In the photoelectric effect, why does the existence of a cutofffrequency speak in favour of the photon
theory and against the wave theory?

Q. 2

Explain the statement that one's eyes could not detect faint starlight if light were not particle-like.

Q. 3

How can a photon energy be given by E = h/when the very presence of the frequency/in the formula
implies that light is a wave?

Q. 4

The momentum p of a photon is given by p = hIX. Why is it that c, the speed oflight, does not appear in
this expression?

Q. 5

Given that E = h/'for a photon, the Doppler shift in frequency of radiation from a receding light source
would seem to indicate a reduced energy for the emitted photons. Is this in fact true? If so, what happened
to the conservation of energy principle?

Q. 6

Any series of atomic hydrogen yet to be observed will probably be found in what region of the spectrum?


Can a hydrogen atom absorb a photon whose energy exceeds its binding energy( 13.6 eV)?

Q. 8

Only a relatively small number ofBalmer lines can be observed from laboratory discharge tubes, whereas
a large number are observed in stellar spectra. Explain this in terms ofthe small density, high temperature,
and large volume of gases in stellar atmospheres.

Q. 9

Wnat is the origin ofthe cutoffwavelength X offigure shown? Why is it an important clue to the photon
nature ofx rays?

30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Wavelength (pm)

Q. 10 Can atomic hydrogen be caused to emit x rays? If so, describe how. Ifnot, why not?
Q.ll Why is it that B ohr theory, which does not work very well even for helium (Z = 2), gives such a good
account ofthe characteristic x-ray spectra ofthe elements, or at least of that portion that originates deep
within the atom?
Q.12 The ionization potential of hydrogen is 13.6 V. Yet to obtain discharge in a cathode ray tubefilledwith
hydrogen, a very high voltage ( ~10 V) has to be applied across the tube. Explain this clearly. Also
explain why the gas must be at low pressure to obtain discharge.

(fe Bansal Classes

Question Bank on Modern Physics


Q.13 X-rays are produced when a fast electron hits a proper target. What happens to the electron?
Q.14 Why does the tail of a comet always point away from the sun?
Q.15 A neutron pion at rest decays into two gamma photons.
7t° —-> y + y
Why cannot a single photon be born? What conservation law is in contradiction with it?
Q.16 What is so special about e/m rather than e end m separately?
Q.17 Why is it advisable to view a TV screen from a distance of about ten feet?
Q. 18 The electrical conductivity of a gas increases when X-rays or y-rays pass through it. Explain this
Q.19 In photoelectric emission exchange of energy takes place among... (photon and electron/' photon, electron
and lattice).
Q.20 The threshold frequencies for photoemission for three metals numbered 1,2,3 are respectively v v v
and Vj > v > v . An incident radiation of frequency v > v ... cause photoemissionfrom3 but... cause
photoemissionfrom1 (fill in the gaps with may, may not / will certainly).








Q. 1 Why does the relative importance ofthe Coulomb force compared to the strong nuclear force increase
at large mass numbers?

In your body, are there more neutrons than protons? More protons than electrons? Discuss

Q. 3

Why is the binding energy per nucleon (seefigure)low at low mass numbers? At high mass numbers?
Region of greatest


—ii.. ~5
Br 120*



. i—
0 20 40


' 1
60 80 100 120 MO 161) 180 200 220 240

Mass number, A

Aradioactive nucleus can emit a positron, e . This corresponds to a proton in the nucleus being converted to a
neutron The mass ofa neutron, however, is greater than that ofa proton. How thai can positron emission occur?
In beta decay the emitted electrons form a continuous spectrum, but in alpha decay the alpha particles
form a discrete spectrum. What difficulties did this cause in the explanation ofbeta decay, and how were
these difficultiesfinallyovercome?

(fe Bansal Classes


Question Bank on Modern Physics


10 The half-life of U is 7. the combination of a-. i. release energy by the fission process? 238 238 238 235 235 235 8 Region of greatest ^"stability J-'usiqp "'"Jr 7 He Fission 5 Bp B r I20g 1 I 5 7 f l c '^Au 2 3 9 Pu 4 • H 0 i — i——i——i——i— . is the product atom electrically neutral? In (3-decay? Q. Why are heavier elements not also created by this process? Q. however. Explain this. do you expect the Q of the reaction to depend on the identity of X and Y? Q. 14 How can Becquerel rays.13 Which would generate more radioactive waste products: .and y-rays. Q. A Q.e.i 20 40 60 80 1 00 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Mass number. there would not be any atomic bombs today.9 In the generalized equation for thefissionof U by thermal neutrons. P.Q. does its mass number change? Does its mass change? (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Modern Physics 4] . Why cannot lead. Q.afissionreactor or a fusion reactor? Q. be separated? Q. how do you get around the fact that you do not know how much U was present in the rocks to begin with? (Hint: What is the ultimate decay product of U?) Q.ll The binding energy curve offiguretells us that any nucleus more massive than A « 5 6 can release energy by the fission process.8 If it is so much harder to get a nucleon out of a nucleus than to get an electron out of an atom.0 x 10 y.7 In radioactive dating with U. Q. Discuss the assertion that ifit had turned out to be shorter by a factor of 10 or so.12 Elements up to mass number w 5 6 are created by thermonuclear fusion in the cores of stars.15 When a nucleus undergoes a-decay. for example. U + n -> X+Y + bn..6 How do neutrinos differ from photons? Each has zero charge and (presumably) zero rest mass and travels at the speed oflight. why try? Q. .16 Experimental results in radioactivity show small variations from the results predicted by theory.17 If a nucleus emits only a y-rays photon. Only very massive nuclides seem to do so.

number of electrons.ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT. 2 minutes for answering each question. the ratio of number of their undecayed nuclei will be (1/e) after a time L ()r A dl Bansal Classes ^ ^ 1 (> i s : 1 c Question Bank on Modern Physics i 1 [5] .04% (C) 20% (D) 10% Q.27 A 2 12 Q.5 In a photo-emissive cell. the of incident photons which produce photoelectrons. Identify the energy levels corresponding to the transitions in hydrogen atom which will result in emission ofwavelength equal to that ofincident radiation for the above photoelectric effect (A)n = 3 to 1 (B)n = 3 to 2 (C)n=2tol (D)n = 4 t o l £ (B)VL5A l 2 (D) 12.10 When a photon oflight collides with a metal surface. the maximum kinetic energy of electron is K. Q .3 A proton and an electron are accelerated by same potential difference have de-Broglie wavelength Xp and A.6 If the frequency of light in a photoelectric experiment is doubled.2 10~ W of 5000 A light is directed on a photoelectric cell. £ (A)n = n (B)n <n (C)n >n (D) data insufficient Q.16 pA.4% (B) . the stopping potential will (A) be doubled (B) halved (C) become more than doubled (D) become less than double Q. with exciting wavelength X. 9 The stopping potential for the photo electrons emitted from a metal surface of work function 1. Take approx.8 If h is10" Planck's is SI system.4 V.01 h A is: Q. 11 Two radioactive material Aj and ^ have decay constants of 10 X0 and X0. (if any) coming out is (A) only one (B) only two (C) infinite (D) depends upon factors £ Q.7 An electron with initial kinetic energy of 100 eV is acceleration through a potential difference of 5 0 V Now the de-Broglie wavelength of electron becomes r b r b r b r b 3 e p 2 2 2 (C) V3 A 1 2 l 2 ^ (A)lA Q. If initially they have same number ofnuclei. is £ percentage (A) 0.then after sometime ifthe de-Broglie wavelengths of the two are X{ and X2..7 eV is 10. the momentum (A) h constant (B)h (C)10of ahphoton ofwavelength ^(D) 100. One electron enters a region ofuniform electric field while the other enters a region ofuniform magneticfield. then: (A) = X (B)Aj > X (C) X < X (D) X > X or X < X Q. (A) Xe = Xp (B) < (C) Xe > X (D) none of these.4 Two electrons are moving with the same speed v. If the 3X exciting wavelength is changed to — the kinetic energy ofthe fastest emitted electron will be: (A) 3K/4 (B) 4K/3 (C) less than 4K/3 (D) greater than 4K/3 Q. If the current in the cell is 0. Q. 1 Let n and n be respectively the number of photons emitted by a red bulb and a blue bulb of equal power in a given time.

12 The frequency and the intensity of a beam oflight falling on the surface of photoelectric material are increased by a factor of two. V and V volts if Vj. .16 Let Kj be the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emitted by a light of wavelength A. Which ofthe following curves may represent the saturation photocurrent as a function of the distance between the source and the metal ? (A) (B) (C) (D) Q. X and A will be: (A) Arithmetic Progression (B) Geometric Progression (C) Harmonic Progression (D) None 2 2 2 1 v B 1 0 x 2 (fe Bansal Classes 3 2 3 Question Bank on Modern Physics 1 0 2 2 3 3 6] .2K (C)K. the potential difference V that must be maintained between the illuminated surface and the collector so as just to prevent any electron from reaching the collector is determined for differentfrequenciesfofthe incident illumination. is Vi (D)eV (f -f ) (C)h(f -f ) (A) iff. Ifthe source is removed fartherfromthe emitting metal. £ Q Jo Light comingfroma discharge tubefilledwith hydrogen falls on the cathode ofthe photoelectric cell. (D) not produce any effect on the kinetic energy ofthe emitted electrons but will increase the photoelectric current by a factor of two. (^ )( f7fT3i M i-fo) Q. > 2K Q.. 17 In a photoelectric experiment. The maximum kinetic energy ofthe electrons emitted atfrequencyf. and K corresponding to X .4 (B)-6 (C) ..19 Cut off potentials for a metal in photoelectric effect for light ofwavelength X . 14 A point source of ligth is used in a photoelectric effect. If = 2"k . 1 (C) 1 4 (D)4: 1 Q.8 (D)-10 Q. as well as photoelectric current by a factor of two.Q.<| (D) K. then: 2 2 2 (A) 2Kj = K (B) K.X and X is found to be Vj. V and V are inArithmetic Progression and A.18 Radiation oftwo photon energies twice andfivetimes the work function of metal are incident sucessively on the metal surface. QJ/5 A point source causes photoelectric effect from a small metal plate. This will: (A) increase the maximum energy of the photoelectrons. (C) increase the maximum kinetic energy ofthe photoelectrons by a factor of greater than two and will have no effect on the magnitude ofphotoelectric current produced. The work function ofthe surface of cathode is 4eV Which one ofthe following values of the anode voltage (in Volts) with respect to the cathode will likely to make the photo current zero. the stopping potential: (A) will increase (B) will decrease (C) will remain constant (D) will either increase or decrease. The graph obtained is shown. (A) . (B) increase the maximum kinetic energy of the photo electrons and would increase the photoelectric current by a factor of two. The ratio ofthe maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted is the two cases will be (A) 1 :2 (B)2 .

IfY has a greater work function than X. (C). 26 de-Broglie wavelength of an electron in the nth B ohr orbit is \ and the angular momentum is J . The maximum energy of the emitted photoelectrons is 2 eV. (D) if the polarity of the battery is reversed then answer to part B will be 1.7eV. Assuming Bohr's model to be true to this system.21 In a photoelectric experiment.Q. no photoelectrons C will reach the anode A if the stopping potential ofA relative to C is (A)3 V (B)-3V (C)-1V (D)4 V Q. 20 Photons with energy 5 eV are incident on a cathode C.0V with respect to the emitter plate made of copper cp . How does this affect the photoelectric current? (A) The photoelectric current will increase. (D) None of these Q. (B) the maximum kinetic energy ofthe photoelectrons reaching the collector is 3. on a photoelectric cell. electrons are ejected from metals X and Y by light of intensity I and frequency f.The photoelectric current will remain the same.4.23 In a photoelectric experiment. (B) The photoelectric current will decrease. Q. which one ofthe following graphs best illustrates the expected results? Vi X V V V Y/ 4 (D) (C) < f (B) o 0 •f o X / / Q. When photons of energy 6 eV are incident on C.5eV). The emitter is illuminated by a source of monochromatic light ofwavelength 200nm. then: n " (B) ln oc** rt7~ (A) J x n q s * $$ Bansal Classes cvr\i (C) Xn cc j 2 (D) none ofthese f Question Bank on Modern Physics m . The frequency of the light is then doubled while the intensity is kept constant.4 Monochromatic light with a frequency well above the cutoff frequency is incident on the emitter in a photoelectric effect apparatus. (A) the minimum kinetic energy ofthe photoelectrons reaching the collector is 0. the collector plate is at 2. The potential difference V required to stop the electrons is measured for various frequencies. p (C) if the polarity of the battery is reversed then answer to part A will be 0.7eV.22 By increasing the intensity of incident light keepingfrequency(v > v )fixedon the surface of metal (A) kinetic energy of the photoelectrons increases (B) number of emitted electrons increases (C) kinetic energy and number of electrons increases (D) no effect 0 Q. the orbital velocity of mass m when it is nearest to heavy particle is 3q 3q 3q 3q 2 2 Q. 2. 2 5 In a hypothetical system a particle of mass m and charge -3 q is moving around a very heavy particle having cahrge q.

| the energy of emitted photons is either equal to.nj=3 (C)n = 4.\ Q. = 2 (D) n = 4 .^=1 (0)^ = 8. What is the value of n: (A) 6 (B) 7 (C) 8 (D) 5 Q. then thefrquencyofrevolutionof the electron in the nth orbits is: (A)2E /nh .n = oo Q. ^ = 1 Q.31 In hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms.51eV (C)3. The kinetic energy ofthis electron is: (A)4. The frequency of orbital motion of the electron in the initial state is 1/27 of that in thefinalstate.43 x 10" (C) 2.42 x 10~ (D) 3. The ratio of magnitudes ofinitial to final centripetal acceleration of the electron is (A) 9:4 (B)81:16 (C)4:9 (D)16:81 Q. The electron in n orbit has a radiu s: (A) na (B)a /n (C)n a (D)a /n t 2 2 2 } 2 2 2 2 2 t t 2 2 th 0 0 (fe Bansal Classes 0 2 0 Question Bank on Modern Physics 0 2 8] . the ratio of difference of energies E -E and E -E varies with its atomic number z and n as: (A)z /n (B) zVn (C)z/n (D)z°n° n th n n n n n x 19 19 18 19 x 4n 2 2 2n 20 2n n 4 Q.35 The electron in a hydrogen atom makes transitionfromM shell to L.28 Consider the following electronic energy level diagram of H-atom: A -n= 4 Photons associated with shortest and longest wavelengths would be D C emitted from the atom by the transitions labelled: -n = 3 B (A) D and C respectively -n = 2 (B) C and A respectively (C) C and D respectively =j (D) Aand C respectively Q. the binding energy ofthe electron in the n state is E . n = 3 (B)n = 5. It may come down to second excited state by .14 10" Q.33 Difference between nth and (n+1 )th Bohr's radius of'H' atom is equal to it's (n-1 )th Bohr's radius. Then it may return to ground state after emitting six different wavelengths in emission spectrum. the electron is in nth excited state.34 An electron in hydrogen atom after absorbing energy photons can jump between energy states n and n (n.37 The radiu s of B ohr' sfirstorbit is a .30 Ifthe electron in a hydrogen atom were in the energy level with n=3. Then nj and n are: (A) n = 4. —> n whose nj and n are the principal quantum numbers of the two states. the value ofnis: (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 Q.36 The electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition n. Assume the Bohr model to be valid. n. The possible values of n and n are (A) n =4.29 In a hydrogen atom. > nj).^=1 (0)^ = 6. (B) 2E n/h (C)E /nh (D)E n/h Q. emitting ten different wavelengths.32 In a hydrogen atom.8eV .53 eV (B)1. Here h is Planck's constant.54 x 10" (B) 1.4eV (D)6.18 10"" J): (A) 6.^ = 3 Q. how much energy in joule would be required to ionise the atom? (Ionisation energy of H-atomis 2. less than or greater than the absorbed photons. n = 2 (6)^=3.27 The angular momentum of an electron in the hydrogen atom is —2tc.

56 x 10~ A (B) 109.6 volt.8 x l(T m/s 2 2 Q. The value of X is (A) 95 nm (B)103nm (C)73nm (D)88nm Q.41 When a hydrogen atom. of colliding electron will be (A) 10.40 Monochromatic radiation of wavelength X is incident on ahydrogen sample containing in ground state.38 The ionisation potential of hydrogen atom is 13. The energy required to remove an electron from ^ the second orbit of hydrogen is: (A) 3.6eV (D)27.8eV (D)6.9 eV (C)12.4 eV (C)-6. then the number of different spectrum lines obtained in its emission spectrum will be: (A) 1 + 2 + 3 + +(n .4 eV (B)6.2 m/s (D) 3. two electrons move around the nucleus in circular orbits of radii R and 4R. 42 An electron collides with afixedhydrogen atom in its ground state. K.2eV Q. The shortest wavelength is produced by: (A) hydrogen atom (B) deuterium atom (C) singly ionized helium (D) doubly ionized lithium Q. The min.39 Electron in a hydrogen atom is replaced by an identically charged particle muon with mass 207 times that of electron. The ratio of the time taken by them to complete one revolution is: (neglect electric interaction) (A) 1:4 (B) 4 : 1 (C) 1 : 8 (D) 8 : 1 Q.43 Thefrequencyof revolution of electron in n Bohr orbit is v .E.1eV (D)13.21 x 10~ A (D)22174.) may be th n n Q. Now the radius of K shell will be (A) 2. The graph between log n and log (v / v. If the potential energy in the first excited state is taken as zero then the total energy in the ground state will be : <L (A) -3.8eV lh x (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Modern Physics n 9] .4eV (B) 3. its recoil speed is about (A) 10^ m/s (B) 2 x 10" m/s (C) 4.47 The total energy of a hydrogen atom in its ground state is -13. 44 Consider the spectral line resulting from the transition n = 2 —» n = 1 in the atoms and ions given below.6eV Q. Consequently the hydrogen atom may emit a photon corresponding to the largest wavelength ofthe Balmer series.1) (B) 1 + 2 + 3 + + (n) (C) 1 + 2 + 3 + +(n +1) (D) 1 2 x 3 x x ( _ l) Q.Q.6eV.8eV (C)13.2 eV (B) 1.45 In an atom. a photon resulting in transition n = 5 -> n = 1. Hydrogen atoms absorb the light and subsequently emit radiations of ten different wavelengths.46 The electron in hydrogen atom in a sample is in n excited state.4A 3 3 Q. Hydrogen atom gets excited and the colliding electron loses all its kinetic energy.7 A (C) 1. initially at rest emits.

what is the energy released ? (A) 200 MeV (B) 160 MeV (C) 110 MeV (D) 90 MeV Q.4 eV. r and frespectively Then according to Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom. potential energy increases and its total energy remains the same.2 MeV respectively. 8.6eV Q. 54 The binding energy per nucleon for C is 7. The energy difference between K and L levels in this atom is about a (A) 0. Then: (A) Q = 2Ej-E (B) Q = E -2EJ (C)Q = 2EJ+E (D)Q = 2E + EJ X > A B 12 13 13 L 2 2 2 2 2 Q.ray spectra of some atom superimposed on continuous X-ray spectra: (A) P represents K line C (B) Q represents Kp line (C) Q and P represents K and K lines respectively (D) Relative positions of K and K depend on the particular atom a a p a f J J J B Q.Q.53 A (B) 1. (C) inelastic collision takes place when initial kinetic energy of neutron is greater than 13. MeV and 8. Q. (D) perfectly inelastic collision cannot take place. Two atoms of X fuse to give one atom of Y and an energy Q is released. 48 A neutron collides head on with a stationary hydrogen atom in ground state (A) If kinetic energy of the neutronis less than 13. 6eV.265 A (D) 0. collisionmust be elastic (B) if kinetic energy of the neutron is less than 13.34MeV Q. (C) Its kinetic and toal energies decrease and its potential energy increases. The angular momentum ofthe electron is (A) h / 7i ' " (B) h / 2TC (C) nh / (n is an integer) (D)2h/7t (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Modern Physics 10] . 5 6 Radius ofthe second Bohr obit of singly ionised helium atom is (A) 0.021 nm.5 MeV (D)9.5 MeV The energy required to remove a neutron from C is (A) 5.34 MeV (B) 5.5 MeV (C) 9.51 In a characteristic X. orbit radius and frequency of revolution of electron in hydrogen atom corresponding to quantum number n are L. Which ofthe following statement is true ? (A) Its kinetic energy increases and its potential and total energies decrease (B) Its kinetic energy decreases. 5 0 The magnitude of angular momentum.6eV.6eV.4MeV. collision may be inelastic.06 A (C) 0.53 Consider the nuclear reaction 200 110 + 90 Ifthe binding energy per nucleon for X.51 MeV (B) 1. (A) fr L is constant for all orbits (B)frLis constant for all orbits (C) frL is constant for all orbits (D) frL is constant for all orbits 2 2 Q.68 MeV and that for C is 7. 49 The electron in a hydrogen atom make a transitionfroman excited state to the ground state. (D) its kinetic potential and total energies decreases. 5 5 The binding energies ofnuclei X and Y are E and E respectively.132 A Q.2 MeV (C)59keV (D)13. 5 7 An electron in Bohr's hydrogen atom has an energy of-3. AandB is7.2. Q.52 The "K " X-ray s emission line of tungsten occurs at X = 0.

ray photon of energy 2 MeV (B) captures ay..ray photon of energy 2 MeV (C) emits a y-ray photon of energy 3 MeV (D) captures a y . A (B)T In A. ] H. the quantity produced second time was twice ofthat producedfirsttime. What should be the ratio of number of atoms of two at time t = 0 so that probabilities of getting a and (3 particles are same at time t = 0.A T In (D)T l n2A. Ais an alpha emitter and B is a beta emitter.125 x 10 (C) 1.65 A radioactive material of half-life T was produced in a nuclear reactor at different instants. Their distintegration constants are in the ratio of 1 : 2.e~ (B)^ (C) Q.67 There are two radionuclei Aand B.particles emitted is. 64 90% of a radioactive sample is left undecayed after time t has elapsed. A z A 2 2A. how many fissions must occurs per second to produce a power of 1 KW (A) 1. What percentage ofthe initialsample will decay in a total time 2t: (A) 20% (B) 19% (C) 40% (D) 38% Q.60 In an a-decay the Kinetic energy of a particle is 48 MeV and Q-value ofthe reaction is 5 0 MeV.325 x 10 (B)3. is equivalent to an energy of 1876 MeV. R.66 Activity of a radioactive substance is Rj at time tj and R^ at time t (t > t ). 8 (B) 8.. The mass number of the mother nucleus is: (Assume that daughter nucleus is in ground state) (A) 96 (B) 100 (C) 104 (D) none ofthese Q. the rest mass of a proton is equivalent to 93 9 MeV and that of a neutron to 940 MeV. initially contain the same number ofradioactive atoms.emitted. the number ofa .ray photon of energy 3 MeV Q. A deuteron may disintegrate to a proton and a neutron if it : (A) emits a y .235 x 10 (D) 2. and thefinalnucleus is Pb . If now their present activities are Aj and A respectively then their age difference equals: t 2 In—-. and the number of (3-particles . When the uranium nucleus decays to lead. 6 (C) 16. 12 238 92 82 206 Q. Then the ratio ^ is: 2 £ h (A)- (B) -Mt +t ) e v 2 2 \ -t ^ (C)e l 2 f l l } (D) Mti-t ) e 2 Q. Q..63 In a RA element the fraction of initiated amount remaining after its mean life time is 1 1 (A)l-(D) 1.59 The rest mass of the deuteron.62 The radioactive sources Aand B ofhalf lives of2 hr and 4 hr respectively.135 x 10 235 13 13 13 13 Q. (A) 2 : 1 (B) 1 : 2 (C) e (D) e" 1 (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Modern Physics 11] .61 In the uranium radioactive series the initial nucleus is U .Q. A. their rates of disintegration are in the ratio : (A)4:l (B) 2 : 1 (C)V^:1 (D) 1 : 1 Q.58 If each fission in a U nucleus releases 200 MeV. 6 (D) 32. At the end of 2 hours. (A) 6.

3xl0 x 12 15 20 17 Q.386 sec (D) sec 1 Q. at time Tj and R at time T . A -A 6 2 (A) Ajt. How many radium nuclei decay in 5 hours in 5 gm radium? (Atomic weight of radium = 223) (A) 9.76 The radioactivity ofa sample is R. So only two nuclei will be left undecayed. 71 A certain radioactive nuclide of mass number m^ disintegrates. / (B)/. Q. But R is not correct explanation of A. (C) A is incorrect & Ris correct. at time t (t >t. and . with the emission of an electron and y radiation only. Then (A) A is correct & R is correct explanation ofA.).68 The activity of a sample reduces from Aq to A / y 3 inonehour. j w r (D) 2 = \ (MTt ) e 2 Q. at time t.72 x 10 (D)3. Number of atoms that have disintegrated in time (T .69 Halflife of radium is 1620years.75 A radioactive substance is being produced at a constant rate of 10 nuclei/s. Afraction >/.T ) 2 2 2 2 (fe Bansal Classes 2 t Question Bank on Modern Physics 2 12] .A. 2 .2 x y x (C)m = m .Tj) is proportional to (A) ( R J . e.Q.73 The activity ofa sample of radioactive material is A. 5 minutes. .72 The number ofa and (3 "emitted during the radioactive decay chain starting from gg Ra andendingat ^ I? Pb is (A)3a&6p(B) 4a & 5(3~ (C)5a&4p" (D)6a&6p" Q.R . If the halflife of the specimen is T. Afterfiveminutes Assertion (A): It can be definitely said that two nuclei will be left undecayed.R T ) (B) (Rj . (C)/ =f (D) May be (A). The activity after 3 hours more will be A A o A () 0 A n < >i7? 2 r w-f A 0 Q. Its mean life is T.) (T .1 10 (B) 3. = A t (B) 2 2 = constant(C) A = A. 70 Halflife for certain radioactive element is 5 min. half of total nuclei will disintegrate. The decay constant ofthe substance is 1/2 sec" . Reasoning (R): After halflife i.45 sec (B) log(2) sec (C) 1.)/T (D) (Rj .</.23 x 10 (C) 1. 74 (A)/.1 y (D)m = m x y x Q. Assume decay law holds for the sample. (B) Both are correct. ) T (C) (RJ -R. Four nuclei of that element are observed at a certain instant oftime. (D) Both are incorrect. to give second nuclied ofmass number m^ Which one ofthe following equation correctly relates rr^ and m ? y (A)m = m + 1 y (B)m = m . 1 (A) 2.R. /. and a fractionf decays in one half-life. After what time the number of radioactive nuclei will become 10? Initially there are no nuclei present. of a radioactive sample decays in one mean life. (B) or (C) depending on the values of the mean life and halflife 2 Q.

Q. 78 At time t = 0. N. (x x )t r 2 VN2 7 (D) +N X N X e 1 ] 2 2 Question Bank on Modern Physics . 77 The decay constant of the end product of a radioactive series is (A) zero (B) infinite (C)finite(non zero) Q. The decay 2 (B) + (A) N N e~^ " ^ 2 2 X2t (D) depends on the end product. nuclei of decay constant rate of the mixture is : 1 1+> 2 2 (C) +(N X e" +N A e" ) 1 % Bansal Classes 1 Xlt & N. nuclei of decay constant X are mixed .

(C) B will contain some visible light. in the x-direction. Q.l In photoelectric effect.5 A beam ofultraviolet light of all wavelengths passes through hydrogen gas at room temperature. from first excited state to ground state. (C) An electron of kinetic energy nearly 91 8eV can be brought to almost rest by this atom. y and z. Q. (C) The wavelength offirstBalmer line of deuterium is more than that ofhydrogen (D) The angular momentum of electron in thefirstBohr orbit ofdeuterium is more than that of hydrogen. then select the wrong answer/(s): (A)z= 1/x (B) x=9/4 (C) y=5/27 (D)z=5/27 . Choose the incorrect statement. (A) The total energy of the shell increases with increase in the value of n (B) The total energy of the shell decrease with increase in the value of n.4 A particular hydrogen like atom has its ground state binding "energy 122.An electron is in an excited state in hydrogen-like atom.4 eV.8 eV.4 eV.6 10" m (D) E = 6. (D) B will contain some infrared light.6 eV. Let Aand B denote the lights emergingfromthe gas in the x and y directions respectively.7 In the hydrogen atom. X = 6. if the reference level of potential energy is assumed to be zero at the ground state level.8 eV. If the kinetic energy ofthe electron is E and its de-Broglie wavelength is X. 8 Choose the correct statement(s) for hydrogen and deuterium atoms (considering motion of nucleus) (A) The radius offirstBohr orbit of deuterium is less than that of hydrogen (B) The speed of electron in thefirstBohr orbit of deuterium is more than that of hydrogen. Then: (A) Its atomic number is 3 (B) An electron of 90eV can excite it. (fe Bansal Classes Question Bank on Modern Physics 14] . X = 6. momentum and energy of photons in the two cases be x. Assume that all photons emitted due to electron transition inside the gas emerge in the y-direction. X = 6. 2 An electron in hydrogen atomfirstjumpsfromsecond excited state tofirstexcited state and then.6eV may emerge from the atom when electron of kinetic energy 125eV collides with this atom. It has a total energy of-3. Let the ratio of wavelength.4eV.m (C) E = 3. absorption lines will be observed in the : (A) Lyman series (B) Baimer series (C) both (A) and (B) (D) neither (A) nor (B) Q. 3 minutes for answering each question. (C) The difference in total energy of any two shells remains the same. (B) Only those wavelengths will be present in B which are absent in A.6 x lO.6 x 10" m Q. Q. (A) Some of the incident wavelengths will be absent in A. Its is in ground state.3 10 x 11 10 11 Q.ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAY BE CORRECT Take approx. A. Q.6 If radiation of allow wavelengthsfromultraviolet to infrared is passed through hydrogen agas at room temperature.6 x 10" m (B) E = 3. then (A) E = 6.4 eV. (D) The total energy at the ground state becomes 13. (D) An electron of kinetic energy 2. = 6. stopping potential depends on (A) frequency ofthe incident light (B) intensity ofthe incident light by varies source distance (C) emitter's properties (D)frequencyand intensity ofthe incident light Q.

+ Q. th n n Q. if the process is y decay. in the emitted radiation: (A) the intensity increases (B) the minimum wave length increases (C) the intensity decreases (D) the minimum wave length decreases Q.173 (years)" . (B) If kinetic energy of the neutron is less than 20.75 kV inthe Coolidge tube (C) de-Broglie wavelength of the electrons reaching the anti cathode is of the order of 10pm. the minimum wavelength of the continuous X-ray spectrum is equal to 66.16 The decay constant of a radio active substance is 0. the mas ofa ^ N e nucleus and M the mass of a [] Ca nucleus. if the process is a decay (B) Z will decrease but A will not change. then (A) electrons accelerate through a potential difference of 12. Q.12 In a Coolidge tube experiment.13 The potential difference applied to an X-ray tube is increased. Q. Then (A)M = 2M. Therefore : (A) Nearly 63% of the radioactive substance will decay in (1/0.3 pm.4 eV.ll When a nucleus with atomic number Z and mass number A undergoes a radioactive decay process: (A) both Z and A will decrease.Q. m the mass of a neutron. (D) all the above statements are true.14 When the atomic number A of the nucleus increases (A) initially the neutron-proton ratio is constant = 1 (B) initially neutron-proton ratio increases and later decreases (C) initially binding energy per nucleon increases and later decreases (D) the binding energy per nucleon increases when the neutron-proton ratio increases. (B) halflife of the radio active substance is (1/0.15 Let m be the mass of a proton.173) year.75 kV in the Coolidge tube (B) electrons accelerate through a potential difference of 18. 1 Bansal Classes Question Bank on Modern Physics [15] . (C) Inelastic collision may be take place only when initial kinetic energy ofneutron is greater than 20. (D) de-Broglie wavelength of the electrons reaching the anticathode is 0.9 Let A be the area enclosed by the n orbit in a hydrogen atom.4 eV collision may be inelastic.4 eV collision must be elastic. Which ofthe following statements are correct (Assume that the hydrogen atom and neutron has same mass): (A) If kinetic energy of the neutron is less than 20.01 A. Q. 10 A neutron collides head-on with a stationary hydrogen atom in ground state. (D) Perfectly inelastic collision can not take place.173) year. The graph of In (A /A. (A) will pass through origin (B) will be a stright line will slope 4 (C) will be a monotonically increasing nonlinear curve (D) will be a circle. M.) agains In (n). As a result. ifthe process is p decay (C) Z will decrease but A will not change. < 10(m + m ) p n 2 2 2 2 2 n p Q. if the process is (3~ decay (D) Z and A will remain unchanged. (C) one -forth of the radioactive substance will be left after nearly 8 years. (B) M > 2Mj (C) M < 2Mj (D) M.

71 D Q.9 AB Q.56 B Q.58 B Q.72 C Q.36 B Q.12 B Q.61 B Q.65 C Q.3 B Q 4 AC.42 C Q.D Q.15 D Q.D Q.30 C Q.C Q.37 C Q.44 D Q.53 B Q.C A Q.26 A Q.27 B Q.29 A Q.8 D Q.49 A Q.l A.31 D Q.C Q.3 Q.33 D Q.60 B Q.ll B Q.21 B Q.77 A C Q4 A Q.14 C Q.10 A Q.12 Q.68 B Q.19 C Q.D Q.76 B Q.34 C Q.5 A.15 C.54 A Q.66 D Q.16 C Q.23 A Q.5 D Q. D Q.67 A Q.70 D Q.2 B Q.18 A Q.7 B Q.20 B Q.C.C Q.69 B Q.59 D Q.13 D Q.ANSWER KEY ONLY ONE OPTION IS CORRECT.28 C Q.D Q.73 C Q.25 A Q.48 A Q.ll AB.22 B Q.47 C Q.75 C Q.64 B Q.14 A.24 B Q.7 A Qi C Q.32 A Q.45 C Q.63 C Q.35 D Q.9 A Q.13 A.16 A.50 B Q.52 C Q.6 C Q.6 Q.41 C Q.78 C ONE OR MORE THAN ONE OPTION MAYBE CORRECT Q2 B Q.38 A Q.10 A.51 C Q.74 Q.17 C Q.46 B Q.43 C Q.40 A Q.62 C Q.8 A .57 A Q.55 B Q.D Q.39 A Q.


max with a de Broglie wave length given by X = — P (wave length of a praticle) .R. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 I0 10 ° each photon having afrequencyv and Frequency (Hz) energy = E = hv . K. E. Electrons are emitted ifthe incident light hasfrequencyv > v (thresholdfrequency)emission ofelectrons is independent ofintensity. CONCEPTS CATHODE RAYS : Generated in a discharge tube in which a high vaccum is maintained . Number of electrons emitted per second depends on the intensity of the incident light . 34 4. The wave length corresponding to v is called threshold wave length X0 .<b 1 2 (vi) (j) = Work function = energy needed by the electron in freeing itself from the atoms of the metal .) 1 = eV. v is different for different metals . of C. red(7.g.W. d> = h v 0 STOPPING POTENTIAL O R C U T O F F PO TENTIAL : The minimum value of the retarding potential to prevent electron emission is : cutofr = (KE) The number of photons incident on a surface per unit time is called photon flux.6*l(r m) ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Ordered arrangement ofthe big family 3xlO" m 3*10 m 3m 3 x l 0 ^ m of electro magnetic waves (EMW) either in ascending order of frequencies infrared Ultraviolet Gamma rays or ofwave lengths Radio waves Speed ofE.63 x 10" Js . radar) A beam ofEMW is a stream of discrete packets of energy called PHOTONS . particle accelerated by a p.V.KEY l. V is — mv' 2m Can be deflected by Electric & magnetic fields . (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. They are electrons accelerated by high p.E. (lOto 15 K. Results : Can be explained only on the basis of the quantum theory (concept of photon). (0 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Q 0 0 EINSTEINS PHOTO ELECTRIC EQUATION : Photon energy = K. when metals are exposed to light (of a certain minimum frequency) is called photo electric effect. WAVE NATURE OF MATTER : Beams of electrons and other forms ofmatter exhibit wave properties including interference and diffraction eV Note: 5.6xl0~ m) * — vioIet(3. PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT : The phenomenon of the emission of electrons .M. h v = — mv2 + . of electron + work function . 4 6 s 10 12 14 16 i8 2 h = plank's constant = 6. <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] .d.d. 7 7 l2 4 8 3. in vacuum C = 3 x 10 m/s = v X X-rays II \ Micro waves PLANK S QUANTUM THEORY : Visible light (e.

e. RUTHERFORD MODEL : (Nuclear Model) (i) The most of the mass and all the positive charge is concentrated within a size of 10" m inside the atom . 2 n 2 2 n th th 2 t 2 v = frequency of spectral line emitted . An accelerating charge radiates the nucleus spiralling inward and finally fall into the nucleus. 6 n2 2 10 V n e v nl 2 AE = hv . (ii) Electrons are studded in this uniform distribution . This concentration is called the atomic nucleus .6. 3 . [no. ofwaves in unit length (lm)] = R 2 2 A. (1 A = 10" m). . 2. BOHR ATOMIC MODEL : Bohr adopted Rutherford model of the atom & added some arbitrary conditions.E = Energy emitted when an electron jumps from n orbit to n. These conditions are known as his postulates : 10 (b) (c) 14 (i) (ii) The electron in a stable orbit does not radiate energy . (iii) E Energy of the electron in the n orbit = — i. AE = (13.e. i 2 Where R = Rydberg's constant for hydrogen = 1.r A stable orbit is that in which the angular momentum of the electron about nucleus ll ll is an integral (n) multiple of — . (iii) Failed to explain the large angle scattering a .e.Rydberg's constant for element of atomic no. Z . This could not be explained by this model .097 x 10 m" . (iv) The energy emitted or absorbed is a light photon of frequency v and of energy. r = . FOR HYDROGEN ATOM : (Z . (v) For hydrogen like atom/spicies of atomic number Z : n 7 1 ^ n = (0.E = . (ii) The electron revolves around the nucleus under electric interaction between themin circular orbits.13.6 ev) 1 1 th th n 0 th n 0 e 1 3 .particle scattered by thin foils of matter . Binding Energy (BE) = . mvr = n — . E = hv .atomic number = 1) (i) L = angular momentum in the n orbit = n— . orbit (n > n ). which does not happen in an atom. Note: Total energy ofthe electron in an atom is negative . then m is replaced by p. Note : If motion of the nucleus is also considered.529A ) ^ . i. (a) ATOMIC MODELS : THOMSON MODEL : (PLUM PUDDING MODEL) (i) Most of the mass and all the positive charge of an atom is uniformly distributed over the full size of atom (10" m). n = 1.i.6) ^ ev z Z n R = RZ . E = (. r n2 = ^ n 7 ^Bansal Classes 2 0 z 2 Modern Physics [3] .529 A ) n . n (iv) E . n. indicating that it is bound . E a . (n * 0).radius of n circular orbit = (0. r a n . 2% (ii) r . — = v = wave no. m V Z7C (iii) 271 The electron can absorb or radiate energy only if the electron jumpsfroma lower to a higher orbit or fallsfroma higher to a lower orbit .

1 A to 1 A ) electromagnetic radiation . — n e SPECTRAL SERIES : Lyman Series : (Landing orbit n = 1) . Spectrum Are not affected by electric and magnetic field . IONIZATION POTENTIAL : -E. Characteristics equation eV = hv e = electron charge . + 2 is the P line = n.( -13.6) = 13. + 1 is the a line = n. (0 (ii) (iii) (iv) etc . where n. k ~ kp-Characteristic Spectrum Are produced when a metal anode is bombarded by very high energy 3ntiaous electrons . = Landing orbit } -»n 2 electronch arg e IONIZATION ENERGY : The energy required to remove an electronfroman atom . Potential difference through which an electron is moved to gain ionization energy = electronicch arg e X-RAYS : Short wavelength (0. 11. n>1 Ultraviolet region v"=R i 12 1 2 v 7 2 7. 35000 volt They cause photoelectric emission .nucleus system = mM/(m+M). + 3 is the y line EXCITATION POTENTIAL OF ATOM : Excitation potential for quantum jump from n 9. 10. = (-13. The energy required to ionize hydrogen atom is = 0 .6 ev) —o . (0 1 00 n m 2 2 Balmer Series : (Landing orbit n = 2) Visible region v = R 1 1 22 n 0 2 >2 2 (iii) Paschan Series : (Landing orbit n = 3) (iv) In the near infrared region v = R 1 r. 3 n Bracket Series : (Landing orbit n = 4) (v) In the mid infrared region v = R 4 Pfund Series : (Landing orbit n = 5) 2 2 n >3 2 2 >4 2 ^>5 In far infrared region v = R In all these series n 2 = n.6 ev .Where p = reduced mass of electron . In this case E„n.radiation 0 0 u m <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . V = accelerating potential v = maximum frequency of X .

(v) (vi) Intensity of X .1 x 10~ m. (c) Velocity 10 . b = 7.N dN .particle : (a) Helium nucleus ( He ) .emission : X > P+ Y + v (antinuetrino) (iii) y . NUCLEAR R= R A 0 13. (i) — dt dt Where N = No.y" A" . = activity . (i) a-emission : X -> _ Y + a + Energy (ii) P . STASTISTICAL LAW : The disintegration is a random phenomenon. (vii) Continuous spectrum due to retardation of electrons.emission : emission does not affect either the charge number or the mass number . (d) low penetration p .radiation : Electromagnetic waves ofvery high energy . LAWS OF RADIOACTIVE 4 2 6 (ii) (A) 7 : DISPLACEMENT LAW : In all radioactive transformation either an a or p particle (never both or more than one of each simultaneously) is emitted by the nucleus of the atom. of nuclei present at time t . Number of nuclei disintegrating per second is given .b) .-R(z-b ) 12 1 2 X V i 2 J Series limit of series means minimum wave length of that series. 14. 15. 2 u = a (z . y RADIATION : (iii) a . where v (in volts) is the p.particle : (a) Have much less energy. X . (viii) Characteristic Spectrum due to transition of electronfromhigher to lower v a (z . Whcih atom disintegrates first is purely a matter of chance .. th For x . Note : (i) Binding energy=. It can be natural or artificial (induced) . p . (b) more penetration.rays . (i) c = speed oflight. DIMENSIONS n : Where R = empirical constant = 1.[ Total Mechanical Energy ] (ii) Vel.d. dNa N —>—=-A. (disintegration /s/gm is called specific activity) .decay constant (ii) N = N e~ N = number of nuclei present in the beginning . a. Cut off wavelength or minimum wavelength. applied to the tube Xmin J * !. A = Mass number ofthe atom 1/3 15 0 RADIOACTIVITY : The phenomenon of self emission of radiation is called radioactivity and the substances which emit these radiations are called radioactive substances . (iii) 2 n (iv) 12. (b) energy varies from 4 Mev to 9 Mev.4 for L series Where b is Shielding factor (different for different series).rays depends on number of electrons hitting the target . (c) higher velocities than a particles y . of electron in n orbit for hydrogen atom = —137n.10 m/s . Z Z (B) DISINTEGRATION 0 XT A A Z 2 A _ 4 Z + 1 2 4 A X T o <i§Bansal Classes 0 Modern Physics [11] .b) [ MOSELEY'S LAW ] 2 b = 1 for K series .

A M = mass defect = [ Z + (A-Z)mJ . (Positron) The energy released in fusion is specified by specifying Q value . =(AM)C . . OR U) : 1 amu = — x (mass of carbon-12 atom) = 1. These reactions take place at ultra high temperature (= 10 to 10 ) Energy released exceeds the energy liberated in thefissionof heavy nuclei . ATOMIC MASS UNIT (a. 9 2 + o ^ 9 2 ^ 5 6 + 3 6 + o + ^ S Y NUCLEAR FUSION (Thermo nuclear reaction): Light nuclei ofAbelow 20. . 4{P-»j He+° e . Slifetimeof allatoms . The man point of the fission energy is leberated in the form ofthe K. „T = 1— totalnumberof atoms A (v) CURIE : The unit of activity of any radioactive substance in which the number of disintegration per second is 3.e. 1 amu = 931 Mev MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY OF A NUCLEUS : The nucleus is less massive than its constituents. Q value of reaction = energy released in a reaction . : (i) In emission of p". greater is the stability of the nucleus . i..E. per nucleon = -( A—M~) — Greater the BE. BE. The difference of masses is called mass defect . ofthe fission fragments . per nucleon increases and hence the excess energy is released . Total energy required to be given to the nucleus to tear apart the individual nucleons composing the nucleus. (i) (ii) (iii) U nl Note U I 4 Ba Kr 3 nl 7 1 (iv) 2 <i§Bansal Classes 9 1 Modern Physics [11] .u. above 200. 27 17. eg. fuse together. break up onto two or more fragments of comparable masses. z decreases by 1 . NUCLEAR FISSION : Heavy nuclei of A. (i) (ii) (iii) 2 20. increases and excess energy is released . the BE.m.. . (ii) In emission of . away from each other and beyond the range of interaction forces is called the Binding Energy of a nucleus .(iii) Half life of the population T = A 1/2 • at the end of n half-life periods the number of nuclei left N = N— .E.. 2 19. B E.M ^ .6603 x 10~ kg (iv) MEAN LIFE OF AN ATOM = 10 16. The total B.7 xlO . MASS AND ENERGY : The mass m of a particle is equivalent to an energy given by E = mc . MP 2 C . c = speed of light. eg. 2 18. z increases by 1 .

Q.(Take plank's constant.2eV.6 x icr Js and 1 eV= 1.0V with respect to the surrounding.5) eV. then find The work function of a (b) The work function ofb is (c) T and T When a monochromatic point source oflight is at a distance of 0. 2 EXERCISE # I A parallel beam of uniform. monochromatic light of wavelength 2640 A has an intensity of 200W/m .The wavelength corresponding to three possible transition are A. In the same setup.ll 34 0 19 th -n = 2 E? 2 3 2 Q. If the De Broglie wavelength ofthese photoelectrons is = 2 X& . then find the stopping potential (b) the saturation current An isolated metal body is illuminated with monochromatic light and is observed to become charged to a steady positive potential 1.2 mfroma photoelectric cell. light ofwavelength 220 nm. and X is given by . the total photocurrent in the circuit is .12 Imagine an atom made up of a proton and a hypothetical particle of double the mass of an electron but having the same charge as the electron. When the electron jumps to ground state the velocity of recoiling hydrogen atom is m/s and the energy of the photon is eV. If only 1 of each 5 x 10 incident photons is absorbed and causes an electron to be ejectedfromthe surface. 6 a b 9 0 0 Q. 663 mW oflight from a 540 nm source is incident on the surface of a metal.8 Q.4 Q. Q. the ej ected photoelectrons have maximum kinetic energy T eV and de Broglie wavelength Xa . Ifthe same source is placed 0. 9 Q. A hydrogen atom is in 5 excited state. [Take : mass ofelectron = (0. Xi Three energy levels of an atom are shown in thefigure. they may annihilate each other. The wavelength ofthe photon emitted in this process if the electron is assumed to have had no kinetic energy when it combines with nucleus is nm.3 (a) Q. The frequency of the incident light is .85eV makes a transition to a state of excitation energy 10. The ratio of series limit wavlength ofBalmer series to wavelength offirstline of paschen series is An electronjoins a helium nucleus to form a He+ ion.5 A making 10 revolution per second.7eV is T = (T -1. The magnetic moment associated with the orbital motion of the electron is .. the cut off voltage and the saturation current are respectively 0. Find the numerical value of voltage V .m where his the Plank's constant and C is the velocity oflight in air] 16 2 <i§Bansal Classes I2 Modern Physics [11] .2xlO~ MeV. The maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons liberated from another metal B by photons of energy 4. Apply the Bohr atom model and consider a possible transitions of this hypothetical particle to the first excited level. 2 3 a b (a) Q. Light of wavelength 330 nm falling on a piece of metal ej ects electrons with sufficient energy which requires voltage V to prevent a collector. the electron moves in an orbit of radius 0.6 m away from the photoelectric cell. The energy corresponding to their mass appears in two photons of equal energy.l Q. 5 Q.5/C )MeVandhC= 1. h = 6. The wave length of emitted photon is nm. When a positron and an electron collide.10 Q. X2 and X y The value x o f X in terms of A.) Q. Find the wavelength ofthe radiation emitted.6 x 10~ J) A hydrogen atom in a state having a binding energy 0. ej ects electrons which require twice the voltage V to stop them in reaching a collector. Find the longest wavelngth photon that will be emitted X (in terms of the Rydberg constant R. The number of photons in 1mm of this radiation are When photons of energy 4. The work function of the metal is 3 0 eV.25 eV strike the surface of a metal A.14 The positron is a fundamental particle with the same mass as that ofthe electron and with a charge equal to that of an electron but of opposite sign.13 In a hydrogen atom.6 volt and 18.0 mA.7 Q.

Find the values of n and Z.4 x 10 year and decays to Argon ^ A r which is stable.4eV and 8.5 1. The counter registers 1 10' P .17 A hydrogen like atom has its single electron orbiting around its stationary nucleus. Find the time required to produce 80% ofthe equilibrium quantity ofthis unstable nuclide. Q. Alternatively.1 MeV and 7. The radius of an atom ofthe metal is approximately 0. This nuclide P~~ decays with halflife x.0 MeV respectively. 2 2 4 2 4 Q.21 Which level ofthe doubly ionized lithium has the same energy as the ground state energy ofthe hydrogen atom.findthe time it will take to burn all the hydrogen. The atomic number of this nucleus is .19 A hydrogen like atom (atomic number Z) is in higher excited state of quantum number n. a sample is placed in a reactor. Q .0 1.24 An isotopes of Potassium has a half life of 1. (i) Write down the nuclear reaction representing this decay. Take the mass of the Sun as 1. A P .2eV to excite the electron from the 2nd Bohr orbit to 3rd Bohr orbit. 5 Q.11 * 10 P .He with 26 MeV of energy released.-7 1-2V work function of the cesium and Planck's constant. This excited atom can make a transition to the first excited state by successively emitting two photons of energy 22. FindT. potential energy and angular momentum in the first Bohr orbit (v) the radius of thefirstBohr orbit. 5nm. Q. Q. The 1f 2-1-0.20 Find the binding energy of an electron in the ground state of a hydrogen like atom in whose spectrum the third of the corresponding B aimer series is equal to 108.Estimate the value of I-.particles at t = 36 s and 1. 4 |H > .1 mfromametal surface. of this sample Q.15eV respectively. It requires 47.active sample is present near the counter.15 Asmall 10W source of ultraviolet light ofwavelength 99 nm is held at a distance 0.2 eV. (ii) energy required to excite the electronfromthe third to the fourth orbit (iii) the wavelength of radiation required to remove the electronfromthefirstorbit to infinity (iv) the kinetic energy. (ii) A sample of rock takenfromthe moon contains both potassium and argon in the ratio 1 /7. Ifthe total output power ofthe Sun is assumed to remain constant at 3.7eV respectively. Q. helium nucleus ( He ) is . The energy released when two deuterons fuse to form a.18 A single electron orbits a stationary nucleus of charge Ze where Z is a constant and e is the electronic charge.95 eV and 5.9 x 10 W.5 V I O ' H Z results of this experiment is plotted as shown in thefigure.22 The binding energies per nucleon for deuteron (jH ) and helium ( He ) are 1. the atomfromthe same excited state can make transition to the second excited state by successively emitting two photons of energies 2. Q.26 Suppose that the Sun consists entirely of hydrogen atom and releases the energy by the nuclear reaction. x s 9 26 30 <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] .particles at t = 108 s.05 nm. Find (i) the value of Z.41 1.particles emitted by the sample.Q. The energy to excite the electron from the second Bohr orbit to the third Bohr orbit is 47. Find the ratio ofthe two radii of corresponding orbits.7 x 10 kg. (ii) the number ofphotoelectrons emitted per unit area per second ifthe efficiency ofliberation ofphotoelectrons is 1 %. Q. An unstable nuclide is produced at a constant rate R in the sample by neutron absorption.25 At t = 0. Find (i) the average number of photons strildng an atom per second.16 The surface of cesium is illuminated with monochromatic light of various wavelengths and the stopping potentials for the wavelengths are measured.23 Aradioactive decay counter is switched on at t = 0. The counter registers the number of P . Find age of rock Q.

6. mass ofthe sun=2 10 kg. 6. 6.4 1 A beam of light has three wavelengths 4144A. 6.262.32. 6.141.49. The rate of change of DeBroglie wavelength ofthis electron at time t is 7 15 ] 1 6 12 2 4 2 4 e x He 30 n List of recommended questions from I.094 x 10 m ) 7 Q.51.39. 3 2 2 <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . 5.28. m equally distributed amongst the three wavelengths. The beam falls normally on an area 1. m = 5.30. The stopping potential for the photoelectrons ejected by the shorter wavelength is 3. 6. 6.00388 amu.53. 6. 6. & the stopping potential for the photoelectrons ejected by the longer wavelength.263. 6. m =4.8 * 10" m and power 1.Q.0 watt.134.214. The resulting radiations are incident normally on a metal plate & eject photo electrons.133. 6.249. 5.38. 28 An electron of mass "m" and charge "e" initially at rest gets accelerated by a constant electricfieldE.3 eV.40. 5. Irodov.8. Assume that there is no loss of light by reflection and that each energetically capable photon ejects one electron. If a constant uniform magnetic field of strength tesla is applied parallel to the metal surface. atomic masses m^l.273. incident on a cylinder (height h and base radius R) placed on a smooth surface as shown infigureif: surface of cylinder i s perfectly reflecting surface of cylinder is having reflection coefficient 0. 6. 27 Assuming that the source of the energy of solar radiation is the energy of the formation of helium from hydrogen according to the following cyclic reaction : X o ++ le° 6C' + 1.266. 6.95 volts.260. 6. 6.33. Find the radius of the largest circular path followed by the emitted photoelectrons. 6.37. Calculate the work function of the metal.264. 6.35. 6. 2 EXERCISE # II Find the force exerted by a light beam of intensity I. 4972A & 6216 A with a total intensity of 3. 5.31.6x 10" W. Calculate in how many years this hydrogen will be used up if the radiation of the sun is constant.138.265. (Rydberg constant = 1. 5. 6.42.233.l (a) (b) Q. 5.H' / N .52. 5. 5.136.289 Q.277 6.43. 5. The light falls normally on the plate.0 cm of a clean metallic surface of work function 2. 3 Electrons in hydrogen like atoms (Z = 3) make transitions from thefifthto the fourth orbit & from the fourth to the third orbit. 6.41. (assume no transmission) I • > » t — A small plate of a metal (work function =1. 6.H 14 1 8 0 -> N + e° 15 7 15 +1 N + H -> C + He Find how many tons of hydrogen must be converted every second into helium . distance between the sun and the earth= 1.H' 1 / N 2 13 7 13 13 14 7 N + . 5. 5. Find the number of photons striking the metal plate per square meter per sec.17 eV) is placed at a distance of 2mfroma monochromatic light source of wave length 4. 7 A Q. Assume that hydrogen forms 35% ofthe sun's mass. 6.249. 6. Calculate the number of photoelectrons liberated in two seconds. 6. 6.264. 1 amu = 931 MeV.C 0 + . 6.22.50. amu.E. The solar constant is 8 J / cm min. 6. 6. 6. Q.5* 10 m. 6.49 x 10 amu.

Find : the number of photons striking an atom per second. When another monochromatic radiation of wavelength X = 1650A and power P = 5 x 10~ W is incident. & Xj . with what kinetic energy will the electron be ejected ? Q. A.7 eV. (iii) Find the maximum and the minimum energies of the emitted photons. The corresponding spectral sensitivity of photocell is J = 4.5 cm is placed at the centre ofthe screen. That photon liberated a photoelectronfroma stationary hydrogen atom in the ground state.6 3 A monochromatic point source S radiating wavelength 6000 A with SC power 2 watt. The radius of an atom ofthe metal is approximaterly 0. 5 Monochromatic radiation of wavelength = 3 000A falls on a photocell operating in saturating mode. The efficiency ofthe detector for the photoelectron generation per incident photon is 0. If the work-function of the photoemissive surface is 1 eV. an aperture A of diameter 0.7eV Subsequently. If a concave lens L of focal length 0.7 eV. the number of photoelectrons emitted per second ifthe efficiency ofliberation of photoelectrons is 1 % Q. Q.findthe new values of photonfluxdensity & photocurrent . calculate the values ofthe stopping potential in the two cases (without & with the lens in the aperture).Q. When the whole experiment is repeated with an incident radiation offrequency(5/6)v. the photoelectrons so emitted are able to excite the hydrogen atom beam which then emits a radiation of wavelength of 1215 A. The atoms of the gas make transition to a higher energy level by the absorbing monochromatic light of photon energy 2. possessing De Broglie wavelengths. it is found that maximum velocity of photoelectrons increases n = 2 times. . + Q. Q.ll A gas ofidentical hydrogen like atoms has some atoms in the lowest (ground) energy level A & some atoms in a particular upper (excited) energy level B& there are no atoms in any other energy level. Calculate the photonfluxdensity at the centre of the screen and the p. A 2 (i) (ii) (iii) Q. Assuming that the entire photon energy is taken up by the electron.12 A hydrogen atom in ground state absorbs a photon ofultraviolet radiation ofwavelength 50 nm. calculate threshold wavelength for the cell. (ii) Find the ionisation energy for the gas atoms.6 m is inserted in the aperture as shown. 3 2 (i) Q.8 x 10~ A/w. <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . Some have energy more and some have less than 2. Assuming efficiency of photoelectron generation per incident photon to be same for both the cases. The photoelectrons having maximum energy are just able to ionize the hydrogen atoms in ground state.1 m & a large screen SC are placed as shown in figure.13 A monochromatic light source of frequency v illuminates a metallic surface and ej ects photoelectrons.8 A neutron with kinetic energy 25 eV strikes a stationary deuteron.7 (i) (ii) 6 m A small 10 W source of ultraviolet light of wavelength 99 nm is held at a distance 0.Assume a uniform average transmission of 80% for the lens. Find the work function ofthe metal and thefrequencyv. the atoms emit radiation of only six different photon energies. Q. Find the velocity ofthe photoelectron.6 m photocurrent in the detector.9. (i) Find the principal quantum number of the initially excited level B. Some of the emitted photons have energy 2. Find the De Broglie wavelength of each particle in theframeoftheir centre of mass.1m from a metal surface. (ii) saturation current in second case. Aphotoemissive detector D of surface area S D 0.10 A stationary He ion emitted a photon corresponding to thefirstline its Lyman series. Find the de Broglie wavelengths of both particles in the frame of their centre of mass. 9 Two identical nonrelativistic particles move atrightangles to each other.05 nm.

What is the mass of 3 Li ? Assume that particles are free to move after the collision. Find the amount ofradon (Rn ) originally introduced into the source.83 MeV. in circular motion of radius r around the nucleus (proton). 3 4 <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . J 3 r 3 m 2 (C = velocity oflight) yon £q L. The atomic weight ofthe substance is 230. only one a-particle out of4000 induces the reaction. Q. Find : ~* (i) the minimum potential difference through which electron may be accelerated from rest to cause the ejectrion of K-level electronfromthe atom. The nuclear charge Ze.8 days] 222 6 17 n Q. Measurement show that an average of 8. The total power P radiated by the atom is given by P = Po/r where e P = o Q .003 86 u respectively.5 mg ofthe substance.01167. Take V3 4 n s m C 2 = re «3xl0~ m 4 6 c u e Q 10 0 1 0 15 e Q.5 x lo yrs & that o f U = 7.0 eV is required to excite a hydrogen like atomfromits second Bohr orbit to the third.particle. 5°B + | n ——» 3 Li + j He • ot . 17 U and U occur in nature in an atomic ratio 140 :1. The impact of one of these electron has caused the complete removal ofK-level is filled -M by an electronfromthe L-level with a certain amount ofenergy being released during the transition. The atom is bombarded with high energy electrons. (iv) K. 3 10-15 J Q.20 An experiment is done to determine the half-life of radioactive substance that emits one p-particle for each decay process.13 x lo yrs) 238 233 238 9 235 8 Q. Find the total energy evolved during the escape of the a . m (i) Find the total energy of the atom. the kinetic energy of the electron in the first Bohr orbit and the wavelength ofthe electro magnetic radiation required to eiect the electronfromthefirstBohr orbit to infinity. the radius is r = 10" m.6 days.78 MeV.21 When thermal neutrons (negligible kinetic energy) are used to induce the reaction. The yield ofthis reaction is (1/4000) i. This energy may appear as X-ray or may all be used to eject an M-level electronfromthe atom. Given the masses of boron neutron & He as 10. Q. the atom continuously radiates electromagnetic waves. Find the value of Z. Assume that at t=0. Find the halflife ofthe substance.00894 & 4.Q . (Halflife o f u = 4. (ii) energy released when L-level electron moves tofillthe vacancy in the K-level.1.15 A classical model for the hydrogen atom consists of a single electron of mass rn. Assuming that at the time of earth's formation the two isotopes were present in equal amounts.18 The kinetic energy of an a .19 A small bottle contains powdered beryllium Be & gaseous radon which is used as a source of a-particles.E. ifit produces 1. Neutrons areproduced whena-particlesoftheradonreact with beryllium. (ii) Calculate an expression for the radius r (t) as a function oftime. 226 Q. (iii) Hence or otherwisefindthe time t•o when the a om collapses in a classical model ofthe hydrogen atom.4 P are emitted each second by 2.particle which flies out of the nucleus of a Ra atom in radioactive disintegration is 4.16 Simplified picture of electron energy levels in a certain atom is shown in the figure. (iii) wavelength ofthe X-ray emitted. [T ofR =3.e. Calculate the age ofthe earth. 14 An energy of 68.particles are emitted with an energy of 1.2x 10 neutrons per second after 7. ofthe electron emitted from the M-level. Since the electron is accelerated.

24 Show that in a nuclear reaction where the outgoing particle is scattered at an angle of 90° with the direction of the bombarding particle. ( t ) = 3.002603 u .01472 amu .Q. (ii) A tritium nucleus fuses with another deuterium nucleus to form a helium ( He) nucleus with neutron as another product. Find the velocity of body after time t. the Q-value is expressed as f l > \ Q=K v o) . Initially the body was at rest. The mass of the body is decreasing exponentially with disintegration constant X. assuming that living plants show a C activity of 12 disintegrations per minute per gm. neutrons are observed to emerge at right angle to the direction of incident beam. Find the increase in temperature ofm mass ofwater in time t. Assuming that the mass is ejected backward with a relative velocity v. Given: (fE>) = 2. Specific heat of water is S. (j. 20% ofthis energy is utilised in increasing the temperature of water. p) T. 14 14 14 Q.00785 u . 0 <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . The reaction may be represented as D (D. Where. 0 2 ] 3 7 8 Q. The reaction is represented as T(D.I v o.01784 amu .008665 u 2 4 3 Q.8.014102u .26 A body of mass m is placed on a smooth horizontal surface. During each decay energy E is released. Find : (a) The energy release in each stage . Given that : m ( n ) = 1. Assume that there is no loss of energy through water surface. The halflife of C is 5730 yrs. and m ^Be ) =. (b) The energy release in the combined reaction per deuterium & (c) What % of the mass of the initial deuterium is released in the form of energy. m ( Li ) = 7.22 In a fusion reactor the reaction occurs in two stages : (i) Twodeuterium ( D) nuclei fuse to form a tritium (^T) nucleus with a proton as product. He) = 4. Estimate the length ofthe time which has elapsed since this wood was part ofliving tree. n) a.23 A wooden piece of great antiquity weighs 50 gm and shows C activity of320 disintegrations per minute. 0 Q.25 When Lithium is bombarded by 10 MeV deutrons.n)= 1. m (jH ) = 2.27 A radionuclide with disintegration constant X is produced in a reactor at a constant rate a nuclei per sec. O = outgoing particle. P = product nucleus. (}p)= 1. + P l v i K m M Q.016049u .00776 amu. T = target nucleus.00893 amu . Calculate the energy of these neutrons and energy and angle of recoil ofthe associated Beryllium atom. I = incoming particle.

(Given: Mass ofhe atom = 4x(mass ofneutron). The maximum kinetic energy of photo electrons liberated from another metal B by photons of energy 4. 3 A neutron of kinetic energy 65 eV collides inelastically with a singly ionized helium atom at rest. [JEE'96] A A B B a Q.l (i) (ii) Q.00 eV respectively. Calculate: (i) The kinetic energy & (ii) The De .225 eV (B) the work function ofB is 4 20 eV (C) T = 2. Find \ the torque experienced by the orbiting electron. Ifthe atom gets de-excited subsequently by emitting radiation. It is scattered at an angle of 90° with respect ofits original direction. the ejected photo electrons have maximum kinetic energy T eV and de-Broglie wave length y .EXERCISE # III Q. Find the allowed values of the energy ofthe neutron & that ofthe atom after collision. a point source of light of power 3. Calculate the number of photo electrons emitted per second. The energy (In eV) required to remove both the electrons form a neutral helium atom is : (A) 38. is inanexcitedstate. Obtain an expression for the orbital magnetic dipole moment ofthe electron.20 eV & 17. If the de-Broglie wave length of these photo electrons is y = 2y .Broglie wave length of the electron. in a hydrogen like atom.4 A A B 3 3 6 (a) (b) (c) (d) Q.2 x 10" W emits mono energetic photons of energy 5. Assume that the sphere is isolated and initially neutral. Why ? Evaluate the time t.70 eV is T = (T -1. [JEE' 95] An energy of 24. (Ionisation energy of hydrogen atom = 13. Determine the values of n&Z. Find the ratio of the wavelength of incident light to the De-Broglie wavelength ofthe fastest photo electrons emitted.25 eV& 5.8 m from the centre of a stationary metallic sphere of work function 3.0 eV. then : (A) the work function of A is 2. This excited atom can make a transition to thefirstexcited state by successively emitting two photon s of energies 10.6 eV) [JEE '93] A hydrogen like atom (atomic number Z) is in a higher excited state of quantum number n.6 eV is required to remove one of the electrons from a neutral helium atom. such that the plane normal to the electron orbit make an angle of 3 0° with the magnetic induction. [JEE'96] <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . the atom from the same excited state can make a transition to the second excited state by successively emitting two photons of energies 4.findthefrequenciesofthe emitted radiation. The minimum wave length ofX-rays generated is .00 eV (D) T = 2.0 [JEE'95] An electron.7 (i) (ii) Q.lt has a total energy of-3.0 eV&of radius 8.2 (B) 49. Alternatively.0 x 10" m.8 (D) 79. The source is located at a distance of 0. [JEE 96] /1 g An electron in the ground state of hydrogen atoms is revolving in \ anti-clockwise direction in a circular orbit of radius R. and that photo electrons are instantly swept away after emission.The efficiency of photoelectrons emission is one for every 10 incident photons.8 fi A potential difference of 20 KV is applied across an x-raytube.25 eV strike the surface of a metal A.6eY)[JEE'94] Select the correct alternative(s): When photons of energy 4.2 (C) 51. It is observed that the photo electron emission stops at a certain time t after the light source is switched on.50) eV.75 eV [JEE'94] In a photo electric effect set-up.4 eV.6 Q. / ^ The atom is placed in a uniform magnetic induction.5 Q. ionization energy ofH atom=13.2 Q.95 eV respectively.

51 (B) 13. a photon of energy 40.4 (ii) Assume that the de-Broglie wave associated with an electron can form a standing wave between the atoms arranged in a one dimensional array with nodes at each of the atomic sites. (D) Its kinetic. & n are the principal quantum numbers of the two states. Find the energy ofthe electrons in electron volts and the least value of d for which the standing wave ofthe type described above can form.112 = 2 (B)n = 8..0 eV. [JEE' 2000 (Scr)] + + 15 Q. If it makes a transition to quantum state n. Z and the ground state energy (in eV) for this atom.8 (D) 122. (B) Its kinetic energy decreases. Which of the following statements is true? (A) Its kinetic energy increases and its potential and total energies decrease.ll A particle ofmass M at rest decays into two particles of masses m and m . Ground state energy of hydrogen atom is -13. 9eV. r^ = 1 (D) n. (C) Its kinetic and total energies decrease and its potential energy increases. 10(i) The work function of a substance is 4./ X2.0 ~ 2 (D) ^ l m2 N ml [JEE '99] Q. 0. A. having non-zero velocities. r^ = 3 [JEE '98] Q. lying in the 2 to 4eV range. the minimum energy (in eV) required to remove an electron from the ground state of doubly ionized Li atom (Z = 3) is (A) 1.l 4(a) A hydrogen-like atom of atomic number Z is in an excited state of quantum number 2 n. = 6. 9(i) As per Bohr model.53% of the incident photons eject photoelectrons. Amaximum energy electron combines with an a-particle to form a He ion. = 8.6 eV.6 eV photon of intensity 2 W/m falls on aplatinum surface of area 1 x 10 m and work function 5.12 Photoelectrons are emitted when 400 nm radiation is incident on a surface of work function 1. is 2 } 2 t l ( A ) ml / m2 { B ) m2 / mx ( C ) 1. calculate the minimum energy (in eV) that can be emitted by this atom during de-excitation. potential energy increases and its total energy remains the same. The time period ofthe electron in the initial state is eight times that in thefinalstate. He ions thus formed are in their fourth excited state.5 Abut not for any intermediate value of d.6 (C) 40. Find the number of photoelectrons emitted per sec and their minimum and maximum energies in eV.8 eV is emitted.^ = 2 (C) n. that are likely to be emitted during and after the combination. It is found that one such standing wave is formed if the distance'd' between the atoms of the array is 2 A.14 x 10" eV-s] [JEE'99] Q. where n. Also. These photoelectrons pass through a region containing a-particles. The possible values of n & n are: (A) ^ = 4. [JEE 2000] (b) When a beam of 10. [JEE' 2000] 1 2 <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics 4 2 [11] . h = 4. The longest wavelength oflight that can cause photoelectron emissionfromthis substance is approximately: (A) 540 nm (B) 400nm (C) 310nm (D) 220nm (ii) The electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition n. A similar standing wave is again formed if'd'is increased to 2. Find the energies in eV ofthe photons.6 ev. Find n. Assume the Bohr model to be valid . [Take. 13(a) Imagine an atom made up of a proton and a hypothetical particle of double the mass ofthe electron but having the same charge as the electron. [JEE 97] Q.Q. It can emit a maximum energy photon of204 eV. emitting a single photon in this process. potential and total energies decrease. Apply the Bohr atom model and consider all possible transitions of this hypothetical particle to thefirstexcited level. > r^. The ratio of the de-Broglie wavelengths of the particles. The longest wavelength photon that will be emitted has wavelength X (given in terms ofthe Rydberg constant R for the hydrogen atom) equal to (A) 9/(5R) (B) 36/(5R) (C) 18/(5R) (D)4/R [JEE'2000 (Scr)] (b) The electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transitionfroman excited state to the ground state.

15 The potential difference applied to an X . (b) the magnitude ofthe electricfieldbetween the plates A and B at t = 10 s and (c) the kinetic energy of the most energetic photoelectron emitted at t = 10 s when it reaches plate B.18 Two metallic plates A and B each of area 5 x 10 m . If l and l are their respective electronic angular momenta.0 microcurie is injected into the blood of a person. originating from all possible transition between a group oflevels.22 A star initially has 10 deutrons.24(i)Fast neutrons can easily be slowed down by : (A) the use of lead shielding (B) passing them through water (C) elastic collisions with heavy nuclei (D) applying a strong electric field 16 16 17 15 ++ E R H u H H u H u Li U -4 H u h u H 2 !2 16 6 0 0 0 Q th 2 2 18 7 5 A 2 5 2 40 2 3 2 } 4 2 2 3 16 6 8 12 16 24 3 10 <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] . Then the number of electrons striking the target per second is [JEE' 2002 (Scr.H -» He +n. with photons of energy 5 eV each. then (A) / > l and |E | > |E | (B) / = l and |E | < |EJ (C) / = l and-|E | > |EJ (D) / < l and IEJ < |EJ [JEE 2002 (Scr)] Q. If the average power radiated by the star is 10 W. Assume that the radioactive solution mixes uniformly in the blood of the person. starts falling on plate A at t = 0 so that 10 photons fall on it per square meter per second. Plate B carries a positive charge of33. (Neglect the time taken by photoelectron to reach plate B) [JEE' 2002] Q. (b) Also draw a graph for intensity of incident radiation of 2 x 10" W/m ? [JEE'2003] Q. It produces energy via.7 x 10 disintegrations per second) [JEE'94] Q. [JEE 2003] Q. then plot a graph between anode potential and current.21 In a photoelctric experiment set up. A monochromatic beam oflight.2 mA.)] (A) 2 x 10 (B) 5 x 10 (C)lxlO (D) 4 x 10 Q. Also assume that all the emitted photoelectrons are collected by plate B and the work function of plate Aremains constant at the value 2 eV. A sample ofthe blood of volume 1 cm taken after 5 hours shows an activity of296 disintegrations per minute.19 The attractive potential for an atom is given by v = v In (r / r ). 20 Frequency of a photon emitted due to transition of electron of a certain elemrnt from L to K shell is found to be 4.85 eV and . v and r are constant and r is the radius of the orbit. are placed at a separation of 1 cm. 23 A small quantity of solution containing Na radionuclide (halflife 15 hours) of activity 1. photons of energy 5 eV falls on the cathode having work function 3 eV (a) If the saturation current is i = 4pA for intensity 10~ W/m . Using Moseley's law. the deuteron supply of the star is exhausted in a time of the order of: [JEE' 93 ] (A) 10 sec (B) 10 sec (C) 10 sec (D)10 sec Q.16 A Hydrogen atom and Li ion are both in the second excited state.17 A hydrogen like atom (described by the Bohr model) is observed to emit six wavelengths. Determine the total volume ofblood in the body of the person.0. the processes H + jH —>• jH + p & jH +.7 x 10~ C. The radius r of the n Bohr's orbit depends upon principal quantum number n as : (A)rocn (B) r°c 1/n (C)rxn (D)roc 1/n [JEE' 2003 (Scr)] Q. Determine (a) the number of photoelectrons emitted up to t = 10 sec. (b) Calculate the smallest wavelength emitted in these transitions.2 x 10 Hz. [JEE' 2002] Q.0.544 eV (including both these values) (a) Find the atomic number ofthe atom. Assume that one photoelectron is emitted for every 10 incident photons. and E and E their respective energies. given that the 1 Rydberg's constant R = 1. (1 Curie = 3.1 x 10 mr.Q.findthe atomic number of the element. These levels have energies between .ray tube is 5 kV and the current through it is 3.

the mass of a ^Ne nucleus & M the mass of a ^Ca nucleus. M. each having an energy of 0. energy values associated with some of them.025 eV (ii) Energy of X-rays (B) 0. Column I Column II (i) Energy ofthermal neutrons (A) 0. (3 (C)(3. etc. The energy in MeV required to remove a neutron from 0 is : [JEE'95] (A) 3. The binding energy per nucleon of 11670 is 7. column I lists some physical quantities & the column II gives approx.28 Consider a-particles. = He + Q .5 MeV. Consider the following reaction . P .0141 u . the radiations are : [JEE'94] (A) a . 13 2 2 20 p 2 n 2 2 2 131 <i§Bansal Classes 2 l n p 131 Modern Physics [11] .70 is 7. of the physical quantity in the answer book.particles&y rays. Given a sample of 1 at time t = 0. In your answer.0641 OOu&jHe =4. Then : (A) M = 2 Mj (B) M > 2 Mj (C) M < 2 Mj (D) M < 10 (m + m ) (ii) The half-life of I is 8 days. 4 2 Q.0024 u This is a nuclear reaction in which the energy Q is released is MeV.002603u. the former with a probability of 8% and the latter with a probability of 92%. [JEE'98] (i) Let m be the mass of a proton.64 (C) 4. (ii).5 % . ^Pu=244. Choose the appropriate value of energyfromcolumn II for each ofthe physical quantities in column I and write the corresponding letter A. against the number (i).p. (C) In nuclear fusion. Its primary decay modes are spontaneous fission and a decay.97 MeV & that of .life ofthe nuclei and The time in which the number ofundecayed nuclear will further reduce to 6. Calculate : [JEE 96] mean . B.5 eV (iii) Binding energy per nucleon (C) 3 eV (iv) Photoelectric threshold of metal (D) 20 eV (E)10keV (F) 8 MeV (c) The element Curium Cm has a mean life of 10 seconds.75 MeV. P . m the mass of a neutron.072220u. Calculate the power output from a sample of 10 Cm atoms.52 (B) 3. Increasing order of penetrating powers. ^ ^ H . 2 5 Q.25 % ofthe reduced number.30 Select the correct alternative(s) . we can assert that: (A) no nucleus will decay before t = 4 days (B) no nucleus will decay before t = 8 days (C) all nuclei will decay before t = 16 days (D) a given nucleus may decay at any time after t = 0. the sequence of column I should be maintained. y (B) a .27 (i) (ii) Q. Mass ofthe helium atom = 4. The masses involved in a decay are as follows : ggCm=248.a (D)y.energy is released byfragmentationof a very heavy nucleus. After 10 sec the number of undecayed nuclei remains to 12.23 (D) 7. y. (B) The rest mass of a stable nucleus is greater than the sum ofthe rest masses ofits separated nucleons.(ii) Q. (D) In nuclearfission. energy is released by fusion two nuclei ofmedium mass (approximately 100 amu).86 At a given instant there are 25 % undecayed radio-active nuclei in a sample.y.29(a)The maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emittedfroma surface when photons of energy 6 eV fall on it is 4 eV The stopping potential in Volts is : (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 10 (b) In the following. [JEE 96] Mass ofthe deuterium atom = 2. (iii).a Which ofthe following statement(s) is (are) correct ? [JEE'94] (A) The rest mass of a stable nucleus is less than the sum of the rest masses of its separated nucleons. C etc.26 Q. Each fission releases 200 MeV of energy. (1 u = 931 MeV/c ) [JEE'97] Q.

67 x 10~ kg] (A) 10 kg/m (B) 10 kg/m (C) 10 kg/m (D) 10 kg/m (c) Ne nucleus.XZ . then the ratio ofthe number of nuclei ofXj to that of Xj will be 1/e after a time (A) 1/(10X) (B) 1/(1 IX) (C) 11/(1 OA. [m = 1. after absorbing energy.75 n P-particles. (b) If a=2N ?t. Ifinitially they have the same number of nuclei.2 „ + C (C) x — > x + / ( D ) Xv + e _ ! -> X i + 8 Q. The process that would release energy is (A) Y —> 2Z (B) W —> X + Z 30 60 90 120 (C)W-» 2Y (D) X — Y + Z Mass Number of Nuclei (b) Order of magnitude of density of Uranium nucleus is. The unknown nucleus is (A) nitrogen (B) carbon (C) boron (D) oxygen (d) Which of the following is a correct statement? (A) Beta rays are same as cathode rays (B) Gamma rays are high energy neutrons. W. mass number curve for nuclei is shown in the figure. Initially both of them have the same number of atoms.36 Which of the following processes represents a gamma .37 The volume and mass of a nucleus are related as [JEE 2003 (Scr)] (A) v qc m (B) v cc 1/m (C) v cc m (D) v oc 1/m Q. then the kinetic energy of a-particle is : [JEE 2003 (Scr)] (A) 5.7MeV (D)None Q. In next 2 sec it emits 0. and X respectively.33 Two radioactive materials Xj and X have decay constants 10X.32(a) Binding energy per nucleon vs. X.decay? [JEE 2002 (Scr)] (A) X + y > X _ ! + a + b (B) X +in .* .) (D)1/(9A) [JEE'2000 (Scr)] Q.5 MeV.34 The electron emitted in beta radiation originates from [JEE'2001(Scr)] (A) inner orbits of atoms (B)freeelectrons existing in nuclei (C) decay of a neutron in a nucleus (D) photon escapingfromthe nucleus Q. Y and Z are four nuclei indicated on the curve. The element has a decay constant X. Then (A) X & Y have the same decay rate initially (B) X & Y decay at the same rate always (C) Y will decay at a faster rate than X (D) X will decay at a faster rate than Y [JEE'99] Q.31 Nuclei ofa radioactive element A are being produced at a constant rate a . The time taken for the radioactivity of a sample o f At to decay to 1/16 of its initial value is [JEE 2002 (Scr)] (A) 400 ps ( B ) 6.3 ps (C) 40 ps (D) 300 ps Q. If Q-value ofthe reaction is 5. calculate the number ofnuclei ofA after one halflife ofA & also the limiting value ofN as t-*».8MeV (C)2. [JEE '98] EO Y n Q. there are N nuclei of the element.38 The nucleus of element X (A= 220) undergoes a-decay. (a) Calculate the number N of nuclei of A at time t. what is the mean life ofthe sample? [JEE 2003 ] 0 0 1 27 p 20 3 17 3 14 3 n 3 22 2 215 215 th A A A Z z A z Z A A z 0 3 7 A 2 z 2 <i§Bansal Classes A Modern Physics 2 [11] .35 The half-life of At is 100 ps.Q. decays into two a-particles and an unknown nucleus. At time t = 0.4MeV (B)10.39 A radioactive sample emits n P-particles in 2 sec. (C) Alpha particles are singly ionized helium atoms (D) Protons and neutrons have exactly the same mass (E) None (e) The half-life period of a radioactive element X is same as the mean-life time of another radioactive element Y.

Q. (A) Ratio of work functions : <j) : <t> = 1:2 : 4 0. What is the value of n? [JEE 2006] th Q. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct? [Here X is the wavelength of the incident ray].24 MeV (B)0MeV (C) 5. 44 Highly energetic electrons are bombarded on a target of an element containing 3 0 neutrons.2 eV energy collides with a hydrogen atom in ground state inelastically. Then z' is (A) 11 (B) 44 (C) 6 (D) 4 [JEE 2005 (Scr)] Q. 43 The potential energy of a particle of mass m is given by V(x)= E„ 0 < x < 1 x >1 Xl and X2 are the de-Broglie wavelengths of the particle. Find the probability.001 0.46 The graph between 1IX and stopping potential (V) ofthree metals having work functions (j^. After few microseconds one more photon of energy 15 eV collides with the same hydrogen atomThen what can be detected by a suitable detector. 41 A photon of 10.40 The wavelength of K X-ray of an element having atomic number z = 11 is X.4 eV (D) 1 photon of 3. : <j) : (j) = 4 : 2 : 1 (C) tan 9 is directly proportional to hc/e.24 MeV [JEE 2005 (Scr)] Q.4 eVand one electron of 1. The ratio of radii of nucleus to that of helium nucleus is (14) . [JEE 2005] Q. Find (a) atomic number of the nucleus (b) the frequency of K line ofthe X-ray produced.2 eV (C) 2 photons of energy 3. (J> and <j) in an experiment of photometal 2 metal 3 electric effect is plotted as shown in the figure. (A) one photon of 10.834 amu and m = 4.4 eV [JEE 2005 (Scr)] Q. when 0 < x < 1 and x > 1 respectively. n line of Lyman series has wavelength X equal to the de-Broglie's wavelength of electron in the levelfromwhich it originated.lx 10 m andc = 3 x 10 m/s) [JEE 2005] Q. (A) 1 (B) 1/2 (C) 3/4 (D) 1/4 [JEE 2006] x 0 a He 1 0 l 2 1/3 7 a _1 8 Q .0026 amu (D) 4 MeV (A) 10. The wavelength of K X-ray of another element of atomic number z' is 4A. 4 8 Match the following Columns Column 1 (A) Nuclear fusion (B) Nuclear fission (C) (3-decay (D) Exothermic nuclear reaction <i§Bansal Classes [JEE 2006] Column 2 (P) Converts some matter into energy (Q) Generally occurs for nuclei with low atomic number (R) Generally occurs for nuclei with higher atomic number (S) Essentially proceeds by weak nuclear forces Modern Physics [11] . where h is Planck's constant and c is the speed of light (D) The violet colour light can eject photoelectrons from metals 2 and 3. If the total energy of particle is 2E . a nucleus disintegrates within 2 half lives. 42 Helium nuclie combines to form an oxygen nucleus. The binding energy per nucleon ofoxygen nucleus is if m = 15. 47 In hydrogen-like atom (z = 11).2 eV and an electron of energy 1.45 Given a sample of Radium-226 having half-life of 4 days.4 eV (B) 2 photons of energy 10. find X / X .004 l/X (B) Ratio of work functions ()>. (R= l.002 0. [JEE 2006] 2 3 3 2 2 3 Q.

7 487. (iii) 4 1 .7 x io years Q.2Er mS Modern Physics [11] .18 (i) 5.21 7.ll Q.4A.25 Energy ofneutron = 19.17 6.12 11.22 (a) 4 MeV.24 (i) ? °K —•> Ar + e° + v (ii) 4.67 x 10" J Q.257 x 1CT Am 23 X { X2 A^i + X 2 Q.20 54. 3 x l 0 .3 1. 0. 3 : 1 Q.9 X = yjx +x 2 Q.ll (i) 2.14 489.0 cm Q.99 eV.1 3Cr t\ Q15 (i).0007 MeV.8 nm Q.8 sec) Q.04 xlO.13 6.6 volt. 6.28A { „ 1 er .48 xlO" m Q. 36.0 eV 5. 5 x l 0 H z Q.28 -h/eEt 18 EXERCISE # II 2 38IRh Q.6 8 0 eV.l Q.23 (T = 10.J-s 34 12 Q.0 eV. 17.23 5196 yrs Q.n = 7 Q. .04 x io yrs Q. (ii) 2.14 x 10 sec n 1/2 v 9 9 +1 18 y Q.25 t = / n 2 Q. — 2tc 1 . 4.6 MeV Q. (b) 4.7 x 10" J.8 eV.2 MeV (c) 0.9 7:36 _n Q. (iv) 2.16 2eV.6 eV.5 eV Q.8 x 10 .ANSWER KEY EXERCISE # I Q.21 n = 3 .5 eV. i 9 " z = 3.2 (a) 2.22 23. (iii) 10" x 100 sec 81 'o J v Q.2 pA Q. 0 6 x l 0 ~ m Q.737 A. 4 .6 (b) 7.20 1. 0. 0.18 4. 13.27 AT <i§Bansal Classes 0.26m/s.01366 amu Q.7 (i) 5/16 photon/sec.875 x io V. (iii) 0. (b)2. photo electric emission just stop when hu = (3 + l)eV = 4.1 x io Q.> 3 Q.33 x 10 photons/m -s .06 volt Q.10 22.J.2 x 10 years Q. (c)2. 16 (i) 1.06nm Q.12 18/(5R) 5 1020 Q. (ii) 13.4 1.87i8 r (ii) o . Angle of recoil = tan" (1.4 Q.10 3. 25.3 (a) 0.5 (i) 4125A.27 1.g Q.2eV Q. 16.5 885 Q.13 1.8 Xdeutron ""neutron ^ ' ^ P ^ 16 1 5 C 12 16 2 15 2 A Q.25eV.768 MeV.0213 pA(iii) 1.2eV.2 4.6 (i) 1.26 v = uXt Q.034) or 46° 6 2 { !9 15 1 / 3 2 z2 e r 10 ~ 0 4 15 15 9 6 10 1 Q. (ii) 23.87MeV Q.53 x lO.0mA when the potential is steady.l 8IhR/3C Q.76 x 1 0 A Q.096 pA(ii) 2. Energy ofBeryllium= 5.8 4.956 x io photons/m s . 0.15 16' 8071 2 Q. (ii) 5/1600'electrons/sec Q.24 eV Q. 340 eV.760 V Q.19 3 .14 2.26 8/3xlO sec Q.1 x 10 m/s Q.4 eV Q.17 5 Q .6 15/8 V Q.384 % Q.

E. C Q.31 (a) N = —1 [a (1 X y (b) 3N — 2N 2 lt e~ )+ X N 0 e~ X t ] 0 Q.75n-N (l e" ^. d =0. P. (ii) KE= 151 eV. 5 eV Q.25x 10 per sec.9 C(i)D.36 eV and 0.5 D Q. (B) P. (iv) .58 eV.43 V2 Q.44 v = 1.88 eV (5 -> 3) & 2.6 x 10 Hz Q. 0.365 eV.42 A Q.24 (i)B.61 Q. (b)A Q 14 (a) n = 2.39 1.4 (a) 10 s" . 24 Q.40 C 2 In Q.18 .35 A Q.E. R <i§Bansal Classes Modern Physics [11] .27 (i) t1/2 = 10 sec. (ii) 18. after combination = 3 .30 (i) C.23 6 litre Q.A.26 C Q.846 x 10 Hz.18 5xl0 .(d) E. 6.45 C Q.17 3.38 A Q.(b) B . Z = 3 Q.C Q.(c) B.22 C Q.32 (a) C .7 (i) 47tm (ii) 871m Q.23 x 10 Hz.6 eV./C. D Q.' tmeans = 14. (C) S.W/m 5 Q.217.25 A.21 Q.34 C Q. Q.546 x 10 Hz 18 Q 48 (A) P.2000N. (D) P.20 z = 42 1=10 W/m -5 -2V 2 2 V Q.4 eV. GS.3 nm Q.C.312 eV.47 n = 24 Q.63 eV (4 -> 3) Q 13 (a)C..95 sec. (c) = 33. 9. (b) 286. (ii) A = 6.ll Q Q 12 during combination = 3.(ii)A P Q.6 (i) KE = 3. z = 4.8100.5 A (i) CA (ii) A. (e) C Q.41 A Q. (ii) . D v Q.16 B Q. D (ii) D Q.46 A.43 s (ii) 40 seconds ^ Q. 11. Q. (iii) -F.29 (a) B. Q.2 n = 6.37 A Q.4052. .66 A Q.328 eV. Min. Allowed values of energy of He atom = 17. 23 eV Q 15 A 1 15 15 15 5 1 least 19 7 8|IA Q. (b) 6.l (i) Allowed values of energy of neutron = 6. energy =10.28 Fusion.84 eV and 16.36 C 4 0 Q.33 D Q.298 pW v Q.3 B. (d) 111 s he ehB Q. R.EXERCISE # III Q.19 A 1=2x10. (b) (i) .