THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW

TOPICS: PUBERTY CHANGES  MENSTRUATION AND THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE  GOOD MORAL CHARACTER

Change from a child to an adult  Puberty is the time of sexual maturation and achievement of fertility.  Puberty is associated with development of secondary sex characteristics and rapid growth.

So what is PUBERTY?

HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY

These Glands start making a lot more of some hormones including growth hormone, LH (Lutenizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone). These hormones act on other parts of your body to make the changes happen.

HYPOTHALAMUS and PITUITARY GLAND

What LH and FSH do?
For boys:  work on their testes and adrenal glands (glands next to the kidneys) to make androgens (sex hormones) such as testosterone.  work on the testes so that they start to make sperm. For Girls  these hormones work on their ovaries  to the adrenal glands, so that they make more of the female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone

When does puberty happen?

BOYS  somewhere between 10 and 15 years.  With quite a lot of boys the first changes start to happen when they are around 11 or 12 years old.

GIRLS

start anywhere between the ages of 8-13 years (and sometimes earlier or later) but often the first changes happen around 10 or 11 years.

What are the body changes in…

What are the changes to your body?

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growing taller (and getting bigger feet!) changing shape getting hairier on arms and legs and growing new hair under arms and in the pubic area) - it starts out just a bit of fine hair then gets thicker and darker as you get older

What are the changes to your body?
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sweating more (and becoming a bit smellier! getting oilier skin and often some pimples having sexual feelings feeling 'moody'.

PUBERTY CHANGES IN BOYS

CHANGES in BOYS

Boys gain weight Shoulders get wider Muscles start to get bigger and stronger. growth of body hair, including underarm, abdominal, chest, and pubic hair

CHANGES in BOYS

growth of facial hair enlargement of larynx and deepening of voice increased stature; adult males taller than adult females, on average heavier skull and bone structure

CHANGES in BOYS

increased muscle mass and strength broadening of shoulders and chest; shoulders wider than hips increased secretions of oil and sweat glands, often causing acne and body odor

CHANGES in BOYS

coarsening of skin texture a prominent Adam's apple on average, larger hands and feet than prepubescent or adult females or prepubescent males

CHANGES in BOYS

Penis gets longer and wider. Testes (or testicles) get larger. 'nocturnal emissions' or wet dreams

CHANGES in BOYS

You get erections sometimes because you're nervous or excited and other times when it just happens by itself! This can be a bit embarrassing at first but other people don't usually notice them as much as you do and if you don't think about the erection

CHANGES in BOYS

Breasts look like they're developing a bit

Yes, boys have breasts…
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The breast doesn't grow any more, but the swelling may hang around for a few years while the boy is going through puberty. Boys may feel very sure that everyone can notice they have 'breasts' but in fact most other people wouldn't notice at all. 65% of boys will have some breast tissue at some time, so if you think you are growing breasts, you need not worry about it. This breast tissue doesn't stay there and will all be gone by the age of 20, unless you are overweight.

What you could do?
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Ignore it Don't wear tight clothes if you are worried that others will notice and tease you. If you feel embarrassed you can always wear a bigger jumper. Wear a swim top or tee shirt when you are swimming (this will help protect from sunburn too, always a good idea!). Relax - you are not the only one.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOUR VOICE BREAKS? Larynx causes the pitch of the voice change

PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Penis  an elongated, mascular organ found between the legs in the groin area. Testicles or testes  a pair of oval-shaped organs that produce and store sperms. Vas deferens  a thick tube that transports the sperm from testicles to the urethra.

PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Scrotum

a small sac of skin that holds and protects the testes. It is located at the base of the penis the tube connecting the urinary bladder and the penis. It is where the urine and semen exit. it is the male egg cell. The whitish fluid that the male excretes is called the semen

Urethra

Sperm and gametes

Five Stages of Puberty
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Normal Age Range: 9-12 Average: about 10
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Male hormones are becoming active Male hormones are becoming active Testicles are maturing, and some boys start a period of rapid growth late in this stage.

Stages of Puberty: 5 Stages

Five Stages of Puberty
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Normal Age Range: 9-15 Average: 12-13

Testicles and scrotum begin to enlarge, but penis size doesn't increase much. Very little pubic hair at the base of the penis. Increase in height and change in body shape.

Stages of Puberty: 5 Stages

Five Stages of Puberty
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Normal Age Range: 11-17 Average: 14-15
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Penis width increases, as well as length. Testicles and scrotum still growing. Pubic hair begins to take adult texture, although covers a smaller area. Most boys have first ejaculations. Underarm hair develops. Facial hair increases on chin and upper lip. Voice gets deeper skin gets more

Stages of Puberty: 5 Stages

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Normal Age Range: 11-16 Average: 13-14
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Five Stages of Puberty

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Penis starts to grow in length, but not much in width. Testicles and scrotum still growing. Pubic hair starts to get darker and coarser and is spreading towards the legs. Height growth continues body/face shape look more adult Voice begins to deepen (and crack). Some hair around the anus grows

Stages of Puberty: 5 Stages

Five Stages of Puberty
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Normal Age Range: 14-18 Average: around 16
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Nearing full adult height Pubic hair and genitals have adult appearance Facial hair grows more completely shaving may begin now or.

Stages of Puberty: 5 Stages

PUBERTY CHANGES IN GIRLS

CHANGES curvier Bodies become in GIRLS
and hip bones widen. There is weight gain Muscles get bigger and stronger, but they do not show up as much as boys' muscles. decreased stature; adult females shorter stature than adult males, on average

CHANGES in GIRLS widening of hips lower
waist to hip ratio than adult males, on average changed distribution in weight and fat; more subcutaneous fat and fat deposits mainly around the buttocks, thighs and hips increased secretions of oil and sweat glands, often causing acne and body odor

CHANGES curvier Bodies become in GIRLS
and hip bones widen. There is weight gain Muscles get bigger and stronger, but they do not show up as much as boys' muscles. decreased stature; adult females shorter stature than adult males, on average

CHANGES breasts enlargement of in GIRLS
growth of body hair, including underarm and pubic hair vaginal and uterine growth Menstruation (periods) starts. You may get some whitish jelly from your vagina before or in between periods.

What are breasts?

Breasts are two mounds of flesh which grow on the chest of girls as they reach puberty. Inside the breasts are glands which will be able to make milk if a woman has a baby, and cells containing fat. They feel a bit soft and spongy and start to grow when a girl reaches puberty.

What are breasts?

When a woman has a baby, her breasts produce milk to feed her baby. All sizes of breasts can produce milk for the baby.

What are breasts?

Boys have breasts too, but usually they stay flat. Some boys develop tissue behind their nipples during puberty, but this flattens again when they have reached the end of puberty.

Growing breasts

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At first the breasts start to ‘bud’ [like a flower] which means that a small bump appears behind each nipple. It is normal for your nipples to feel tender Next, the nipple and the circle of skin around it [the areola] start to get darker and bigger. Then the rest of the breasts start to grow. At first they may look a bit 'pointy'. As they grow they become rounder and fuller. The size of breasts depends on two things.

Growing breasts
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Your genes. If mum, or your dad's mother, has large breasts then it is likely that you will too. Your weight. If you are overweight then some of that extra fat will go to your breasts. Breasts usually start growing some time between 8 and 13 years and can continue to grow into a girl’s early twenties. In your class you may have some girls who are still flat and others who are well developed. It all depends on when you start puberty and your genes.

TIPS ON:

Buying a bra Getting the right bra

Wearing a bra

Buying a Bra

Why wear a bra?  bras protect and support breasts  help to make you feel comfortable when you are dashing around doing sport  they can help a girl feel good by giving a shape that she likes to her body  they can make a girl feel less self conscious when wearing tee shirts around those 'immature' boys in her class or friendship group

Buying a Bra

So what kind of first bra will you buy?  Sports bras are a great first bra because they are comfortable, they don't dig in anywhere and they hold the breast firmly  Under-wire bras can be good for girls with large breasts as they provide more support.

Getting the right bra
The main thing to know is your bra size  Your bra size has two measurements,  It is a good idea to be measured for your first bra by the sales woman in the bra department.  you and mum can work out your size using a tape measure.

Getting the right bra
This is how to do it:

Measure round your body under your breasts  Write down the measurement

Getting the right bra

Now measure right round again, but this time bring the tape over the fullest part of your breast (bust size). Write down this number and take away the first number to find the cup size that you need.

Wearing a bra

Always try a bra on and make sure that it is comfortable before you buy it. Different styles fit in different ways and breasts are different shapes. You need a bra that fits your shape. At first it will seem strange wearing a bra but you will soon get used to it.

Wearing a bra
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Wash it often Take it off at night.

Feel happy that you are growing into a woman

Frequent Questions asked…

Do all girls get breasts?

All girls do get breasts, although some may be small. This can be because of genes, because the girl is a small person or underweight or because the girl is an athlete and trains hard.

What is the stuff that comes out of breasts before the milk comes?

When a woman has had a baby, the first fluid is called ‘colostrum’ and as well as being very good food for the baby, it contains lots of antibodies which protect the baby from disease.

class. I get embarrassed and feel like people are staring at me. What can I do?

Don't worry. You have probably developed early and your friends will soon catch up over the next few years.

Remember:

Breasts are signs that girls are developing into women Everyone grows at her own rate so don't worry if everyone else in your class has breasts and you don't - you will in time.

MENSTRUATION and MENSTRUAL CYCLE

MENSTRUATION

HAVING A PERIOD The word menstruation comes from a Latin word 'mens' which means month

Menstruation is also called menstrual bleeding, menses, a period or catamenia.

MENSTRUATION

The flow of menses normally serves as a sign that a woman has not become pregnant.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Ovaries
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two-almond shaped sexual glands which store millions of tiny eggs. From the time a girl reaches puberty, the ovaries alternately release one egg every month. Fallopian tubes  a pair of long, narrow tubes where the egg travels from the ovaries to the uterus. Uterus or womb  a hallow, muscular organ where fertilization takes place and where the baby grows until it is born. Vagina  A long muscular tube which serves as the passage for menstruation and the baby during birth. Ovum  the female egg release by the ovaries every month

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Menstrual Cycle: What happens inside the ovary

About once a month, one egg leaves the ovary (ovulation) and travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus (womb). While the egg is developing and traveling the uterus starts preparing for it by building up its lining with extra blood and tissue If the egg is fertilized by a male sperm, then your body will use that 'nest' to protect and nourish the egg as it grows into a baby.

Menstrual Cycle: What happens inside the ovary
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If the egg is fertilized by a male sperm, then your body will use that 'nest' to protect and nourish the egg as it grows into a baby. If the egg is not fertilized then it will keep going, passing through the vagina and taking with it the extra blood and tissue that wasn't needed. This is what is called a 'period'.  A period usually lasts around 4 -7days. The egg is so tiny that you will not see it. About two weeks later another egg leaves the ovary and the whole thing starts again.

Menstrual Cycle: What happens inside the ovary

This menstrual 'cycle' usually takes 28 days, but it can be longer or shorter. When you start your periods they may not be very regular at first. Everyone is different but over time you will get to know what your cycle is like.

What can affect your periods?

Girls who do not have very much body fat may not have regular periods or may not start periods until much later than others. Women and girls who lose a lot of weight, or suffer from anorexia, do not menstruate

What can affect your periods?
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Worrying or stress girls who smoke have more painful periods main thing that makes periods late or not come is when a woman is having a baby

Frequent Questions asked…

How will I know when it is time for my first period?
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First ask mom when she had first period Usually start at 12-18 months after your breast starts to develop If you can see the changes which mean you are starting puberty

What if I start when I'm not at home?

Don’t worry you will not start with a great flood

Do you get cramps when you get your period?

Many girls get cramping pains in their tummy around the beginning of some of their periods - but not all girls get them. Often the cramps start before you begin to lose blood.

How will I know when would be my next menstruation?

Menstruation appears every 28 days.

What colour is your period when you first start?

dark reddish-brown blood when you first start, becomes a redder colour after the first period

How long do periods last?

Some girls have short periods (they last about 3 days) but others have longer ones ( maybe up to a week).  Your pattern will usually stay the same once your periods get regular (after about 6 to 12 months).  If your period suddenly gets shorter or longer, there may be a health problem. Ask your mother or doctor.

Do you always get pimples when it's your period?

Some people do find that they get more spots around the time their period is due, but everyone is more likely to get pimples during the teenage years because skin gets oilier.

Is it OK to wash your hair or go swimming during a period?

You can go on having baths or showers and washing your hair and doing all of the other things that you normally do.

What if I accidentally got blood or stain on my clothes, sheets of a friend's bed, etc.

You can ask for help from women or girls around you and you can always use your school jumper (or your friend's) tied around your waist to get you to where you can get some help without being embarrassed.

Washing blood off clothes

use cold water

BASICS OF MENSTRUAL CARE

The 6 basic of menstrual care 1. proper diet

The 6 basic of menstrual care 2. plenty of rest and sleep

The 6 basic of menstrual care 3. Exercise

The 6 basic of menstrual care
4. good grooming and hygienic habits

The 6 basic of menstrual care 5. sanitary protection

The 6 basic of menstrual care 6. socialize

MYTHS and FACTS

MYTHS ABOUT MENSTRUATION MYTH:
*A girl who washes her face with menstrual blood will have a smooth and clear complexion. FACT:  *menstrual blood was never intended by nature to be a cure for pimples. To keep your complexion smooth and clear, you must practice basic hygiene such as washing your face with soap and water at least three times a day to remove excess oils.

MYTHS ABOUT MENSTRUATION MYTH:
*bathing and washing your hair during your monthly period will make you crazy. FACT:  *there are no medical studies that prove washing your hair during your menstrual period will make you crazy. In fact, during this time, there is excess build-up of oil in your skin and hair, so it is important to bathe and shampoo everyday.

MYTH:  *menstruation is “dirty blood”, so women are unclean during their period. FACT:  *menstruation is not dirty blood. It is composed of blood and the inner lining of the uterus called endometrium that sheds off monthly if no pregnancy happens. In fact, this endometrium, before it becomes menstruation, is full of nutrients that will nourish the baby in case of pregnancy occurs. To stay clean, just follow proper hygiene, especially during you period.

MYTHS ABOUT MENSTRUATION

MYTHS ABOUT MENSTRUATION
MYTH:  *eating sour food will stop the menstrual flow. FACT:  *you can eat and drink anything you like! Just eat your meals regularly making sure it’s the right food.

MYTH:  *vigorous exercises are prohibited during one’s monthly period. FACT:  *having your period should not prevent you from doing anything you enjoy, including exercising. In fact, keeping active prevents menstrual discomfort. So you can bike, jog, do aerobics, even swim if you like! Just make sure you don’t over do it.

MYTHS ABOUT MENSTRUATION

MYTH:  *sit or jump from the third step of the stairs to shorted your period to three days. FACT:  *each girl has her own menstrual cycle lasting anywhere from 3 to 7 days. Sitting or jumping from the third step of the stairs cannot change that.

MYTHS ABOUT MENSTRUATION

EMOTIONAL and THINKING CHANGES

Changing Relationship

Changing Relationships
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Now that you are growing up you have to learn how to relate to people as a young adult closer to your friends making new friends crushes, boyfriends/girl friends

Emotional Changes
Both boys and girls go through all sorts of emotional changes at puberty.

Sometimes I think that society is a bit unfair on boys here. Everyone knows that girls can get emotional when they are experiencing hormonal changes and starting menstruation, but boys are also coping with hormonal changes, although usually a couple of years later than the girls and they sometimes get forgotten.

Thinking changes your own standards, You're starting to choose
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form your own ideals, values and opinions. You may question those of your parents, friends or society in general. This is all part of the growing up process. You're learning how to listen to others.  You're learning to take some time to get to know yourself and what you think about things. You're learning that other people have a right to their own opinions You're learning to stick to what you believe is right.

Changing yourself

You have to learn about responsibility and compromise. Telling your parents how you feel can help. Parents are usually willing for you to become more independent if you show that you are also responsible.

Peer pressure

Choose your friends

Family Conflict

You may start to feel that:
you want your own space and feel annoyed because your brother or sister always seems to be hanging around or always telling you what to do.

Family Conflict

You may start to feel that:

your parents come into your space like they did a few years ago, but now you want privacy. Explain to them that you are growing up now and wanting some privacy is part of this.

Family Conflict

You may start to feel that:

your parents never seem to trust you or let you do the same sort of things that your friends all seem to get to do.

About crushes

It is quite normal for kids to have crushes. It is part of growing up and learning about your feelings.

What is crush?
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Boys and girls have 'crushes' You may have a crush on someone you know of the same or opposite sex as yourself. You may feel really strongly about a movie star or pop star.

What is crush?

It may be someone in your class or school It may be someone in your family. It may even be a teacher Or may even be your school nurses

Some of you might be asking…

Why can't I talk to my parents any more?

The short answer is:

“But You Can!”

Why can't I talk to my parents any more?
Reasons:  They may feel suddenly older.  They may need you to talk to them to let them know how you are feeling  They may feel worried that they are not able to protect you as well as they could when you were little.

What you can do: Talk to them Tell them how you feel and what you would like then LISTEN to their POINT of view and try to work things out.

Communication means sharing and listening Not JUDGE and BLAME