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America's Newspapers

The first Successful American Newspaper Started in 1704 and it was “The Boston
Newsletter” - 1704 - 2007

The Boston Newsletter — the forefather of the "Uniquely American Style" headlinenews journalism — was born in Boston 303 years ago.
It was the first regularly published newspaper in America - the "Grandfather" of the
modern USA TODAY, news magazine and web page style of news writing.
John Campbell was Publisher and Postmaster of Boston. Before that time, Campbell
had been writing his encapsulated weekly news items by hand to New England
governors and merchants.

American Turning Point
The Spring of 1704 was a turning point for American Journalism as the printing press
owned by Bart Green of Boston's "Old Newbury Street" made it possible to mass
produce Campbell's news accounts.
The Boston Newsletter contained articles from English papers and announcements
about ship arrivals, births, and deaths.
"Published By Authority" of the crown of England, the initial run of the paper was
faithfully published for 72 years.
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Printer Then Publisher
For 23 years, Campbell continuously published the paper. In 1727, Campbell's printer,
Bart Green became the owner and publisher and changed the name to the Boston
Weekly Newsletter.

A Number of Firsts
The "Little-Newspaper" had several firsts to its credit including, first advertisement,
first picture graphics as well as first woman publisher.
In 1752, Richard Draper became publisher and editor. When he suddenly died in
1768, his widow Elizabeth Draper continued the paper for 8 years until 1776 becoming the first woman publisher in America.
Today, The Boston Newsletter continues to explore Great Ideas & Images in Boston
culture.

Newspapers today:
Nowadays everything has changed, including the American press. If in its early
beginning the press was limited politically, now the editors and journalists can write
about everything because they have the freedom of expressing their own opinion. If at
the beginning the press had a political influence, today this thing doesn’t happen any
longer. Nowadays the press covers a large variety of information and there are many
kinds of publications: family publications, sports or fashion publications, gazettes or
pulps. On a Top 10 of the US Newspapers by Circulation on the internet, I discovered
that the best newspaper was “USA Today”, so I decided to give a short presentation of
this newspaper in order to make an opinion about the difference between the first
newspaper and the present newspapers. But first let’s find out what a newspaper is
today and what kind of information it contains.
Today the concept of the term “newspaper” has changed a lot. A newspaper is a
written publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on
low-cost paper called newsprint. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on
political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most
traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns which express the
personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising,
comics, coupons, and other printed media. Newspapers are most often published on a
daily or weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where
most of their readers live. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits

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etc. sudoku and horoscopes  A sports column or section  A humor column or section  A food column  Classified ads are commonly seen in local or small newspapers. plays. as contrasted with a local newspaper serving a city or region.  Editorial opinions  A gossip column  Comic strips and other entertainment. such newspapers are generally still classified as weeklies. Afternoon or evening papers are aimed more at commuters and office workers. so the Sunday and Monday editions largely depend on content done in advance or content that is syndicated. some focus on groups of readers defined more by their 3 . restaurants. Saturday and. where they exist. Typically. usually geographically defined. include more specialized sections and advertising inserts. Types of newspapers: A daily newspaper is issued every day. such as crosswords. Sunday editions of daily newspapers tend to be larger. Most daily newspapers are published in the morning. Weekly newspapers are common and tend to be smaller than daily papers. There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterised as international newspapers. there also are newspapers that are published twice or three times a week. In the United States. While most newspapers are aimed at a broad spectrum of readers. In some cases. sometimes with the exception of Sundays and some national holidays. Most nations have at least one newspaper that circulates throughout the whole country: a national newspaper.newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism. and cost more. Features a newspaper may include are:  Weather news and forecasts  An advice column  Critic reviews of movies. the majority of these newspapers’ staff work Monday to Friday.

With the introduction of the Internet. The more restrained style of reporting that relies on fact checking and accuracy regained popularity around World War II. The National Enquirer. Cox. The format of the newspapers: Most modern newspapers are in one of three sizes:  Broadsheets: 600 mm by 380 mm (23½ by 15 inches). The Guardian in the United Kingdom. The Globe. newspapers have often been owned by so-called press barons. LandMark. a number of newspapers (and all of the largest ones) are being run by large media corporations such as Gannett. since 12 September 2005. many newspapers in the United States relied on sensational stories that were meant to anger or excite the public. Examples: The Sun.  Tabloids: half the size of broadsheets at 380 mm by 300 mm (15 by 11¾ inches). The National Ledger. Morris Corporation.  Berliner or Midi: 470 mm by 315 mm (18½ by 12¼ inches) used by European papers such as Le Monde in France. rather than to inform. In the past. generally associated with more intellectual newspapers. in the modern world. Whistle-blowers. More recently in the United States. New York Post. and scandals involving plagiarism and fabrication. El Pais in Spain and. although a trend towards “compact” newspapers is changing this. Credibility is questioned because of anonymous sources. web-based newspapers have also started to be produced as online-only publications. Criticism of journalism is varied and sometimes vehement. Hollinger International. real or perceived bias. and were used either asa rich man’s toy. the profession involved in the making of newspapers began to be called journalism. and often perceived as sensationalist in contrast to broadsheets. Since newspapers began as a journal (record of current events). there are daily and weekly business newspapers and sports newspapers. Hearst Corporation. Newspapers have. In the yellow journalism era of the 19th century. La Stampa in Italy. or a political tool.interests than their location: for example. etc. News Corporation. and those who “leak” stories of corruption in political circles often choose to inform newspapers before other mediums of 4 . The McClatchy Company. spelling. errors in facts. The Tribune Company. and grammar. played an important role in the exercise of freedom of expression. The Star Magazine.

with overall readership slowly declining in most developed countries due to increasing competition from television and the Internet. However. reported circulation increases in only 35 of 208 countries studied. A report at the gathering said circulation declined by an average of 2. Most of the increases came in developing countries. Front page of The New York Times on Armistice Day. held in Istanbul in June 2004. November 11. communicating their processes and rationale with readers.2 percent across 13 of the 15 countries that made up the European Union. they grew 16 percent in 2003. 5 . using more stringent corrections policies. which are not reflected in the above circulation data. The 57th annual World Newspaper Congress. developing ethics policies and training. The future of newspapers is cloudy. 1918. and asking sources to review articles after publication. there have been many circumstances of the political autonomy of newspapers being curtailed. relying on the perceived willingness of newspaper editors to expose the secrets and lies of those who would rather cover them. Opinions of other writers and readers are expressed in the op-ed (“opposite the editorial page”) and letters to the editors sections of the paper.communication. Some ways newspapers have tried to improve their credibility are: appointing ombudsmen. Led by the Metro chain of newspapers. notably China and India. One growth area is the distribution of free daily newspapers.

real estate. the advertising of which has long been key sources of newspaper revenue. 6 . Also from online only newspapers. but only published online and others now exist through out the world. especially for jobs. This opens the debate as to what constitutes a newspaper. Already in the UK a newspaper called Southport Reporter started out in 2000 and remains online as a recognized newspaper.Newspapers also face increased competition from internet sites such as Craig’s list for classified ads. and cars.

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printed on both sides and issued weekly. printing the newspaper on what was then referred to as a half-sheet. was its first editor. a bookseller and postmaster of Boston. to government authority. religion played a key. He thus 8 . The environment that the tension created exerted strong pressure on the nature of the News-Letter and Campbell. 1704. Campbell himself. but the entrance of Anglicanism and its ties to the British crown and. and it provided the basis for much of the dynamic tension between government. In that period Boston acquired its first continuing newspaper. The religious environment in Massachusetts in 1704. however.A comparison between America’s first newspaper and America’s best newspaper by circulation in present America's First Newspaper America's first continuously-published newspaper. without any conception of its being a true newspaper or of exercising any publishing independence. and the press. Throughout the history of colonial Massachusetts. the governed. It influenced social and political relations. the year of the founding of the News-Letter. John Campbell. published by the Anglican John Campbell. perhaps even the central role. the Boston News-Letter published its first issue on April 24. made the situation volatile. was also one of the key ingredients. was the result primarily of the influence of Puritanism. one of the responsibilities required by his position as postmaster. surprisingly little historical effort has been devoted to answering such key questions. Had it not been for that sense of duty. What were the motivations behind Campbell's decision to publish a newspaper? Why did he produce a newspaper of the nature of the News-Letter? What was his philosophy about the role of the newspaper and about his own duties? Considering the fact that the News-Letter holds the historical distinction that it does. It originally appeared on a single page. he believed. He began the paper. the Boston News-Letter. Publishing a quasi-official report in the form of a newspaper was. the paltry financial support and other difficulties that he faced might very easily have resulted in the paper's early discontinuation. consequently. He was devoted to what he conceived as his duty to publish the newspaper.

and from abroad. When Green died after a decade as its editor. The reports were chiefly about commerce. Duncan Campbell. accidents and the like. The postal system had been set up in 1692 under a royal grant that gave it a monopoly on "any letters or Pacquets which shall be brought into. and been appointed a constable in 1699. Draper proved to be a better editor and publisher than his predecessors.looked on himself not as an energetic editor but as an official conduit of information and on the newspaper as a formal. merchants. other towns throughout the colonies. the News-Letter was inherited by his son John Draper. or shipped from" any colony from Virginia northward. political appointments. he was in a position to obtain news conveniently from incoming letters. sermons. and a variety of events concerning the European wars. and ship crews. filling it with news from Boston. chronological record of news items. its printer. deaths. As part of his job. and other affluent colonists. made the position of postmaster ideal for obtaining information and for mailing letters and printed material. upon the death of his brother. fires. The rest of the newspaper was filled with items listing ship arrivals. along with the franking privilege that each colonial postmaster enjoyed. As editor. Campbell had the official task of writing letters of important information to the main office. How everything began John Campbell had emigrated from Scotland to the colonies in the 1690s.. shipping. become acquainted with some of Boston's most prominent figures. newspapers. He circulated his handwritten "public news-letters" to postal officials. Green devoted less space to overseas events and more to domestic news. One of the most sensational stories published when the News-Letter was the only newspaper in the colonies was the the account of how Blackbeard the pirate was killed in hand-to-hand combat on the deck of a sloop that had engaged his ship in battle. As postmaster in an important commercial center and seaport town. he was named to replace him as Massachusetts' postmaster. joined King's Chapel.In 1702. He enlarged the paper to four good-sized pages. In the early years of its publication the News-Letter was filled mostly with news from London journals detailing the intrigues of English politics.. Many subscribers shared them with non-subscribers. That monopoly. and some letters ended up posted in taverns and other 9 . also a printer. Campbell relinquished his stewardship of the paper in 1722 to Bartholomew Green. and governmental activities.

Many Bostonians came to rely on it for their own information and used it as a means of keeping friends in other towns supplied with news of Boston happenings. commercial shipping news. Foreign news was printed on the front page and part of the second and third pages. The News-Letter served as a semi-official report summarizing items of news for reader convenience. Subsequent issues followed the same rigid page make-up with clock-like regularity. little more work than he already was doing. made up with two columns on each of its two pages. thus presenting a monotone page. Printing allowed Campbell to produce as many copies as he wanted at a much faster speed and more economical rate than he could ever imagine writing them with his quill. and occasionally sermons and philosophical discourses. His franking privilege would help keep costs down. He then contracted with Bartholomew Green to set one of the handwritten letters in type and print copies. 1704. followed by colonial news. he expected that a newspaper could attract income through advertising. Producing a public news letter would require. news of the seaboard colonies and the West Indies. Furthermore. the colonies' first continuous newspaper. To obtain the foreign news. The increased numbers also convinced him that a sizable potential market of readers probably existed for the letters. British government activities occupied the front page. and finally local news on the last page. to serve as the advertising solicitor. culled from English newspapers. on which the news items were arranged without any graphic order or emphasis. With an increasing number of clients. This. Thus on April 24.] It supplied readers with extracts of news of England and Europe. was a half sheet of paper. he calculated. The London Flying Post and London Gazette were used most frequently as sources of news. about 8 x 12 inches. and peace treaties. it did not use headlines and varied the type only slightly. began the Boston News-Letter. Campbell would watch ships sailing up the harbor until they 10 . a bookseller. local Boston news. Reprinted also were reports about the court intrigues and gossip. A machine-printed version of Campbell's handwritten news-letters. The foreign news items.public places for anyone who wished to learn about the news. So he decided to begin printing the letters and making them available for purchase by the general public. wars. He worked out an arrangement with Nicholas Boone. Campbell found that producing the letters by hand required too much time. governmental items. were mostly political in nature.

officials.an exception to Campbell's practice of relegating local news to the back. however. South Carolina. today the means of communication -. In light of such considerations. Adding excitement and drama to the News-Letter's pages were accounts of fights with pirates and French privateers who infested the waters of the Atlantic and of warfare against the Indians who prowled outside the settlements. executions of pirates. fire. for example. and floods that could stir people's emotions. for example. enabling local residents to keep informed by word of mouth better than they could have in the eighteenth century. a better explanation of the paucity of local news in colonial papers is simply that an emphasis on local news was not the standard journalism practice of the 11 .in a small town are much better than in 1704. they were older. Such an assumption about colonial publishers' reason for not publishing local news must be approached with scepticism. He received his domestic news through the colonial post. religious news. official court news. and businessmen who owned the ships or had investments in them. It also laconically summarized such occurrences as deaths. and other marine news. the governor's activities always made front page stories -. News of Dudley's fight with the two farmers. Because transportation was slow and the post ran only weekly out of Boston. disease. and political news. little local news of Boston and the immediate neighbourhood. Furthermore. the News-Letter reported on the activities of colonial government and the assembly. Today. hasten aboard to greet the captain. Of the political news. Nevertheless.such as the telephone -.docked. from Nova Scotia to Charleston. and secure the London papers. When winter snows hampered travel. Most of the news was about the arrival and departure of ships. natural deaths. Functioning as a journal of public affairs. Then he would run to the docks. the reports almost always were at least a fortnight old. already would have been much talked about in taverns and probably superseded by other more recent topics by the time it would have appeared in Campbell's weekly medium. It carried. many weekly newspapers publish in towns smaller than Boston was in 1704. Campbell's domestic news covered the seaport settlements with which Boston had business and other contacts. and yet their emphasis is on local news. Historians frequently have suggested that colonial newspapers downplayed local news on the assumption that local residents already knew what had happened in town. farmers who had products and goods to ship or merchandise to buy. The stories that it did publish formed a weekly chronicle of Boston events: disease. the trade news was important to shippers.

and he thought of his own function as that of the government's provider of information. Ever attentive to foreign happenings." It was this spirit that prompted him to shy away from controversial political and social issues. As for other colonial newspapers." running a brief summary of the important events and then publishing serially all the items he had on hand. Campbell stated his editorial policy as having "always been to give no offence. that Cotton Mather called them "antiquities. He tried to carry all items as a "thread of occurrence. and he willingly apologized. decisions about running news of local events appear to have been based normally on the proprietors' judgment about what would be of interest to local readers. as with most other colonial newspapers.time. however. imaginative editor whose role was to scrutinize government action or analyze issues or indulge in controversy. had no wish to 12 . he attempted to include as much in each issue as space allowed. In the case of the News-Letter. however. The news items were so stale. not meddling with things out of his Province. Campbell was so conscientious in providing a complete chronicle of news as to be inflexible. As a friend of Dudley and many of his associates. He published the newspaper with permission from the Dudley administration. he believed. they usually adopted the practices of the time. and local news. Most of the important issues facing Bostonians centered around contentious differences between Dudley and the townspeople. and local events. Campbell." Producing the newspaper was. as time passed by. He never thought of being an independent. With the-News-Letter. Campbell thus appears to have had partisan motives for news decisions. but the weekly half-page simply could not hold all he wished to relay. a year old in some instances. The result was that. however old it might be. a responsibility of his position. it was natural that he sided with government positions. thus accounting for a mix of foreign. with each issue prominently displaying the line "Printed by Authority. On only one occasion was he reprimanded for offending authorities. the local news that was omitted was that which involved Dudley and his supporters. When colonial Americans started newspapers. incoming boats." Criticized for the News-Letter's mundaneness. domestic. He cherished the foreign news so much that he would not throw away any part. the News-Letter lagged further and further behind. one finds that some local news was printed. and the standard practice was to emphasize non-local and particularly foreign news.

It also turned a blind eye on questionable and controversial activities of Dudley and his friends. although a reader. In the early 1700s. his acrimonious efforts to have his salary increased. however. Opponents such as Cotton and 13 . the issuance of paper currency. and a fight between the mercantile class and the old charter party. the News-Letter struggled. Arthur Lawson.give attention to the dissensions in the News-Letter. Part of the problem was that some Bostonians simply found Campbell's writing graceless and the paper dull. a struggle for more autonomy from royal power. Campbell frequently called upon the public and officials for support. the open flaunting of an adulterous affair by Dudley's mercantile associate. With a circulation of fewer than 300 copies. which enraged Bostonians. including such actions as Dudley's high-handed political tactics with opponents. he failed to cover many of the major events that were shaping Boston and that were of greatest interest to its citizens. The number of subscriptions remained small. and Campbell repeatedly had to publish pleas for payment. taxation. and a trial in which Lawson and other merchants were convicted of selling English supplies to enemy troops in Canada and in which charges were made that Dudley himself was involved. ranging from the ongoing and acrimonious controversies between Anglicans and Puritans. As a result. some thought. Campbell faced hard times almost perpetually. The News-Letter kept clear of these controversies. a mob's attack on the grain warehouses of Andrew Belcher. Most of his calls seem to have gone unrequited. was the knowledge that the News-Letter was the official record for the unpopular and. immoral Dudley regime. a merchant friend of Campbell. Cotton Mather. This deficiency was especially noticeable in political events. Subscribers seemed to have been habitually tardy. and advertising volume never provided substantial income. to frontier defences. Massachusetts confronted a variety of critical issues. While pamphleteers argued over these episodes incessantly. the pages of the News-Letter could have led a reader to believe they never happened. Mather's statements to acquaintances that the "filthy and foolish" News-Letter provided only "a thin sort of diet" were so harsh as to appear motivated by more than the paper's dullness. in paying their bills. Most of the Puritan citizenry and Dudley's other political opponents held the News-Letter in low regard. More damaging. Because of its news treatment and other reasons. the imbalance of trade with Great Britain. Although receiving occasional government subsidies. sometimes by more than a year. the dispute over a private banking system. ridiculed it as "our paltry news-letter.

Whereas formerly he had moaned to 14 . When. as comes any way Attested.. in September of the following year." He made periodic pleas to the public for support. The Gazette became the organ of the postmaster and. began to change. he likewise gave the paper to his successor.. it was assumed. Still.. . In spite of commercialism and other changes taking place in Boston society. of the colonial governor as well. He displayed a tenacious determination to carry out his arduous publishing duties despite the continuing problems. 1719. both Foreign and Domestick. The situation. Brooker surrendered the newspaper to him. The News-Letter. When Brooker's successor. grew worse in 1718. Philip Musgrave. Thus the newspaper continued through a succession of five postmasters. Campbell's philosophy about operating the News-Letter as if it were an official journal led his successor to assume that the newspaper was a part of the postmaster's position. the British monarchy's efforts to expand its control over the colony. Some subscribers were no longer able to obtain the News-Letter. Brooker thereupon decided to start another newspaper. Campbell persevered. government corruption. Campbell nevertheless continued to publish the NewsLetter. was replaced in 1726. publishing the first issue of the Boston Gazette on December 21.) in giving a true and genuine account of all Matters of Fact. and an individual less dedicated to his duties than Campbell might have stopped publication on any number of occasions. difficult as it was. Campbell was replaced with another postmaster. Revenues were barely enough to pay costs.. Ministers preached on the necessity for public officials to follow Biblical standards in the conduct of local affairs. however.Increase Mather produced pamphlets attacking the Dudley administration and its Anglican supporters. refused to give the paper to Brooker. Campbell was denied use of the mail for sending the paper to subscribers. Replaced as postmaster.. troublesome and never prosperous. and the exertions of Boston's small Anglican minority to gain favored status. and the two quarreled. another postmaster was appointed to replace him. provided no more than a small source of income. and the government was deprived of its journal. while promising that he would continue even if the small number of subscribers did not increase." Committed to fulfilling what he considered to be a public obligation. however. William Brooker. and Campbell gave his "Labour for nothing. Campbell. he worked conscientiously at the paper "(according to the Talent of my capacity and Education. Puritan traditions still were strong enough to provoke public anger against Dudley's vanity. His approach.

Political issues were intricate. and he invited them to compare the quality of his newspaper with its competitor." On the other hand. Because of that criticism and remarks the essay made about the British monarchy. Piqued that Campbell had kept the News-Letter. the Gazette under Brooker and Musgrave favored the interests of Governor Samuel Shute. he now told them that the subscription list was long. The News-Letter and the Gazette played active roles in publicizing the contentions. and along with the short summary news items he always had carried he now began including occasional essays and observations. and it was not long before they were taking sides on public issues. The House of Representatives responded that the problem lay not with the colony but with the forest surveyor. and both papers frequently published material from contending sides. Neither newspaper could be accused. but they still officially retained the authority given by the British crown to oversee printing and prohibit obnoxious publishing.despite Campbell's Anglican membership. of being a tool exclusively for one side. as the lively pamphleteering scene had shown. it was the Gazette which served as the primary outlet for Mather and his supporters. Brooker printed an article stating that Campbell had been fired from the postmaster's job. Generally." which among other things criticized Anglicanism -. Royal governors never had been fully able to control publishing in Massachusetts. That charge led to an exchange of personal insults between the two. In 1722 he began publishing a nine-part series on "The State of Religion. whereas some was published as straight news matter. Some material was paid for as "advertisements" by the authors. while the News-Letter took the side of the assembly. however. in the acrimonious public debate over smallpox inoculation in 1721-1722. Shute then asked the House not to include that passage in its printed proceedings. and he wrote a number of pieces for it. In November 1719 Governor Shute delivered an address in which he blamed the colony for failing to manage forests as required for the construction of masts on naval ships. Contentions between the royal governor and the elected representatives came to a head in 1720. who was appointed by the crown. Cotton Mather's attitude toward the News-Letter had moderated. and the dispute dealt the death blow to the governor's licensing of the press. declaring that since the governor's criticism had 15 . He began to insert his personality more. the government proceeded against Mather as a "publisher of dangerous libels.readers about the paper's difficulties. The House refused. for example.

and both sides used the Gazette and News-Letter extensively. Campbell was appointed a justice of the peace the following year and died in 1724. Seeking a forum from which he could attack Puritanism. Campbell finally sold it to Bartholomew Green in 1722. the official government printer. they gained a zealous spokesman who did not shrink from controversy but relished it. in 1721 he decided upon the tack of founding the Courant. it was appropriate that the response should be also. Shute replied that if the passage were not omitted. the New-England Courant. It brought a new aggressive. Since Anglicans were greatly outnumbered and their presumptions and practices held in contempt by most of the populace. however. Ever since the founding of King's Chapel. Because of their moderation. the main one being the respective authority that belonged to each. When Shute's council then approved a bill for preventing and punishing libels. His instruction to Bartholomew Green. however. they had found it necessary to act with a degree of prudence. was sufficient to dissuade him from doing the work. The Courant brought the differences between radical Anglicanism and Boston Puritanism to a head. The following year. When in March of 1721 Shute proposed a law to give him through legislation the authority to license printing. The entire disagreement between the governor and the House was aired in the pages of the Gazette and News-Letter and in an array of pamphlets. Shute discovered that council members were divided. Upon asking his council what action he should take. during the remainder of Shute's stormy term of office. and it was the dissatisfaction of that small group that provided the motive for a third newspaper. neither the News-Letter nor the Gazette could satisfy the combative High Church faction in Kings Chapel.been printed. the House refused to pass it. he would use his power as licenser of the press to prevent its publication. virulent. With the advent of John Checkley. its members had hoped that Anglicanism would be established as the official church in Massachusetts. vituperative style to Boston journalism. The governor and the representatives continued at loggerheads over a variety of issues. the House replied that licensing would raise "innumerable inconveniences and danger" for the colony and that punishment after publication would be preferable. Under Green and his 16 . after eighteen years of publishing the Boston News-Letter. but House members from Boston contracted with Nicholas Boone to proceed with the printing.

innocuous journal. Premiere Edition of 1704 The Boston Newsletter Journalism Milestones in the US  Boston postmaster John Campbell published the Boston Newsletter on April 24. and unrestraint. It was recognized as the first continuously published American newspaper. invective. 1704.  During the early years of journalism. many publishers followed by launching their publications such as the Boston Gazette and the New England Courant. After the first brick was laid down. the News-Letter remained a supporter of the royal authorities and a straightforward. many scholars characterized the press as being partisan.successors. Historian Frank Luther Mott (1962) 17 .

corruption. impartiality. the Commission on Freedom of the Press raised the campaign for journalists to put greater emphasis on social responsibility than on individual's freedom of expression. from the libertarian theory to the social responsibility theory (Siebert et al.25 million copies every 18 .  In 1947. Radio and television had become parts of the media that affected people's everyday life. The radio and television industry set up their own ethic codes in 1937 and 1952 respectively. some professionals were concerned that the excessive use of freedom might have somewhat negative impacts on the society: invading the individual's privacy and practicing without responsibility to the public. It was founded by Allen 'Al' Neuharth.S. and that local and human interest news is important. assaults.wrote that "Few papers were ably edited. that the first duty of the press is news.1956). that abuses should be exposed.  While most journalists enjoyed exercising their freedom of expression freely. truthfulness. This movement changed the concept of the press in the U. the American Society of Newspaper Editors created a set of professional ethic codes to be a guideline for journalists. fair play. Scurrility. USA Today-The best newspaper in the US by circulation USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. not political support.. This philosophy believed the people should have a realistic view of society. decency.  Another breakthrough in journalism was in the 20th century when telecommunication technology changed the face of traditional news coverage. 374). and respect for the individual's privacy. sincerity." Mott expressed his concern that "Journalism had grown too fast" (cited in Merrill 1995. In 1923. According to these codes. The paper has the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States (averaging over 2. they reflected the crassness of the American society of the times.  In the early 19th century. blatancy were commonplace. journalists had to perform with responsibility to the general welfare. the Penny Press concept was developed among the journalists.

and photographs. and Life. "silver towers". The paper is still sold in unique newspaper vending machines with curved edges that some say resemble television sets more than newspaper racks. Colorful and bold. Its original headquarters. USA Today was also eager to latch onto the business traveler and was heavily distributed through airlines. behind only the 2. Many people were hesitant to read a color newspaper and derided it as 'McPaper. The innovation of using satellites and regional printing hubs allowed the paper to push back deadlines and include the most recent news and sports scores in each edition.S. Its circulation figures are a matter of some dispute.6 million daily paid copies of The Times of India. the USA Today increased its price of a copy from 50 cents to 75 cents per copy. airports. two Life sections are included: the regular Life for movies. Money. it contrasted with the relatively colorless papers of the time such as The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. Virginia. Early on. and hotels in addition to other sales outlets. the newspaper has striven to set itself apart in distribution methods as well. In 2006. suburb. Each edition consists of four sections: News (the oft-labeled "front page" section).weekday). the newspaper moved into its new 30 acre (120.' However. Inc. are located in the neighborhood of Rosslyn and are a major landmark on the Washington skyline.000 m²) headquarters in McLean. the old USA Today and Gannett. market. The newspaper was also among the first newspapers to use satellite transmissions to send the final edition of the newspaper to multiple locations across the country for printing and final distribution in those regional markets. Sports. On Fridays. where generally only a single local newspaper was available. Layout and format: USA Today is known for synthesizing news down to easy-to-read-and-comprehend stories. USA Today was founded in 1982 with the goal of providing a national newspaper in the U. In 2001. D. with many large diagrams. it comes second world-wide. a Washington. often to customers unaware they are paying for the newspaper. and a travel supplement called "Life: 19 . and among English-language broadsheets. however.C. TV and trends. charts. the initial success of the paper was met with criticism. as USA Today has many contracts ensuring distribution in hotels. USA Today became wellknown for its national polls on public sentiment. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states. Emphasizing its national focus.

Being a national newspaper. sometimes using sentence-length blurbs to describe stories inside. Some examples of that divergence from tradition include using the left-hand quarter of each section as reefers. But USA Today is sufficiently different in aesthetics to be recognized on sight. Some traditions have been retained. On Mondays. and one U. are "USA Today Snapshots". In the bottom left-hand corner of the weather page is a graphic called "Weather Focus.Destinations and Diversions. page 2 of that section). which give statistics of various lifestyle interests according to the section it is in (for example. Therefore. the entire back page of the News section is used for weather maps and temperature lists for the entire United States and many cities throughout the world. The lede still appears on the upper-right hand of the front page." The paper does not print on Saturdays and Sundays. however. USA Today prints each complete story on the front page of the respective section with exception to the cover story. the Money section uses its back page to present an unusual graphic depicting the performance of various industry groups as a function of quarterly. Commentary and political cartoons occupy the last few pages of the News section. These "Snapshots" are shown through graphs which are made up of various illustrations of objects that roughly pertain to the graphs subject matter (using the example above. such as at a newsstand. territory. a snapshot in "Life" could show how many people tend to watch a certain genre of television show based upon the type of mood they are in at the time). One of the staples of the News section is a state-by-state roundup of headlines. In many ways.[3] Also. USA Today cannot focus on the weather for any one city. The overall design and layout of USA Today has been described as both neo-Victorian[2] and Impressionist. on the lower left hand corner. USA Today is set up to break the typical newspaper layout. in most of the sections' front pages. which is used for both headlines and stories. monthly and weekly movements against the S&P 500." which explains different meteorological phenomena. usually the very next page. or ended by 20 . It is also the only paper in the United States to utilize the Gulliver font.S. The summaries consist of paragraph-length Associated Press reports highlighting one story of note in each state. the graph's bars could be made up of several TV sets. Stock and mutual fund data are presented in the Money section. The cover story is a longer story that requires a jump (readers must turn to another page in the paper to complete the story. even in a mix of other newspapers. the District of Columbia.

How is the American press today? Many things have changed in the Press evolution because of the freedom of speech in such a way that sometimes the language is brutal. photographers need the permission of the people in their photographs. Paparazzi is a plural term (paparazzo being the singular form) for photographers who take candid photographs of celebrities. and by staging events in which paparazzi are specifically allowed to take photographs. information is modified because reporters feel the need to exaggerate and with the apparition pf the paparazzi things got worse because they understand that freedom wrongly. These are usually loosely based on research by a national institute (with the source in the box below the graph in fine print to show credit). In Germany and France. The paparazzi invade the private life of some public personalities. Due to the reputation of paparazzi as an annoyance. some states and countries (particularly within Europe) restrict their activities by passing laws and curfews.one). usually by relentlessly shadowing them in their public and private activities. Paparazzi sell their work to dozens of magazines and 21 .

Newspapers are one of the major advertising media for the smaller retailers and some larger corporations. or revealing picture." Indeed. opinion. and region or within a specified geographic area. English newspapers have been categorized into two main groups: Tabloids and Broadsheets. as society has grown increasingly complex. One of the first differences a reader notices about these two Tabloids and Broadsheets is their size. radio. 22 . you would notice is the different count of words on each front page. Broadsheets explain themselves. and television to keep abreast with world news. their first act is often to muzzle the press. people rely more and more on newspapers. but an organic necessity in a great society. Newspapers permit an advertiser to reach a large number of people in a city. Tablo. In the last century. one of the foundations of a democratic society. and as Walter Lippmann. wrote.newspapers that publish such photos for their readers and subscribers. "A free press is not a privilege. the 20th-century American columnist. The word ”Tabloid” comes from the French meaning tablet. Photographers often earn large sums for a particularly good. therefore. The second thing that. Although a cherished right of the people. town. Nowadays we can also speak about the freedom of the press. and political ideas. but also to the right of print and broadcast media to express political views and to cover and publish news. One sign of the importance of a free press is that when antidemocratic forces take over a country. as a reader. But not everything is bad about the American press of today. A free press is. Newspapers are normally created and bought daily. It applies not just to a single person's right to publish ideas. freedom of the press is different from other liberties of the people in that it is both individual and institutional. and many paparazzi feel that they are helping celebrities and public figures in general by increasing their visibility.

University of Illinois. Four Theories of the Press.com Wikipedia the free encyclopedia 23 . USA. 1995.Global Journalism. NY. Fred Siebert et al. Longman: White Plains. 1956. www.References: John Merrill.earlyamerica..

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