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Theory of Skin Passing

Following annealing, coils are given a further very light cold rolling treatment
in a single stand mill SPM. This operation is called Skin pass rolling or Tempe
r rolling. The purpose of Skin passing is three fold; To improve the strip shape
& remove minor surface blemishes; To impart the desired surface finish to the s
teel sheet & To produce the mechanical properties appropriate to the desired ste
el quality and end purpose.
The general form of tensile load/elongation curve for a fully annealed l
ow carbon steel sheet is shown in the figure. It will be observed that over the
initial portion of the curve AB, the extension is proportional to the applied st
ress and this is known as the elastic range. At the point B of the curve, there
is a very rapid increase in the extension for a very small increment in stress,
in fact the extension may be accompanied by a slight drop in load. This phenomen
on is called the yield point and the extension or strain BC is the yield point
extension. Continued loading beyond the point C produces further extension to a
maximum value D, the maximum or ultimate stress. This corresponds to the range o
f plastic deformation. From D to E, the point of rupture, the load required to p
roduce extension again decreases.
If a similar tensile test is performed on a sheet which has been recent
ly Skin passed with an extension in excess of about one percent, the load-extens
ion curve is of the form shown in Fig. In this case, the yield point disappears
and there is no yield extension. Thus one effect & purpose of Skin passing is to
suppress the yield extension.
The yield extension in fully annealed low carbon steel is associated wi
th a defect known as Stretcher Strain markings. These characteristic surface mar
kings appear on the annealed sheet which is deformed until the yield point is e
xceeded. If similar sheet is bent into a cylinder over a mandrel, the defect man
ifests itself as a series of flats instead of a smooth cylinder called fluting.
With the elimination of the yield point extension by Skin pass rolling, Stretche
r Straining & fluting are suppressed. However after a period of time, dependent
on the degree of Skin rolling, temperature of rolling & storage, the yield exten
sion may some time recur & the tendency to produce Stretcher Strains and fluting
may to some extent reappear as shown in Fig. This is known as Strain-ageing.

The dislocation theory when applied to the plastic deformation of metals, postu
lates that a dislocation is a certain kind of defect present in the atomic latti
ce of the crystal. Dislocations represent point of stress concentration in the c
rystal,& during plastic deformation or slip, the dislocation move through the st
ructure. During cooling following annealing, carbon and nitrogen atoms, because
of their decreasing solubility in ferrite with decreasing temperature, migrate t
o the dislocations and anchor them. This creates an ‘atmosphere’ around the disl
ocations & thereby increases the stress required to move the dislocations. Once
this initial high stress has been exceeded, movement of dislocations is continue
d at lower stresses. This mechanism explains the upper and lower yield point phe
nomenon & the yield elongation. Temper rolling produces an inhomogeneous residua
l stress pattern in which the surface layers are work hardened while leaving cer
tain areas undeformed; thus some grains will yield at low applied stresses & oth
ers with only high external forces applied. The result is that the yield elongat
ion is effectively suppressed.
During ageing after temper rolling, the carbon & nitrogen atoms diffuse
through the material & migrate to the new positions of the dislocations. This c
reates a new set of ‘atmosphere’ which effectively lock the dislocations again &
causes the return of the yield extension, with the consequent problem of Stretc
her Strains for the consumer. The addition of small amounts of elements such as
Aluminium,Titanium, Vanadium or Niobium, which have a strong affinity for carbon
and nitrogen, promotes the formation of carbide & nitrides, thus reducing the s
olute content. Such additions also increase the number of precipitated particles
per unit volume. Both these factors reduce the tendency to Stain-ageing effects
under normal conditions.
Turning to the practical aspect of the problem, we have seen that alth
ough soft and ductile, it is not possible to use steel sheets in fully annealed
condition because of the hazard of Stretcher Strain markings & fluting. This haz
ard may be overcome by temper rolling. The effectiveness of temper rolling in el
iminating Stretcher Strains depends on the percentage reduction & grain size of
the as annealed steel. Since it also hardens & reduces the ductility of the she
et, those qualities of sheets where a relatively soft & ductile steel are requir
ed are given a light reduction, which is sufficient completely to suppress the y
ield elongation. However, the degree of deformation employed by the users of thi
s material is usually sufficient to avoid Stretcher Strain formation or the proc
ess incorporates a secondary working such as roller-levelling, which overcomes t
he difficulty.
Strain ageing leads to the following bad effects:---
• Return of the yield point elongation
• Occurance of Stretcher Strain
• Increase in Yield strength, UTS, & hardness
• Reduction in ductility etc.
Ageing increases with:---
• Extra storage time after Skin passing &
• A high Strip temperature during Skin passing.
• Steel should always be Skin passed at room temperature. If the coils are
Skin passed at a higher temperature, ageing effect will take place soon after t
he Skin passing.
• Higher is the temperature of cold working, more is the dynamic recovery,
lesser shall be the driving force for recrystalisation as lower is the storage
energy of working.