15 + Z20 0.34 ≈ 0.5 14.4 • 2.Short-circuit currents Design rules And now here are the results! Component Calculation Network Ssc = 2000 MVA U op.29 Parallel-mounting of the generator set Transient state Circuit breaker D4 to D7 Z15 Zat = 1.3 12.5 Zer // Zat = Subtransient state (about 30%).25 Equivalent circuit Breaking capacity Closing capacity Z (ohm) in kA r ms U2 1 10 Isc = = • 3 • Zsc 3 Zsc 2.33 = Zer + Zat 0.5 = 42.34 + 1 Zet = 0.5 17 17 • 2.29 Zer = 0.4 21.5 = 30.67 20 MVA transformer (usc = 10%) U op.

θn) Permissible temperature rise* K Profile Flat Material Arrangement Copper Aluminium Flat-mounted Edge-mounted No. The rated current flowing through the busbars is used to determine the cross-section and type of conductors. see chapter on “Short-circuit currents”).: see table 3 of standard IEC 62271-1 common specifications. The operation voltage (kV) of the installation determines the phase to phase and phase to earth distance and also determines the height and shape of the supports. Ssc Network short-circuit power * MVA Ur Rated voltage kV U Operating voltage kV Ir Rated current A * N.B. b We then check that the supports (insulators) withstand the mechanical effects and that the bars withstand the mechanical and thermal effects due to short-circuit currents. We also have to check that the natural period of vibration of the bars themselves is not resonant with the current period.B. In summary: bar(s) of 24 x cm per phase AMTED300014EN. Physical busbar characteristics S Bar cross-section cm2 d Phase to phase distance cm l Distance between insulators for same phase cm θn Ambient temperature (θn ≤ 40°C) °C (θ .indd . of bar(s) per phase: * N.: it is generally provided by the customer in this form or we can calculate it having the short-circuit current lsc and the operating voltage U: (Ssc = 3 • Isc • U.Design rules Busbar calculation Introduction b The dimensions of busbars are determined taking into account normal operating conditions. we have to use the following physical and electrical characteristics assumptions: Busbar electrical characteristics In reality. b To carry out a busbar calculation. a busbar calculation involves checking that it provides sufficient thermal and electrodynamic withstand and non-resonance.

bare copper alloy or aluminium alloy In air 90 In SF6 * 105 In oil 100 Silver or nickel coated In air 115 In SF6 115 In oil 100 Tin-coated In air 105 In SF6 105 In oil 100 (θ . Type of device. those of the surface material having the highest value permitted in item 2 of table 3. the permissible temperature and temperaturerises shall be: a) For contacts. those of the surface material having the lowest value permitted in item 1 of table 3. The remaining parts shall not exceed the values of temperature and temperature-rise given in table 3. Point 3 Care shall be taken to ensure that no damage is caused to the surrounding insulation materials. the same part may belong to several categories as listed in table 3.Busbar calculation DE59010 Design rules Temperature rise Taken from table 3 of standard IEC 62271-1 common specifications. AMTED300014EN. Point 2 For vacuum switching devices. b) For connections.indd 25 . the values of temperature and temperature-rise limits are not applicable for parts in vacuum.θn) with θn = 40°C 50 65 60 75 75 60 65 65 60 * SF6 (sulphur hexafluoride) Point 1 According to its function. Point 4 When engaging parts having different coatings or one part is of bare material. 2 and 3) Temperature θ (°C) Bolt connected or equivalent devices (Refer to point 4) Bare copper. of material and of dielectric (Refer to points 1.

b After the mechanical endurance test.Busbar calculation DE59010 Design rules Temperature rise Extract from table 3 of standard IEC 62271-1 common specifications. Point 5 SF6 means pure SF6 or a mixture of SF6 and other oxygen-free gases. Otherwise. b) for connections.θn) with θn = 40°C 75 90 80 35 50 40 105 105 90 65 65 50 90 90 90 50 50 50 * SF6 (sulphur hexafluoride) Point 1 According to its function. those of the surface material having the highest value permitted in item 2 of table 3. according to the relevant specifications for each equipment. the values of temperature and temperature-rise limits are not applicable for parts in vacuum. the same part may belong to several categories as listed in table 3. Point 2 For vacuum switching devices. 26 AMTED300014EN. Point 3 Care shall be taken to ensure that no damage is caused to the surrounding insulation materials. Point 4 When engaging parts having different coatings or one part is of bare material. those of the surface material having the lowest value permitted in item 1 of table 3. the permissible temperature and temperaturerises shall be: a) for contacts. 2 and 3) Contacts (Refer to point 4) Copper or bare copper alloy In air In SF6 * (Refer to point 5) In oil Silver or nickel coated (Refer to point 6) In air In SF6 (Refer to point 5) In oil Tin-coated (Refer to point 6) In air In SF6 (Refer to point 5) In oil Temperature θ (°C) (θ . Point 6 The quality of coating shall be such that a continuous layer of coating material remains in the contact area: b After the making and breaking test (if any). the contacts must be considered as “bare”.indd . b After the short time withstand current test. of material and of dielectric (Refer to points 1. Type of device. The remaining parts shall not exceed the values of temperature and temperature-rise given in table 3.

65 1.5 • p 0.9 (θ .50 1.06 0.61 • S 0.76 2.16 0. x .87 2.20 1.39 ρ20 [1+ α (θ .63 2.55 1. 4.. cm per phase satisfies the temperature rises produced by the rated current and by the short-circuit current passing through them for 1 to 3 second(s). of bars per phase e 2 3 0.68 1.05 a No.θn) 0. k4.63 1.indd 27 . k3.73 2. bar(s) of .89 2. see table below: DE59018 e e/a 0. k5.40 In our case: e/a = The number of bars per phase = Giving k1 = AMTED300014EN.60 1..80 2. 5.14 0.10 0..12 0.45 1.08 0.. 3. Busbar calculation Thermal withstand … For the rated current (Ir) The MELSON & BOTH equation published in the “Copper Development Association” review allow us to define the permissible current in a conductor: I=K• 24. k2.18 0.B.85 2..004 K Conditions coefficient (product of 6 coefficients: k1.θn) Permissible temperature rise* K S Bar cross-section cm2 p Bar perimeter (see opposite diagram) cm ρ20 Conductor resistivity at 20°C: b Copper b Aluminium 1. 6: b Coefficient k1 is a function of the number of bar strips per phase for: v 1 bar (k1 = 1) v 2 or 3 bars.70 k1 1..91 2. k6 described below) * N.83 2.: see table 3 of standard IEC 62271-1 in the previous pages. 2.90 µΩ cm α Temperature coefficient of the resistivity 0.Design rules Let’s check if the cross-section that has been chosen: .83 µΩ cm 2. Definition of coefficients k1.20)] With: p Perimeter of a bar I Permissible current expressed in amperes (A) Derating in terms of current should be considered: b For an ambient temperature greater than 40°C b For a protection index greater than IP5 θn Ambient temperature (θn ≤ 40°C) °C (θ .

k6 is a function of the number of bars n per phase and of their spacing.80 b Coefficient k5 is a function of the artificial ventilation: v without forced ventilation: k5 = 1 v ventilation should be dealt with on a case by case basis and then validated by testing.15 b v v v Coefficient k3 is a function of the position of the bars: edge-mounted bars: k3 = 1 1 bar base-mounted: k3 = 0.20)] I= The chosen solution 0.61 • S 0. b Coefficient k6 is a function of the type of current: v for a alternating current of frequency ≤ 60 Hz.95 several base-mounted bars: k3 = 0.9 ( - • • ) 0.indd .20)] 24.61 • = 0.5 • [1+ 0.39 ρ20 [1+ α (θ .004 ( I=K• of • .75 b v v v Coefficient k4 is a function of the place where the bars are installed: calm indoor atmosphere: k4 = 1 calm outdoor atmosphere: k4 = 1.5 • p 0.39 A bar(s) cm per phase Is appropriate if Ir of the required busbars ≤ I 28 AMTED300014EN.98 In our case: n= giving k6 = In fact we have: K= I= • • • • 24.2 bars in non-ventilated ducting: k4 = 0. The value of k6 for a spacing equal to the thickness of the bars: n k6 1 1 2 1 3 0.Design rules Busbar calculation b Coefficient k2 is a function of surface condition of the bars: v bare: k2 = 1 v painted: k2 = 1.9 (θ .θn) 0.

23 kcal/kg • °C cm2 (maximum short-circuit current. r ms value) 8.indd 29 .83 µΩ cm 2. AMTED300014EN. Check that this temperature θt is compatible with the maximum temperature of the parts in contact with the busbars (especially the insulator). what does Ith1 correspond to for t=1s? ∆θsc Short-circuit temperature rise c Specific heat of the metal: b Copper b Aluminium S Bar cross-section n Number of bar(s) per phase Ith Short-time withstand current: A r ms tk Short-time withstand current duration (1 to 3 s) s δ Density of the metal: ρ20 0.θn) Permissible temperature rise K (Ith2)2 • t = constant (26.16 • 103)2 • 2 = 137 • 107 so Ith1 = constant = t 1 Ith1 = 37 kA r ms for 1 s 10.24 • ρ20 • Ith2 • tk (n • S)2 • c • δ v With: Example: How can we find the value of Ith for a different duration? Knowing: (Ith)2 • t = constant b If Ith2 = 26.9 g/cm3 2.6 • ( 0.90 µΩ cm (θ .24 • ∆θsc = 137 • 107 ( ∆θsc = )2 • )2 • • K b In summary: v at 26. The equation below can be used to calculate the short-circuit temperature rise: ∆θsc = 0. θt of the conductor after the short-circuit will be: v at 37 kA r ms 1 s.16 kA r ms 2 s.16 kA r ms 2 s θt = θ t = θn + (θ – θn) + ∆θsc °C Check: θt ≤ maximum admissible temperature by the parts in contact with the busbars.Busbar calculation Design rules For the short-time withstand current (lth) b We assume that for the whole duration (1 or 3 seconds): v all the heat that is given off is used to increase the temperature of the conductor v radiation effects are negligible.7 g/cm3 b Copper b Aluminium Conductor resistivity at 20°C: b Copper b Aluminium 1. it corresponds to 26. it corresponds to 37 kA r ms 1 s The temperature.091 kcal/kg • °C 0.16 kA r ms 2 s.

5 for 50 Hz .10 ≥5 1. let us define kn with the help of the table below: N kn 2 0. 2.Busbar calculation Design rules We have to check if the bars chosen withstand the electrodynamic forces Electrodynamic withstand Forces between parallel-mounted conductors The electrodynamic forces during a short-circuit current are given by the equation: F1 = 2 l • Idyn2 • 10.indd .25 4 1. to be calculated with the equation below: DE59019 Idyn = k • F1 Idyn F1 Idyn l d Bar cross-section kVA Ith Short-time withstand current A r ms U Operating voltage kV l Distance between insulators for same phase cm d Phase to phase distance cm k 2.7 for special time constants greater than 45 ms A and F1 = daN Forces at the head of supports or busducts d Equation to calculate the forces on a support: F = F1 • h = e/2 F1 H+h H With: F H = k • Ith Ssc Giving: Idyn = DE59020 Ssc U3 Support F Force daN H Insulator height cm h distance from insulator head to bar centre of gravity cm Calculation of forces if there are N supports b The force F absorbed by each support is at maximum equal to the calculated force F1 (see previous chapter) multiplied by a coefficient kn which varies according to the total number N of equidistant supports that are installed.5 Giving: F = 3 1. v number of supports =N v we know N.8 d With: F1 Force expressed in daN Idyn Peak value of short-circuit expressed in A.14 (F1) • (kn) = daN b The force found after applying a coefficient k should be compared with the mechanical strength of the support to which we will apply a safety coefficient: daN v the supports used have a bending resistance F' = Check if F' > F v we have a safety coefficient of F' = F 30 AMTED300014EN.6 for 60 Hz and 2.

5 • h Bar cross-section (in cm2) Check: η AMTED300014EN.indd < η Bars Cu or Al (in daN/cm2) 31 . they are subjected to a bending moment whose resultant stress is: η= F1 • l 12 • v I With: DE59021 η Phase 1 x Phase 2 b v Is the resultant stress. it must be less than the permissible stress for the bars this is: b Copper 1/4 hard b Copper 1/2 hard b Copper 4/4 hard b Tin-plated alu 1200 daN/cm2 2300 daN/cm2 3000 daN/cm2 1200 daN/cm2 F1 Force between conductors daN l Distance between insulators for same phase cm I/v Is the modulus of inertia between a bar or a set of bars cm3 h (choose the value in the table on the following page) x' v Distance between the fibre that is neutral and the fibre with the highest stress (the furthest) b One bar per phase: Phase 1 v Phase 2 I= x b • h3 12 b • h2 I = v 6 b d b Two bars per phase: h I=2 x' xx': perpendicular to the plane of vibration I = v S 2 b • h3 + S • d2 12 b • h3 + S • d2 12 1.Busbar calculation Design rules Mechanical busbar strength By making the assumption that the ends of the bars are sealed.

3 • 106 daN/cm2 0.4 5.Busbar calculation Design rules Choose your cross-section S.4 9.48 0.8 0.33 12.66 25.25 1.55 4. modulus of inertia I/v.33 0.83 0.4 0.62 I/v cm3 50 32 19.144 0.12 0.66 0.6 2.16 I cm4 82.33 12.008 50 x 5 2.8 10.66 25.083 0.25 8.2 4.011 80 x 3 2.94 4.16 I/v cm3 33 26.213 0.5 6.416 0.66 10. in other words between 42-58 Hz and between 80-115 Hz.25 25 18.35 I/v cm3 14.indd .2 I/v cm3 16.036 0.47 10.33 2.16 3. perpendicular to the vibrating plane cm4 1.5 10 7. 32 AMTED300014EN.5 6.5 0.54 2.34 1. This intrinsic frequency is given by the equation: E•I m • l4 f = 112 Check that the chosen bars will not resonate.2 42.53 0.6 20.006 50 x 10 5 0. linear mass m.6 21.66 5 4.33 21.09 0.33 42.33 6.22 4.41 I/v cm3 33.8 10.75 15.33 0.5 10.4 8.66 6.071 0.56 5.66 17.8 64 38.67 • 106 daN/cm2 daN/cm (choose the value on the table above) (see formula previously explained or choose the value in the table above) Giving f= Hz We must check that this frequency is outside of the values that must be avoided.33 3.08 I cm4 21.013 80 x 5 4 0.011 50 x 6 3 0.16 2.6 1.014 50 x 8 4 0.33 3.2 I cm4 83.66 6.78 41.3 0.83 16.66 1.044 0.007 I cm4 0. moment of inertia I for the bars defined below: Arrangement* Bar dimensions (mm) 100 x 10 S cm2 10 m Cu daN/cm 0.25 5.16 0.33 51.13 I cm4 250 128 76.62 2.83 5.25 * Arrangement: cross-section in a perpendicular plane to the busbars (2 phases are shown) Intrinsic resonant frequency The intrinsic frequencies to avoid for the busbars subjected to a 50 Hz current are frequencies of around 50 and 100 Hz.88 1.8 I cm4 166.83 0.027 x x' x x' x x' x x' x x' x x' 80 x 10 8 0.021 0.38 16.66 12.6 12.25 21.05 I/v cm3 1.036 0.2 16 9.41 8.022 0.45 11.12 8.33 6.04 7.4 31.089 A5/L daN/cm 0.022 80 x 6 4.027 0. f Resonant frequency in Hz E m Modulus of elasticity: b For copper b For aluminium A5/L Linear mass of the bar l Length between 2 supports or busducts cm I Moment of inertia of the bar cross-section relative to the axis x'x.66 85.74 2.91 5.043 0.5 2.5 66 14.018 0.5 10.

inter-connect the cubicles electrically. with a permissible stress η = 1200 daN/cm2 Arrangement Edge-mounted Number of bar(s) per phase: 2 b The busbars must be able to withstand a rated current Ir = 2500 A on a permanent basis and a short-time withstand current Ith = 31500 A r ms for a time of tk = 3 seconds.θn) Permissible temperature rise (90-40-50) 50 K Profile Flat Material Bars in copper 1/4 hard. Side view 1 cm DE59025 1 cm b Rated frequency fr = 50 Hz 10 cm 5 cm 12 cm d b Other characteristics: v parts in contact with the busbars can withstand a maximum temperature of θmax = 100°C v the supports used have a bending resistance of F' = 1000 daN d Drawing 1 AMTED300014EN. Busbar characteristics to check: DE59024EN Top view Cubicle 1 Cubicle 2 Cubicle 3 Cubicle 4 Cubicle 5 d d S Bar cross-section (10 • 1) 10 cm2 d Phase to phase distance 18 cm l Distance between insulators for same phase 70 cm θn Ambient temperature 40 °C (θ .indd 33 . Each cubicle has 3 insulators(1 per phase). Busbars comprising 2 bars per phase. Exercise data b Consider a switchboard comprised of at least 5 MV cubicles.Busbar calculation Design rules Busbar calculation example Here is a busbar calculation to check.

k6.9 (θ .68 2.10 0.θn) Permissible temperature rise* 50 K S Bar cross-section 10 cm2 P Bar perimeter 22 cm ρ20 Conductor resistivity at 20°C: copper 1. Definition of coefficients k1.40 2.5 • P 0.004 K Conditions coefficient (product of 6 coefficients: k1.16 0. k2.89 1. k5. 6: b Coefficient k1 is a function of the number of bar strips per phase for: v 1 bar (k1 = 1) v 2 or 3 bars. 5.61 • S 0.63 2.91 No.50 2.20)] With: DE59018 e a e I Permissible current expressed in amperes (A) θn Ambient temperature 40 °C (θ .39 ρ20 [1+ α (θ . k4.83 µΩ cm α Temperature coefficient of the resistivity 0. k3.12 0.85 1. see table below: e/a 0.60 2.B.83 1.63 1.05 0. described below) * N. 2.55 2. of bars k1 per phase 2 1.Design rules Let’s check the thermal withstand of the busbars! Busbar calculation For the rated current (Ir) The MELSON & BOTH equation allow us to define the permissible current in a conductor: I=K• 24.14 0.06 0.: see table 3 of standard IEC 62271-1 common specifications.08 0.87 1.73 1.θn) 0.10 2 1.80 AMTED300014EN.76 3 2.18 0.indd . 3.70 In our case: e/a = Number of bars per phase = Giving k1 = 34 0.20 1.45 2.80 1. 4.65 2.

61 • 10 0.θn) 0.83 [1+ 0.5 • 22 0.004 ( 90 .80 • I = 1.98 2 1 In our case: n= giving k6 = 2 1 In fact we have: K = 1.Design rules Busbar calculation b Coefficient k2 is a function of surface condition of the bars: v bare: k2 = 1 v painted: k2 = 1.95 several base-mounted bars: k3 = 0.75 b Coefficient k4 is a function of the place where the bars are installed: v calm indoor atmosphere: k4 = 1 v calm outdoor atmosphere: k4 = 1.2 v bars in non-ventilated ducting: k4 = 0.61 • S 0.44 • • 1 1 • 0.44 24.40 ) 0.8 • 1 • 1 = 1.15 b v v v Coefficient k3 is a function of the position of the bars: edge-mounted bars: k3 = 1 1 bar base-mounted: k3 = 0.9 ( 90 .9 (θ .20)] I= The chosen solution is appropriate: 2 2689 A bar(s) of 10 • 1 cm per phase Ir < I either 2500 A < 2689 A AMTED300014EN.5 • p 0.indd 35 .20)] I=K• 24.39 ρ20 [1+ α (θ .39 1.80 b Coefficient k5 is a function of the artificial ventilation: v without forced ventilation: k5 = 1 v ventilation should be dealt with on a case by case basis and then validated by testing. b Coefficient k6 is a function of the type of current: v for a alternating current of frequency ≤ 60 Hz. The value of k6 for a spacing equal to the thickness of the bars: n k6 1 1 3 0. k6 is a function of the number of bars n per phase and of their spacing.

091 kcal/kg °C 2 (maximum short-circuit current.9 g/cm3 Conductor resistivity at 20°C: copper 1.091 • 8. The equation below can be used to calculate the short-circuit temperature rise: ∆θsc = 0.83 10.24 • ρ20 • Ith2 • tk (n • S)2 • c • δ With: c Specific heat of the metal: copper S Bar cross-section n Number of bar(s) per phase Ith Short-time withstand current: tk Short-time withstand current duration (1 to 3 s) 0.θn) Permissible temperature rise K 50 v The temperature rise due to the short-circuit is: ∆θsc = ∆θsc = Calculation of θt must be looked at in more detail because the required busbars have to withstand Ir = 2500 A at most and not 2689 A.indd .Design rules Busbar calculation For the short-time withstand current (lth) b We assume that for the whole duration (3 seconds): v all the heat that is given off is used to increase the temperature of the conductor v radiation effects are negligible.24 • 1.9 4 K The temperature. 36 0.83 µΩ cm (θ .6 • ( 31500 ) 2 • 3 ( 2 • 10 ) 2 • 0. r ms value) δ ρ20 cm2 10 31 500 A r ms in s 3 Density of the metal: copper 8. θt of the conductor after the short-circuit will be: θ t = θn + (θ – θn) + ∆θsc θt = 40 + 50 + 4 = 94 °C For I = 2689 A (see calculation in the previous pages) AMTED300014EN.

3°C v temperature θt of the conductor after short-circuit.3°C is less than θmax = 100°C (θmax = maximum temperature that can be withstood by the parts in contact with the busbars).126 Δθ ∆θ = 44.61 = 2500 Δθ 2689 50 = Δθ 2500 1 0.3 °C for Ir = 2500 A The busbars chosen are suitable because: θt = 88. AMTED300014EN.θn 0.Design rules Busbar calculation b Let us fine tune the calculation for θt for Ir = 2500 A (rated current for the busbars) v the MELSON & BOTH equation.θn)0. allows us to deduce the following: I = constant • (θ .61 and Ir = constant • (Δθ)0.61 = Ir Δθ Therefore 2689 50 0.3 + 4 = 88. for a rated current Ir = 2500 A is: θ t = θn + Δθ + Δθsc = 40 + 44.61 I θ .indd 37 .61 50 = 1.

v number of supports =N ≥5 v we know N. let us define kn with the help of the table below: N kn 1 0.8 (see drawing 1 at the start of the calculation example) l Distance between insulators for same phase 70 cm d Phase to phase distance 18 cm k For 50 Hz according to IEC 2.10 ≥5 1.14 683 (F1) • 1 • 14 (kn) = 778 daN The supports used have a bending resistance F' = 1000 daN calculated force F = 778 daN.indd .5 Giving: F = 3 1.Design rules Let’s check the electrodynamic withstand of the busbars.3 Forces at the head of supports or busducts Equation to calculate the forces on a support: F = F1 • H+h H With: F Force expressed in daN H Insulator height 12 cm h Distance from the head of the insulator to the busbar centre of gravity 5 cm Calculating a force if there are N supports b The force F absorbed by each support is at maximum equal to the calculated force F1 (see previous chapter) multiplied by a coefficient kn which varies according to the total number N of equidistant supports that are installed.5 Idyn Peak value of short-circuit current = k • l th = 2.8 = 78 750 A daN 482.5 • 31 500 = F1 = 2 • (70/18) • 78 7502 • 10. The solution is OK 38 AMTED300014EN.25 4 1. Busbar calculation Forces between parallel-mounted conductors The electrodynamic forces during a short-circuit current are given by the equation: F1 = 2 l d • Idyn2 • 10.

089 A5/L daN/cm 0.66 I/v cm3 14.33 I/v cm3 16.Design rules Busbar calculation Mechanical busbar strength By making the assumption that the ends of the bars are sealed.3 • 70 • 12 1 14.83 I/v cm3 1.66 I cm4 83.33 I cm4 82.45 cm3 (value chosen in the table below) η = 482.5 I/v cm3 33 I cm4 250 I/v cm3 50 39 .66 I cm4 21. they are subjected to a bending moment whose resultant stress is: η= F1 • l 12 v • I With: η l I/v Is the resultant stress in daN/cm2 Distance between insulators for same phase Is the modulus of inertia between a bar or a set of bars 70 cm 14.45 I cm4 166.45 η = 195 daN/cm2 The calculated resultant stress (η = 195 daN/cm2) is less than the permissible stress for the copper busbars 1/4 hard (1200 daN/cm2): The solution is OK Arrangement Busbar dimensions 100 x 10 (mm) S cm2 m Cu daN/cm 10 0.027 x x' x x' x x' x x' x x' x x' AMTED300014EN.indd I cm4 0.66 I/v cm3 33.

3 • 106 • 21.66 cm4 (choose m and l on the table on the previous page) f = 112 1. are suitable for an Ir = 2500 A and Ith = 31.5 kA 3 s 40 AMTED300014EN. perpendicular to the vibrating plane (choose the value on the table above) 0. Busbar calculation Inherent resonant frequency The inherent resonant frequencies to avoid for bars subjected to a current at 50 Hz are frequencies of around 50 and 100 Hz.e.66 0. 2 bars of 10 • 1 cm per phase. in other words 42 to 58 Hz and 80 to 115 Hz: The solution is OK In conclusion The busbars chosen. i.Design rules Let us check that the chosen bars do not resonate. This inherent resonant frequency is given by the equation: E•I m • l4 f = 112 f Resonant frequency in Hz E Modulus of elasticity: m Linear mass of the bar l Length between 2 supports or busducts I Moment of inertia of the bar section relative to the axis x'x.089 daN/cm 70 cm 21.indd .089 • 704 f = 406 Hz f is outside of the values that have to be avoided.

the presence of humidity can cause a change in insulating performances.6 kV/mm b The dielectric strength of the medium This is a characteristic of the fluid (gas or liquid) making up the medium. Humidity (IEC 60060-1 and 62271-1) In gases and liquids. N2 etc. 1 bar absolute): 2.9 to 3 kV/mm Ionization limit (20°C. liquid or solid insulation decrease as the temperature increases. Temperature The performance levels of gaseous. U = Uo • Kt Example: b to = 22°C b bo = 99. However.5 kPa (995 mbar) b ho = 8 g/m3 then Kt = 0. (0. is related to pressure. AMTED300014EN. it always leads to a drop in performance.Design rules Dielectric withstand The dielectric withstand depends on the following 3 main parameters: A few orders of magnitude Dielectric strength (20°C.3 kPa (1013 mbar) b Absolute humidity ho = 11 g/m3 Partial discharge The measurement of partial discharges (IEC 62271-200) is a suitable means of detecting certain weaknesses. Therefore. In the case of gases.95 ≤ Kt ≤ 1. 1 bar absolute): 2.) apart from air where a low concentration (humidity < 70%) gives a slight improvement in the overall performance level. For a device insulated in ambient air. a drop in pressure causes a drop in insulating performance.indd 41 . For solid insulators. Great care must therefore be paid to expansion phenomena: a solid insulation material expands by between 5 and 15 times more than a conductor.95. In the case of liquids. The voltage to apply depends on atmospheric conditions. For ambient air this characteristic depends on atmospheric conditions and pollution. thermal shocks can be the cause of micro-fissuration which can lead very quickly to insulator breakdown. Dielectric type tests Dielectric type tests are impulse tests (BIL) and short duration powerfrequency withstand voltage tests. it is not possible to establish a reliable relationship between the results of partial discharge measurement and the life expectancy.05) U is the voltage to be applied during a test on external conditions Uo is the rated voltage (BIL or power frequency test) Kt = 1 for the standard reference atmosphere Standard reference atmosphere: b Temperature to = 20°C b Pressure bo = 101. it is not possible to give acceptance criteria for partial discharge tests carried out on a complete product. Ambient conditions are taken into account to evaluate the insulation performance in laboratories Pressure The performance level of gas insulation. b The shape of the parts b The distance: v ambient air between the live parts v insulating air interface between the live parts. or so called “full gas performance”. compared to the standard reference atmosphere. it generally leads to a drop (SF6.

Its effect is always the same: reducing the insulation performances by a factor of anything up to 10! Pollution may originate: from the external gaseous medium (dust). or be deposited on the surface of an insulator. AMTED300014EN. In some cases. Pollution Conductive dust can be present in a gas. other factors may influence the insulation performance Condensation Phenomena involving the depositing of droplets of water on the surface of insulators which has the effect of locally reducing the insulating performance by a factor of 3. in a liquid. derating of the product is necessary. Pollution combined with humidity causes electrochemical conduction which can increase the phenomenon of partial discharges. possibly the breaking down of an internal surface.15 42 Altitude For installations at an altitude higher than 1000 m. the insulation withstand level of external insulation at the service location shall be determined by multiplying the rated insulation levels by a factor Ka in accordance with figure 1 of IEC 62271-1 standard.Design rules Dielectric withstand On site.indd . Example: at H = 2000 m Ka = 1. initial lack of cleanliness. The level of pollution is also linked to the possible use outdoors.

indd O Insulator particular case Sometimes insulators are used between live parts or between live parts and metallic earthed structures.A gives.definitions. we cannot test under impulse conditions. DE59027 U Lf Lf : tracking path AMTED300014EN. b Distances in air* between live parts and metallic earthed structures versus BIL voltage under dry conditions: d Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (BIL) U Up (kV) 40 Minimum distance in air phase to earth and phase to phase d (mm) 60 60 75 95 125 145 170 90 120 160 220 270 320 The values for distances in air given in the table above are minimum values determined by considering dielectric properties.Dielectric withstand Design rules The shape of parts This plays a key role in switchgear dielectric withstand. *These indications are relative to a distance through a single air gap. it is possible to design more compact products if the maximum electrical field is less than given criteria. 43 . operator safety. It is essential to eliminate any “peak” effect which would have a disastrous effect on the impulse wave withstand in particular and on the surface ageing of insulators: Air ionization Ozone production Breakdown of moulded insulating surface skin Distance between parts Ambient air between live parts b For installations in which. wind effects. Dielectric digital analysis Thanks to numerical simulation software. short circuit effects.Part 1 . without taking into account the breakdown voltage by tracking across the surfaces. the table in publication IEC 60071-2 table VI . for various reasons. Selection and dimensionning of high-voltage insulators intended for use in polluted conditions . The choice of an insulator shall take into account the level of pollution. they do not include any increase which could be required to take into account the design tolerances. information and general principles. according to the rated lightning impulse withstand voltage. These levels of pollution are described in Technical Specification IEC TS 60815-1 clause 8. related to pollution problems. the minimum distances to comply with in air either phase to earth or phase to phase. etc. O DE59026 V b These distances guarantee correct dielectric withstand when the altitude is less than 1000 m.

indd .Design rules The rated current of an equipment is generally defined for a usual index protection. finer ventilation grills). Protection index IP code Introduction Protection of people against direct contact and protection of equipment against certain external influences is required by international standards for electrical installations and products (IEC 60 529).g. It does not concern the circuit breaker on its own but the front panel must be adapted when the latter is installed within a cubicle (e. Applicational scope It applies to enclosures for electrical equipment with a rated voltage of less than or equal to 72. the penetration of solid foreign bodies and water.5 kV. operation and quality control of equipment. The various IP codes and their meaning A brief description of items in the IP code is given in the table on the following page. a current derating has to be considered. Knowing the protection index is essential for the specification. The IP code is a coding system to indicate the protection index. 44 AMTED300014EN. installation. Definitions The protection index is the level of protection provided by an enclosure against access to hazardous parts. For higher index protection.

5 mm 4 ≥ 1 mm diameter Wire Ø 1 mm 5 Dust protected Wire 6 Dust-tight Wire DE59036 DE59038 DE59037 Dripping (15° tilted) 3 Spraying 4 Splashing 5 Jetting 6 Powerful jetting 7 Temporary immersion 8 Continuous immersion 15° 60° DE59044 DE59043 DE59042 DE59041 DE59040 2 Additional letter (optional) A B C D Additional letter (optional) H M S W AMTED300014EN.5 mm diameter Finger DE59028 Code letter IP First characteristic numeral Representation DE59031 Item Ø 50 mm DE59032 Design rules Ø 12.5mm X ≥ 2.indd Against ingress of water with harmful effects (not protected) Vertically dripping DE59039 Second characteristic numeral 0 1 DE59035 3 DE59034 ~ Against access to hazardous parts with: Back of hand Finger Tool Wire Additional information specific to: High voltage equipment Motion during water test Stationary during water test Weather condition 45 .5 mm diameter Tool DE59033 Ø 2.Protection index Numerals or letters Meaning for protection of equipment of people 0 1 Against penetration of solid foreign bodies (not protected) ≥ 50 mm diameter Against access to hazardous parts with (not protected) back of hand 2 ≥ 12.

Test Eh: hammer tests”. According to IEC 62262.14 10 P b b IK 02 0. Pendulum pivot Frame Latching mechanism Hammer head Arming button Release cone Height of fall Mounting fixture Specimen Pendulum hammer Spring hammer The various IK codes and their meaning IK code Energies in joules Hammer radius mm Hammer material Steel = A Polyamide = P Hammer Pendulum Spring loaded IK 00 * IK 01 0.5 10 P IK 05 0.5 kV. pendulum hammer.Protection index Design rules IK code Introduction b The degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment against external impacts are defined in IEC standard 62262. expressed in terms of vibrations therefore in terms of frequency and acceleration. 46 AMTED300014EN. they shall be precised separately.indd . Definitions b The protection index corresponds to impact energy levels expressed in joules v Hammer blow applied directly to the equipment v Impact transmitted by the supports. the degree of protection applies to the complete enclosure. spring hammer or vertical hammer.2 10 P IK 03 0.35 10 P IK 04 0. DE59045EN b The protection index against mechanical impact can be checked by different types of hammer. If parts of the enclosure have different degrees of protection. b The classification of the degrees of protection in IK codes only applies to enclosures of electrical equipment of rated voltage up to and including 72. The test devices and the methods are described in IEC standard 60068-2-75 “Environmental testing.7 10 P IK 06 1 10 P IK 07 2 25 A IK 08 5 25 A IK 09 10 50 A IK 10 20 50 A b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b Vertical b = yes (*) Not protected according to this standard.

Medium Voltage
technical guide

AMTED300014EN.indd

Switchgear definition

Medium voltage circuit breaker
Introduction
Characteristics

48
48
49

Current transformer
Primary circuit’s characteristics according to IEC standards
Secondary circuit’s characteristics according to IEC standards
Differential protection

58
58
61
64

LPCT: electronic current transformers

66

Voltage transformer
Characteristics

67
67

Derating
Introduction
Insulation derating according to altitude
Derating of the rated current according to temperature

70
70
70
70

47

Switchgear definition

IEC 62271-100 and
ANSI C37-04, C37-06, C37-09
define on one hand the operating
conditions, the rated characteristics,
the design and the manufacture;
and on the other hand the testing,
the selection of controls
and installation.

Medium voltage circuit breaker

Introduction
The circuit breaker is a device that ensures the control and protection
on a network. It is capable of making, withstanding and interrupting
operating currents as well as short-circuit currents.
The main circuit must be able to withstand without damage:
b The thermal stress caused by the short-circuit current during 1 or 3 s
b
v
v
v

The electrodynamic stress caused by the peak of short-circuit current:
2.5 • Isc for 50 Hz (standard time constant of 45 ms)
2.6 • Isc for 60 Hz (standard time constant of 45 ms)
2.7 • Isc (for longer time constant)

b The constant load current.
Since a circuit breaker is mostly in the “closed” position, the load
current must pass through it without the temperature running away
throughout the equipment’s life.

48

AMTED300014EN.indd

Switchgear definition

Medium voltage circuit breaker

Characteristics
Compulsory rated characteristics (cf § 4 IEC 62271-100)
a) Rated voltage
b) Rated insulation level
c) Rated frequency
d) Rated normal current
e) Rated short-time withstand current
f) Rated peak withstand current
g) Rated duration of short-circuit
h) Rated supply voltage of closing and opening devices
and of auxiliary circuits
i) Rated supply frequency of closing and opening devices
and of auxiliary circuits
j) Rated pressures of compressed gas supply and/or of hydraulic supply
for operation, interruption and insulation, as applicable
k) Rated short-circuit breaking current
l) Transient recovery voltage related to the rated short-circuit breaking
current
m) Rated short-circuit making current
n) Rated operating sequence
o) Rated time quantities.

Special rated characteristics
Rated characteristics to be given in the specific cases indicated below
p) Characteristics for short-line faults related to the rated short-circuit
breaking current, for circuit breakers designed for direct connection to
overhead lines, irrespective of the type of network on the source side,
and rated at 15 kV and above and at more than 12.5 kA rated short-circuit
breaking current
q) Rated line-charging breaking current, for three-pole circuit breakers
intended for switching overhead transmission lines (mandatory for circuit
breakers of rated voltages equal to or greater than 72.5 kV).
r) Rated cable-charging breaking current, for three-pole circuit breakers
intended for switching cables (mandatory for circuit breakers of rated
voltages equal to or less than 52 kV).
Rated characteristics to be given on request
s) Rated out-of-phase making and breaking current
t) Rated single capacitor bank breaking current
u) Rated back-to-back capacitor bank breaking current
v) Rated capacitor bank inrush making current
w) Rated back-to-back capacitor bank inrush making current.
The rated characteristics of the circuit breaker are referred to the rated
operating sequence.

Rated voltage (cf. § 4.1 IEC 62271-1)
The rated voltage is the maximum r ms value of the voltage that
the equipment can withstand in normal service. It is always greater than
the operating voltage.
b Standardised values for Ur (kV) : 3.6 - 7.2 -12 - 17.5 - 24 - 36 kV.

AMTED300014EN.indd

49

Medium voltage circuit breaker

DE59046EN

Switchgear definition

Rated insulation level (cf. § 4.2 IEC 62271-1)

U
1.0
0.9

B

b The insulation level is characterised by two values:
v the lightning impulse wave (1.2/50 µs) withstand voltage
v the power frequency withstand voltage for 1 minute.

0.5
0.3
0
01
T'

A

t
T
T1

T2

T1 = 1.67 T
T' = 0.3 T1 = 0.5 T

Rated voltage

Impulse withstand
voltage

Power frequency
withstand voltage

(Ur in kV)
7.2
12
17.5
24
36

(Up in kV)
60
75
95
125
170

(Ud in kV)
20
28
38
50
70

Figure 6: full lightning impulse

Rated normal current (cf. § 4.4 IEC 62271-1)
With the circuit breaker always closed, the load current must pass through it
in compliance with a maximum temperature value as a function of the
materials and the type of connections.
IEC sets the maximum permissible temperature rise of various materials
used for an ambient air temperature not exceeding 40°C
(cf. § 4.4.2 table 3 IEC 62271-1).

Rated short-time withstand current (cf. § 4.5 IEC 62271-1)
Isc =
Ssc
U
Isc

Ssc
3•U

Short-circuit power in MVA
Operating voltage in kV
Short-circuit current in kA

This is the standardised rms value of the maximum permissible
short-circuit current on a network for the rated duration of short-circuit.
b Values of rated breaking current under maximum short-circuit (kA):
6.3 - 8 - 10 - 12.5 - 16 - 20 - 25 - 31.5 - 40 - 50 - 63 kA.

Rated peak withstand current (cf. § 4.6 IEC 62271-1)
and making current (cf. § 4.103 IEC 62271-100)
The making current is the maximum value that a circuit breaker is capable
of making and maintaining on an installation in short-circuit.
It must be greater than or equal to the rated short-time withstand peak
current.
Isc is the maximum value of the rated short-circuit current for the circuit
breakers’ rated voltage. The peak value of the short-time withstand
current is equal to:
v 2.5 • Isc for 50 Hz
v 2.6 • Isc for 60 Hz
v 2.7 • Isc for special time constants greater than 45 ms.

Rated short-circuit duration (cf. § 4.7 IEC 62271-1)
The standard value of rated duration of short-circuit is 1 s.
Other recommended values are 0.5 s, 2 s and 3 s.

50

AMTED300014EN.indd

§ 4.CO .48 .3 min .3 s .CO .CO. (cf.CO .9 IEC 62271-1) t t' Isc Rated operating sequence (cf.8 of IEC 62271-1): v motor and closing release units: 85% to 110% of Ur in dc and ac v opening release units: 70% to 110% of Ur in dc 85% to 110% of Ur in ac v undervoltage opening release unit: The release unit gives the command and forbids closing 0% The release unit must not have an action 35% 70% U 100% (at 85%.6.CO fast 2: O . DE59048EN b The operating voltages must lie within the following ranges (cf.t .CO .60 . the release unit must enable the device to close) Rated frequency (cf.CO fast 1: O .0.indd Start of current flow in first pole Final arc extinction in all poles Separation arcing contacts in all poles 51 . b Close/Open cycle Assumption: O order as soon as the circuit breaker is closed. v for alternating current (ac): 120 .4 and 5.B.Medium voltage circuit breaker Switchgear definition Rated supply voltage for closing and opening devices and auxiliary circuits (cf.3 s . § 5. DE59049EN DE59047EN Two frequencies are currently used throughout the world: 50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in America.0.230 volts.CO N. § 4. The rated frequency is either 50 Hz or 60 Hz.3 min .8 IEC 62271-1) b Values of supply voltage for auxiliary circuits: v for direct current (dc): 24 . opposite diagram) Time O C O C O O CO b v v v Represents opening operation Represents closing operation followed immediately by an opening operation Three rated operating sequences exist: slow: O .15 s . Closed position Contact movement Open position Current flow Time Close-open time Make-break time Contact touch in the first closing pole Contact touch in all poles Energizing of closing circuit AMTED300014EN.104 IEC 62271-100) Ir b Rated switching sequence according to IEC.110 or 125 .3 min . O . a few countries use both frequencies.220 or 250 volts.: other sequences can be requested.3 and 4. § 4.t' .

101 IEC 62271-100) The rated short-circuit breaking current is the highest value of current that the circuit breaker must be capable of breaking at its rated voltage. The half-period corresponds to the minimum activation time of an overcurrent protection device.indd .8 kA for a %DC of 30%. Example 1: b For a circuit breaker with a minimum opening time of 45 ms (Top) to which we add 10 ms (Tr) due to relaying.5 • Isc at 50 Hz or 2. According to the IEC. b The circuit breaker rating is greater than 33.8 kA. Closed position Contact movement Open position Current flow Current flow Time Dead time Open-close time Remake time Reclosing time Final arc extinction in all poles Contact touch in all poles Energizing of closing circuit Separation arcing contacts in all poles Contact touch in the first pole Start of current in the first pole Energizing of opening release Rated short-circuit breaking current (cf.7 kA b Using the equation [A]. given by the term: “rated short-circuit breaking current” v the percentage of the aperiodic component corresponding to the circuit breaker’s opening time. to which we add a half-period of the rated frequency. for a peak value of maximum current equal to 2. Percentage of the aperiodic component (%DC) as a function of the time interval (t) %DC 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 4 = 120 ms (special case time constant) 1 = 45 ms (standardised time constant) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 t (ms) t: circuit breaker opening duration (Top).65)2 = 36.086 DE59051EN b According to IEC. the circuit breaker must break the rms value of the periodic component of the short-circuit (= its rated breaking current) with the percentage of asymmetry defined by the graphs below.3 s or 15 s or 3 min). this being 10 ms at 50 Hz. = 29. What does Iasym equal? Iasym = Isym 1+2 = 27 kA %DC 2 100 [A] 1 + 2 (0. this is equivalent to a symmetric short-circuit current at a rating of: 36. (with time delay to achieve 0. the nearest standard rating is 40 kA.Medium voltage circuit breaker Switchgear definition DE59050EN b Automatic reclosing cycle Assumption: C order as soon as the circuit breaker is open. 1.5% Example 2: b Supposing that %DC of a MV circuit breaker is equal to 65% and that the symmetric short-circuit current that is calculated (Isym) is equal to 27 kA.7 kA = 33. increased by half a period at the power frequency (Tr).6 • Isc at 60 Hz. In this case use the τ1 graph. § 4. the graph gives a percentage of the aperiodic component of around 30% for a time constant τ1 = 45 ms: %DC = e – (45 + 10) 45 b It is characterised by two values: v the r ms value of its periodic component. b As standard the IEC defines MV equipment for a time constant of 45 ms. 52 AMTED300014EN.

AMTED300014EN.7 • Isc. The ratio of this voltage to a single phase circuit voltage is called the first pole-to-clear factor.8 .25 .63 kA.Medium voltage circuit breaker Switchgear definition b For low resistive circuits such as generator incomers. in other words the voltage across the terminals of the first open pole.5 . 4 b Values of rated short-circuit breaking current: 6. b Short-circuit breaking tests must meet the five following test sequences: DE59052 I (A) IAC IMC t (s) IDC Sequence % Isym 1 2 3 4 5* 10 20 60 100 100 % aperiodic component %DC ≤ 20 ≤ 20 ≤ 20 ≤ 20 According to equation * For circuit breakers opening in less than 80 ms. The recovery voltage wave form varies according to the real circuit configuration.16 .31. the TRV refers to the pole that breaks the circuit initially.5 . it is equal to 1. with a peak value of maximum current equal to 2. …. IMC IAC IDC %DC Making current Periodic component peak value (Isc peak) Aperiodic component value % asymmetry or aperiodic component – (Top + Tr) IDC • 100 = 100 • e τ1.20 .5 for voltages up to 72. In this case use the τ4 graph.5 kV (isolated neutral of the supply circuit).102 IEC 62271-100) This is the voltage that appears across the terminals of a circuit breaker pole after the current has been interrupted. b First pole-to-clear factor For three-phase circuits.indd 53 . …. A circuit breaker must be able to break a given current for all transient recovery voltages whose value remains below the rated TRV.3 . 4 IAC b Symmetric short-circuit current (in kA): Isym = IAC 2 b Asymmetric short-circuit current (in kA): Iasym2 = Isym2 • I2DC Iasym = Isym 1+2 %DC 2 100 Rated Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) (cf. § 4.12. For all time constants τ between τ1 and τ 4.50 . use the equation: – (Top + Tr) %DC = 100 • e τ1. τ can be higher.40 .10 .

indd .25 • 2.47 0.2 12 17.24 0.18 0. DE59054 td t3 Uc TRV rate of rise X1 A B Time delay Time defined to reach Uc Peak TRV voltage in kV Uc/t3 in kV/µs X2 Rated out-of-phase breaking current (cf. the power frequency recovery voltage is equal to: v 2 / 3 Ur for networks with an effectively earthed neutral system v 2.15 t3 v a specified TRV is represented by a reference plot with two parameters and by a segment of straight line defining a time delay.5 • Ur • Rated voltage (Ur in kV) 7. b In practice.4 30.4 • 1. for networks other than those with effectively earthed neutral system: Uc = 1.9 2 3 Time (t3 in µs) 102 122 142 174 218 Rate of increase (Uc/t3 in kV/µs) 0.7 61. the voltage across the terminals can increase up to the sum of voltages in the conductors (phase opposition).5 / 3 Ur for other networks.3 20.2 12 17.42 AMTED300014EN. at a voltage equal to twice the voltage relative to earth. it is given for an asymmetry of 0%.2 91.106 IEC 62271-100) G U1 UA – UB = U1 – (– U2) = U1 + U2 if U1 = U2 then UA – UB = 2U U2 G When a circuit breaker is open and the conductors are not synchronous.5 24 36 54 TRV value (Uc in kV) 18.34 0. § 4.35 0.6 30 41.5 • 2 • Ur = 1. b If Ur is the rated circuit breaker voltage.31 0. U (kV) Rated voltage (Ur in kV) 7.6 44.5 24 36 Uc TRV peak value (Uc in kV) 12. b Peak value of TRV for class S1 circuit breaker.25 0.57 0 td t (µs) t3 Uc = 1.42 0. standards require the circuit breaker to break a current equal to 25% of the fault current across the terminals.7 Time Delay (t3 in µs) 51 61 71 87 109 (td in µs) 8 9 11 13 16 Rate of rise of TRV (Uc/t3 in kV/µs) 0.715 Ur 3 td = 0.2 61.Medium voltage circuit breaker DE59053 Switchgear definition b Value of rated TRV for class S1 circuit breaker (intended to be used in cable systems) v the TRV is a function of the asymmetry.

§ 4.indd C2 C3 55 .107 IEC 62271-100) The specification of a breaking current for multi-stage capacitor banks is not compulsory. Due to the presence of harmonics.5 24 36 Rated breaking curren for no-load cables (Ic in kA) 10 25 31.107 IEC 62271-100) The specification of a rated breaking current for a circuit breaker intended for switching unloaded overhead lines is mandatory for circuit breakers of rated voltage ≥ 72. § 4. § 4. the breaking current for capacitors is lower or equal to 0.5 50 Rated line-charging breaking current (cf.7 times the device’s rated current.2 12 17.5 31.107 IEC 62271-100) C U The specification of a capacitor bank breaking current for a circuit breaker is not compulsory. Rated current (A) 400 630 1250 2500 3150 Breaking current for capacitors (max) (A) 280 440 875 1750 2200 b Two classes of circuit breakers are defined according to their restrike performances: v class C1: low probability of restrike during capacitive current breaking v class C2: very low probability of restrike during capacitive current breaking. L B DE59055 A Rated single capacitor bank breaking current Ic G (cf.5 kV. § 4. Rated back-to-back capacitor bank breaking current X1 DE59056 (cf.107 IEC 62271-100) The specification of a rated breaking current for a circuit breaker switching unloaded cables is mandatory for circuit breakers of rated voltage lower than 52 kV. b Normal rated breaking current values for a circuit breaker switching unloaded cables: Rated voltage (Ur in kV) 7. G U C1 AMTED300014EN.Switchgear definition Medium voltage circuit breaker Rated cable-charging breaking current (cf.

indd .107 IEC 62271-100) The rated making current for capacitor banks is the peak current value that the circuit breaker must be capable of making at the rated voltage. Surge protection should be applied in some cases according to the type of circuit breaker in order to ensure that the overvoltages do not damage the insulation of the inductive loads (unloaded transformers. DE59057EN b The figure shows the various voltages on the load side u ua Supply side voltage up uma uo us Load side voltage u in t uw uk u mr uo ux ua uin uma umr uw up us 56 Neutral point average voltage Power frequency voltage crest value to earth Neutral voltage shift at first-pole interruption Circuit breaker arc voltage drop = uo + ua + uc Initial voltage at the moment of current chopping Suppression peak voltage to earth Load side voltage peak to earth Voltage across the circuit breaker at re-ignition Maximum overvoltage to earth (could be equal to uma or umr if no re-ignitions occur) Maximum peak-to-peak overvoltage excursion at re-ignition AMTED300014EN. motors). and in the order of a few 10 kA and some 100 kHz for back-to-back capacitor banks. § 4.108 IEC 62271-100 and IEC 62271-110) The breaking of low inductive currents (several amperes to several hundreds of amperes) may cause overvoltages. The value of the circuit breaker’s rated making current must be greater than the inrush current for the capacitor bank. cf. Switching of small inductive current (no rating assigned.Medium voltage circuit breaker Switchgear definition Rated capacitor bank inrush making current (cf. Typically the values of peak current and frequency for inrush currents are in the order of a few kA and some 100 Hz for single capacitor banks. § 4. Formulas for calculation of inrush currents for single and back-to-back capacitor banks can be found in Annex H of IEC 62271-100.

for circuit breakers which do not require maintenance of the interrupting parts of the main circuit during their expected operating life.6 kV (50% on the sample) front time 0.2 µs 1 kV/s 0 t 1 min Normal operating conditions (cf.5 µs (4 Ur + 5) kV 4.indd 57 . Equipment is designed for normal operation under the following conditions: b Temperature °C Instantaneous ambient Minimal Maximal Installation Indoor –5°C +40°C Outdoor –25°C +40°C b Humidity Average relative humidity for a period (max value) 24 hours 1 month Indoor equipment 95% 90% b Altitude The altitude does not exceed 1000 metres. Mechanical endurance Two classes are defined (cf. AMTED300014EN. Schneider Electric circuit breakers are tested according to class M2.9 pu + 5 = 31 kV at 6. Insulation Test at 50 (60) Hz r ms value Impulse test Between turns Relative to earth (2 Ur + 1) kV 2Ur + 1 ⇒ 2(2Ur + 1) ⇒ 0 14 kV ⇒ 28 kV ⇒ 0 (4 Ur + 5) kV 4. § 2 IEC 62271-1) For all equipment functioning under more severe conditions than those described below. § 3. Power frequency and impulse withstand testing is given in the table below (rated insulation levels for rotary sets).Switchgear definition Medium voltage circuit breaker b Insulation level of motors IEC 60034 stipulates the insulation level of motors.4 IEC 62271-100): b Class M1 with normal mechanical endurance (2000 operations) b Class M2 with extended mechanical endurance (10 000 operations). derating should be applied (see derating chapter). § 3.4 IEC 62271-100): b Class E1 with basic electrical endurance b Class E2 with extended electrical endurance. Electrical endurance Two classes are defined (cf.6 kV front time 1.9 pu + 5 = 31 kV at 6. Schneider Electric circuit breakers are tested according to class E2.

3 Upr 5 5. according to the chart: U 3.5 kV 24 kV 36 kV b Special case: If the CT is a ring CT installed on a bushing or on a cable. Its precision is retained. Primary circuit’s characteristics according to IEC standards Rated frequency (fr) A CT defined at 50 Hz can be installed on a 60 Hz network. The opposite is not true. b It comprises one or several primary windings and one or several secondary windings each having their own magnetic circuit.2 kV 12 kV 17.Current transformer Switchgear definition This is intended to provide a secondary circuit with a current proportional to the primary current. Transformation ratio (Kn) Kn = Ipr N2 = Isr N1 N. BR…). the dielectric insulation is provided by the cable or bushing insulation.indd .B.: current transformers must be in conformity with IEC standard 60044-1 but can also be defined by other standards (ANSI.6 10 11 13. Please note! Never leave a CT in an open circuit.8 15 20 22 30 33 7.5 6 6. Generally. Rated primary circuit voltage (Upr) b General case: Rated CT voltage ≥ rated installation voltage DE59058EN The rated voltage sets the equipment insulation level (see “Introduction” chapter of this guide). and all being encapsulated in an insulating resin. 58 AMTED300014EN. we would choose the rated CT voltage based on the installation operating voltage U. b It is dangerous to leave a CT in an open circuit because dangerous voltages for both people and equipment may appear across its terminals.

η = 0.2 • IrTC.40 .B.8. the rated primary current must not exceed 1.3 and 1. you can take as an initial approximation: cos ϕ = 0. v if we use a 100/5 CT.2 times the rated current on a constant basis to avoid too high temperature rise in the switchgear installation. we will have: 25 0. v capacitor feeder 1. In the case of protection. AMTED300014EN.Switchgear definition Current transformer Primary operating current (Ips) An installation’s primary operating current I (A) (for a transformer feeder for example) is equal to the CT primary operating current (Ips) taking account of any possible derating.5 times the operating current. Ips = 1.30 . b If: S U P Q Ips Apparent power in kVA Primary operating voltage in kV Active power of the motor in kW Reactive power of capacitors in kvars Primary operating current in A b We will have: v incomer cubicle Ips = S 3•U Ips = S 3•U Ips = S 3•U Ips = P 3 • U • cosϕ • η v generator set incomer v transformer feeder v motor feeder η Motor efficiency Example: If you do not know the exact values of ϕ and η. b Standardised values: 10 -12.50 . b If we suppose that Ir for the motor = 25 A.75 and their multiples and factors. we choose a CT 50/5.60 .indd 59 .15 . the relay will never see 25 A because: 100 • 0. In order to protect this motor. we have to check that the chosen rated current enables the relay setting threshold to be reached in the case of a fault.3 • Q 3•U v bus sectioning The current Ips of the CT is the greatest value of current that can flow in the bus sectioning on a permanent basis.5 .20 . A thermal protection device for a motor has a setting range of between 0. Rated primary current (Ipr) The rated current (Ipr) will always be greater than or equal to the operating current (I) for the installation. the required setting must correspond to the motor’s rated current. v if on the other hand.3 is a derating coefficient of 30% to take account of temperature rise due to capacitor harmonics. the required setting is therefore 25 A.3 < < 1. N.25 . This CT is therefore suitable.8.3 = 30 > 25 A. b For metering and usual current-based protection devices.2 50 and therefore we will be able to set our relay.: current transformers should be able to wihtstand 1.

b It is equal to: Ksi = Ith 1 s Ipr b The lower Ksi is. Example: b If Ssc is the network short-circuit power expressed in MVA. (See “Derating” chapter in this guide). the CT’s nominal current (Ipn) must be greater than Ips multiplied by the derating factor corresponding to the cubicle. then: b Ssc = 250 MVA Ith = b U = 15 kV Ith 1 s = Ssc • 103 250 • 103 = = 9600 A U•3 15 • 3 Ssc U•3 b When the CT is installed in a fuse protected cubicle. b Each CT must be able to withstand the short-circuit current which can flow through its primary circuit both thermally and dynamically until the fault is effectively broken. Order of magnitude Ksi Ksi < 100 100 < Ksi < 300 100 < Ksi < 400 400 < Ksi < 500 Ksi > 500 Manufacture Standard Sometimes difficult for certain secondary characteristics Difficult Limited to certain secondary characteristics Very often impossible A CT’s secondary circuit must be adapted to constraints related to its use. the Ith to use is equal to 80 Ir.Switchgear definition Current transformer In the case of an ambient temperature greater than 40°C for the CT.indd . As a general rule. then Ith 1 s for the CT = Ith 1 s for the device. either in metering or in protection applications. Overcurrent coefficient (Ksi) Knowing this allows us to know whether a CT will be easy to manufacture or otherwise. the easier the CT will be to manufacture A high Ksi leads to over-dimensioning of the primary winding’s section. Rated thermal short-circuit current (Ith) The rated thermal short-circuit current is generally the rms value of the installation’s maximum short-circuit current and the duration of this is generally taken to be equal to 1 s. the CT will be even more difficult to produce. the derating is of 1% Ipn per degree above 40°C. b If 80 Ir > Ith 1 s for the disconnecting device. 60 AMTED300014EN. The number of primary turns will therefore be limited together with the induced electromotive force.

2 to 1 1 to 8 61 .8 m b Consumed power by the cabling: 1 VA b Consumption of copper cabling (line losses of the cabling).002 0.Switchgear definition Current transformer Secondary circuit’s characteristics according to IEC standards Rated secondary current (Isr) 5 or 1 A? b General case: v for local use Isr = 5 A v for remote use Isr = 1 A b Special case: v for local use Isr = 1 A N.05 2.44 k = 0. consumption in VA (per circuit) 0.003 0.: using 5 A for a remote application is not forbidden but leads to an increase in transformer dimensions and cable section.5 Switchboard metering: class 0.008 0. Real power that the TC must provide in VA This is the sum of the consumption of the cabling and that of each device connected to the TC secondary circuit.1 Overcurrent protection: class 5P Differential protection: class PX Zero-sequence protection: class 5P.09 0.5 .indd Max. knowing that: P = R • I2 and R = ρ • L/S then: L (VA) = k • S k = 0. Accuracy class (cl) b b b b b Metering: class 0.0176 L S if Isr = 5 A if Isr = 1 A Length in metres of link conductors (feed/return) Cabling section in mm2 v Indicative secondary cabling consumption Cables (mm2) Consumption (VA/m) 1A 5A 0.0.2 0. consumption in VA (per circuit) 3 1 3 1 2 1 1 v Indicative protection consumptions Device Static overcurrent relay Electromagnetic overcurrent relay AMTED300014EN. Example: b Cable section: 2.5 4 6 10 b Consumption of metering or protection devices Consumption of various devices are given in the manufacturer’s technical data sheet. v Indicative metering consumptions Device Ammeter Transducer Meter Electromagnetic Electronic Self-powered External powered Induction Electronic Wattmeter. (line loss: P = R I 2).2 .5 mm2 b Cable length (feed/return): 5.B.13 0. varmeter Max.005 0.

62 AMTED300014EN. the current transformer must be saturated before 50 Ir in the secondary. Instrument security factor (FS) b Protection of metering devices in the case of a fault is defined by the instrument security factor FS. according to the current consumer characteristic a lower safety factor can be requested. Ipl FS = Ipr b IpI is the value of primary current for which the error in secondary current = 10%.indd .15 VA. However.5 .Switchgear definition Current transformer Rated output Take the standardised value immediately above the real power that the CT must provide.5 . i. The value of FS will be chosen according to the consumer’s short-time withstand current: 5 ≤ FS ≤ 10. 250 A for a 5 A device.e. To be sure that this device will not be destroyed in the case of a primary fault. b The standardised values of rated output are: 2.10 . b A transducer is generally designed to withstand a short-time current of 50 Ir. A safety factory of 10 is suitable. b In accordance with the standards. Schneider Electric CT’s have a safety factor of 10. FS is the ratio between the limit of rated primary current (Ipl) and the rated primary current (Ipr).

Switchgear definition Current transformer Accuracy limit factor (ALF) In protection applications. we will generally have a high threshold set to 8 Ir max. the CT must guarantee accuracy across the whole trip curve for the relay up to 10 times the setting current. (never true for feeders to other switchboards or for incomers): ALF real > 2 • Ir2 AMTED300014EN.. We will determine the required ALF in the following manner: Definite time overcurrent protection b The relay will function perfectly if: ALF real of CT > 2 • Ire Isr Ire Isr Relay threshold setting Rated secondary current of the CT b For a relay with two setting thresholds. giving a real ALF required > 16. giving the real ALF required > 28 v for a motor feeder.indd Ir2 Isr instantaneous high setting threshold for the module 63 . we have two constraints: having an accuracy limit factor and an accuracy class suited to the application. Inverse definite time overcurrent protection b In all cases. ALF real > 20 • Ire b Special cases: v if the maximum short-circuit current is greater than or equal to 10 Ire: ALF real > 20 • Ire Ire Isr Relay threshold setting v if the maximum short-circuit current is less than 10 Ire: ALF real > 2 • Isc secondary Isr v if the protection device has an instantaneous high threshold that is used.. we will use the highest threshold v for a transformer feeder. refer to the relay manufacturer’s technical datasheet. we will generally have an instantaneous high threshold set at 14 Ir max. For these protection devices.

indd . DE59059EN b For a generator set differential: v if lsc is known: Isc short-circuit current for the generator set on its own Relay CT G Isc Kn If = CT v if the Ir gen is known: we will take If = 7 • Ir gen Kn v if the Ir gen is unknown: we will take If = 7 • Isr (CT) Isr (CT) = 1 or 5 A DE59060EN b For motor differential: v if the start-up current is known: we will take Isc = I start-up Relay CT M CT If = Isc Kn v if the Ir motor is known: we will take If = 7 • Ir Kn v if the Ir motor is not known: we will take If = 7 • Isr (CT) Isr (CT) = 1 or 5 A Reminder Ir 64 Rated current AMTED300014EN. Values characterising the CT Ek a Rct Rb Rr If Knee-point voltage in volts Isc Kn Primary short-circuit current Asymmetry coefficient Max. b Class PX is often requested in the form of: Ek ≤ a • If (Rct + Rb + Rr) The exact equation is given by the relay manufacturer. resistance in the secondary winding in Ohms Loop resistance (feed/return line) in Ohms Resistance of relays not located in the differential part of the circuit in Ohms Maximum fault current seen by the CT in the secondary circuit for a fault outside of the zone to be protected Isc If = Kn CT transformation ratio What values should If be given to determine Ek? b v v v v The short-circuit current is chosen as a function of the application: generator set differential motor differential transformer differential bar differential.Switchgear definition Current transformer Differential protection Many manufacturers of differential protection relays recommend class PX CT’s.

we will take: CT Relay If = 20 • Isr (CT) b For bar differential v the Isc to take is the switchboard Ith CT If = Ith Kn b For a line differential The Isc to take is the Isc calculated at the other end of the line.indd 65 . we will take the switchboard Ith. If the impedance of the cable is not known. the fault current value If is less than 20 Isr (CT). v if we do not know the exact value. AMTED300014EN.DE59061EN Switchgear definition Current transformer b For a transformer differential The Isc to take is that flowing through the CT’s for a current consumer side fault. In all cases. therefore limited by the cable impedance.

5 mV b Class 5P: v accuracy on: – the primary current module 5% (error y ± 5%) – the primary current phase 60 min (error y 60 minutes) on a range of 1.indd .75% and 45 min at 20 A v accuracy 1.Switchgear definition LPCT: Electronic current transformers LPCT’s (Low Power Current Transformers) meet IEC standard IEC 60044-8.25 kA to 40 kA. They show the maximum error limits (as an absolute value) on the current and the phase corresponding to the accuracy class for the given examples. in conformity with standard IEC 60044-8.5 mV (for 100 A on the secondary) b Class 0. DE59029EN Example for class 5P protection b Primary current Ipn = 100 A b Secondary voltage Vsn = 22. Example: protection system with CLP1 or CLP2 and Sepam guaranteeing a usage range of 5 A to 1250 A. LPCT low power current transformers DE58034 LPCT’s are specific current sensors with a direct voltage output of the “Low Power Current Transformers” type. Example for metering class 0.5% Ip Phase (min) 90' 60' 45' Phase 30' Ip 5A 20 A 100 A 1 kA 1. They are defined by: b The rated primary current b The extended primary current b The accuracy limit primary current or the accuracy limit factor.5% and 90 min at 5 A. Examples of LPCT characteristics according to IEC standard 60044-8 These characteristics are summarized in the curves below.5% 0.5 b Rated primary current Ipn = 100 A b Extended primary current Ipe = 1250 A b Secondary voltage Vsn = 22.5%) – the primary current phase 60 min (error y 30 minutes) over a range of 100 A to 1250 A v accuracy 0.25 kA 10 kA 40 kA Accuracy characteristics of a LPCT (example of Schneider Electric’s CLP1): the accuracy classes are given for extended current ranges (here class 0. simplifying selection. 66 AMTED300014EN. which are two metering points specified by the standard.25 to 40 kA).5 for metering from 100 to 1250 A and protection class 5P from 1. These are current sensors with a direct voltage output which has the advantage of having a very wide range of applications. The LPCT and Sepam guarantees a very high coverage range and flexibility of usage.75% Module 0. These have a linear response over a large current range and do not start to saturate until beyond the currents to be broken. LPCT’s provide metering and protection functions.5: v accuracy on: – the primary current module 0.5% (error y ± 0. Module (%) 5% 1.

2 30 s Continuous 1.2 30 s Continuous 1.9 1. Voltage transformer The voltage transformer is intended to provide the secondary circuit with a secondary voltage that is proportional to that applied to the primary circuit.5 1. Normal values of the rated voltage factor Rated voltage Rated Primary winding connection mode factor duration and network earthing arrangement 1. Rated primary voltage (Upr) According to their design.: lower rated durations are possible when agreed to by the manufacturer and the user. According to the network’s earthing arrangement.: IEC standard 60044-2 defines the conditions which voltage transformers must meet. all of which is encapsulated in an insulating resin. voltage transformer manufacturers comply with the following values: VT phase/earth 1. a magnetic core.indd 3000 V 100 V / 3 3 Upr = 3000 V / 100V Upr = U U 3 67 . It comprises a primary winding.B.2 continuous. the voltage transformer must be able to withstand this maximum voltage for the time that is required to eliminate the fault. Generally.B. N.9 for 8 h and VT phase/phase 1.2 Continuous Phase to earth in an earthed neutral network 1.Switchgear definition We can leave a voltage transformer in an open circuit without any danger but it must never be short-circuited. voltage transformers will be connected: b either phase to earth b or phase to phase AMTED300014EN. Characteristics The rated voltage factor (VF) The rated voltage factor is the factor by which the rated primary voltage has to be multiplied in order to determine the maximum voltage for which the transformer must comply with the specified temperature rise and accuracy recommendations.9 8h Phase to earth in a network without an earthed neutral with automatic elimination of earthing faults Phase to earth in an isolated neutral network without automatic elimination of earthing faults. one or several secondary windings. or in a compensated network with an extinction coil without automatic elimination of the earthing fault N.2 Continuous Phase to phase on any network neutral point to earth for star connected transformers in any network 1.

Accuracy class This defines the limits of errors guaranteed in terms of transformation ratio and phase under the specified conditions of both power and voltage. It must not introduce any error exceeding the values guaranteed by the accuracy class (S = 3 UI in three-phase circuits).2 0.25 .g.: 3 Rated output Expressed in VA. b Standardised values are: 10 .30 . the rated secondary voltage must be divided by 3.75 . Application Not used industrially Precise metering Everyday metering Statistical and/or instrument metering Metering not requiring great accuracy Accuracy class 0. class 3 is very little used.indd . Measurement according to IEC 60044-2 Classes 0.Switchgear definition Voltage transformer Rated secondary voltage (Usr) b For phase to phase VT the rated secondary voltage is 100 or 110 V. b For single phase transformers intended to be connected in a phase to earth arrangement.50 . Accuracy class 3P 6P Voltage error as ± % Between 2% Between 5% Upr and kT • Upr and 5% Upr 3 6 6 12 Phase shift in minutes Between 5% Upr Between 2% and kT • Upr and 5% Upr 120 240 24 480 Upr = rated primary voltage kT = voltage factor Phase shift = see explanation next page 68 AMTED300014EN.5 1 3 Protection according to IEC 60044-2 Classes 3P and 6P exist but in practice only class 3P is used.1 0. this is the apparent power that a voltage transformer can provide the secondary circuit when connected at its rated primary voltage and connected to the nominal load. 100 V E. b The accuracy class is guaranteed for values: v of voltage of between 5% of the primary voltage and the maximum value of this voltage which is the product of the primary voltage and the rated voltage factor (kT x Upr) v for a secondary load of between 25% and 100% of the rated output with a power factor of 0.15 .8 inductive.5 and 1 are suitable for most cases.100 VA.

Switchgear definition Voltage transformer Transformation ratio (Kn) Kn = Upr N1 = Usr N2 for a VT Voltage ratio error This is the error that the transformer introduces into the voltage measurement. It is expressed in minutes of angle.indd 69 . AMTED300014EN. The thermal power limit or rated continuous power This is the apparent power that the transformer can supply in steady state at its rated secondary voltage without exceeding the temperature rise limits set by the standards. Voltage error % = (Kn Usr – Upr) • 100 Upr Kn = transformation ratio Phase error or phase-shift error This is the phase difference between the primary voltage Upr and the secondary voltage Usr.

5 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Altitude in m As a general rule. Insulation derating according to altitude b For 2500 m v k is equal to 0. dotted line on the graph below). material and dielectric medium with a reference ambient temperature of 40°C. Derating.B.05 kV v the power frequency withstand 50 Hz must be 50/0. derating is of 1% Ir per degree above 40°C. it is necessary to reduce certain values. b v v v In fact. Normal conditions of use are described in the “Medium voltage circuit breaker” chapter.Derating Switchgear definition Introduction The various standards or recommendations impose validity limits on product characteristics.9 0. This applies for the lightning impulse withstand voltage and the power frequency withstand voltage 50 Hz .1 min.B. 24 kV equipment may be used if appropriate test reports proving the compliance with the request are available. external insulation is in air. In this case.25% U peak every 100 metres above 1000 metres. Altitude has no effect on the dielectric withstand of circuit breakers in SF6 or vacuum. N. b No. (see chapter on “Protection indices”). for altitudes over 1000 metres v in terms of the rated current. refer to the cubicle selection guide (derating depends on the cubicle design). this temperature rise depends on three parameters: the rated current the ambient temperature the cubicle type and its IP (protection index). table 3 of IEC 62271-1 deals with temperature rises and gives limit temperature values not to be exceeded according to the type of device. because they are within a sealed enclosure. DE59062EN Exception of the Mexican market: derating starts from zero metres (cf. because conductors outside of the circuit breakers act to radiate and dissipate calories. the equipment that must be installed is: v rated voltage = 36 kV v impulse withstand = 170 kV v withstand at 50 Hz = 70 kV b Schneider Electric uses correction coefficients: v for circuit breakers outside of a cubicle.: there are no standards specifically dealing with derating.8 0.7 0. These different types of derating can be cumulated if necessary. Correction coefficient k 1 Derating of the rated current according to temperature 0. in other words to derate the device. the materials and the dielectric used.: In some cases. The power frequency withstand 50 Hz is 50 kV 1 min. when the ambient temperature exceeds 40°C and for a protection index over IP3X.85 = 147. use the graph below v for circuit breakers in a cubicle. Derating will be carried out according to the cubicle selection tables.6 0. 70 AMTED300014EN. Example of application: N.85 v the impulse withstand must be 125/0. As a general rule. b Derating has to be considered: v in terms of the insulation level.8 kV Standards give a derating for all equipment installed at an altitude greater than 1000 metres.85 = 58. However. we have to derate by 1.indd . however. IEC standard 62271-1 table 3 defines the maximum permissible temperature rise for each device. Beyond these limits. Can equipment with a rated voltage of 24 kV be installed at 2500 metres? The impulse withstand voltage required is 125 kV. must be taken into account when the circuit breaker is installed in cubicles.

Medium Voltage technical guide Units of measure Names and symbols of SI units of measure Basic units Common magnitudes and units Correspondence between imperial units and international system units (SI) AMTED300014EN.indd 72 72 72 74 71 .

(Iv) Metre Kilogramme Second Ampere Kelvin Mole Candela m kg s A K mol cd L M T I Q N J α. (ω) t N/A T Steradian (sr) Second (s) Speed v L T -1 Metre per second (m/s) Acceleration Angular speed Angular acceleration Magnitude: mass Mass a ω α L T -2 T -1 T -2 Revolutions per second (rev/s): 1 tr/s = 2π rad/s Metre per second squared (m/s2) Acceleration due to gravity: g = 9. (ω) Radian Steradian rad sr A W Common magnitudes and units Name Symbol Magnitude: space and time Length l.80665 m/s2 Radian per second (rad/s) Radian per second squared (rad/s2) m M Kilogramme (kg) Linear mass Mass per surface area Mass per volume Volume per mass Concentration ρ1 ρA' (ρs) ρ v ρB L-1 M L-2 M L-3 M L3 M-1 M L-3 Gradian (gr): 1 gr = 2π rad/400 Revolution (rev): 1 tr = 2π rad Degree (°):1°= 2π rad/360 = 0. (L) m t I T n I. (S) L2 Metre squared (m2) Centimetre (cm): 1 cm = 10 –2 m (microns must no longer be used. β. β. (L) Dimension SI Unit: name (symbol) Comments and other units L Metre (m) Area A.273.15 72 AMTED300014EN. instead the micrometre (µm) Are (a): 1 a = 102 m2 Hectare (ha): 1 ha = 104 m2 (agriculture measure) Volume Plane angle V α. Use of a factor of nanometre (10 . γ … Ω.9 m) is recommanded λ = c/f = cT (c = celerity of light) (1) The symbol in brackets can also be used (2) The temperature Celsius t is related to the thermodynamic temperature T by the relationship: t = T .017 453 3 rad Minute ('): 1' = 2π rad/21600 = 2.indd . γ … L3 N/A Metre cubed (m3) Radian (rad) Solid angle Time Ω.Names and symbols of SI units of measure Units of measure Basic units Magnitude Basic units Length Mass Time Electrical current Thermodynamic temperature (2) Quantity of material Light intensity Additional units Angle (plane angle) Solid angle Symbol of the magnitude (1) Unit Symbol of the unit Dimension l.848 137 • 10-6 rad Minute (min) Hour (h) Day (d) Gramme (g): 1 g = 10 -3 kg Ton (t): 1 t = 103 kg Density d Magnitude: periodic phenomena Period T Frequency f ϕ Phase shift λ Wavelength N/A Kilogramme per metre (kg/m) Kilogramme per metre squared (kg/m2) Kilogramme per metre cubed (kg/m3) Metre cubed per kilogramme (m3/kg) Kilogramme per metre cubed Concentration by mass of component B (kg/m3) (according to NF X 02-208) d = ρ/ρ water N/A T T -1 N/A L Second (s) Hertz (Hz) Radian (rad) Metre (m) Power level N/A Decibel (dB) Lp 1 Hz = 1s -1.908 882 • 10-4 rad Second ("): 1" = 2π rad/1296 000 = 4. f = 1/T Use of the angström (10-10 m) is forbidden.

m) Surface tension Work Energy γ. µ Dynamic viscosity ν Kinetic viscosity Quantity of movement p Magnitude: electricity Current I Electrical charge Q Electrical potential V Electrical field E Electrical resistance R Electrical conductivity G Electrical capacitance C Electrical inductance L Magnitude: electricity.s 1 V = 1 W/A 1 Ω = 1 V/A 1 S = 1 A/V = 1Ω -1 1 F = 1 C/V 1 H = 1 Wb/A 1 T = 1 Wb/m2 1 Wb = 1 V.kg/s2 L2 M T -2 Newton-metre (N.s Joule (J) Watthour (Wh): 1 Wh = 3.273. T L M T -2 Newton 1 N = 1 m. M Magnetic field H Magneto-motive force F.m) Siemens per metre (S/m) Farad per metre (F/m) Watt (W) Voltampere (VA) var (var) θ θ L2 M T -2 L2 M T -2 θ -1 L2 M T -2 θ -1 L2 T -2 θ-1 L M T -3 θ-1 L2 M T -2 L2 M T -3 L2 M T -3 M T -3 θ -1 Kelvin (K) Kelvin and not degree Kelvin or °Kelvin Degree Celsius (°C) t = T . τ p L2 M T -3 L-1 M T -2 η. Fm ρ Resistivity γ Conductivity ε Permittivity Active P Apparent power S Reactive power Q Magnitude: thermal Thermodynamic temperature T t.cm2/cm = 10 -8 Ω. CGS unit) Kilogramme-metre per second (kg.N to avoid any confusion with the millinewton Newton per metre (N/m) 1 N/m = 1 J/m2 Joule (J) 1 J: 1 N.K)) Joule (J) Watt (W) 1 W = 1 J/s Watt (W) Watt per metre squared-Kelvin (W/(m2 • K)) 1 C = 1 A. θ Temperature Celsius Energy E Heat capacity C Entropy S Specific heat capacity c λ Thermal conductivity Quantity of heat Q Φ Thermal flux Thermal power P Coefficient of thermal radiation hr AMTED300014EN.Names and symbols of SI units of measure Units of measure Name Magnitude: mechanical Force Weight Moment of the force Symbol Dimension SI Unit: name (symbol) Comments and other units F G.15 Joule (J) Joule per Kelvin (J/K) Joule per Kelvin (J/K) Watt per kilogramme-Kelvin (J/(kg.m = 1 W. magnetism Magnetic induction B Φ Magnetic induction flux Magnetisation H i.s (P = poise.m/s) p = mv I TI L2M T -3 I-1 L M T -3 I -1 L2 M T -3 I -2 L-2 M -1 T3 I2 L-2 M -1 T4 I2 L2 M T -2 I-2 Ampere (A) Coulomb (C) Volt (V) Volt per metre (V/m) Ohm (Ω) Siemens (S) Farad (F) Henry (H) M T -2 I-1 L2 M T-2 I-1 L-1 I L-1 I I L3 M T -3 I -2 L-3 M -1 T3 I2 L-3 M -1 T4 I2 L2 M T -3 L2 M T -3 L2 M T -3 Tesla (T) Weber (Wb) Ampere per metre (A/m) Ampere per metre (A/m) Ampere (A) Ohm-metre (Ω. σ W E M T-2 L2 M T -2 L2 M T -2 Power Pressure P σ.m 1 W = 1 J/s 73 . W) M.s) 1 P = 10 -1 Pa.indd L-1 M T -1 L2 T -1 L M T -1 N.m and not m.s 1 µΩ.K)) Watt per metre-Kelvin (W/(m. (P.6 • 103 J (used in determining electrical consumption) Watt (W) 1 W = 1 J/s Pascal (Pa) 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 (for the pressure in fluids we use bars (bar): 1 bar = 105 Pa) Pascal-second (Pa. CGS unit) 2 Metre squared per second (m /s) 1 St = 10 -4 m2/s (St = stokes.

573 5 cm3 1 gaz (UK) = 4.490 89 • 102 Pa 1 Ibf/ft2 = 47.s 1 cu.s/ft2 = 47.349 5 g 1 Ib = 0.ft2 = 42.in = 0.degree Fahrenheit British thermal unit per (pound.ft = 1 ft3 = 28.67) TK = 5/9 q °R 1 Ibf.894 76 • 103 Pa 1 Btu/h = 0.488 164 Pa.indd .Units of measure Names and symbols of SI units of measure Correspondence between imperial units and international system units (SI) Magnitude Acceleration Calory capacity Heat capacity Magnetic field Thermal conductivity Energy Energy (couple) Thermal flux Force Length Mass Linear mass Mass per surface area Mass per volume Moment of inertia Pressure Pressure .453 592 37 kg 1 Ib/ft = 1. " mile yd oz Ib Ib/ft Ib/in Ib/ft2 Ib/in2 Ib/ft3 Ib/in3 Ib.°C) 1 Oe = 79.ft2 ft H2O in H2O Ibf/ft2 Ibf/in2 (psi) Btu/h sq.ft = 1.s/ft2 Ib/ft.186 8 • 103 J(kg.069 6 kg/m2 1 Ib/ft3 = 16.degree Fahrenheit British thermal unit Pound force-foot Pound force-inch British thermal unit per square foot.858 kg/m 1 Ib/ft2 = 4.in = 6.in.066 1 • 103 J/m3.°F Btu/Ib°F Oe Btu/ft2.°F = 4.h = 3.326 • 103 J/kg 1 Btu/ft3.m2 1 ft H2O = 2. ' in.°F Btu Ibf/ft Ibf.355 818 J 1 Ibf.914 4 m 1 oz = 28.4 mm 1 mile = 1.°C) 1 Btu = 1.679 9 • 103 kg/m3 1 Ib.989 07 • 103 Pa 1 in H2O = 2.577 47 A/m 1 Btu/ft2.880 26 Pa.ft = 9.609 344 km 1 852 m 1 yd = 0. in3 fl oz (UK) fl oz (US) gal (UK) gal (US) Conversion 1 ft/s2 = 0.i. ft2 sq.140 g.s cu.ft.ft cu.055 06 • 103 W 1 Ibf = 4. in2 °F °R Ibf.055 056 • 103 J 1 Ibf.32) (5) °R = 5/9 °K 74 AMTED300014EN.154 6 W/m2 1 Btu/s = 1.488 16 kg/m 1 Ib/in = 17.316 dm3 1 in3 = 1.880 26 Pa 1 Ibf/in2 = 6.h.°F = 5.in Btu/ft2.: pound force per square inch (4) T K = temperature kelvin with q°C = 5/9 (q°F .290 3 • 10-2 m2 1 sq.638 71 • 10-5 m3 fl oz (UK) = 28.546 09 dm3 1 gaz (US) = 3.degree Fahrenheit) Oersted British thermal unit per square foot.°C 1 Btu/Ib.s = 1.s 1 Ib/ft.293 071 W 1 sq.stress Calorific power Surface area Temperature Viscosity Volume Unit Foot per second squared British thermal unit per pound British thermal unit per cubit foot.h.448 222 N 1 ft = 0.413 0 cm3 fl oz (US) = 29.°F = 67.s.304 8 m/s2 1 Btu/Ib = 2.882 43 kg/m2 1 Ib/in2 = 703.451 6 • 10-4 m2 TK = 5/9 (q °F + 459.hour.678 26 W/(m2.hour British thermal unit per second Pound-force Foot Inch (1) Mile (UK) Knot Yard (2) Once (ounce) Pound (livre) Pound per foot Pound per inch Pound per square foot Pound per square inch Pound per cubic foot Pound per cubic inch Pound square foot Foot of water Inch of water Pound force per square foot Pound force per square inch (3) British thermal unit per hour Square foot Square inch Degree Fahrenheit (4) Degree Rankine (5) Pound force-second per square foot Pound per foot-second Cubic foot Cubic inch Fluid ounce (UK) Fluid ounce (US) Gallon (UK) Gallon (US) Symbol ft/s2 Btu/Ib Btu/ft3.018 46 kg/m3 1 Ib/in3 = 27.h Btu/s Ibf ft.785 41 dm3 (1) 12 in = 1 ft (2) 1 yd = 36 in = 3 ft (3) Or p.in.112 985 J 1 Btu/ft2.304 8 m 1 in = 25.

ANSI/IEEE comparison IEC .Medium Voltage technical guide AMTED300014EN.indd Standards The standards mentioned in this document 76 IEC .ANSI/IEEE harmonization process IEC/ANSI major discrepancies 77 77 79 75 .

rue de Varembé CH .iec. information and general principles 76 b Degrees of protection provided by enclosures IEC 60529 b Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment against external mechanical impacts (IK code) IEC 62262 AMTED300014EN.ch The standards mentioned in this document b Common specifications IEC 62271-1 b Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems calculation of currents IEC 60909-0 b High voltage test techniques General definitions and test requirements IEC 60060-1 b Alternating current circuit breakers IEC 62271-100 b Insulation coordination Application guide IEC 60071-2 b Inductive load switching IEC 62271-110 b Current transformers IEC 60044-1 b LPCT Electronic current transformer IEC 60044-8 b Inductive voltage transformers IEC 60044-2 b AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear IEC 62271-200 for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV b Selection and dimensionning of high-voltage IEC TS 60815-1 insulators intended for use in polluted conditions Part 1 .Definitions.1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland www.Standards Where can you order IEC publications? IEC central office 3.indd .

ANSI/IEEE harmonization process Basically. Rated voltages In addition to the most common rated voltages used in IEC (see medium voltage circuit breaker section). ANSI/IEEE has developed standards for special applications such as for instance “Autoreclosers” and “Generator Circuit_breakers”. For years.Standards IEC – ANSI/IEEE comparison IEC . Series II (Voltages based on the current practice in some areas. ANSI/IEEE standards were based on the description of technological solutions.indd Rated lightning withstand voltage Rated power frequency withstand voltage 50/60 Hz (kV) Indoor 4. a second list has been defined to cover IEEE usual rated voltages. two other series of insulation levels have been defined accordingly.8. IEC standards are based on a functional approach.25 15 27 38 Outdoor (kV) (kV) 60 95 95 125 150 19 36 36 60 80 15.15 kV .76 kV . Therefore IEC and ANSI/IEEE will keep their own revised harmonized standards also in the future. IEC and ANSI/IEEE organizations have begun an harmonization process on some topics.76 8. the standards are today in a transition phase.25. in. This is now supported by an agreement on joint IEC – IEEE development project.48. The structure of the former is based on National Committees whereas the latter is based on Individuals. Due to the process of harmonization. Harmonization should not be understood as Unification. These documents will be transformed into equivalent IEC standards after harmonization of definitions and ratings.15.5 kV . Devices are defined by their performances and this allows various technological solutions. This harmonization allows simplifying the standard on places where the “minor” differences exist.8 38 110 150 200 Dry 50 60 80 Wet 45 50 75 77 . This is specifically true for the definitions of short circuit current and transient recovery voltages.8 kV . Physically different network characteristics (overhead lines or cable networks.or out-door application) and local habits (voltage ratings and frequencies) will continue to impose their constraints on the switchgear equipment.5 25. These solutions are used by the legal system as “minimum safety and functional requirements”. IEC and IEEE are by nature very different organisations. According to IEC/IEEE Range I Series II Rated voltage AMTED300014EN.27 kV 38 kV . like North America): 4.25 kV . On the same way. the differences between IEC and ANSI/IEEE standards come from their respective philosophies.3 kV. established in 2008.

Envelope of line-system TRV b Harmonization of TRVs for breaking tests of circuit breakers rated less than 100 kV.: short-line fault breaking performance is required for class S2 Capacitive switching Capacitive switching tests are also harmonized. Since 1995. The rated values and acceptance criteria still remain different for the two standards.B. Therefore many salient differences persist. they have to pass a short line fault breaking test. defined by 2 TRV characteristics in IEC 62271-100 (2007): ANSI/IEEE will be using the same classes in the next revision b S1 for cable-systems b S2 for line-systems. Envelope of cable-system TRV b Harmonization of ratings and test requirements for capacitive current switching. These are caused by network and local habits as stated earlier.IEC – ANSI/IEEE comparison Standards TRV harmonization One of the main purpose was to define common switching and breaking tests in both IEC and ANSI/IEEE standards. 78 AMTED300014EN. IEC introduced 2 classes of circuit breakers. Assembled products There is no harmonization for assembled products. Assembled products include metal-enclosed or insulation enclosed MV switchgear or Gas insulated switchgear. As some S2 breakers of voltages below 52 kV may be directly connected to an overhead line.indd . Class C1 of circuit breakers with low probability of restrikes and a new class C2 of circuit breakers with very low probability of restrike were introduced. DE59064EN Classes of circuit breakers SLF ? Class S1 No Cable-system Class S2 Line-system Class S2 Cable-system Direct connection to OH line Direct connection to OH line Yes Yes N. three main actions have been undertaken: DE59063EN b Harmonization of TRVs for breaking tests of circuit breakers rated 100 kV and higher. Today no coordinated action exists to harmonize the assemblies standards in IEC and IEEE/ANSI.

3 defines max.3 (& C37.Standards IEC – ANSI/IEEE comparison IEC/ANSI major discrepancies Identified differences Two main categories are listed.20. the C37.2. during major first peak. ANSI/IEEE requires that the lower temperature limit be used when two different contact surfaces are mated. allowed temperatures differ. C37. v ANSI C37.20. Furthermore. it should be clear if the point is a requirement which does exist in one system and not in the other. Special values are provided by ANSI when connecting an insulated cable (value lower than the equivalent joint between two bare bars) v acceptable temperatures for accessible parts are also lower for ANSI (50°C versus 70°C.3. and the “momentary current” which means the rms value. considers the “normal” short time withstand current duration to be 2 s (the preferred value for the IEC is 1 s). as well as C37. C37. reference for ANSI is provided by IEEEstd1. v acceptable temperature rises are much lower in ANSI than IEC. when not touched during normal operation). Design b Max. which covers metal-enclosed switches. b C37.4) specifies a max. while IEC accepts up to 90°C. overhaul temperature of 70°C. the question concerns the possibility to cover one system requirements by the qualification according to the other system. It is the same for IEC 62271-200.20. In each case of design difference.20. AMTED300014EN. then minimum 1000 operations as for disconnectors.20. when touched for normal operation.20. Short-circuit withstand is expressed in two different ways: v IEC defines the rms value of the alternative component (duration to be assigned) and the peak value v ANSI defines the rms value to the alternative component for 2 seconds. 50 for ANSI C37. nickel) while IEC specifies different acceptable values. accessible surfaces temperatures (operation 50°C/ accessible 70°C/ not accessible 110°C). no known equivalence for IEC v ANSI C37. considers a minimal bus rating of 1200 A for metal-clad (withdrawable). or if a requirement is expressed in conflicting manners between the two systems.4. C37.20. for bare copper-copper joints.20. silver.3.20.2. except if the withdraw capability is intended to be used as disconnecting function (to be stated by the manufacturer). air temperature in cable compartments (65°C). including DC component. ANSI considers all plating materials as equivalent (tin. and 70°C versus 80°C.2 defines max. For testing procedure differences. Not accessible external parts have also a maximum allowed temperature in ANSI: 110°C. Ratings b C37. according to the influence on the design or on the qualification tests.20.20. to be checked for IEC b Mechanical endurance for withdraw operations is stated as 100 operations for ANSI C37.2.2. reference for IEC is provided by 62271-1.20. For instance.indd 79 . which covers metalclad switchgear.3.

2.20.20. IEC accepts current flowing through the enclosure.2 specifies minimum number of hinges and latch points according to dimensions. v ANSI C37.4 shall withstand an “open gap” dielectric test voltages (both power frequency and impulse) 10% higher than the phase to ground value.20. v ANSI metalclad shall have insulated primary conductors (minimum withstand = phase to phase voltage) v ANSI metalclad shall have barriers between sections of each circuit. in IEC.3 and C37.20.indd . v ANSI C37. Therefore.20. b For ANSI.20. not currently in the IEC. For IEC. similar requirement is expressed only for disconnectors.7).20. 3 by 9 in ANSI). they can't comply with both standards at the same time.3 requires ground bus with momentary and short-time current capability.. bulk or applied. The topic is not yet addressed by the IEC.2 and C37. Equivalence between the two approaches is a controversial issue. but functional properties (electrical continuity. and could not be considered valid. withdrawable CBs shall be prevented by interlock from complete draw-out until their mechanism is discharged v ANSI expresses dimensional requirements for the connection points of switches (NEMA CC1-1993) v position indicators differ by color and markings v auxiliary power supplies shall have a short-circuit protection within the switchgear for ANSI C37. with no tolerances.20. v ANSI C37..2 requires that VT are fitted with current limiting fuses on HV side. v ANSI C37. peak current withstand test to be at least 300 ms long for the IEC (and making tests to have at least 200 ms current after).20.20. and the performance test is performed as a functional test (if bus is made of copper.20. a test at the open gap value of disconnectors is required only if the withdraw capability is intended to be used as disconnecting function (to be stated by the manufacturer). b Switches according to ANSI C37. IEC 62271-200 does not specify any material nor thickness for the enclosure and partitions. That applies to the busbar. by means of a DC test with maximum drop of voltage). need to demonstrate minimum flame-resistance (C37. but under discussion for the revision of the “common specifications” standard. Basic testing procedures b For withdrawable cubicles.2 and C37. 80 AMTED300014EN.3 v ANSI: primary connections of VTs shall incorporate fuses.3 specify minimum thickness for metal sheets (steel equivalent: 1. all insulating materials.2. v ANSI C37. larger values apply for large panels). the compartment of which shall be split in “sections” along the switchboard v for ANSI.9 mm everywhere. Secondary connections according to the application. b For ANSI.2 § 5. b BIL tests have different sequences and criteria between IEC and ANSI (2/15 in IEC. minimum cross section is expressed).6 and 5. paint on external ferrous parts needs to demonstrate protection against rust by mean of salted fog test. power frequency dielectric test between upstream and downstream conductors in the withdrawn position are specified as 110% of the value phase to ground in ANSI in all cases.3 requires the CTs to be rated at 55°C. b ANSI/IEEE temperature rise tests: cross sections of the supplying and shorting connections are defined by the standards.Standards IEC – ANSI/IEEE comparison b Other design discrepancies v insulating materials have minimum fire performances stated in ANSI. and 3 mm between vertical sections and between “major parts” of primary circuit. b Momentary current test to be at least 10 periods long for ANSI.

unloaded transformer switching current).indd 81 .4). AMTED300014EN.20.20. b ANSI switches according to C37.3) instead of 2 kV x 1 min for IEC. b Dielectric test as condition check after power tests or mechanical endurance tests is specified at 80% of the rated power frequency withstand voltage by IEC (common clauses). b Fuse to checked current to ground during power tests of switches is specified differently in IEC and ANSI (100 mm long and 0. cable charging switching current. auxiliary circuits are checked at 1500 V x 1 min in ANSI (C37.20.1mm diameter for IEC.Standards IEC – ANSI/IEEE comparison b For routine tests. 3 A rating or 2 inches long and #38AWG for ANSI). and only at 75% by ANSI (C37.4 shall perform load-breaking tests before any of the optional rating tests (fault making for integral switch-fuse.

indd .Medium Voltage technical guide References b MV Partner B11: v introduction to prefabricated equipment (Pierre Givord) b MV Partner B13: v instrument transformers (Venanzio Ferraro) b MV Partner B32: v medium voltage switchgear application guide (Pierre Givord) b Technical leaflets: v n°158 calculating short-circuit currents v n°166 enclosures and protection indices (Jean Pasteau) 82 AMTED300014EN.

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