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Contents

(Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid)

Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii


Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv

5 The scanning electron microscope

5.1 How it works ……………………………………………… 122


5.2 Obtaining a signal in the SEM ……………….………….… 124
5.3 The optics of the SEM ………………………….…………. 131
5.4 The performance of the SEM ………………….………….. 133
5.5 The ultimate resolution of the SEM .…………….…..……. 135
5.6 Topographic images ...…………………………..………… 141
5.7 Compositional images ……………...…………..……….… 146
5.8 Crystallographic information from the SEM …………...…. 149
5.9 The use of other signals in the SEM ……………….....…... 153
5.10 Image acquisition, processing and storage ……….……….. 159
5.11 The preparation of specimens for examination in the SEM .. 162
5.12 Low voltage microscopy……………………………………164
5.13 Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) …… 166
5.14 Questions …………………………………………………... 167

Further reading ……………………………………………………………..…………... 236


Answers …………………………………………………………………………………... 238
Index …………………………………………………………………………..…………... 243
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).