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Prologue

QUARTERLY OF THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND


WINTER 2009 ■ VOL. 41 NO. 4

RECORDS ADMINISTRATION

EDITOR’S NOTE
ARCHIVIST OF THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
UNITED STATES AND COMMUNICATIONS
As the National Archives completes its year-long 75th anniversary observance,
David S. Ferriero Susan Cooper we offer two articles about people who have played major and minor roles in
the agency’s history. A man who played a major role was Wayne C. Grover,
EDITOR OF PUBLICATIONS MANAGING EDITOR
James Worsham Mary C. Ryan Archivist of the United States from 1948 to 1965, the longest tenure of any
Archivist before or since.
EDITORIAL STAFF CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Historian and archivist Greg Bradsher profiles Grover in this issue and
Maureen MacDonald Constance Potter
Benjamin Guterman notes that Grover left a “lasting legacy at the agency.” He adds:“When
Hilary Parkinson ART DIRECTORS [Grover] retired in 1965, he had established the general shape of the
Rob Crotty Brian Barth
Archives as it is today.”
Rania Hassan
Ordinary citizens have been part of theArchives’history,too.Miriam Kleiman,
in“A Place in theArchives” traces the lives of two individuals and a young couple
Editorial Policy. Prologue is published quarterly by the National Archives and
whose paths crossed theArchives both as children and as adults,decades apart.
RecordsAdministration (NARA).Its primary purpose is to bring to public attention
“These stories illustrate vividly that records matter and that the National
the resources and programs of NARA, the regional archives, and the presidential
Archives holds not only the story of our nation, but countless individual
libraries. Accordingly,Prologue in the main publishes material based,in whole or in
part, on the holdings and programs of these institutions. In keeping with the non-
stories as well,” she writes.
partisan character of NARA,Prologue will not accept articles that are politically par- At one time or another, you may have read news reports that mention
tisan or that deal with contemporary political issues. “Bethesda Naval Hospital” in suburban Washington. Few, however, know
Articles are selected for publication by the editor in consultation with experts. how the hospital,with a 15-story tower as its center,came into being and to
The editor reserves the right to make changes in articles accepted for publica- be located in Bethesda.Raymond P.Schmidt,in“ATower in Nebraska,” recalls
tion and will consult the author should substantive questions arise. Published how Franklin D. Roosevelt, who dabbled in architecture, played an active
articles do not necessarily represent the views of NARA or of any other agency role in designing and siting the hospital.
of the U.S. Government. The medical center is in the news again because in 2011 the Walter Reed
Prospective authors are encouraged to discuss their work with the editor prior
Army Hospital in Washington will be closed and merged with an expanded
to submission. Articles may be submitted as either an e-mail attachment or as hard
National Naval Medical Center, as it’s now called, to become the Walter Reed
copy. The Prologue office uses MS Word but can accept any common word-pro-
National Military Medical Center.
cessing format.Correspondence regarding contributions and all other editorial mat-
ters should be sent to the Editor, Prologue, National Archives and Records Admin-
Elsewhere in this issue,David Haight documents the concerns that President
istration, 8601 Adelphi Road,College Park,MD 20740-6001. Dwight D.Eisenhower had over the Soviet nuclear threat in the 1950s and his
efforts to get reliable intelligence on it, including use of the high-flying U-2 air-
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or money order to National Archives and Records Administration, Prologue Sub- at the direction of President James K.Polk,to illustrate how the country had grown
scriptions, National Archives Trust Fund, Cashier (NAT), 8601 Adelphi Road, Col- in size during the 1840s through annexation,negotiation,and war.There are some
lege Park, MD 20740-6001. Notice of nonreceipt of an issue must be sent within stories in it, as you’ll discover in“Cartography,Politics—and Mischief.” And Richard
six months of its publication date.Microfilm copies of Prologue are available from Schneider tells about the Archives’work in saving priceless panoramic shots of
ProQuest Information and Learning, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Alaska taken by the U.S.Geological Survey early in the 20th century.
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Avenue, Washington, DC 20408-0001. INDEXED in Acad.Abstr., Amer. Hist. & Life.
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Am.Hist.,& Winter Prologue. JAMES
WORSHAM
FROM THE ARCHIVIST

an ambitious agenDa
at the National Archives
By David S. Ferriero

s I begin my tenure as the 10th Archivist of the United • Meet the enormous and evolving preservation and conservation

A States, I want to introduce myself to the readers of Pro-


logue and to share some of my thinking about the chal-
lenges the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is
facing and how we should meet them.
challenges that face our vast collections of records.
• Plan for, acquire, and prepare appropriate and adequate space for
the large amounts of new material coming to us in the future.
• Consider alternatives to how presidential libraries now exist
Like many of the staff at the National Archives, I started in the stacks— within NARA by analyzing the options of physically separate
shelving books in the library at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology or more consolidated facilities in the future as well as the costs,
(MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, while attending Northeastern Uni- risks, and rewards of different systems.
versity, the nation’s leading cooperative education program, in Boston. • Ensure that NARA appropriately balances the public’s right to
With time out for a four-year enlistment in the Navy, I received my bach- open access to records with the responsibility to protect secu-
elor’s and master’s degrees in English literature from rity and privacy information.
Northeastern and a master’s degree from the nearby Sim- • Work with other agencies to see that records
mons Graduate School of Library and Information Science. management protocols are being followed, that
Then it was back to MIT, where I worked in the agency staffs are well trained and supported,
libraries and rose to associate director for public ser- and that they get feedback from NARA on how
vices and acting co-director of MIT libraries. In 1996, they are doing.
I left for Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, • Take seriously the results of recent job satisfac-
where I was vice provost for library affairs and uni- tion surveys and determine how management
versity librarian before moving on in 2004 to the New can make a positive difference in NARA staff’s
York Public Libraries, first as director of the research work experience.
libraries, then as director of all the libraries. • Ensure that there is an ongoing dialogue with our
Since those early days at MIT, I have spent more than many stakeholders, that feedback is welcomed and
40 years in archives and records administration in three solicited, and that a collegial relationship is fostered.
large, complex information organizations, managing and applying new tech-
nologies, overseeing disparate elements of the same organization, and work- I learn by observing and talking. So in working on these priority
ing to sustain institutional support. Now, I’m facing similar challenges— areas, I’ll be visiting as many of our staff as time permits to see
but on an even larger scale. firsthand the important work they do each day at our 44 locations
Today at the National Archives, we are at a moment as significant as nationwide and to draw on their ideas, abilities, and insights. Maybe
the agency’s first few years of existence 75 years ago. Then, the issues somewhere in the stacks is a future Archivist of the United States!
were the terrible conditions records were in when they arrived at the In addition, we want our customers and stakeholders to let us
Archives; today, we must grapple with the myriad of electronic records, know how we can improve our services to them while safeguard-
the complexities of social media, and ever-emerging technologies. ing and preserving the records of our government so that people can
As I stated during my Senate confirmation hearings, my top prior- discover, use, and learn from this documentary heritage.
ities at the Archives will be to: It is a humbling experience as well as an honor to be asked by the
• Ensure that the Electronic Records Archives meets its deadlines, President to serve as Archivist of the United States, and I pledge
uses resources efficiently, and delivers the desired product. to carry out my responsibilities in a professional, nonpartisan, and
• Develop a sense of urgency about the security of our collec- collegial manner as we tackle the Archives’ ambitious agenda.
tion—how materials are handled by staff and users and how
those materials are protected from theft and other harm.
• Explore alternative ways to expedite the elimination of the back-
log of unprocessed records to improve access to them. Archivist of the United States

2 Prologue Winter 2009


Contents
2 FROM THE ARCHIVIST . . . AN AMBITIOUS AGENDA AT THE
NATIONAL ARCHIVES Archivist David S. Ferriero introduces himself

6
and outlines his top priorities as 10th Archivist of the United States.

CARTOGRAPHY, POLITICS—AND MISCHIEF Mark J. Stegmaier and Richard


T. McCulley describe an 1848 map of the United States that con-

14
tains some puzzles.

IKE AND HIS SPIES IN THE SKY David Haight documents President
14 Dwight D. Eisenhower’s fear of a surprise attack and the need

24
for better intelligence on the Soviet Union.

SHAPING THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES Greg Bradsher recounts how the


third Archivist of the United States placed the building blocks of

32
the agency as it is known today.

A PLACE IN THE ARCHIVES Miriam Kleiman relates the stories of indi-


viduals whose lives have been touched by the Archives more than

38
once.

THE ALASKAN FRONTIER IN PANORAMA Richard E. Schneider tells how


the National Archives saved century-old panoramic pho-

44
tographs that help tell the story of Alaska.

A TOWER IN NEBRASKA Raymond P. Schmidt reveals where Franklin

32
D. Roosevelt got his inspiration for the premier military medical

50
center in the Washington area.
26
GENEALOGY NOTES . . . “HOW AN EAGLE FEELS WHEN HIS WINGS ARE
CLIPPED AND CAGED”
Rebecca K. Sharp describes how Japanese
internment camp newspapers in World War II helped provide a

56
sense of community.

AUTHORS ON THE RECORD . . . AN ISLAND FORT AS PRESIDENTIAL

64
HIDEAWAY J. Michael Cobb describes Andrew Jackson’s island retreat.

FOUNDATION FOR THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES New and con-


tinuing support for the National Archives’ education programs, a

72
major exhibit on the Civil War, and a new book about a historic build-
ing.

PIECES OF HISTORY . . . A HERO PIGEON OF WORLD WAR I Avian mes-


38

58 60 62 66
sengers provided vital links to the front during the Great War.

EVENTS NEWS & NOTICES PUBLICATIONS INDEX


Winter 2009 Prologue 3
MARKING TIME
MARCH 30, 1867 FEBRUARY 2, 1848 JANUARY 2
Secretary of State William H. Seward pur- TheTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, Kansan Dwight D.
chases a plot of land one columnist called a ending the Mexican-AmericanWar.Through in as the 34th Pre
place with “nothing of value” for $.02 an this treaty and the Oregon treaty two years States. He inherit
acre.The land was Alaska, and proved to be earlier, the United States now stretches War and an unkn
rich in both natural resources and natural across the continent. Ephraim Gilman of something he imm
beauty,some of which was captured on film the General Land Office created this map uncover by pushi
for the first time by the U.S. Geological Sur- to convey President James K. Polk’s vision gence through the
vey in the early 20th century. of this new America. the U-2.

44
p.

p. 6 p. 14

p. 38

4 Prologue Winter 2009


20, 1953 JANUARY 7, 1976 DECEMBER 13, 1952
Eisenhower is sworn The Nebraska State Capitol is designated The Charters of Freedom are moved
esident of the United a National Historic Landmark 40 years from the Library of Congress to their cur-
s an escalating Cold after President Franklin D. Roosevelt vis- rent location at the National Archives in
nown Soviet threat— ited the site on a campaign stop. An Washington, D.C., largely due to the
mediately set out to aspiring architect, FDR took note of the efforts of America’s longest-serving
ing for better intelli- building and would use it as a model for Archivist,Wayne Grover.
use of spy planes like the new Naval Hospital in Bethesda,
Maryland.

p. 24

Marking Time Prologue 5


B Y M A R K J . S T E G M A I E R W I T H R I C H A R D T. M C C U L L E Y

Cartography,
Politics–
and Mischief
Ephraim Gilman’s 1848 Map
O F T H E U N I T E D S TAT E S ,
N OW E X PA N D E D C OA S T TO C OA S T

I n December 1848, the U.S. General Land Office pro-


duced a map of the United States by its principal
draftsman, Ephraim Gilman. It displayed all of the existing
states, territories, proposed territories, and the area of the
Mexican Cession in the southwest acquired by the terms of
theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,which ended the war with
Mexico.
The Gilman map was specifically or- ately obvious.While the Gilman map ap- Oregon Territory south of the 49th par-
dered by President James K. Polk to ac- pears to be a credible rendering of the allel: what is now Washington, Oregon,
company his last annual message to Con- United States at mid-19th century, closer Idaho, and part of Montana. In the 1848
gress that month. Polk wanted the map to inspection reveals serious labeling errors, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the
illustrate the territorial gains from the misspellings, and egregious misplace- Mexican War, Mexico ceded what are
Mexican War, advance his ideas on the ments of major geographic features. This now the states of California, Nevada, and
development of the newly acquired terri- is surprising because Gilman was an expe- Utah and parts of Colorado, Wyoming,
tories, and address the growing debate in rienced draftsman who had been at the Arizona, and New Mexico. The United
Congress and the nation over the exten- land office at least since 1839. States now reached coast to coast, a fact
sion of slavery in the territories. that the expansionist President Polk
Gilman colored the various areas in n n n n wanted to highlight in this unique but
pink, light green, and light yellow and fea- forceful political statement.
tured tables of statistics on the square The Gilman map shows that the 1840s Some features of the map readily cap-
miles and acreages on the right and left had been an important decade for the ture our attention. The shape of Texas
borders.The map is a beautiful artifact on expansion of the United States. The looks strongly distorted to the modern
its own, but it is also an intriguing docu- Texas annexation by the United States in eye, making west Texas appear much
ment with features that are not immedi- 1845 brought Texas into the Union as a smaller than it actually is.This distortion
slave state. In 1846, the British ceded the reflects Gilman’s use of John Disturnell’s
1847 “Mapa de los Estados Unidos de
Mejico,”noted as a source on the
left-hand side of his map.
A comparison of Gilman’s map
with Disturnell’s shows an im-
portant difference regarding the
boundary between New Mexico
and Texas. Disturnell’s map,
which had been used for the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
negotiations, was ambiguous re-
garding the Texas-New Mexico
boundary. Disturnell had the area
east of the Rio Grande one color
and the area west of the river a
different color, strongly implying
that everything east of the river
lay in Texas, while New Mexico
lay only on the western side. But
the wording Disturnell used on
the map—“Nuevo Mejico” (west
of the river) “O Santa Fe” (east of
the river)— supported the claim
that some of New Mexico lay on
the eastern side of the Rio
Grande. Gilman’s map did away
with the ambiguity, not only hav-
ing different colors on either side
of the river but also clearly label-
ing only the area west of the Rio
Grande as New Mexico.
The Gilman map’s rendering of
the boundary was part of Pres-
ident Polk’s effort to settle a dis-
Gilman’s map supported Texans’ claim that New Mexican pute between Texas and New
lands began to the west of the Rio Grande.

8 Prologue Winter 2009


Mexico. In December 1836, the Texas ing the haste with which the map was pre- play of boundaries for two “proposed” ter-
Republic had defined its boundary on the pared and printed. The Missouri Com- ritories, Minnesota and Nebraska.These fea-
south and west as the Rio Grande from promise of 1820,extended further west by tures signaled administration support for
mouth to source and from that point the Texas annexation resolutions of 1845, Senate bills organizing territorial govern-
northward to the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty had prohibited slavery north of the line ments in those two areas. Illinois Senator
line between the United States and Spain and permitted it south of the line. Stephen A. Douglas introduced both bills
at 42˚N.That boundary claim meant that The beginning of the Mexican War in and chaired the Senate’s Committee onTer-
Santa Fe and all the settled parts of Mexico’s 1846, with the prospect that the United ritories. These bills expressed Douglas’s
northern province of New Mexico would States would acquire the vast region lying vision of America’s“manifest destiny,” a pro-
have been part of Texas since they all lay betweenTexas and the Pacific Coast,prompt- gressive migration of settlement westward,
east of the Rio Grande. ed northern politicians in Congress to rally establishment of territorial governments
Many people in northern states doubted behind Pennsylvania Rep. David Wilmot’s as settlers advanced (Minnesota) and
or totally rejected the validity of the Texas August 1846 proposal to ban slavery from sometimes in anticipation of settlement
boundary claim, and President Polk had any territory the United States might (Nebraska), and ultimately the binding of
wavered on the boundary issue himself acquire from Mexico in the war. this huge expanse together with a network
during the Mexican War. After General The Wilmot Proviso set off a firestorm of of railroads from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Stephen Watts Kearny’s forces occupied controversy, as southerners responded Polk and his administration ardently cham-
New Mexico inAugust 1847,Polk reassured that they had a constitutional right to pioned Douglas’s plans, which may explain
Texans that the U.S. government was not carry their slaves into the common terri- the inclusion of the two“proposed”territo-
setting up an adverse claim to that of Texas tories of the nation.Alternative proposals ries on Gilman’s map,with their boundaries
by establishing a military government at for resolving the issue of slavery in the ter- delineated according to Douglas’s 1848
Santa Fe.Then on July 24, 1848, President ritories emerged. One allowed settlers in bills.
Polk sent a message to Congress that defi- the territories themselves to determine Gilman apparently had a difficult time
nitely leaned toward the New Mexicans’ the slavery question, i.e. popular sover- matching the bill’s description of the
claims that their area east of the Rio Grande eignty; another left the question to the northeastern part of Minnesota Territory’s
had never been occupied by the Texans Supreme Court to determine; and a third boundary with the features of his own
and had always been governed as a pro- called for extending the Missouri Com- map. As a result of Gilman’s confusion,the
vince of Mexico until the U.S. conquest in promise line to the Pacific Coast. map shows a vaguely defined boundary
1846.Polk probably assumed this stance to Polk made clear his preference for ex- and the use of a different color—yellow—
encourage passage of the Clayton Com- tending the Missouri Compromise line in in the northeastern part of Minnesota
promise, a Senate bill that would have es- a message to the House of Representatives when he had used green in the western
tablished governments in the Mexican ses- on August 14, 1848, when he signed into part of the territory. Overall this was the
sion but failed to pass Congress. law the bill creating a territorial govern- least well-executed portion of Gilman’s
In his last annual message to Congress ment for Oregon. Polk emphasized the work. Nor did Gilman draw Wisconsin, the
on December 5, 1848, Polk appeared to “calming”influence which the 36˚30‘ line Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Lake
favor the Texas claim again.Although his had had on earlier crises over slavery Superior with cartographic exactitude.
message implied that some of New Mex- extension,and he strongly urged the appli- Neither the Minnesota nor Nebraska terri-
ico might extend east of the Rio Grande, cation of the same division line to the tory bills had passed Congress in the ear-
he recommended that Congress establish Mexican Cession. A few months later, in lier session,but MinnesotaTerritory would
a territorial government only in the areas the December 5 annual message, Polk achieve organization in 1849. Nebraska’s
of New Mexico west of the Rio Grande. used the Gilman map to reiterate this rec- status would become part of the great sec-
The features on Gilman’s map reflected ommendation to Congress. tional disruption over slavery expansion in
Polk’s sentiments. The idea of extending the Missouri Com- the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.
Another politically significant feature of promise to the Pacific would recur in the A curious feature on the western por-
the Gilman map is not initially apparent— debate over slavery in the territories.It was tion of this map is its presentation of Ore-
a line drawn from the southern boundary championed by southern politicians in gon. Congress had organized a territorial
of Missouri (the Missouri Compromise 1850 as an alternative to California’s admis- government for Oregon in August 1848.
line of 1820) to the Pacific Ocean.This ren- sion to the Union as a free state, and the On Gilman’s map, however, Oregon is not
dering suggests Polk’s policy regarding the 36˚30‘ line’s extension,excluding California, labeled as an organized territory nor given
extension of slavery in the territories. In would become a major suggestion of com- any specific boundary on the east. The
the upper left-hand corner of the map, the promise during the secession crisis of area to the east is labeled “N.W. TER y.”,
line is mistakenly designated as lying at 1860–1861. or Northwest Territory, even though
39˚30‘ instead of 36˚30‘, possibly indicat- Also notable on the Gilman map is its dis- Congress had not organized any official

Cartography, Politics—and Mischief Prologue 9


The Oregon Territory had been organized in August 1848, but Gilman did not indicate this in his December map.

territory there.Why Gilman did not clearly indicates that Ephraim Gilman and his use. Yet Gilman labels that river the
designate Oregon as a territory with its superiors were operating under a tight “Wahlahmath River” and Fort Walla Walla
proper boundaries is a mystery. deadline to get the map and its tables fin- as “Ft.Wahlah wahlah,” although we have
Since the other political dimensions of ished in time to accompany Polk’s mes- not been able to locate other maps of
the map are consistent with the adminis- sage to Congress. that era with the same usages. It is also
tration’s policies, it may be that President The number of spelling errors and curious that the major outpost of Fort
Polk himself directed that the map be spelling peculiarities suggest that the Vancouver is not on the map, although it
drawn with Oregon only vaguely defined drafting of the map was marred by hasti- invariably appears in maps made in the
to accommodate southern sensibilities. ness and carelessness.On theTexas part of 1830s and 1840s of the Pacific North-
Southerners had bitterly contested the the map,“Rio del Norte,”another name for west.
Oregon Territory bill in the previous ses- the Rio Grande,is given on the map as“Rio We were so intrigued with these errors
sion, and they were still angry that the del North.” El Paso or Paso del Norte of omission and commission that we inves-
bill had prohibited slavery in a federal ter- becomes“Passo.”Matamoros is misspelled tigated the quality of Gilman’s draftsman-
ritory. The President may have preferred “Matamoras,” and Nueces River is mis- ship by examining other maps he pro-
not to remind southerners of their recent spelled “Neuces.” Gilman rendered the duced when he was employed by the
congressional defeat by prominently dis- Sabine River on the map as the “Saline General Land Office. Those maps reveal
playing the new, free territory of the River,” although the river is correctly lab- high-quality work based on recent surveys
northwest. eled the Sabine in the right-hand table, but confined to rather limited geographic
While some of the omissions,anomalies, which was apparently prepared by some- areas in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Mis-
and other peculiarities of the map might one other than Gilman. sissippi.
be traced to its political context, the many A careful examination of the Oregon When Gilman got the assignment to
serious errors and misspellings on a map part of the map reveals more egregious draft a map of the United States for Pres-
that was an important state document errors, odd omissions, and peculiar ident Polk, he had never undertaken car-
indicate hurried preparation.For example, spellings. Gilman placed Mount St. tographic work that ambitious. Since his
the erroneous listing of the Missouri Com- Helens south of the Columbia River. By 1848 map was not based on original sur-
promise line as 39˚30’ and the vagueness the time Gilman drafted his map, the veys and was drafted in haste, we also
of the depiction of the proposed Min- river emptying into the Columbia River examined maps from the 1840s at the
nesota Territory were not corrected by at present-day Portland was widely National Archives, from the Oregon His-
anyone before this map went to the known as the Willamette River, and the torical Society, and in published sources
printer, P. S. Duval, in Philadelphia. That older Indian names had fallen into dis- that were either readily available to them

10 Prologue Winter 2009


in the General Land Office or to between West Virginia
which they would have had and Kentucky. The mis-
knowledge and access. But the chievous Gilman simply
search for clues concerning applied the names of
which maps Gilman might have these lesser rivers in the
relied on to draft the 1848 map area to two major rivers
proved fruitless and yielded on his map. This experi-
no maps full of the same or enced draftsman could
similar irregularities that are not have done this by mis-
found in Gilman’s. take. Since the focus of
When one examines the the map was the western
Kentucky-Tennessee part of part of it and especially
the map, however, the er- the Mexican Cession, not
rors appear to have been Kentucky and Tennessee,
one Two days after Commissioner Young submitted this November 22, 1848, letter
to Secretary Walker, Young met with President Polk and gave him a copy of the
deliberately inserted. Gil- apparently no
man changed the names of detected the substituted Gilman map.
the Cumberland and Tenn- names for the Cumb-
essee rivers to the “Great erland and the Tennessee rivers before naming a few important rivers on his
Kanawha” and the “Big the map was sent to the printer. map, especially ones proximate to and
Since there is no evi- within President Polk’s home state?
dence that the errors Knowing that the General Land Office
were the results of hur- was operating under a tight deadline to
riedly copying from complete the map and its tables,
inaccurate maps, we Gilman would have guessed that no
can only speculate on one was going to carefully proofread his
what may have moti- work before its printing. And the evidence
vated Gilman, an on the map itself shows that Gilman
apparently talented would have been correct in such an
draftsman, to falsify assumption. One can almost imagine him
the names of two chuckling with delight when no one
major rivers on his noticed the errors before the map went to
map,repeatedly use the printer.
incorrect place While the political meaning and the
names, and mis- many inaccuracies of the Gilman map
place major geo- are not readily apparent, neither is its
graphic features. remarkable provenance. Polk’s message
We conclude that of December 5, 1848, and many related
the most likely documents were published as House
explanation is Executive Document 1 (30th Cong.,
that Gilman 2nd sess., Serial 537), with Gilman’s
was a drafts- map the first among several maps at the
man with an end. Tables on either side of Gilman’s
artistic tem- map contain statistics gathered from a

Errors on the section of the map depicting Kentucky


perament November 22, 1848, letter from Com-
and Tennessee seem to have been deliberate.
who did missioner Young to Secretary of the
not like Treasury Robert J. Walker, discussing
Sandy,” respectively. Those two very having to draw his map under a tight the amount and value of the lands
prominent rivers had been known and deadline and probably under constant acquired from Mexico. Figures from
presented on maps for generations as pressure from General Land Office Young’s annual report dated November
the Cumberland and the Tennessee. Commissioner Richard M.Young to get 30, 1848, concerning acreages of some
The Kanawha is a river in present-day the job done. Peeved at the pressure, of the newer states appear in the right-
West Virginia, and the Big Sandy is a river what more appropriate way would Gil- hand table of the map. Young had per-
that forms part of the boundary man have had to retaliate than by mis- sonally reported to President Polk on

Cartography, Politics—and Mischief Prologue 11


November 24 about the dimensions of map now in the Archives corrected the for California, no boundary provision
the newly acquired lands and gave Polk Missouri Compromise line error in the matched those defined by the California
a copy of Gilman’s map. Polk stated in upper left-hand corner by crossing out constitution later in 1849 and drawn on
his diary that he would employ the sta- 39˚30’ and writing in 36˚30’ . He also the map. If a member of Congress was
tistics of Young’s “Report” in his upcom- sketched in, or had a draftsman sketch it responsible for altering the Archives
ing annual message. The report Polk in for him, the boundary line of Cali- copy of the Gilman map in the first ses-
referred to was the November 22 letter fornia as proposed by its state constitu- sion of the 1849–1851 Congress, who
from Young to Walker, not the annual tional convention of 1849. The alter- could it have been? Only Louisiana’s
report. President Polk did use Young’s ations were probably made by a Senator Solomon W. Downs specifically
statistics in his message but quoted a congressman or senator in early 1850 in referred to Gilman’s map in a speech on
few of the figures slightly in error. The preparation for a speech. February 19, 1850, during debate on the
statistics on Gilman’s map An examination of the map in January compromise proposals previously pre-
2008 by the National Archives conserva- sented by Senator Henry Clay of Ken-
tion laboratory revealed that the tucky; Downs used the map to point out
blue line indi- that Clay’s proposal on Texas boundaries
cating the would have cut off northern Texas from
California the state.
boundary Others who referenced the map
was drawn by pointed to its statistical tables. Most cita-
someone tions of statistics from the map were
after February made in the House during speeches by
13, 1850, the northern representatives supporting the
date President admission of California as a state. On
Zachary Taylor March 11, Rep. Orin Fowler (W-MA)
sent official quoted a few statistics from the tables
copies of the on both sides of the map, and on June 3
California consti- Rep. Peter H. Silvester (W-NY) quoted a
tution to the few aggregate statistics from the right-
House and Senate. hand table. Two congressmen, Rep.
Yet whoever in- Samuel R.Thurston (D-OR) on March 25
serted the Cali- and Rep. Jesse C. Dickey (W-PA) on June
fornia boundary 6, both copied much of the entire right-
did not sketch in hand table into their pro-California state-
the boundary line hood speeches. One figure that both
between Utah and cited, which was not on Gilman’s map,
New Mexico or be- was an estimate of approximately
tween New Mexico 145,000 square miles for the area of Cal-

Gilman extended the Missouri Compromise line of 36˚30’


Territory and Texas, ifornia as defined by its constitution’s
all the way to the California coast.
both of which were boundaries. Thurston’s speech, at least
defined by Congress the printed version, occupied parts of
in bills during August 10 pages in the Congressional Globe; it
agree with those in Young’s letter to and September 1850 as part of the Compro- analyzed much of the California consti-
Walker. mise of 1850. The absence of these lines tution and quoted its section on bound-
The copy of Gilman’s map preserved strongly suggest that the map was altered aries. In our opinion, if a member of
at the Center for Legislative Archives at after February 13 but before September Congress was responsible for the inser-
the National Archives is an extraordinary 1850. tion of the California boundary on the
document because it is somewhat cor- Could someone have altered this copy Archives copy of the Gilman map, that
rected and updated from the version of the Gilman map prior to February member was most likely Samuel
originally published in the Congres- 1850, possibly during the short second Thurston of Oregon. No member of the
sional Serial Set and was referred to dur- session of Congress in December Texas delegation, all Democrats, cited
ing congressional debate over the Com- 1848–March 1849? No. Among the vari- the Gilman map in support of their
promise of 1850. ous bills that proposed to organize state’s claim to all the territory east of
Whoever used the copy of Gilman’s either a state or territorial government the Rio Grande, although the map

12 Prologue Winter 2009


clearly supported that claim. When the
Texans did mention maps in the first ses- NOTE ON SOURCES
sion of the 1849– 1851 Congress, they
The map that is the subject of this article, Map of the United States Including
cited Disturnell’s, which had authority Western Territories, December 1848, can be found in RG 233, Records of the U.S.
by virtue of its having been the map House of Representatives, Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives and
used in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Records Administration (NARA).The Disturnell map of 1847 is in General Records
negotiations, or a more recent and more of the United States Government, Record Group (RG) 11, NARA. Information on
accurate one based on actual surveys by Ephraim Gilman is from the United States Official Register, 1839–1851 at the
the Texas General Land Office, the Jacob National Archives; 1840 and 1850 U.S. Censuses for the District of Columbia,
National Archives Microfilm Publication M704 and M432, respectively; and the
de Cordova-Robert Creuzbaur map of
New York Times, February 23, 1853. On President James K. Polk’s request for the
August 1848. Senator Sam Houston did
map and his statements based on the Gilman map and tables, see Milton M. Quaife,
not himself refer to the Cordova-Creuz- ed., The Diary of James K. Polk During His Presidency, 1845 to 1849 (Chicago:
baur map in this session but had A.C. McClurg & Co., 1910), and James D. Richarson, A Compilation of Messages
strongly promoted it as an accurate map and Papers of the Presidents, 1789–1897, volumes 4 and 5 (Washington: G.P.O.,
of Texas during the second session of 1897). Correspondence relating to the Gilman map is in the U.S. Serial Set, U.S.
the 30th Congress in 1848. The two Congress, House of Representatives, H. Ex. Doc. 1, 30th Congress, 2nd session, vol.
maps the Texans cited simply served 537, 1849. The f loor debates in the House of Representatives that referenced the
Gilman map and tables are available in the Congressional Globe, 31st Congress,
their purpose of defending the Texas
1st session, 1850.
boundary claim in debate during 1850, The published sources most helpful for understanding the political context of
and they saw no need to also cite the the Gilman map are Stegmaier, Texas, New Mexico, and the Compromise of 1850,
Gilman map. cited above, and Stegmaier,“The Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty as a Factor in the New
Ephraim Gilman’s 1848 map proved Mexico-Texas Boundary Dispute” in John P. Bloom, ed., The Treaty of Guadalupe
more useful in Congress for its statistical Hidalgo: Papers of the Sesquicentennial Symposium, 1848–1998 (Las Cruces,
data than for its colorful depiction of U.S. NM: Doña Ana Co. Historical Society and Yucca Tree Press, 1999), pp. 31–33. See
also Robert W. Johansson, Stephen A. Douglas (New York: Oxford University Press,
geographic contours. But with its presen-
1973); Paul H. Bergeron, The Presidency of James K. Polk (Lawrence: University
tation of New Mexico lying unambigu- Press of Kansas, 1987); Chaplain W. Morrison, Democratic Politics and Sectional-
ously west of the Rio Grande, the map ism: The Wilmot Proviso Controversy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
does illustrate the final tilt of the Polk Press, 1967); and Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, volume 1, Fruits of Manifest
administration toward the validity of Destiny, 1847–1852 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1947).
Texas’s 1836 claim. The authors would like to thank National Archives and Records Administration
The map also reflects President Polk’s archivists Constance Potter for editorial suggestions and for furnishing biograph-
ical information on Ephraim Gilman; Richard H. Smith of the Cartographic for
view that the best solution to the sec-
assistance in our examination of the cartographic work of Gilman; and William
tional crisis over slavery in the territories
Davis of the Center for Legislative Archives. We also thank NARA conservationist
was the extension of the Missouri Com- Yoonjoo Strumfels for conducting a ver y detailed analysis of the map. We also
promise line to the Pacific Coast. The appreciate Scott Daniels, research librarian at the Oregon Historical Society, who
marking of the proposed California state conducted at our request a search of Oregon maps drawn before 1850.
boundary on the Archives copy of the
map used during the course of the
debate over the Compromise of 1850 Author
makes it a unique document.
Finally, the Gilman map illustrates Mark J. Stegmaier is professor of history at Cameron University in Law-
ton, Oklahoma, where he has taught since receiving his Ph.D.from the Uni-
how much of the nation’s history a sin-
versity of California at Santa Barbara in 1975.He is the author of Texas, New
gle document can reveal and how many Mexico, and the Compromise of 1850: Boundary Dispute and Sectional Crisis (Kent, OH:
mysteries the draftsman embedded in Kent State University Press, 1996) and co-author of James F. Milligan: His Journal of Fre-
this fascinating example of 19th-cen- mont’s Fifth Expedition, 1853–1854: His Adventurous Life on Land and Sea (Glendale,
tury cartography. P CA:Arthur H. Clark Co., 1988).

Richard T. McCulley is the historian at the Center for Legislative Archives


at the National Archives and Records Administration,Washington, D.C. He
received his Ph.D. in U.S. history from the University of Texas at Austin and
was a lecturer and research associate at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of
Public Affairs. He is the co-author of White House Operations:The Lyndon
Johnson Presidency (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986) and author of
Banks and Politics during the Progressive Era (New York: Garland Press, 1992).

Cartography, Politics—and Mischief Prologue 13


Ike
and his Spies

Sky
in the

Eisenhower, Fearing a Surprise


Soviet Attack, Pushed for Better
Intelligence, Approved U-2 Flights

By David Haight

A s Supreme Allied Commander in Europe in World


War II, Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered one of
the biggest surprise attacks in world history—the D-
It was important to pierce the Soviets’ curtain of
secrecy, but information about their military capabili-
ties was proving elusive to the techniques of tradi-
day landing on the coast of France on June 6, 1944, tional espionage.
which marked the beginning of the end for the Ger- Records in the holdings of the Eisenhower Presi-
man Third Reich. But before making the final decision dential Library in Abilene, Kansas, reveal how the 34th
to launch the attack, he wanted the best intelligence President dealt with his desire for quality intelligence
available, and he got it. about the Soviets’ military activities while balancing
Nearly a decade later, as President of the United the risks involved in getting that information against
States, Eisenhower was still concerned about surprise those of setting off a full-scale war with the former
attacks—but this time he was worried about a Pearl World War II ally.
Harbor–style attack on the United States by a nuclear- Balancing those risks presented him with a
armed Soviet Union. And again, Eisenhower wanted dilemma, as depicted by the record of the 157th meet-
the best available intelligence. But getting it and man- ing of the National Security Council on July 31, 1953,
aging it proved to be more difficult than it had been just over six months after he took office.
the decade before. The director of the Central Intelligence Agency,Allen
Eisenhower understood that knowledge based on Dulles, reported that the Soviet Union had recently
reliable intelligence is power and that the Soviet developed a new heavy bomber with an estimated
Union posed a grave threat to America’s security. He range of 6,000 miles and capable of reaching any point
knew that the Soviets were testing nuclear weapons in the United States and returning to the USSR.At this
and developing long-range bombers to deliver them. same meeting, Gen. Omar Bradley, chairman of the

14 Prologue Winer 2009


President Dwight D. Eisenhower appreciated
the importance of aerial intelligence-gathering.
U-2 reconnaissance aircraft (opposite page)
began flying over the USSR in 1956.

Title Prologue 15
Joint Chiefs of Staff, briefed the President Nevertheless, through varying levels of 1953, included an expansion of U.S. intel-
and the council on the loss of a U.S. Air archival processing and researcher-gener- ligence collection and analysis.
Force plane, an RB-50, in the Sea of Japan. ated declassification requests, a large vol- The President placed top priority on
The ensuing discussion revealed that the ume of the historical record of Eisen- this, and to drive home a sense of urgency,
United States also shot down Russian planes hower’s management and employment of he told the military service chiefs in late
that approached U.S. ships too closely.The intelligence has been made available to 1954 that for the first time the United
President said that both the Americans and researchers at the Eisenhower Library. States had reason to be frightened for its
the Russians knew that if U.S. planes flew Anyone familiar with 20th-century safety because an enemy armed with the
toward Vladivostok, they were not on train- records is aware that declassifying intel- new (nuclear) weapons could knock out
ing missions. As Eisenhower said,this shoot- ligence information is often difficult and the nation within 30 days.
down was not as unprovoked as it might time consuming. Despite the fact that cer- Eisenhower authorized aerial intelligence-
have seemed. In this case, the former five- tain intelligence-related documents in the collecting programs in order to better assess
star general could see the matter from the library are likely to remain security clas- the military capability of the Soviet Union,
Soviet viewpoint and appeared to play it sified for years to come, significant China,and other Communist-bloc nations to
down not only to avoid public discussion of progress has been achieved in releasing launch a surprise attack on the United States.
sensitive intelligence operations but also to information on many intelligence topics. He approved overflights of the Soviet Union
avoid domestic pressure to retaliate against The declassified records, in their original by military aircraft in a highly compartmen-
the Soviets. context, are dependent upon historians talized intelligence program labeled
Were these aerial missions worth the to give narrative perspective to their SENSINT (Sensitive Intelligence).Despite the
risk, loss, and expense invested in them? archival existence. risks of Soviet retaliation,U.S.military aircraft
Many writers have attempted to answer flew directly over the Soviet territory from
• • •
this question by studying the available evi- early 1954 until late 1956.
dence. These flights were hidden in a To counter the menace of Soviet mili- The U.S. Air Force developed balloons
cloak of secrecy, and even now many tary might, the Eisenhower administration equipped with cameras and flew them
details are unclear either because of con- developed a strategic posture policy, over Soviet bloc countries under the guise
tinuing security protection or because of known as the “New Look.” This basic of meteorological research. The balloon
the lack of written documentation. national security policy, approved in late program, which Eisenhower approved
with misgivings in 1955, yielded more
protests from the Kremlin than it did use-
ful intelligence information. Eisenhower
ordered balloon flights over Russia
stopped in 1956, but various schemes for
launching balloons floated as late as 1958.
When the President at Geneva in 1955
sought Soviet agreement to a mutual
exchange of military information with the
United States, First Secretary of the Com-
munist Party Nikita Khrushchev and the
Soviet delegation rejected his initiative.
Eisenhower, therefore, relied on covert or
black operations, emphasizing overhead
intelligence collection as a major part of
the United States’effort to meet this threat
of surprise attack.
Meanwhile, in 1956, U-2 aircraft began
flying over the Soviet Union. Unlike the
SENSINT program, the U-2 program was
directed by the CIA, a civilian agency, and
piloted by civilians.Eisenhower,while real-
izing the provocative nature of military air-

James R. Killian, being sworn in here as special assistant to the President for science and technology, was a
craft flown by military personnel over or
key adviser to the President on organizing and developing U.S. intelligence capabilities to warn of a possible
around the Soviet Union, continued
Soviet surprise attack.
throughout his administration to approve

16 Prologue Winter 2009


dangers posed by aircraft flying over and advice and oversight on U.S. intelligence
around the Soviet Union. programs. In creating the board, the Presi-
Although Killian and Land helped con- dent sought advice from selected citizens
vince the President to embark on many with experience in government service,sci-
technologically advanced programs, the ence and technology, or other executive
man primarily responsible for assisting the responsibilities. Eisenhower picked Killian
President manage these programs was as the first chairman of PBCFIA, which also
Andrew Jackson Goodpaster. included World War II hero Gen. James
Upon assuming the post of White House Doolittle, another of the President’s key
staff secretary in the fall of 1954, Colonel advisers on intelligence.
Goodpaster served as the President’s liaison While Eisenhower continued to use aer-
with the executive agencies responsible for ial reconnaissance to acquire strategic intel-
intelligence, military, and international ligence aimed at reducing the threat of a
affairs. He was the President’s “go-to” man, Soviet surprise attack on the United States,
Andrew Goodpaster,White House staff secretary, was the person Eisenhower counted on to help he endeavored,with only limited success,to
the President’s right-hand man in managing overhead oversee the Cold War aerial reconnaissance implement the PBCFIA’s recommendations
intelligence collection programs. programs. His records contain a treasure for better administrative control of these
trove of documentation pertaining to high- diverse intelligence operations.
missions conducted on the periphery of altitude balloons,the U-2 aircraft and its mis- On August 22, 1956, the Chinese shot
the Soviet Union and mainland China. sions, other aerial missions flown along the down a Navy plane in the Sea of Japan,
These flights, begun under President periphery of the USSR, and plans for the resulting in the loss of the entire 16-man
Harry S. Truman, increased tensions development of reconnaissance satellites. crew. In an August 30 meeting with Adm.
between the United States and the Soviet In November 1954, the President acted Arthur Radford,chairman of the Joint Chiefs
Union and led to many attacks on these on one of the TCP proposals by approving of Staff, Eisenhower, the man who had
planes with the loss of planes and person- funding for“thirty special high performance ordered tens of thousands of men to storm
nel. Nevertheless, Eisenhower permitted aircraft”as described by Goodpaster’s mem- the beaches of Normandy, talked not about
such missions to collect communications orandum of a conference with the Presi- the lost personnel but instead about the fail-
and electronic intelligence and photograph dent. The first successful mission of these ure of the involved U.S.agencies to develop
Soviet air and naval facilities while ferreting “special high performance aircraft,” also a cover plan for such situations.He went on
out the Soviet radar systems. known as the U-2, flew over the Soviet to state his concern over the apparent lack
The Eisenhower administration’s over- Union in July 1956. From the outset of the of control by the military agencies of such
head intelligence, or aerial reconnaissance, U-2 missions, Soviet radar spotted the missions, but after further discussion, he
programs were inspired in large part by the planes.This vulnerability spurred the devel- agreed to allow further missions provided
recommendations of James R. Killian, presi- opment of anotherTCP panel proposal,the they were done with great care and follow-
dent of Massachusetts Institute of Technol- reconnaissance satellite. ing strict requirements.Thus we see a Presi-
ogy, and Edwin “Din” Land, president of In February 1958, Eisenhower officially dent concerned over tight control, manage-
Polaroid Corporation, both serving on the approved the program code-named ment, and plausible cover for provocative
President’s Technological Capabilities Panel CORONA, which eventually produced intelligence-gathering missions.
(TCP), appointed by the President in 1954. photographic images taken in outer space In October 1957 the PBCFIA affirmed
The panel, with Killian as chairman and and recovered from satellite capsules. its support of overhead reconnaissance
Land an active member, conducted an efforts because of their potential for col-
• • •
extensive study of the surprise attack prob- lecting valuable intelligence on Soviet mil-
lem and passed on to the President recom- Many U.S. government civilian and mili- itary facilities, including missile-launching
mendations concerning intelligence collec- tary agencies collected intelligence on the sites and air bases. At the same time, the
tion. The TCP described the periphery of Soviet Union and other potential adver- PBCFIA conveyed to the President the
the Soviet Union as a fruitful area for col- saries during the years of intense Cold War urgent need to expedite reconnaissance
lecting intelligence. In addition to recom- activities. Eisenhower attempted through- satellite development.
mending risky aerial reconnaissance flights, out his administration to establish better On February 7, 1958, Killian and Land
the TCP also pointed out the intelligence control and coordination of these agen- briefed the President on reconnaissance
potential of reconnaissance satellites.More- cies’ intelligence activities. satellite activities.Since 1956 the Air Force
over, the panel saw space-based satellite In 1956 he established the President’s had conducted plans to design and build
operations as a way to establish the legal Board of Consultants on Foreign Intel- reconnaissance satellites under a program
right to operate in space while avoiding the ligence Activities (PBCFIA) to provide termed WS (Weapons System) 117L. At

Ike and His Spies in the Sky Prologue 17


this meeting the President agreed that a which will be employed in the operation reporting on the progress of DISCOV-
plan for film recovery be separated from of space vehicles....The initial launchings ERER. In reality, however, they were actu-
the WS 117L in expectation of acquiring primarily will be to test the vehicle itself, ally covering for the highly secret Project
intelligence data sooner. especially its propulsion and guidance. CORONA. This cover plan succeeded in
The administration established the Ad- Later, the satellites will contain biomed- hiding CORONA from public or Soviet
vanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) ical specimens to seek data on environ- scrutiny until 1995, more than a quarter-
within the Department of Defense, which mental conditions which will be useful to century after Eisenhower’s death, when
would run the military aspects of the satel- the man-in-space program being carried the United States officially acknowledged
lite recovery program, but ARPA would be out jointly byARPA and the NationalAero- its existence.
answerable to the CIA because the Presi- nautics and SpaceAdministration. As part • • •
dent insisted on civilian control and tight of this program, live animals also will be
Until reconnaissance satellites could
secrecy for this program.Goodpaster made carried aloft and their recovery
become operational, however, the admin-
sure that Killian and Land understood the attempted in order to develop the tech-
istration felt compelled to rely on the
President’s intention that the CIA would niques involved.
provocative peripheral and overflight mis-
direct the intelligence phases of the pro-
sions to collect data on Soviet air and mis-
gram, which Eisenhower formally approved A memorandum anticipating press
sile bases and to seek evidence of any
on April 21 as Project CORONA. inquiries listed a number of questions and
Soviet war preparations.
By 1958 the press was speculating pub- the answers to be given. Question #1 “Is
From the time the first U-2 flight
licly concerning reconnaissance aspects of the Discoverer a reconnaissance satellite?”
appeared over the Soviet Union in July
the WS 117L program. To avoid this The answer to be given was “No.” Other
1956, the Soviets tracked almost every
unwanted public scrutiny, the administra- questions and recommended answers
mission, particularly those flown west of
tion separated this new black or covert were designed to steer media inquiry
the Urals. In a December 16, 1958, meet-
satellite program from WS 117L.The admin- away from any connection with military
ing with the President’s Foreign Intell-
istration hid it by concocting a biomedical programs involving reconnaissance satel-
igence Advisory Board, Eisenhower reit-
space research project termed DISCOV- lites (WS 117L).
erated the one question that mattered:“Is
ERER.The Department of Defense guidance (Eisenhower, in his insistence on
the intelligence which we receive from
for responding to public inquiries concern- secrecy for space-based intelligence pro-
this source [overflights] worth the exac-
ing the DISCOVERER satellite launchings grams, undoubtedly agreed with Winston
erbation of international tensions which
contained the following language: Churchill’s statement to Joseph Stalin at
results?”
the Tehran Conference in November
Eisenhower believed the flights had
The purpose of ARPA’s PROJECT DIS- 1943, “Truth deserves a bodyguard of
located adequate targets for intelligence
COVERER is to continue development of lies.”)
collection. But he also realized that the U-2
a number of systems and techniques ARPA generated numerous documents
flights did not solve the problem of sur-
prise attack. The PBCFIA,after hearing the
President express his concerns,concluded
that the intelligence thus obtained was
worthwhile and recommended that the
flights continue.
The President continued to worry
about international tensions and retained
firm control, saying “yea” or “nay” over
each proposed flight. Goodpaster’s mem-
oranda recorded these affirmative and
negative presidential actions, each influ-

President Eisenhower holds an American flag taken


from the capsule recovered from Discoverer XIII.This
capsule, although not containing the KH-1 camera, was
a trial run for Discoverer XIV launched on August 18,
1960, which contained the camera and collected the
first photographic images recovered from a U.S. recon-
naissance satellite. Shown with the President are Dud-
ley C. Sharp; Secretary of Defense Thomas Gates; and
Gen.Thomas White,August 15, 1960.

18 Prologue Winter 2009


Memorandum for the Record by Andrew Goodpaster recording the President’s Image of Mys Shmida airfield, USSR, CORONA mission 9009 (Discoverer XIV).This
approval of Project CORONA. was the first successful recovery of imagery taken by a reconnaissance satellite.

enced by the current international situa- on January 17, 1961? flights to collect intelligence to the maxi-
tion. For example, on March 4, 1959, with At any rate, politicians such as Missouri mum degree possible, the President
the Berlin situation heating up, Good- Senator Stuart Symington, a former secretary pointed out the “soul-searching” he
paster recorded: of the Air Force who was running for Presi- engaged in when he considered approval
dent in 1960, raised allegations of a “missile for each flight.Gen.John Hull,chairman of
At the President’s request, I advised Gen- gap,” claiming the United States was falling the board, pointed out that a recent flight
eral [Nathan] Twining [chairman of the behind the Soviet Union in missile produc- disclosed military deployments that gave
Joint Chiefs of Staff] that the President has tion and deployment. Information from the no sign of a slackening off of Soviet mili-
decided to disapprove any additional spe- risky U-2 missions,however,helped confirm tary power as might have been suggested
cial flights by the U-2 in the present abnor- Eisenhower’s judgment that the so-called by the “spirit of Camp David.” (The Eisen-
mally tense circumstances. “missile gap” did not exist and allowed him hower-Khrushchev conversations at
to more readily resist calls for massive Camp David in September 1959 had
In a February 10, 1959, meeting, the increases in military spending that might encouraged hope in some quarters that
President expressed hope in technological have accelerated a U.S.-Soviet arms race. tensions between the United States and
advancements including the CORONA Throughout the spring and summer of the USSR might be easing.)
project as well as the more advanced 1959, the President continued to express Eisenhower responded that while he
plane, the SR-71. He continued to listen to concern over the risks of continuing these knew of no “spirit of Camp David,” these
Killian and Land on such matters as the reconnaissance flights and to worry over talks had been a frank and respectful dis-
monitoring of Soviet missile firings and Soviet reactions to them. In a July 8, 1959, cussion of key issues and accomplished a
the progress of CORONA. meeting with Secretary of State Christian mutual recognition by Eisenhower and
Throughout the February 10 meeting,the Herter, CIA Director Allen Dulles, and Khrushchev that it was critically impor-
President demonstrated his interest in Richard Bissell, the CIA’s deputy director tant to avoid general war. Eisenhower
obtaining as much information on the Soviet for plans, he asked “whether we are get- viewed the data on soviet missile sites he
missiles as possible and also in details of mis- ting to the point where we must decide if had seen as corroborating what
sile production and acceleration. He also we are trying to prepare to fight a war or Khrushchev had told him at Camp David.
commented on leaks by “irresponsible offi- to prevent one.” Nevertheless, because of While Hull and the board continued to
cials and demagogues.” He remarked that the unanimous recommendations by his focus on the intelligence value of over-
some senators seemed to be responsible for advisers, the President agreed to the flight flights, the President said that he was
the leaks, while at the same time munitions under consideration at that time. putting on the line his one asset in a sum-
makers were striving to get more contracts One of the best examples of the Presi- mit meeting: his reputation for honesty. If
and appeared to be exerting undue influ- dent’s agonizing over these overflights is one of these aircraft was lost while the
ence over these senators. Did the President a memorandum for the record document- United States was engaged in apparently sin-
have this kind of thing in mind when he ing his meeting with his PBCFIA on Feb- cere deliberations,it could be put on display
made his famous reference to the “military- ruary 2, 1960. in Moscow and ruin the President’s effec-
industrial complex” in his farewell address As the board pushed for using over- tiveness as a negotiator. Nevertheless, the

Ike and His Spies in the Sky Prologue 19


One might ask why the President sent a
U-2 mission over the USSR only two weeks
before the Paris summit conference. Eisen-
hower apparently accepted the need for as
much data as possible on Soviet interconti-
nental ballistic missile deployment before
talking to the Soviets at the Paris confer-
ence. He also knew of indications that the
Soviets were about to develop the capabil-
ity to shoot down a U-2.Therefore the Pres-
ident appears to have believed that he had
good intelligence on the Soviets’ military
capabilities and intentions, but there was
just enough doubt in his mind to motivate
him to seek more. Although he knew the
CORONA project was making progress, it
still, as of May 1960, had not achieved suc-
cess. In fact, the first 12 DISCOVERER mis-
sions were failures. So he did not know
when CORONA would produce the intelli-
gence he sought.
Eisenhower lamented the results of the
U-2 affair, and in a July 11, 1960, meeting
dealing primarily with Cuba, he remarked
that all of his advisers, including Secretary
of State John Foster Dulles, missed badly
on their estimates regarding the interna-
tional impact resulting from a U-2 failure.
Eisenhower did not want to say“I told you
so” but recalled he was the only one who
had heavily weighted this aspect of these
operations.
The President had reason to be frus-

On March 31, 1959, the CIA sent the White House an intelligence note about possible ICBM launching sites
trated.The CIA had advised him that it was
in the Urals.
highly unlikely that the Soviets could track
U-2 flights. In fact, almost from the begin-
board members insisted on continuing the ers. It was brought down, apparently by a ning, Soviet radar picked up and tracked
overflights while hoping that the SR-71, missile that damaged but did not destroy these flights.The CIA had also assured the
much less vulnerable to tracking and the plane, thus enabling Powers to para- President that it was almost a certainty
attack than was the U-2, would soon be chute safely. Power’s plane was also appar- that no pilot would survive a shootdown
operational. ently the only plane downed deep within of a U-2 aircraft.Yet the Soviets captured
The overflights continued, and on April the Soviet Union. Powers alive.
25, 1960, Goodpaster wrote a brief one- The Soviets captured Powers and put Eisenhower vowed not to send U-2
paragraph memorandum stating: “After what was claimed to be the wreckage of his planes over the Soviet Union any more.
checking with the President, I informed plane on display.The international furor cre- This did not, however, mean the cessation
Mr. Bissell that one additional operation ated by this incident forced Khrushchev, of all U.S. aerial reconnaissance programs
[U-2 overflight of the USSR] may be under- probably under pressure himself in the conducted on the periphery of the Soviet
taken, provided it is carried out prior to Kremlin, to make demands on Eisenhower Union and other Communist territories.
May 1. No operation is to be carried out at the beginning of the Paris summit confer- On July 1, 1960—the day the Soviets shot
after May 1.” ence on May 16, 1960. Khrushchev, not down a U.S. RB-47 plane conducting
As is well known, that operation carried receiving the apologetic response from reconnaissance in the Barents Sea along
out on May 1 was the U-2 flight over the Eisenhower he demanded,then walked out, the northern coast of the USSR—the Pres-
Soviet Union piloted by Francis Gary Pow- effectively wrecking the summit. ident received a briefing on the status of

20 Prologue Winter 2009


these aerial peripheral reconnaissance to insure that the flights are no more Bolstered by the success of CORONA
missions. provocative than necessary.” Mission 9009, the President continued to
The record of this briefing, a seven-page work on improving the U.S. government’s
• • •
memorandum, is currently partially declas- intelligence collecting and analysis to the
sified, with sizeable portions remaining The CORONA satellite reconnaissance end of his administration.In December1960,
classified. Nevertheless, enough has been program experienced many failures before he received a report by the Joint Committee
released to provide numerous details on Mission 9009, launched on August 18, on Foreign Intelligence Activities (often
units, locations of missions, and their com- 1960, resulted in the first successful recov- called the Kirkpatrick report since Lyman
mon purpose: to collect communications ery of satellite images taken of Soviet Kirkpatrick was the committee chairman).
intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelli- bases.These first images produced photo- This report,declassified in part,made numer-
gence (ELINT), and photography.After this graphic coverage of the Mys Shmida air- ous recommendations,some of which led to
briefing, Eisenhower approved General field in extreme northeast Siberia. the eventual establishment of the National
Twining’s request to resume these COMINT Thus, late in his administration, after hav- Reconnaissance Office and the Defense Intel-
and ELINT collecting missions.The mem- ing experienced a sharp deterioration in rela- ligence Agency during the Kennedy admin-
orandum of this conversation points out tions with the Soviet Union following the istration.
British performance of similar missions Soviets’ capture of Powers and his aircraft, The 473rd and 474th meetings of the
and also mentions the concept of Soviet Eisenhower received a positive intelligence National Security Council on December
and even Swedish fighters “pacing” these related accomplishment: readable imagery 28, 1960, and January 5, 1961, respectively,
reconnaissance aircraft.While recognizing from a satellite orbiting the Earth in outer were devoted largely to discussing this
the risks involved with these peripheral space.The first images were primitive and report’s recommendations. During the
missions, the President insisted that they limited in information but indicated promises 474th meeting of the NSC, Eisenhower
were legal. General Twining assured the of better things to come.This indeed was the expressed disappointment at his inability
President that “great care would be taken case as the CORONA program lasted until to achieve the coordination within the U.S.
Below: Maps of U-2 routes over Soviet missile areas
1972,with the quality of its imagery improv- government’s intelligence community for
and Ural railroad system, March 1959. ing with each successful mission. handling, using, and sharing intelligence

Ike and His Spies in the Sky Prologue 21


that he wanted to see. He therefore in frus- 1972, when they were replaced with more supported Eisenhower’s conclusion that the
tration commented that he would leave to advanced systems. CORONA and its suc- United States possessed more long-range
his successor “a legacy of ashes.” cessors have provided U.S. Presidents with missiles than did the Soviet Union and thus
Eisenhower’s assessment of his efforts, accurate intelligence on the Soviet Union no missile gap existed.As Cargill Hall,emer-
however, seems too harsh. With the suc- and China. itus chief historian of the National Recon-
cess of the CORONA missions at the end of Reconnaissance satellites were, in the naissance Office, has concluded, the Presi-
his administration, the President left a 1970s, recognized internationally as the dent, through his reconnaissance programs,
legacy of technological advancement in means for policing international arms con- particularly CORONA, had indeed achieved
space-based intelligence collection. Impro- trol agreements. Even the intelligence col- his goal of opening the skies over the Soviet
ved versions of CORONA were used until lected through the U-2 and other aircraft Union and China. P

NOTE ON SOURCES
The author wishes to express his appreciation The role of the President’s Board of Consultants on ings (Washington, DC: Office of the Historian,
for the assistance provided by Chalsea Millner, Foreign IntelligenceActivities (PBCFIA) in advising the National Reconnaissance Office, 2003).This sympo-
Michelle Kopfer,Tim Rives,and Kathy Struss of the President is documented in a body of folders under that sium was held at the Defense IntelligenceAgency on
Eisenhower Library staff and professor Judith board’s name in the Records of theWhite House Office February 22–23,2001.
Collins, Kansas State University, Salina. of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs as Other important secondary sources consulted
The Records of White House Staff Secretary well as in some of Goodpaster’s memoranda of con- include Michael Beschloss, Mayday: Eisenhower,
Andrew Goodpaster constitute the most impor- ferences with the President. These files contain the Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair (NewYork:Harper
tant source of documentation of the Eisenhower semiannual reports for the President prepared by PBC- and Row,1986);Richard M.Bissell,Jr.,with Jonathan
administration’s overhead intelligence-collecting FIA chairmen James Killian and his successor,John Hull. E. Lewis and Frances T. Pudlo, Reflections of a Cold
programs.A file consisting of 20 folders entitled The Eisenhower Library therefore holds a reasonably Warrior ( New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,
“Intelligence Matters” begins with material dated good declassified record of the recommendations 1996); Stephen Ambrose and Richard Immerman,
December 1955 and continues through the end of passed on to the President by this high-level advisory Ike’s Spies: Eisenhower and the Intelligence Com-
the administration.Found here are memoranda of body,although portions remain security classified as of munity (Garden City,NY:Doubleday,1981);andWil-
conferences with the President, and with James 2009. liam E. Burrows, By Any Means Necessary: Amer-
Killian,Allen Dulles, Richard Bissell, Edwin Land, As for secondary sources, Cargill Hall, former histo- ica’s Secret Air War in the Cold War (New York:
Nathan Twining, and many others involved in rian for the National Reconnaissance Office,has written Farrar, Straus and Giraux, 2001).
these programs.This documentation covers bal- numerous articles on the Eisenhower administration’s To encourage research in intelligence documents
loons, U-2 missions, peripheral missions, data on overhead intelligence programs,which were the source at the Eisenhower Library, the archival staff devel-
intelligence targets within the Soviet Union,plans of information on the SENSINT programs approved oped an exercise intended to introduce participants
and authorizations for the CORONA reconnais- early in the Eisenhower administration before Good- to high-level primary sources documenting Presi-
sance satellite program including developing paster became staff secretary.The library holds little on dent Eisenhower’s acquisition of aerial intelligence
cover for this black operation, and a few items on these early aerial reconnaissance programs conducted capabilities. This exercise consists of a packet of
the Galactic Radiation and Background (GRAB) from 1954 to 1956.Examples of Hall’s writings include selected documents spanning the period from
electronic reconnaissance satellite (referenced in “The Truth About Overflights,” The Quarterly Journal November 1954 until September 1960 plus a glos-
Goodpaster’s records as Project CANES).This satel- of Military History, 9 (Spring 1997);“Origins of U.S. sary of terms, lists of key individuals, and suggested
lite, intended to collect electronic intelligence Space Policy: Eisenhower, Open Skies, and Freedom of sources for background reading.This activity con-
from Soviet radars, was successfully launched on Space,” in John Logsdon et al., eds. Exploring the sists of reading and analyzing the packet of intelli-
June 22, 1960, two months before the first suc- Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the gence documents and can be modified to fit groups
cessful CORONA launch.However,CORONA pro- U.S. Civil Space Program, Vol. I: Organizing for Explo- ranging from secondary school classes to U.S gov-
duced the first photographic images from a recon- ration (Washington, DC: NASA Sp-04407, 1995);“The ernment intelligence analysts. Unlike the Five Star
naissance satellite. Portions of Goodpaster’s rich Eisenhower Administration and the Cold War: Framing Leaders Program, conducted largely by the Eisen-
intelligence file remain security classified as of American Astronautics to Serve National Security,” Pro- hower Library’s Education Specialist, this intelli-
2009. logue: Quarterly Journal of the National Archives, 27 gence document exercise is conducted entirely by
In addition to the “Intelligence Matters” file, (Spring, 1995);“Postwar Strategic Reconnaissance and the library’s archives staff.
the White House Staff Secretary Records contain the Genesis of Corona”in Dwayne A.Day,John M.Logs- For further information about this exercise or
other memoranda prepared or received by don, and Brian Latell, eds., Eye in the Sky:The Story of about documentation in the Eisenhower Library
Goodpaster concerning intelligence including the Corona Spy Satellites (Washington, DC: Smithson- relating to other intelligence topics, please con-
cover material for CORONA. As White House ian Institution, 1998); and “Clandestine Victory: Eisen- tact the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library staff while
staff secretary,Goodpaster prepared hundreds of hower and Overhead Reconnaissance in the ColdWar,” also examining the Eisenhower Library’s web site
memoranda of conferences with the President. in Dennis E. Showalter, ed., Forging the Shield: Eisen- at www.eisenhower.archives.gov.
Many of his memoranda pertaining to the sensi- hower and National Security for the 21st Century

Author
tive intelligence matters covered in this article (Chicago: Imprint Publications, 2005). Gregory Pedlow
are found only in the Intelligence file cited and DonaldWelzenbach co-authored an official CIA his-
above. Most others of his memoranda, including tory entitled The CIA and the U-2 Program,
some on intelligence can be found within 1954–1974 (Washington, DC: Center for the Study of David Haight was an archivist
Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Papers as President Intelligence,Central IntelligenceAgency,1998).An essen- at the Eisenhower Library for
(Ann Whitman File), particularly the ACW Diary tial source for studying the history of the CORONA pro-
37 years before retiring in
Series and the DDE Diary Series.The Ann Whit- gram is Kevin C. Ruffner, ed., CORONA:America’s First
Satellite Program, Washington, DC: Government Print-
August 2008. He continues to
man File contains the richly detailed memoranda
ing Office,1995).Another key source is the two-volume assist the library as a volunteer in security-
of National Security Council meetings. Certain
intelligence-related portions remain security publication edited by R.Cargill Hall and Clayton D.Lau- declassification matters and with other activ-
classified as of 2009. rie, Early Cold War Overflights: Symposium Proceed- ities as needed.

22 Prologue Winter 2009


discover America’s heritage

s h op on l i n e at estore.archives.gov
By Greg Bradsher

T he small staff of the newly created NationalArchives


had just moved into its new building in Washington’s
FederalTriangle in 1935 when the call went out for more
help.Some 15,000 applications were received,and several hun-
dred were hired to help the first Archivist of the United States,
R.D.W. Connor, get the new agency rolling.
One of those hires was a native of Utah, a former journal-
ist and Senate aide named Wayne Clayton Grover. His first job
at the new agency was accessioning clerk,assisting in the phys-
ical transfer of records to the Archives, but he rose quickly,
becoming a junior archivist the next year,and an archivist han-
dling War Department records the following year.
For the next four years, he spent most of his time handling
War Department records,earning a master’s degree and pass-
ing the examination for a doctorate in public administration.
He would spend World War II dealing with War Department
records and eventually wind up as the top assistant to the
second Archivist of the United States, Solon. J. Buck.
Then in 1948, Buck resigned and recommended Grover as
his successor. President Harry S. Truman took Buck’s rec-
ommendation, and Grover became the third Archivist of the
United States.

Opposite page: Wayne C. Grover served as Archivist of the United States from 1948 to 1965.
Grover would serve as Archivist for 17 1906.After graduating from high school in Information (which became the Office of
years, longer than any other Archivist Salt Lake City in 1924, he worked as a rail- Strategic Services, or OSS) to work as a
before or since. And he would leave a lasting way clerk to earn money for college. In technical assistant with its Research and
legacy at the agency, just as Connor did in 1931, he graduated from the University of Analysis Branch. During his stint with the
starting the agency from scratch,and Buck did Utah with a degree in English.While in col- OSS, to which he was formally transferred
in leading the agency during World War II. lege he worked part-time for theAssociated in May 1942, he gathered, evaluated, and
Grover’s tenure saw the agency shaped into Press in Salt Lake City and as a reporter for edited research data for inclusion in a
today’s recognizable form,with a national net- the Deseret News. In 1933, however, he weekly publication on war trends.
work of records centers, a system of presi- struck out for Washington, D.C.There, with Grover entered active military duty on
dential libraries, the preeminent role as the the help of ƒa former college professor, January 5, 1943, as a captain with the U.S.
government’s record manager,stewardship of Elbert D. Thomas,who had been elected to Army’s records administration program.
the nation’s Charters of Freedom,and a broad the U.S. Senate in 1932, he got a job in the He drew on his experience with army
array of public programs that reach out to the Senate post office, where he met and pro- records and played an active role in all
public and to the agency’s stakeholders posed to the senator’s daughter, Esther. aspects of the “life cycle” of records, from
throughout the nation. When he retired in Then, in January 1935, he answered the their creation to final disposition. This
1965,he had established the general shape of call for applications for jobs at the concept of “life cycle” of records and the
the Archives as it is known today. National Archives and came on board in belief in archival involvement in records
His work prompted Waldo Gifford Le- July 1935. management were fostered by Philip
land, often called the father of the archival Grover rose quickly in the ranks, and in Brooks and other National Archives staff
profession in the United States, in congrat- the fall of 1937,Grover became an archivist in the years just before the war. They
ulating Grover on his 10th anniversary as with the Division of War Department believed that if archivists helped agencies
Archivist, to say,“It is in you that we see the Archives. During the next four years, he manage their records, then archivists
very model of a modern archivist general.” spent most of his time arranging and would find their archival tasks of ap-
These observations might be hyperbole, describing the records of the Army, Coun- praisal, arrangement, description, and
but certainly Grover,as the Archivist of the cil of National Defense, and the War In- preservation would be made easier. Based
United States from 1948 to 1965, by com- dustries Board. He also continued his on this belief, early in 1941, without a
bining scholarship with practical and pro- graduate studies at American University, clear legislative mandate, the National
gressive executive action, probably more earning his M.A.in political science in June Archives formally began a records admin-
than any other individual, shaped the 1937 and passing the examination for a istration program to assist agencies with
National Archives into the leading institu- Ph.D. in public administration in 1940. the management of their records.
tion of its kind in the world. On September 16, 1941, he was pro- Numerous National Archives employ-
moted to assistant chief of his division. ees, including Herbert E.Angel, Robert H.
    This position was short-lived, however, Bahmer, Everett O. Alldredge, and Theo-
because on October 1, 1941, he was dore R. Schellenberg, joined Grover dur-
Grover was born in Garland, Utah, in loaned to the Office of the Coordinator of ing World War II and in the immediate
postwar period in assuming records man-
agement positions in other government
agencies and departments. Most of them
subsequently returned to the National
Archives, bringing with them not only a
wealth of knowledge and experience but
also the firm belief that archivists must
exercise some influence over current
records if the small percentage that
would become archives were properly
managed.This belief would have a major
influence on both Grover and the
National Archives in the decades ahead.
By the end of 1943, Grover was a lieu-
tenant colonel and chief of the Records
Management Branch, Records Division,
Office of theAdjutant General,with respon-

Dr. Grover with his wife, Esther, and his daughters.

26 Prologue Winter 2009


sibility for formulating policies and proce-
dures governing records administration in
theWar Department and the U.S.Army.Dur-
ing the war he conceived, initiated, and
supervised the development of a compre-
hensive system of records administration in
the War Department and the Army, provid-
ing for more effective management of cur-
rent records and for the periodic disposal of
valueless papers and the preservation of
valuable records. In 1946 Grover also
received his Ph.D. in public administration
after the completion of his dissertation,“The
Records Administration Program of the
Department of War.” This work was based
on a 281-page report Grover had prepared
for the military entitled “War Department Archivist of the United States Solon J. Buck met with soon-to-be Archivist Wayne C. Grover in June 1948.
RecordsAdministration Program.” Both trace
the history of the Army’s records adminis-
tration program, concentrating on the summer of 1947 to serve as his deputy and not have a significant standing in the schol-
1943–1945 period. to oversee the records management activi- arly world. But he was an experienced
Leaving active military service in May ties. Buck believed that Grover’s records archivist and a records management
1946, Grover assumed a civilian position management experience and proven man- expert—and an experienced administrator,
created for him, the director of records agement skills would be an asset to the adept at politics with a strong appreciation
management for the Management Staff agency, which at the time had a backlog of of the value of public relations.According to
Division, Office of the Adjutant General. work and faced many new challenges. the first Administrator of the General Ser-
During the next 13 months he oversaw On August 1, 1947, Grover returned to vices Administration (GSA), Jess Larson,
the records administration program of the the National Archives as Assistant Archivist Grover “was a man highly motivated in the
War Department. This was a massive of the United States.Very quickly he found public interest”with a“broad and great con-
undertaking since the military had accu- himself managing the National Archives cept of his job.” But more important,Grover
mulated an enormous volume of records since Buck was plagued by serious illness had a great appreciation of history and
during the war. during the fall of 1947 and took a 10-week archives.These traits would serve him well
But it was not just the military that had tour of Caribbean countries on a cultural in his dealings with the government, the
created large volumes of records during the relations mission for the Department of public, and scholars.
war;the entire federal government had cre- State during the spring of 1948. Indeed, Grover faced many challenges
ated many more records than ever before. In the early spring of 1948,Buck notified when he became Archivist, including
By war’s end the federal government had the White House of his intention to retire increasing the staff, which had been
accumulated 18 million cubic feet of and was asked to recommend a successor. depleted during the war,and addressing the
records, about half of which had been cre- On May 12,1948,PresidentTruman named problems associated with the bulk and
ated during the war. Archivist Buck was Grover to that position,and the Republican- complexity of the records that had recently
staggered by the volume of records being controlled Senate confirmed the appoint- been created and accessioned. When
created and accumulated and wanted the ment without opposition on June 2, 1948. Grover became Archivist, the National
National Archives to take a more active role The next day, Grover became the third Archives held over 800,000 cubic feet of
in assisting agencies in managing their Archivist of the United States. records, more than double the volume it
records. In 1946, he convinced President The new Archivist, according to Repre- had held just before the war. It was also
Harry S.Truman to issue an executive order sentative Edward P. Boland, was “a short, faced with accessioning many more
directing federal agencies to operate effec- stocky man with a quiet manner and low records. Before these records could be of
tive programs to manage and dispose of voice that accompanied a sharp wit and a use to researchers,they had to be arranged
their records, retaining only current rec- ready grin.” He was always well-groomed, and described.These were enormous tasks,
ords, promptly disposing of valueless and looked the part of a scholar-administra- considering that the staff of the National
records,and transferring those of enduring tor. Congressman Albert Thomas, chairman Archives responsible for archives had
value to the National Archives. of the House appropriations subcommittee dropped from 315 in 1942 to 220 in 1948.
Buck also persuaded Grover to come called him the“little schoolteacher doctor.” Perhaps Grover’s greatest challenge
back to the National Archives during the Unlike his two predecessors, Grover did was the organizational placement of the

Shaping the National Archives Prologue 27


National Archives within the executive ment division was placed under the considerable more authority to GSA,
branch of government. Congress in July Archivist’s control, the National Archives charging it with improving procedures,
1947 established the Commission on the was renamed the National Archives and methods, and standards regarding the cre-
Organization of the Executive Branch of Records Service. ation of records; their maintenance and
the Government, and President Truman Not waiting for the Hoover Commission use when current; and their disposition
named former President Herbert Hoover to make its records management recom- when they were no longer current. It also
to chair it. The commission, popularly mendations, Grover focused his agency’s authorized the GSA to operate records
known by the name of its chairman, was attention on the growing records man- centers to provide low-cost storage for
charged by Congress and the President agement problem. During the summer of records.
with studying the government’s organiza- 1948, he had the National Archives survey To ensure agencies created, maintained,
tion and operations in view of making the agencies to determine how well they and disposed of their records in an effi-
recommendations for greater efficiency were complying with the 1946 executive cient manner, the GSA was authorized to
and economy. Grover assisted the com- order. What was learned, and already inspect agency records management pro-
mission as a consultant on federal records believed, was the need for more effective grams and prices. Fortunately for the
management problems.Although he was records management programs in most National Archives, the GSA administrator,
successful in having the commission agencies. To help the agencies, Grover realizing Grover’s and the National
endorse the need for new records man- asked Schellenberg to produce a records Archives’ ability, immediately delegated
agement legislation, he was unsuccessful disposition handbook and had other staff the responsibilities to Grover.
in his attempt to have his agency remain members offer advice and assistance. Under Grover’s leadership,a full-fledged
an independent agency.The commission These actions had positive results, but program of records management to pro-
recommended that a general services Grover knew that the National Archives vide assistance to federal agencies was car-
agency be created and that all “house- had neither sufficient resources nor the ried out. A network of federal records cen-
keeping” functions of the government, legislative mandate to address adequately ters was also established throughout the
including records management and the records management problems of the country to provide economical storage
archives administration, be part of it.This government. He therefore began lobbying and quick access to records still needed to
meant the National Archives would be a for a comprehensive records management conduct business. By the time Grover
constituent part of the larger agency. law and the funds necessary to allow the retired in 1965, these centers held over 6
Congress and the President, notwith- National Archives to help agencies better million cubic feet of records and were pro-
standing Grover’s objections, agreed. manage their records. viding more than 3 million reference ser-
Thus, the National Archives lost its inde- Grover played an important role in turn- vices annually.
pendent status on July 1, 1949, when it ing the records-related recommendations Many archivists and scholars believed
was placed under the newly created GSA. of the Hoover Commission into reality by that the National Archives under Grover
Grover succeeded in avoiding having the developing the Federal Records Act of was concentrating on records manage-
National Archives further subordinated to 1950, the first charter for a government- ment activities at the expense of archival
a Bureau of Records Management, and in wide program of records management. activities, particularly arranging, describ-
December 1949, when a records manage- Among other things, this legislation added ing, and making records available. Grover
did not share this belief. “There is and
always will be, I hope,” Grover stated in
the American Archivist in 1951, “much
overlapping between current records
management and archival activities.” He
believed that by being actively involved in
records management, the National Ar-
chives could bring order and intelligence
into the management of federal records,
“improving their quality as well as decreas-
ing their quantity, and—what is at the
heart of the matter—assuring the preser-

Archivist Grover, with a group of deputy regional


directors for records management in June 1952,
believed that being actively involved in records man-
agement could bring order and intelligence into the
management of federal records.

28 Prologue Winter 2009


vation of those that are worthy of being the fact that the archives were readily tivity during the war. Legislation in 1950
preserved.We can do this, and we can also available to all citizens. The archives- enlarged the mandate of the commission
save the taxpayers some money, with our related achievement in which Grover took in its efforts to help federal,state,and local
records management program.” the most pride was bringing into National agencies and nongovernmental institu-
His Society of American Archivists presi- Archives custody America’s Charters of tions, societies, and individuals in collect-
dential address in 1954 was devoted to the Freedom.A long-standing goal of the first ing and preserving, and when the NHPC
theme of the partnership between archivists two Archivists had been to acquire the deemed such action to be desirable, in
and records managers. In it he stated,“It is Declaration of Independence and the Con- editing and publishing papers of out-
folly for archivists even to think of parting stitution of the United States from the standing citizens of the United States and
company, literally or psychologically, from Library of Congress.The National Archives such other documents as many be impor-
the newly developed specialists in records Rotunda had been especially built to tant for an understanding and apprecia-
management;and no less folly on the records enshrine them, along with the Bill of tion of the history of the United States. In
management side than on the archival side. Rights. Grover saw this dream come true 1950 he stated that he hoped the NHPC
Our numbers are too few; our common in 1952, after successful negotiations with “will play a much more significant part in
interests too important.” the Librarian of Congress, to whom he our affairs than it has in the past.” With
“What happens to our archival role as a wrote:“Jefferson wanted on his tombstone more than a decade of accomplishments,
cultural organization in the process?” that he wrote the Declaration. I want on but with the realization that much work
Grover asked, referring to the National mine that I saw it safely enshrined in the could still be done, Grover, in 1964,
Archives’ growing records management Archives of the United States.” obtained legislation enlarging the role of
role. His answer was that “the develop- Besides taking great interest in the gov- the NHPC in supporting the collecting,
ment of the National Archives as a cultural ernment’s archives,Grover also took a great describing, preserving, and compiling and
institution, serving not only the world of personal interest in the papers of the Pres- publishing of documentary sources sig-
scholarship but in a broad sense the Gov- idents and dealt personally with five Presi- nificant to the history the United States.
ernment itself . . . can proceed as rapidly as dents in regard to their papers. He took Congress in 1935 established a Federal
our staff is willing and able to go.” advantage of every opportunity to foster Register Division in the National Archives
This last statement is not surprising, for the presidential library system, which was to publish government rules, regulations,
Grover saw the archives as an important operated by the NationalArchives to admin- executive orders, and other government
national resource.Archives must be cared ister the papers and artifacts of all Presi- documents.As the chairman of the Admin-
for,he maintained,because they“give cohe- dents since Herbert Hoover. In concluding istrative Committee of the Federal Regis-
sion and consistency to the organization his testimony in support of the Presidential ter, Grover was responsible for increasing
and conduct of our national Government; Libraries Act of 1955, which firmly estab- the effectiveness of Federal Register pub-
the wealth of hard-won experience and lished the presidential library system, he lications and for broadening its scope,
knowledge” and “record our rights and stated that the proposed legislation “pro- including the launching of the Public
duties and status as citizens, and link us as vides a system for gradually expanding the Papers of the Presidents and the Weekly
individuals into the great chain of past and archival facilities of the United States at the Compilation of Presidential Documents.
future.” least expense to the Federal Government These publications included news confer-
Grover, who saw himself as an“alumnus and with the greatest benefits nationally to ence transcripts, messages, speeches, and
of the stacks of the National Archives,” scholarship.” other presidential materials.
spent much time attempting to make the While devoting much attention to the Besides devoting considerable time to
archival records of the government more federal government’s records and archives National Archives activities, Grover also
accessible. Externally, he successfully programs,Grover did not neglect his other gave much time and attention to profes-
urged Congress to enact legislation in sup- official responsibilities. He spent much sional activities and contacts outside his
port of archival programs, such as making time working in his capacity as the chair- agency. He was called on countless times
it more difficult for agencies to impose man of the National Historical Publcations for advice from state and local archival and
their own security restrictions on records Commission (NHPC). In that capacity he historical agencies.Not only did he provide
more than 50 years old. Internally, he played a major role in bringing it out of a the advice,but he also gave many talks and
stressed the need for more finding aids dormant state and encouraging the publi- wrote several articles directed toward non-
and microfilm publications. cation of the source materials of American federal archival and records management
Grover’s archives-related efforts were history. Congress in establishing the audiences.He also took an active role in the
not just to provide access to scholars. By National Archives in 1934 also created the affairs of the Society ofAmericanArchivists.
emphasizing a broader publications and NHPC to foster publication of historical He served as its president (1953–1954),
exhibits program, Grover was able to works.The commission accomplished lit- spoke at many of its meetings, and allowed
make millions of Americans more aware of tle during its initial years and fell into inac- the National Archives to partially under-

Shaping the National Archives Prologue 29


write and the staff to edit its journal, The to. The records management and disposi- more than a good administrator;” Brooks
American Archivist. tion programs, because of limited staff, wrote,“he was a man of high principles and
Grover was most interested in maintain- were not able to provide all the advice, personal sensibility.Always fair-minded, he
ing good relations with the scholarly com- assistance, and training it would liked to expressed firm belief in equal opportunity
munity. He wanted archivists to remain in and millions of cubic of feet of records for all in his official actions and in his per-
close contact with historians, who had were not appraised. The archival staff, sonal life. From those who worked under
been instrumental in getting the National which did not reach its 1942 peak of 315 his supervision he expected devotion to
Archives established.“As the archival pro- employees again until 1959,was not able to their jobs, diligence, clarity of thought and
fession develops its own body of knowl- keep up with processing and preserving expression, and thorough honesty.” “He
edge, qualifications and responsibilities, it records, nor to provide the quality of refer- was,” according to Brooks, “severe about
must,” he urged,“increase—not lessen—the ence many researchers expected. these obligations when necessary but
sources of contact with the historical pro- But despite its shortcomings, Grover’s never unkind. His earnest concern about
fession and other scholarly groups.There is National Archives achieved much and con- the work to be done was always tempered
no ingrate like the child who spurns his tributed greatly to the efficiency and effec- by a friendly manner,his writings and state-
parent—or, for that matter, the parent who tiveness of government and to the world ments by a genial wit.”
spurns his child. The offspring may get of research.Much of the National Archives’ There are many examples of this wit.
older, but the family resemblance is still success was the result of Grover’s ability Perhaps the best example was his corre-
there; and, we hope, the family spirit.” and leadership. spondence with Luther Evans, Librarian of
His relations with both the archival and Grover’s ability to accomplish so much Congress, during the 1952 negotiations
historical worlds paid their dividends in was due to four factors. First, he was a over the transfer of the Declaration of
many ways, including keeping Grover in good administrator.According to the fifth Independence and Constitution to the
office. When Dwight D. Eisenhower was Archivist of the United States, James B. National Archives. Evans sent Grover a
elected President, there was a fear in the Rhoads, Grover“was very effective in deal- limerick:
archival and academic worlds that Grover ing with important people on a one-to-one There once was an agency rich
would be replaced—and worse still—by a basis.”“He had,” Rhoads wrote,“a superb Whose head had a terrible itch
nonarchivist. Both archivists and historians and well-developed sense of timing.”“That, To take all records over.
rallied to his support and whatever threats I think,” Rhoads wrote,“was perhaps his His name it was Grover,
to Grover existed, vanished. This action greatest strength as an administrator and A two-fisted son-of-a-bitch.
firmly established the precedent that a institution builder.”Fortunately,Grover had
change of Presidents should not mean the many first-rate subordinates to manage, In a similar vein Grover responded:
automatic removal of a professionally qual- and he managed them well, delegating I have read your effusions
ified Archivist of the United States. effectively and supporting them with con- I bleed with remorse
Largely as the result of Grover’s vision and fidence. According to one subordinate, he No further contusions
leadership, the National Archives became a “inspired not by oratory or by pompous Will come from this source.
multifaceted operation of immeasurable charges but by earnest expression and But to label us “rich”
benefit to the government and to the indi- conviction of feasibility.” Is outright deception.
viduals it served. Programs initiated under Grover believed in a minimum of admin- Better limit the pitch
his adept stewardship contributed greatly to istrative bureaucracy.“In the development To unimmaculate conception.
stimulating interest in American history as of scientific and scholarly work,”he stated,
reflected in the nation’s official archives.His “the emphasis must be on the individual— The third factor contributing to Grover’s
contributions to scholarship and the entire his initiative, competence, productiveness, success was his belief in the important mis-
world of inquiry by developing,organizing, and reputation in his field.”Therefore, he sion of archivists.He“chose to be an archivist,”
and publishing the archives of the United believed“that a minimum harassment with Philip Brooks wrote,“and always had faith
States and by conceiving and effectively internal administrative paper-work is in the profession.”“There is,”Grover wrote,
establishing a government-wide program important.” He added, “ever since I have “no more prosaic occupation, day-by-day,
for records management were well known known them,the professional record-keep- than that of archivist; and no occupation,
and appreciated. He received the Distin- ing units of the NationalArchives have been generation-by-generation, with a more dra-
guished Service Award of the General Ser- encumbered with too much ‘administra- matic task.” In his retirement letter to the
vicesAdministration in 1959 and the Career tion.’ We are trying to cut it down, within National Archives employees’ association,
Service Award from the National Civil Ser- the inevitable limits set by program and he spoke on archivists’ varied missions:
vice League in 1962. budgetary planning and supervision.” “The written word endures—at least such
Despite his and his agency’s success, The second reason Grover was success- portions of the word as we archivists
Grover and the National Archives failed to ful was that he got along well with people, decide are worth preserving! It is a worri-
achieve many things they would have liked both outside and inside the agency.“He was some and responsible task,but I can’t think

30 Prologue Winter 2009


of a nobler one in this rather uncivilized era with the GSA administrators. By the early
we find ourselves.” 1960s the battles with GSA on budget and NOTE ON SOURCES
He believed in the importance of training other matters prompted Grover to consider
The primary sources for this article are the
archivists and gave much attention to it.He retirement. Such thoughts increased as he Wayne C. Grover Private Papers (GROVR),
believed in basics and professionalism.“It is became increasingly irritated with GSA offi- National Archives and Records Administration,
not sufficient,” he stated in a 1953 address, cials because of their restrictions on his College Park, MD; Grover’s essays in various
issues of American Archivist; and Philip C.
“that he consider himself a technician decision-making and the inadequate fund-
Brooks, “In Memoriam: Wayne C. Grover
maneuvering empty vessels on a shelf, no ing the National Archives received. 1906–1970,”American Archivist 33 (July 1970).
matter how dexterous his technique, how Taking stock of the situation in 1965, he For more information on Grover’s career with
valuable and sound his principles of concluded that if the National Archives the National Archives, see Donald McCoy, The
National Archives: America’s Ministry of Doc-
arrangement. The vessels are full. An ar- was to regain its image and achieve its
uments, 1934–1968 (Chapel Hill: University of
chivist who doesn’t have some inkling of place as one of the great cultural institu- North Carolina Press, 1978); H. G. Jones, The
the significance of their contents is, in my tions of America, it should once again be Records of a Nation: Their Management,
book, not worth his salt. In the National an independent agency. His attempts to Preservation, and Use, with an introduction by
Wayne C. Grover (New York,Atheneum, 1969);
Archives, the best foundation on which to persuade the GSA administrator on this
James Gregory Bradsher,“The National Archives:
stand in order to acquire such an inkling is point were unsuccessful. He was hesitant Serving Government, the Public, and Scholar-
still the study of American history and gov- to speak out publicly about indepen- ship, 1950–1965,” in Guardian of Heritage:
ernment.” It was because of his concern dence because he believed that his choice Essays on the History of the National Archives,
ed. Timothy Walch (Washington, DC: National
about the important mission and responsi- as successor would not be appointed
Archives Trust Fund Board, 1985), pp. 51–63.
bilities of archivists that Grover, with the once he retired. So he decided that in Mrs.Wayne Grover graciously provided infor-
assistance of the National Archives staff, retirement, as well as in the process of mation to the author about her husband’s activ-
wrote the “The Archivist’s Code,” copies of retiring, he could call for NARS indepen- ities in the 1933–1935 period.The author’s own
correspondence with Robert H. Bahmer [Dec-
which can be found today in many archival dence from the GSA, but in such a way as
ember 4,1986] and James B.Rhoads [November
institutions and on the walls of many not to antagonize the GSA. 10, 1986] yielded first-person recollections of
offices in the National Archives. On November 2,1965,Grover sent a letter Grover.
The fourth factor leading to success was to President Lyndon Johnson indicating his Representative Edward P. Boland’s tribute to
Grover appeared in the Congressional Record
Grover’s ability to balance his work and pri- intention to retire and recommending his
of June 23, 1970. GSA Administrator Jess Lar-
vate life,often a difficult task for those in top longtime deputy, Robert Bahmer, to be his son’s comments on Grover were made during
management positions. Grover devoted successor.He also recommended the re-cre- the March 4, 1982, Hearings before a Sub-
much attention to his family. He enjoyed a ation of the National Archives as an inde- committee of the Committee on Government
Operations, Oversight of the National Archives
wide variety of diversions, including swim- pendent agency.“While my own leaving is
and Records Service, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., p.
ming, boating, fishing, and golf, and was entirely voluntary,” he informed the Presi- 152.
fond of thoroughbred horseracing and of dent, “and is based partly I suppose on a Grover’s 1952 correspondence with Li-
traveling. He was an avid reader and music belief that a man in an administrative posi- brarian of Congress Luther Evans—his com-
ment about what he wanted inscribed on his
lover and played the clarinet. tion can too easily overstay his time, my
tombstone and their exchange of poems—
Running a large federal agency can enthusiastic support of yourAdministration, appear in Milton O. Gustafson, “The Empty
eventually drain an individual’s strength. your Library, and the archives of the United Shrine:The Transfer of the Declaration of Inde-
Grover was no exception. Internal bureau- States will remain unabated.” Four days later pendence and the Constitution to the National
Archives,” American Archivist 39 (July 1976):
cratic battles, particularly those relating to he retired, with nearly 33 years of govern-
285.
dividing the resources among different ment service. Noting his retirement, an edi-
parts of his agency, must have sapped torial in the Washington Post traced
Author
much of his strength.This was particularly Grover’s many contributions toAmerica and
true of his difficulties with Theodore R. observed that he “had elevated his office,
Greg Bradsher, an archivist at
Schellenberg. Schellenberg, probably inspired his profession, won the esteem of
the National Archives and
American’s most important archival theo- historians, and earned the gratitude of his
Records Administration,special-
rist, had joined the National Archives at country.We Salute him and wish him well.” izes in World War II intelligence,
the same time as Grover. But over the True to his word to President Johnson, looted assets,and war crimes.His previous con-
years, the two engaged in numerous dis- Grover in retirement continued his ser- tributions to Prologue have included articles on
putes over Archives issues; finally on Janu- vice and interest in the nation’s archival the FreedomTrain (Winter 1985);the discovery
of Nazi gold in the Merkers Mine (Spring 1999);
ary 1, 1962, Grover created an Office of establishment, serving as a consultant to
the story of Fritz Kolbe, 1900–1943 (Spring
Records Appraisal and placed Schellen- his successor and to the Lyndon Baines
2002);Japan’s secret‘Z Plan’in 1944 (Fall 2005);
berg in charge of it. Johnson Presidential Library. He died at and Founding Father and Vice President
If problems with Schellenberg were not his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, on Elbridge Gerry (Spring 2006).
enough, Grover increasingly had difficulty June 8, 1970. P

Shaping the National Archives Prologue 31


A PLACE IN THE

ARCHIVES By Miriam Kleiman

Nearly every American’s name is mentioned somewhere in the holdings of the


National Archives—in census records, military and civilian personnel files,
records of payments of government entitlements.
But few Americans’ lives intersect publicly with the National Archives. And
sometimes,lives do intersect more than once,as they did in these three cases.
Fifteen-year-old Paul Olsen wrote to President Richard M. Nixon about his
discovery of historic dinosaur tracks near his home—and even sent him a
fiberglass impression of a footprint.
A letter to President Gerald R. Ford seeking a holiday in honor of “kids,” from
Gail O’Brien and her fellow third graders in New Jersey,got an official response.
Two Ohio middle-schoolers visited the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom at
the National Archives to see the Declaration of Independence.Years later, the
Rotunda became the site of their marriage proposal and acceptance.
What follows are three stories of people whose lives intersected with the
National Archives first as children and then as adults—in significant and unex-
pected ways.

1
Leaving a Big Footprint
In 1968, when the discovery of dinosaur tracks in an abandoned quarry in Roseland, New Jer-
sey, made the local news, two teenage boys in a nearby town jumped on their bicycles and
went to investigate.Working on their own, they uncovered thousands of fossilized dinosaur
tracks, which an expert later described as “something of a milestone in the history of these
animals because of the large number of tracks.”
A year later, Paul Olsen, one of the dinosaur hunters, wrote the first of many letters to Pres-
ident Richard Nixon. Identifying himself as one of a group of “young geologists” at the Rose-

Opposite, top row: The fiberglass cast of a dinosaur footprint sent by Paul Olsen to President Nixon and the memo
asking top advisers if Olsen and his friend should be invited to the White House. Middle row: The letter from Deal
Elementary School’s third grade asking President Ford to establish a “Kid’s Day.” Thirty years later, one of those stu-
dents, Gail O’Brien, brought her sons to see the letter in the newly opened PublicVaults exhibition. Bottom row: Matt
Whitmer chose the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom as the site of his proposal to Leigh Lacy.
1
Leaving a
Big Footprint

2
“How About
a Kid’s Day?”

3
Romance in
the Rotunda
land quarry, Olsen began an extended lob- wrote, citing the President’s State of the friends: “One of these days one of them
bying and media campaign to make the Union address lament of the rapid expan- will see it through graduate school and
quarry a protected park area.He described sion of cities and suburbs and the need you will then be particularly proud of your
their digs and included drawings of some for preservation of parks and recreation accomplishments.”
of their Triassic-era finds. While the sur- areas: Olsen shared these findings with local
rounding area was protected as park land, businesses, including Walter Kidde &
Olsen wrote that the quarry itself was not. Good fossil localities on the East Coast Co., which owned the property with the
He urged that it be“pressurved [sic] for all are rare and great ones even more so. It quarry. The company, however, said that
eternity for our country,” and closed his is a miracle that nature has given us this the tract of land was zoned for industrial
letter with the guarantee:“Mr. President, I gift, this relic of the ages, so near to our purposes, and that all 53 acres, including
can assure you it is worth it!” culturally starved metropolitan area. . . . the quarry, were available for sale as a
After having no luck getting New Jersey A great find like this cannot go unpro- unit.
state officials to protect the area, Olsen tected and it must be preserved for all However, another local business took
continued his letter-writing campaign to humanity to see. up the cause. In July 1970, George Green,
the President, updating Nixon on both the vice president of marketing for a Roseland
ongoing dig and the status of the quarry. The deputy director of the Interior De- company near the quarry, wrote to Nixon
Local and state officials“all are in favor but partment’s Mesozoic Fossil Sites Division and suggested that Olsen and his friends
all lack funds,” he wrote at one point. He responded to this letter.He praised Olsen’s be invited to the White House:
cited additional attempts to reach federal “dedication” and sent him the National
officials, being referred from one office to Parks Service“Criteria for Parklands”book- Possibly, an invitation to these young
another, eventually to the Department of let. He advised Olsen to gather letters men to visit with you at the White
the Interior’s Mesozoic Fossil Sites Divi- from famous scientists in support of pre- House, Mr. President, would then show
sion, from which he received no reply. serving the quarry. the good side of the young American
“We feel, Mr. President, that this matter Not to be deterred, Olsen wrote a com- students to the people of America.
deserves your personal attention,” Olsen prehensive report,outlining in detail the his-
tory and discovery of the Hugh W. Sloan, staff assistant to the Presi-
fossils found in the quarry. dent, responded a week later that “the
He attached to the report a demands of the President’s schedule are
stack of letters attesting to such that we do not foresee a time when
the importance of these this could be arranged.”
finds—letters from top geol- The ongoing dig, and the boys’ persis-
ogists and paleontologists at tence, lobbying efforts,and publicity even-
such renowned institutions tually paid off. In November 1970,Walter
as the American Museum of Kidde & Co. donated 19 acres of land for
Natural History in NewYork what became the Walter Kidde Dinosaur
and the Peabody Museum Park. This land was then valued at more
of Natural History at Yale than a quarter million dollars.
University. The donated land, however, was not
In one of these letters of protected as a park. More help was
support, the head paleon- needed on a national level, and additional
tologist at the American funding was needed for protecting and
Museum of Natural History preserving both the land and the fossils.
praised Robert Salkin Green sent another note to Nixon,inform-
(director of a local fossils ing him of a December 11 LIFE magazine
program who was mentor- feature on the boys and stressing a political
ing the boys) for his sup- benefit from a White House meeting:
port of Olsen and his

At the opening of the exhibit


I personally am interested on the basis

“BIG!” Paul Olsen, now a noted


of seeing the young fellows with the
paleontologist, stands next to a
“white hats” win once in a while just as
cast of the Eubrontes giganteus I was interested in voting for you, Mr.
footprint that he had sent to President, because I feel that you are
President Nixon 37 years before. one of the fellows with the “white hat.”

Winter 2009
Paul Finkel, head of public relations at House,on January 20,1971,Olsen received forgotten that I had sent the footprint to
Kidde, appealed to Herbert Klein,White an official Presidential Commendation for Nixon in the first place.”
House communications director. He his work, noting that the quarry had been As an undergraduate at Yale, Olsen
offered to bring Olsen and his friends to put up for consideration as a national land- wrote and published papers on his fossil
the White House, along with the chair of mark. discoveries. He received a doctorate in
the Kidde’s board of directors, to pre- In June 1971, the site received land- biology from Yale in 1984. Today, as a
sent one of the large dinosaur tracks to mark designation. While this conferred professor at Columbia University, he is
Nixon. Finkel stressed the value of such status, it offered no legal protection for one of the nation’s foremost paleontolo-
a photo opportunity: “News photos of the site. Olsen again wrote to Nixon that gists. He was recently elected a member
the President and the boys would cer- summer. He politely thanked the Presi- of the National Academy of Sciences. He
tainly help underline Mr. Nixon’s dent for both the commendation and des- recalls that he “went ballistic” when he
theme.” ignation but said they were not enough. learned about the discovery of the tracks
In response to these more direct ap- While the award and the resulting pub- near his home and that the experience
peals to Nixon’s image and reputation, licity were positive,“at this moment . . . opened up a world of scientists and sci-
Klein sent a memo to Sloan, noting that The Dinosaur Quarry is still not pro- entific resources that determined the
“this proposal does merit some consider- tected, still not a park.” course of his career. Although the
ation as a way of emphasizing the Pres- Olsen outlined the challenges posed to plaque imbedded in the cast dates the
ident’s interest in the efforts of young peo- the state and county in losing nearly 20 footprint from the Triassic period (248 to
ple and his appreciation of their work in acres of taxable property but stressed the 206 million years ago), Olsen recently
behalf of the community.” urgency in protecting this land. He again stated that it is now thought to be from
One week later, Sloan sent an internal thanked the President for his commenda- the early Jurassic period (206 to 144 mil-
memo to top White House advisers asking tion, but warned that his work“shall be all lion years ago).
them to respond “yes” or “no” to the ques- in vain unless the Dinosaur Quarry Olsen was a featured speaker at the
tion: “Do you recommend the President becomes a park.” He pleaded for the Pres- March 16, 2009,“BIG!” press preview and
receive a dinosaur track from these two ident to “take an interest in this amazing spoke at length with numerous reporters
boys during an Open Hour?” find and help protect it for all these Amer- and staff about this boyhood exploration
Supporting the idea were presidential icans who take pride and interest in our that changed his life.
science adviser Ed David, White House history and natural heritage.”
counsel Len Garment, and Nixon’s top On June 29, 1972, Olsen sent Nixon a That [dinosaur] footprint may not be
environmental adviser John Whitaker, very nice thank-you note for both the Pres- very large,but for a kid who was 15 years
who wrote “Good chance for Pres. To idential Commendation and for the efforts old,finding a fossil like that,and then hav-
plug his own park program.” Opposed by the President and the Department of ing communication with a President,and
were presidential aides Pat Buchanan, the Interior regarding the quarry. “As a receiving a commendation, sending it
William Safire—who scribbled “too obvi- token of our thanks,” he sent a fiberglass [the cast of the print] off, and ultimately
ous a joke about ‘the Neanderthal Wing’ cast of a 200-million-year-old dinosaur having it be in the National Archives,that
etc.”—and Bob Finch, who warned “bad track—that of a Eubrontes giganteus, a was a really BIG event.
symbolism!” theropod (beast-footed) dinosaur that
With a tie score, Sloan sent a memo to would have stood approximately nine feet On Monday,April 27, 2009, Olsen brought
John Ehrlichman, who voted“no”and thus high. The gift eventually ended up in the his wife,Annika,and their two sons,Gustaf
ended Olsen’s chance of a White House National Archives’ Nixon Presidential and Max, to the National Archives. Before
visit. Sloan officially replied to both Finkel Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, Cali- seeing the Charters of Freedom, the family
and Green the next day, stating that Presi- fornia. viewed the now-famous cast of the
dent’s schedule was full but promised to One year later, the fossil site was offi- dinosaur track. “Really cool!” both boys
“keep this in mind should an opportunity cially added to the National Registry of exclaimed.“It’s definitely really cool.”
arise.” Natural Landmarks. The land is now The National Archives exhibit
Undeterred, Kidde’s PR man Finkel owned by Essex County, New Jersey. “BIG!,” celebrating the 75th anniver-
wrote again to Sloan the following week While preparing the National Archives sary of the National Archives, features
and asked him to reconsider. Finkel exhibit, “BIG!,” curator Stacey Bredhoff big records, big events, and big ideas
enclosed the LIFE magazine feature and located the teenager who had lobbied —and includes the dinosaur track
told him that Olsen and a friend had been Nixon. The call from the National Archives cast.
taped for the To Tell the Truth show that more than 35 years later “came as quite a The exhibit runs through January
aired March 18, 1971. shock” to Olsen. His initial reaction was 3, 2010, in Washington, D.C., before
Instead of an invitation to the White “what footprint?” because “I had actually being prepared for touring.

A Place in the Archives Prologue 35


2
How About a Kid’s Day?
The “Dear Uncle Sam” section of the Pub-
lic Vaults consists of children’s letters to
government officials, often offering tips or
guidance. One amusing letter posed a
question that has long vexed children:
delight of McGreevey and her students. In
1974, the entire third grade at Deal Ele-
mentary was just a single class with 18 stu-
dents. They all signed the letter to Ford
asking for a Kid’s Day,mailed it,and waited
each day for the mailman to arrive at the
me.[Archivist] John Carlin asked the boys
to help with the ribbon cutting cere-
mony. I think that was their favorite part!
It was truly an honor to be there that
weekend to trace our past as well as our
country’s past. I am so glad we went.We
why are there Mother’s and Father’s Days school. The response from the White all learned so much that weekend.I’d say
but no Kid’s Day? House was followed by a class celebration. it was a darn good field trip.I hope some-
In 1974, a third-grade class at Deal Ele- In the summer of 2004,O’Brien was sur- day my 3rd grade teacher Mrs.McGreevy
mentary School in Deal,New Jersey,wrote prised and thrilled to learn that this letter gets a chance to go and see it!
to President Gerald R. Ford with an is part of the Archives permanent exhibi-
unusual request. Gail O’Brien barely tion, the Public Vaults: McGreevey still lives in Deal, New Jer-
remembers the letter her class wrote, but sey, and looks forward to visiting with
she does fondly recall her teacher that Who knew our 30 year old letter would former students each year at a local holi-
year, Joyce McGreevey. end up in a permanent display in the day party. O’Brien shared with
Joyce McGreevey’s third-grade English National Archives? Who knew that when McGreevey the photographs from her
curriculum included a unit on letter writ- our 3rd grade class assignment to write a trip to Washington, and McGreevey said
ing, and the students practiced informal letter to our President . . . asking for a “it just gave me shivers up my spine” to
and formal correspondence. McGreevey legal holiday for all children (KIDS DAY) think of O’Brien there as an adult with
urged her students to write to “important that anyone was really listening? the letter she signed as a child and to real-
people.” ize that her class letter is featured at the
Letters to state officials sometimes went O’Brien shared this exciting news with National Archives. She still hopes to visit
unanswered. But letters to the White her family and friends—including many of in person one day.
House—those were different. The White her former third-grade classmates. O’Brien The National Archives' Public Vaults, a
House always responded, much to the now has two children of her own. She permanent exhibit, includes the Deal Ele-
stays in touch with many of mentary School third-grade class letter to
her elementary school President Ford. The letter is located in the
friends as well as her third- "Form a More Perfect Union" vault, in the
grade teacher McGreevey, "Dear Uncle Sam" section.
who retired in 1995, after
36 years at Deal Ele-

3
mentary. Romance in the Rotunda
In November 2004, The most romantic Archives moment in
O’Brien and her sons were recent memory began with an e-mail sent
honored guests at the open- to the general National Archives Visitor Ser-
ing of the Public Vaults. Her vices mailbox. This mailbox receives an
sons performed the “ribbon average of 100 e-mails a day—largely tour
cutting”that officially opened requests from families, congressional
the exhibition. offices,schools,and travel groups. Archives
She later wrote about the personnel review the messages, provide
importance of this event in information, and arrange these visits.
their lives: While most requests are routine, a July
10, 2008, request from Matt Whitmer of
My children Harry 10 and Atlanta was different: “I am writing to
Haydn 7 at the time were request a visit to the National Archives.
about the same age I was This will be a very special trip for me as I
when we wrote the letter— am going to propose to my girlfriend at
so both boys were able to this time.” That alone would have been
share the experience with momentous, but there was more:
When Gail O’Brien attended the
opening of the PublicVaults,she got to
We are now 25. However, our 8th grade
see the letter her third-grade class had field trip was to DC and during that visit
sent to President Ford in 1974. we shared our first kiss in front of the

Winter 2009
Declaration of Independence. I would before hundreds of sur-
like to return to that very spot, 11 years prised and then cheering
later, to ask for her hand in marriage. visitors in the Rotunda for
the Charters of Freedom.
The Declaration of Independence is one of He got down on one knee
America’s most revered documents. The to propose and then
National Archives even receives calls from shouted: “She said yes!”
future members and current members of “I’m amazed. I’m so
the military hoping to enlist or reenlist excited. I can’t believe
before the Declaration and the Constitution. this,” Leigh exclaimed.
More than a million visitors a year come to Staffers, who learned
see the Charters of Freedom, but this about the proposal ahead
marked the first request thatVisitor Services of time, had enthusiasti-
had received for the Declaration to be the cally gathered in the
site of an engagement. Rotunda for the big ques-
Matt Whitmer and Leigh Lacy first met in tion, and an Archives pho-
school in Springboro, a suburb of Dayton, tographer was there to
Ohio.Whitmer recalled their first kiss: capture the moment
Allen Weinstein, then-
We were with class members touring Archivist of the United
the National Archives building when I States, cleared his sched-
took Leigh by the hand and we slid into ule to be in the Rotunda
a little nook near the Declaration of to witness the engage-
Independence display. It was just a ment. “I am delighted for
quick, sweet kiss, before we rejoined Matt and Leigh. This pro-
our classmates. It was brief, but it left a posal confirms that the
long impression. National Archives is a
‘must-see’ destination for
Whitmer explained how he chose the Washingtonians, tourists,
National Archives for his proposal: “We and true romantics alike,”
both love tradition and history, and of he said.
course, there was that first kiss,” he said. This romantic story On July 29, 2008, in front of the Declaration of Independence—the site of
“The romantic instincts kicked in, and I spread quickly, and arti- their first kiss—Matt Whitmer asked Leigh Lacy to marry him.
finally decided to try and surprise Leigh cles followed in newspa- 1 • 2
by proposing to her at the site of our first pers and magazines around the country.
kiss.” The engagement almost didn’t happen These stories illustrate vividly that records
While their first attempt at romance as planned.Somehow,despite their special matter and that the National Archives holds
only lasted one month,Whitmer said, they letter of entry, the couple got lost and not only the story of our nation, but count-
both attended the University of Miami, ended up wandering through the Public less individual stories as well. P
began dating again, and then moved Vaults exhibition instead of entering the
together to Atlanta after graduation. There, Rotunda. A National Archives staffer found
he now works for an advertising company them and offered to show them to the
and she teaches sevent grade. Whitmer Rotunda. Fortunately, Lacy viewed this as Author
had planned this romantic getaway to standard guest relations, not as anything Miriam Kleiman, a public
Washington, D.C., under the guise of a unusual. affairs specialist with NARA, first
work commitment. Whitmer thanked the staff of the came to the Archives as a
Minor glitches aside, the event was National Archives for helping orches- researcher in 1996 to investigate
beautiful. trate the engagement:“I want to thank lost Jewish assets in Swiss banks during World War
II. A graduate of the University of Michigan, she
On July 29,2008,12 years after they first you all very, very much for helping make
joined the agency in 2000 as an archives special-
became an item, the couple was hand in this one of the most special events of ist. She has written previously in Prologue about
hand in line to see the Charters of Free- my life! I know this is a memory that other people in the Public Vaults exhibit and
dom. Whitmer surprised his longtime will stay with us through our future life about records from St. Elizabeths Hospital in
sweetheart Lacy by proposing to her together.” Washington, D.C.

A Place in the Archives Prologue 37


The Alaskan
PANO

A
laska is one of the most beautiful and fascinating places on Earth. For the photographer, it pre-
sents limitless possibilities for artistic pursuits, so long as one is not deterred by occasional
extreme weather conditions, inhospitable terrain, and the isolation one can experience in
such a vast land.
From 1911 to 1932, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) created a large body of panoramic
photographs (approximately 5,000) of various regions in the Alaska Territory.At first glance, these
images appeared to simply provide a visual record of scenic locations.Upon further examination how-
ever, we learn that these panoramas had a far different intent, namely as visual aids in topographic
surveying.
The image reproduced above is a stunning view of several Alaskan glaciers. In recognition of the
effects of climate change in our modern times, it seems appropriate to showcase this unique geo-
logical feature, for many glaciers are now in a state of retreat.

38 Prologue Winter 2009


Frontier in
RAMA How the National Archives Pre-
served Early 20th-Century Pho-
tographs
By Richard E. Schneider

This view is composed of two separate negatives. It was


taken in the Moose Pass District near the Kenai Penin-
sula. This area of Alaska was known as a transfer point
for north- and southbound traffic (gold prospectors,
especially).The panorama was taken by J.W. Bagley in
1911.

This stunning image is composed of two separate negatives and contains no less than five glaciers in the distance.This is the College Fjord, 50 miles west of
the town of Valdez, in what is now the Chugach National Forest.There is even a surveyor sketching in the lower right.

In certain circumstances, the panorama is composed from separate still frames. This was achieved using
digital “stitching” software that can seamlessly combine two or more images into one expanded scene.While
some of the panoramas appeared as illustrations in USGS Bulletin 657 in 1917, most of these spectacular pho-
tographs have never been seen before by the general public.

• • • •

In the early 20th century,rigid glass plate negatives used in photography were quickly being replaced by what was
termed “flexible film.” Instead of the light-sensitive emulsion being coated onto separate glass panes, it would be
adhered to a long,continuous plastic film base.This film could be wrapped onto rolls,enabling the photographer to
take numerous pictures before having to change out the exposed roll for a new film cartridge.Photographers were
no longer constrained by one-at-a-time picture taking.This would revolutionize photography.

The Alaskan Frontier in Panorama Prologue 39


The only problem with the original flexi- to the fact that,aside from fledgling railroad map the distances between geological
ble film was its chemical composition. The companies, little transportation infrastruc- objects), and a theodolite (to determine
prevailing technology used a film base of ture existed. Add to that the impracticality latitude and longitude).
nitrocellulose (an ingredient found in gun- of surveying in any season other than sum- The USGS surveyor most closely associ-
cotton). This compound was indeed flexi- mer, and you have the challenge of having ated with the development and use of the
ble, and it did open up a world of possibili- to record the topography of a vast and var- panoramic camera system inAlaska was Maj.
ties for photographers and camera ied landscape in a short amount of time James W.Bagley.In 1917,Bagley wrote USGS
designers. But under the wrong condi- without any easy method for getting from Bulletin 657, The Use of the Panoramic
tions—warm temperatures, high humidity, point A to point B. Camera in Topographic Surveying. In ret-
and poor ventilation of storage space— In response to these constraints, the rospect, the history, justification, technical
nitrate film had the potential for combus- USGS employed an ingenious panoramic information, documentary evidence, and
tion. In fact,“nitrate fires” would become a camera system. Developed for the USGS mathematical formulas found in this bulletin
dreadful and all-too-common occurrence in by C.W.Wright in 1904, the camera itself make it one of the most important publica-
cinemas, film storage facilities, museums, was modeled after the Al-Vista, a commer- tions ever produced on the scientific uses of
and archives well into the 20th century. cially manufactured panoramic camera the panorama. While most swing-lens
While acknowledging the serious risks whose invention and patents dated back panoramic cameras were used for scenic or
posed, the advances in creativity and scien- to 1898. group shots,Bagley found a way to use it for
tific knowledge made possible by flexible The Al-Vista exposed flexible roll film by precise topographic measurements that
nitrate film cannot be understated (nitrate means of a slit (about one-quarter inch would be used by geographers during this
film would gradually be replaced industry- wide) located behind the lens. The lens crucial period in Alaska’s history.
wide by cellulose acetate, or “safety” film was mounted in such a way that it pivoted Among the most interesting information
base). from one side to another (hence the name in the bulletin is Bagley’s cost-benefit analy-
Alaska in the early 20th century was a dis- “swing-lens” camera).As the lens turned,
tant and exotic territory brimming with light would strike the film through the slit.
gold,timber,minerals,and sea life.The USGS, Film was not held flat by the camera body
along with other federal agencies, was (as with a modern 35mm camera) but
responsible for surveying and mapping the instead followed an arc. An image taken
terrain in part so that entities, such as the by an Al-Vista model 5-B, for example,
Alaska Railroad (which began operation in would be 5“ x 12“ in size with a 140-
1903), could safely and efficiently bring degree angle of view.
necessities to the vast interior and enable In addition to the panoramic camera,
the land’s riches to be exported to the the field equipment system often included
lower 48 states and beyond. the plane table (for the surveyor to make
Alaska was a dangerous place to conduct sketches in the field), an adjustable
surveying expeditions, in no small part due panoramic photo-alidade (to measure and

The image below illustrates one type of deterioration This panoramic camera was developed by C. W.
that can occur with nitrate photographic film. In cer- Wright and F. E. Wright of the USGS, 1904–1907.
tain areas, the emulsion has separated and fallen off Cameras used either 5” or 6” wide roll film.Typically,
the film base, leaving no image whatsoever.This pho- the photographer would obtain four exposures per
tograph was taken in an unidentified location by J.W. roll and expose three rolls per average working day,
Bagley. depending on the weather and terrain.

40 Prologue Summer 2009


A pack train of horses carries supplies (including photographic equipment) from station to station for the surveying team.The location and team itself are unidentified, ca. 1915.

sis. Bagley was devoted to obtaining the frontier meant that the party had to bring camera’s axis. When combined, or simply
greatest amount of product for the lowest everything with them from the nearest set- viewed one atop the other,they would form
price.The “product” in this case was visual tled town or city. They traveled by boat or by an expanded 360-degree panorama.
documentation, in photographs, of those pack train (horses).The total number of sur- Major Bagley was by no means the only
Alaskan regions thought to be most impor- veyors ranged from seven to ten,depending USGS surveyor inAlaska using the panoramic
tant for the USGS and other stakeholders. on their assignment from USGS. They camera. He was simply the most prolific,
Under normal circumstances in the lower processed the film and reviewed the pho- influential, and technically astute photogra-
48 states,precision fieldwork (hand-sketch- tographs in the field. Often the information pher the USGS had in these remote locations.
ing using a plane table) could be laborious contained in the photograph would be sup- His panoramic legacy may have been embod-
and time consuming, and therefore expen- plemented by sketches. A given geographi- ied and preserved in USGS Bulletin 657, but
sive. By contrast, photographs of a similar cal area would be divided into “stations” even as this went to press,Bagley had his sights
caliber could be produced much more where the panoramas would be taken. An set elsewhere.The last chapter of this 1917 bul-
quickly to satisfy demand for certified topo- average day’s production might be four letin discusses“theApplication of Photogram-
graphic maps. panoramic images shot at each of three sta- metry to Aerial Surveys.” Even as panoramic
Despite the obvious advantages of flexi- tions. Often the photographer would inten- land-based photography would continue at
ble film, glass plate negatives were still tionally overlap two to four exposures, each the USGS until at least 1932, Major Bagley
widely available in the commercial market- taken from a different vantage point on the already had his surveyor’s eye trained at the
place. Creating a panoramic vista from a
combination of separate, still photographs
printed from glass plates was common prac-
tice and was indeed considered by Bagley
when he turned his sights towardAlaska.He
determined,however,that the cost of trans-
porting heavy glass plates would negate by
far the benefits offered by a prevailing and
proven technology. Bagley took a big
chance, out there in the wilderness, with a
customized camera system and film stock
that, though inexpensive to transport and
versatile in its applications, left some ques-
tions to be answered.
The task of photographing in the Alaskan

Boats were another mode of transportation used by


the USGS surveyors as they explored the Alaskan
frontier.This small craft, the Endeavor, would be used
for photography as well, and several passages in the
USGS Bulletin 657 discuss the techniques for taking
panoramas from the bow of a boat.

The Alaskan Frontier in Panorama Prologue 41


This view is composed of two separate negatives. It was taken in the Moose Pass District near the Kenai Peninsula.This area of Alaska was known as a transfer point
for north- and southbound traffic (gold prospectors, especially).The panorama was taken by J.W. Bagley in 1911.

skies and to the potential of were stored in a walk-in refrig-


aerial photography. erator kept at 38˚F. The Spe-
The panoramic negatives cial Media Preservation Divi-
and prints taken by Major sion was given responsibility
Bagley and the others associ- for duplicating the original
ated with this project even- film before the nitrate film
tually found their way to the was to be removed from the
USGS Photographic Library building.
in Denver, Colorado.The dan- The vast majority of the
ger of nitrate film, however, USGS nitrate negatives were
posed a storage problem for standard 4“ x 5“ or 5“ x 7“
the USGS. sizes.The preservation labora-
Long-standing federal regu- This image illustrates the state that many of the panoramic negatives were in when received tories could duplicate these
lations mandated that agen- by the National Archives. In this case, the negatives were in satisfactory condition. However using existing proven photo-
cies themselves duplicate in others, the images were adhered to each other (due to coming in contact with water or graphic
nitrate film materials deemed other liquid) and unable to be separated, making duplication impossible.
methods. The
panoramic negatives required a
permanent by the National new technique.
Archives. These duplicates would then be- about 52,000 nitrate negatives remained to The panoramas, because of their size
come part of the Archives’ holdings. If an be duplicated, and it was acknowledged (5“ x 12“ and 6“ x 12“), could not be
agency wished to retain originals deemed that the storage facility in Denver,with only duplicated using the optical camera sys-
disposable by theArchives,it would have to minimal environmental controls, was inad- tem that had been used for the smaller
follow guidance on proper storage. In the equate for any long-term storage. It was film formats. After considering several
early 1980s the USGS began a duplication determined that the best solution to this possibilities, it was suggested that the lab-
effort for their collection of about 87,000 problem was to transfer the original nega- oratories use an aerial roll-film contact
nitrate negatives. Most of these originals tives to the National Archives. duplicating system dating from the 1950s.
had been shot in the lower 48 states and In March 2007 the USGS transferred the The result would be a duplicate negative
were not in a panoramic format. However, nitrate negatives to the Still Picture unit of created directly from the original nega-
because of conflicting priorities and a the National Archives at College Park,Mary- tive. Each exposed and processed roll
lack of funding, the duplication project land. The film was loaded into fireproof would be 10 inches tall by about 500 feet
eventually ground to a halt. By 1997, metal storage units, which themselves long and would contain about 400 dupli-

42 Prologue Winter 2009


cates.These could be cut into individual and rise to the occasion when important edge from archivists who have many
sheets at a later date. situations warrant. years’ experience at this agency.
The next step was to examine and pre- The National Archives contains an inde- The dedicated work of the National
pare the nitrate negatives for duplication. scribable wealth of original source mate- Archives staff in preserving and making
The majority of the originals had only a rial that cannot be found anyplace else. accessible these panoramic images in new
minor degree of deterioration (mostly The investigation of these unique images formats provides an invaluable record for
warping of the film base). Negatives with turned up intersecting records from car- those interested in the physical history of
advanced stages of deterioration, however, tographic, textual, and still picture hold- Alaska as well as in the use of photography
had whole sections missing, as the film ings and relied on institutional knowl- for scientific research. P
emulsion containing the image disinte-
grated. Other times the film base had NOTE ON SOURCES
cracked off into jagged pieces and fallen Other USGS surveyors who utilized the panoramic camera included E. O. Blades,W. G. Carson, C. E. Grif-
off. There were also hundreds of negatives fen, R. K. Lynt, and R. M.Wilson.The USGS did not identify the first and middle names of these surveyors
that had gotten wet decades ago and were either on the maps created using their data or in Bulletin 657.
either stuck together or had mold damage. Patent drawings of the Al-Vista Camera, and numerous other panoramic cameras, can be found at the
National Archives in Records of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Record Group 241.
Because the time permitted for the project
For those wishing to see another historic

Author
did not allow for these images to be example of panoramic photography being used
painstakingly treated,they did not get dupli- for scientific purposes, please visit the Smith-
cated. sonian Institution’s web page http://siarchives. Richard E. Schneider, a manage-
The roll-film contact apparatus was an si.edu/techsvcs/walcott/ to see “Beauty in ment and program analyst in
Service to Science: The Panoramic Pho- Preservation Programs of the
easy and proven system for duplicating aer-
tographs of Charles D.Walcott.” Michael Hors- National Archives, participated in
ial film,or any large format film for that mat- ley of the Special Media Preservation Division, the preparation and duplication of
ter. Therefore, the process for duplicating one of the contributors to this article, was an the USGS panoramic nitrate negatives in 2008. He
the Alaska panoramas was straightforward, integral part of the research and production of curated “The Long View,” an exhibit of historic
and the deadline for duplicating the USGS this web page and the excellent photo- panoramas and associated records from the
graphic exhibition that preceded it (2004). National Archives on display at College Park, Mary-
nitrate film was met. This was a special and
The author also wishes to acknowledge the land. A related article appeared in the fall 1997 issue
significant project for the Special Media contributions to this article of other National of Prologue, and he also contributed to the online
Preservation Division and was an excellent Archives staff members: Joseph Schwarz,Ann panoramic exhibit at www.archives.gov/
demonstration on how different units Seibert, Sara Shpargel, Richard Smith, and exhibits/panoramic_photography/panoramic_
within the National Archives work together Nicholas Natanson. home.html.

The Alaskan Frontier in Panorama Prologue 43


A TOWER IN
NEBRASKA
By Raymond P. Schmidt

DR designed a retreat for his Hyde Park property and unabashedly signed the

F drawings “Franklin D. Roosevelt Architect.”


During his political career he had a hand in determining the appearance and
location of many public projects, ranging from the World War I “temporary” buildings on
the National Mall in Washington,D.C.,to the World War II Pentagon.He also played a major
role in the construction of the National Archives Building along the Mall.
Nowhere was his role more transparent, however, than his part in building the Naval
Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland—now commonly referred to as the National Naval Med-
ical Center, or NNMC. Curiously, a brief stop during his 1936 reelection campaign at a
unique new state capitol completed four years earlier inspired its design.

The Nebraska Capitol—Origins


of an Architectural Inspiration
Nebraska Governor Robert Cochran unknowingly set the
stage with an invitation for the President to “make the
address of dedication”for the new state capitol in Lincoln.
Cochran noted that the dedication ceremony would“mean
perhaps more to all of our people than any other event
which could take place.” FDR’s presence,he insisted,would
“draw a tremendous crowd ... from adjacent states as well.”
FDR agreed to deliver the requested speech during his
October railroad swing across several Plains states.

President Franklin Roosevelt used a visit to the Nebraska state capitol (opposite
page) as inspiration for his suggested design for the new Naval Hospital (right)
in Bethesda, Maryland.

A Tower in Nebraska
As FDR’s special train crossed the Uniting for Victory—Blurring Party and in 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt for Pres-
Missouri River border from Iowa into Lines in an Election Year ident—thereby earning a reputation
Plattsmouth, Nebraska, on October 10, When Roosevelt addressed his support- among some Republicans as one of the
1936, he was aware of the powerful ers in Plattsmouth around noon on that “sons of the wild jackass.”
economic and political symbolism of Saturday in October, he told a crowd of In the 1936 election, however, the 75-
the new Nebraska capitol. New York 4,000 to 5,000 that he had “brought the year-old politician abandoned his party
architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue best part of Nebraska into Nebraska with entirely and reluctantly ran again,this time
had won the competition in 1920 with me.”This reference to Senator George W. as an independent. The New Deal Pres-
a tradition-breaking “American Mod- Norris, reported in Lincoln’s Evening ident was obviously drawn to Nebraska to
ernist” design of a “cross within a State Journal, paid tribute to one of FDR’s endorse Norris for reelection to a fifth
square” dominated by an occupied staunchest allies in Congress. term in the United States Senate. Both
tower 400 feet high. The four interior The four-term Nebraska senator was were to gain victories from their cross-
courtyards surround a central rotunda, widely known as “father of the TVA,” the party support.
and the dome supports a statute of a Tennessee Valley Authority, shepherding
sower 19½ feet tall standing on a 12½- that signature New Deal legislation Facing the Voters . . . and the
foot pedestal of wheat and corn motifs. through Congress in 1933. Norris had pre- Nebraska Capitol
Goodhue skillfully overcame a schedul- viously co-sponsored the Norris-LaGuardia When FDR delivered his “dedication”
ing challenge: Erect the tower and its Act of 1932 that outlawed so-called “yel- speech in Lincoln two hours after crossing
wide, low surrounding base around the low-dog” contracts prohibiting employees the river, his raised platform faced the
sagging existing capitol, moving employ- from joining a labor union. More recently, principal entrance on the north capitol
ees into the new capitol in stages. State he had moved the Rural Electrification Act front.This elevated perch allowed him an
officials achieved a similar feat in paying toward passage in May 1936. unobstructed view of the entire building,
for the entire $10 million cost of con- George Norris began his political career where he could take in the impressive
struction, furnishings, and landscaping in in 1902 as a traditional Republican con- tower topped at its dome by a bronze
full when the new building was com- gressman but then earned election as a statue, the broad three-story base, the
pleted, as the Great Depression swept Progressive Republican senator in 1912. steps and streets clogged with tens of
across the country. In 1928 he supported Democrat Al Smith thousands of cheering voters, and the

On October 10, 1936, President Roosevelt spoke briefly to the crowd at the Nebraska Capitol.When he finished, a sustained cry of “Norris! Norris!” rose from
thousands of throats. FDR urged the popular senator to respond. Not wishing to upstage the President, Senator Norris (at the microphone) spoke only briefly. Roo-
sevelt stands next to Secret Service Agent Gus Gimmereck, who supported him up and down the ramp between the platform and the limousine.

46 Prologue Winter 2009


grassy terraces that held friendly throngs ton area.When Congress approved funding
of thousands more. for it in 1937, FDR knew exactly what he
“It was the first time since the capitol wanted.In December,he drew a line sketch
was built that [the capitol front was] . . . for a two-story base supporting a 15-story
ever covered with humanity, and it was a tower.
grand sight,” reported the Lincoln Sunday The Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks
Journal and Star the next day. This warm published preliminary drawings seven
reception left an indelible impression on months later, only to be met with opposi-
FDR. He praised the capitol as “a great and tion from the National Park and Planning
worthy structure, worthy of a great state.” Commission (NPPC) and the U.S. Com-
His characterization of the building as“this mission of Fine Arts (CFA).
wonderful structure”that“all the people of Frederic Delano, FDR’s uncle and his
America . . . ought to come here and see” hand-picked president of the NPPC,pointed
carried more weight than anyone at the out that the tower exceeded the 130-foot
time could realize. height ceiling for buildings in the District of
Columbia that was established by law.
Design Approval and Site Selection Gilmore Clarke of the CFA agreed and
for a New Naval Hospital objected to the “modern block design” of
The tower image obviously remained the hospital.When revised plans later that
vivid in FDR’s memory. Even as the Presi- fall showed a four-story base and a tower
dent engaged in bitter public disputes 250 feet,or 23 stories,high,opponents envi-
throughout the late 1930s over his pre- sioned an architectural nightmare,especially FDR’s two sketches of his architectural preference for
ferred Pantheon-design for the Jefferson if it rested on top of the hill at 23rd and E the new Naval Hospital.
Memorial on the Tidal Basin, he also pre- Streets where the existing Naval Hospital
vailed over strong but much less publicized stood. Despite this resistance and attempts Not content just to design the hospital,
opposition to his personal design for a long- by opponents to deny him the funds,in the FDR also insisted on selecting its site. He
awaited new naval hospital in the Washing- end FDR got his tower. wisely rejected constructing it on the site

FDR with Georgia Congressman Carl Vinson, chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee; Massachusetts Senator David I.Walsh, chairman of the Senate Com-
mittee on Naval Affairs; and Adm. Percival S. Rossiter, MC, USN, Navy surgeon general, in July 1938, when the President touched the ground outside their car with his
cane and proclaimed “We will build it here”—thus fixing the site of the new Naval Hospital.

A Tower in Nebraska Prologue 47


of the existing Naval Hospital,a few blocks added new hospital wards, other medical
north of the Lincoln Memorial.This would facilities, and parking garages. In 1977 the NOTE ON SOURCES
have unleashed another, more justifiable, tower received protection by being listed in
Bethesda has long been associated with healing.
storm of criticism. the U.S.National Register of Historic Places It is the name given to a series of pools in Jerusalem
Some 80 sites in Maryland, the District, (NRHP). Throughout the decades, FDR’s and has linguistic as well as Biblical roots. Some
and Virginia were proposed as the favored tower continued to dominate the site. sources claim the name derives from the Aramaic
location. Instead, in July of 1938 FDR The campus is undergoing major beth hesda meaning house of mercy or house of
grace.References to a similar name can be found in
motored to a bucolic setting along Rockville changes in this new century, however.Ter- the Gospel of John,possibly pertaining to a pool for
Pike in the then-small village of Bethesda, rorist attacks in the United States on Sep- sheep or, alternatively, a pool located near a sheep
Maryland—several miles north of the Dis- tember 11, 2001, caused the erection of a gate in the city wall.
trict and directly across the road from the security perimeter and removal of the Governor Robert Cochran’s invitation to FDR to
speak at the state capitol dedication (letter of July 14,
new National Institutes of Health. “sheep fences.”Base Realignment and Clo-
1936);FDR’s response of July 21,1936;and“Remarks
The presidential car paused on a grassy sure recommendations resulted in a 2005 of the President at the State Capitol, Lincoln,
knoll west of dense woodlands. FDR law that closes the Walter Reed Army Med- Nebraska,” October 10, 1936, are in the Franklin D.
reached over the side of his open touring ical Center in northwest Washington,D.C., Roosevelt Library,Hyde Park,NewYork.
car and touched the ground with his cane, and consolidates major Army clinics and For an examination of FDR’s close interest in
architecture, see William B. Rhoads,“Franklin D.
announcing “We will build it here.” wards at the NNMC.The expanded, new Roosevelt and Washington Architecture,”Records
For FDR, the tower conjured a scene joint hospital will bear the title Walter of the Columbia Historical Society 52 (1989):
similar to the pastoral English countryside Reed National Military Medical Center, 104–162. Additional information on FDR and the
with“fairly high church towers . . . sticking Bethesda, and is on track to become oper- naval hospital is from E. Caylor Bowen, editor of
Transplantation Research Program Center, Naval
up above the trees and other buildings.” ational in September 2011.
Medical Research Institute, Naval Medical Com-
He instructed that the hospital grounds be Although the new medical facility will mand, National Capital Region, “Naval Medical
“treated romantically, like a sheep field, . . respect the tower’s NRHP historic desig- Center, Bethesda, Maryland (1939–1984) (unpub-
. [and] ordered their enclosure by a sheep nation, new construction and renovation lished manuscript).
fence.” are forever altering the appearance of the The description, dimensions, and cost of the
Nebraska state capitol are from the Nebraska Blue
NNMC campus. FDR most certainly would
Book, State Capitol Information Office. Goodhue’s
Preserving FDR’s Vision have taken a keen interest in assuring that design was the third state capitol.The first two build-
Roosevelt presided over laying the cor- his vision of a tower “rising above the ings were constructed in 1867 and 1889,respectively.
nerstone on November 11, 1940, and dedi- trees” in a calming pastoral setting contin- Frederick C.Luebke,Nebraska:An Illustrated History
(Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press,1995) contains
cated his hospital on August 31, 1942. ues to further the practice of the healing
useful information about the Nebraska capitol,includ-
Expansions completed in 1963 and 1980 arts in aptly named Bethesda. P ing a discussion of a formal dedication in 1967.
Information on Senator Norris may be found
in Richard Lowitt, George W.Norris:The Triumph
of a Progressive, 1933–1944 (Urbana: University
of Illinois Press, 1978).This is Lowitt’s third vol-
ume of this comprehensive biography.The first
two volumes cover 1861–1912 and 1913–1933,
respectively, of Norris’s remarkable life and polit-
ical career. Norris was the first candidate in
Nebraska history to win a senatorial election as
an independent. It is not a coincidence that
Nebraskans followed his lead in adopting a non-
partisan unicameral legislature by amending its
constitution in 1934.

Author
Capt. Raymond P. Schmidt,
USNR (ret.), is a Nebraska native
who earned bachelor’s and
master’s degrees from the Uni-
versities of Nebraska andWisconsin,respectively.
He served 14 years as the first civilian cryptologic
historian of the U.S. Navy and has authored and
edited numerous published articles. His son was
born in the Bethesda HospitalTower,and he per-
sonally witnessed these changes to the NNMC

Artist’s concept of the front view of the newWalter Reed National Military Medical Center based on approved plans.
over the past five decades.

48 Prologue Winter 2009


HAT’S NEW IN THE PAST?
W FOR MORE THAN 40 YEARS, Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration has
been telling readers about the rich resources and programs of the National Archives, its regional facilities,
and the Presidential libraries.
In every issue you will find thought-provoking and entertaining arti-
cles—based on research in the Archives’ magnificent holdings of orig-
inal documents—on American history and on the activities of the
agency.

SOME RECENT ARTICLES IN Prologue INCLUDE:

✭ How a private Bess Truman emerges from not-yet-released let-


ters she wrote to Harry over the years.

✭ How the National Archives evolved over its 75-year history by


adapting to change and meeting new challenges.

✭ How the United States dealt with “alien enemies” in San Fran-
cisco during World War I.

✭ How the United States patrolled the Southeast coast by motorcycle


during World War I, looking for German spies and saboteurs.

COMING UP: Prologue will have articles that will shed new light on
the Civil War as the National Archives opens a major Civil War exhibit
this coming spring. Articles will deal with such topics as terrorism dur-
ing the war and the moral dilemma faced by Union officers from the
South who resigned their commissions to fight for the Confederacy

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GENEALOGY NOTES

“How an eagle feels


when his wings are clipped and caged ”
Relocation Center Newspapers Describe
Japanese American Internment in World War II

By Rebecca K. Sharp

hile interned at the Minidoka Relocation Center in Idaho, newspaper staff

W reporter Kimi Tambara wrote an open letter in the Minidoka Irrigator to


her friend Jan. She recalled Christmas 1941, just weeks after the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor.

. . . another thought . . . coincident with the crackling noise of the firecrackers pop-
ping around Lower Chinatown, a low voice ‘You damn Jap-you! By gosh, the govern-
ment should put every damn one of you in concentration camps’—I remember the
cold shiver that ran up my spine,transforming the humid, warm air of a July night into
the bitter cold of winter. You and I, Jan, tried to laugh it off, because somehow, it
seemed ridiculous. The freedom of life and liberty was so much a part of us that the
idea of confinement had never once occurred to us.

Tambara also described her feelings about internment:

[T]his life behind a fence is not a pleasant one, but nothing can be pleasant in these
times, could it? I can now understand how an eagle feels when his wings are clipped
and caged.Beyond the bars of his prison lies the wide expanse of the boundless skies,
flocked with soft clouds, the wide, wide, fields of brush and woods—limitless space
for the pursuit of Life itself.1

The Japanese American2 internees published newspapers that provided general infor-
mation about their community as well as specific individuals. Publication frequency var-
ied from newspaper to newspaper. Some newspapers were published once a week, while
others were published biweekly, triweekly, or even six times a week. The publication fre-
quency of a particular newspaper often changed over time.

50 Prologue Winter 200


The staff of the Heart Mountain Sentinel “do double duty on Fri-
day night and Saturday morning … folding and preparing their
paper for distribution.”

U.S.Army Indian Scouts Prologue 53


Two and a half months after the attack on Pearl well as rumors that were circulating throughout the
Harbor, on February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. relocation centers. The newspapers also described
Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066,which gave culture shock, a consequence of internment, forced
the secretary of war and military commanders the assimilation, and a constant reminder how their
authority“to prescribe military areas in such places lives had changed. Since the newspapers were cen-
and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military sored, the staff avoided direct criticism of the fed-
Commander may determine, from which any or all eral government.5
persons may be excluded.”3 This order gave the U.S. Artwork, maps, photographs, and weather reports
Army the authority to forcibly evacuate the Jap- offer a glimpse of the relocation center environment.
anese American population from the designated On occasion, the newspapers included the artwork,
military areas along the Pacific Coast between the articles,letters,poems,and short stories submitted by
latter part of March and May 1942.4 internees or former internees who were attending
The Japanese Americans could bring only what colleges and universities,working outside the reloca-
they could carry—clothes, plates, cups, utensils, tion center, or serving in the military. In addition to
linens, toiletry items, and mementos—to the desig- relocation center news, the newspapers also con-
nated collection points.With less than a week to sell veyed national and world news.
their businesses, houses, and valuables, they had no
time to get things in order. The evacuees were Vital Statistics
moved to 16 assembly centers. Many of the assem- The newspapers published lists of births, marriages,
bly centers were located on fairgrounds and race- and deaths in the relocation centers. The lists provide
tracks, where the living conditions were over- minimal information about the individuals.For exam-
crowded and unsanitary. ple, the birth lists typically record the baby’s sex,birth
Beginning in May 1942, the War Department trans- date, and the parents’ names, and in some, but not all
ferred the Japanese Americans to 10 War Relocation cases, the baby’s name. The newspapers briefly
Authority (WRA) relocation centers: Central Utah announced engagements, marriages, and milestone
(Utah), Colorado River (Arizona), Gila River (Arizona), wedding anniversaries as well as obituaries. Longer
Granada (Colorado), Heart Mountain (Wyoming), articles about a newborn may list the attending med-
Jerome (Arkansas), Manzanar (California), Minidoka ical staff, while an article about a wedding may in-
(Idaho),Rohwer (Arkansas),and Tule Lake (California). clude the name of the presiding religious official.
Under guard and surrounded by barbed-wire fences,the The newspapers usually ran feature articles about
internees lived in cramped barracks sharing communal the first birth,marriage,and death that occurred at the
toilets, showers, and mess halls. Privacy was nonexis- relocation center.Yuki Shiozawa and Taro Katayama
tent. The relocation centers mirrored small communi- were the first couple to wed at the Central Utah relo-
ties with churches,hospitals,libraries,post offices, and cation center. The Topaz Times reported that several
schools.The WRA allowed some internees to leave for musical performances preceded the wedding,includ-
temporary seasonal agricultural work.Others attended ing Goro Suzuki’s (the bride’s cousin) rendition of the
college, served in the military, or obtained outside song “At Dawning.” Protestant minister Rev. Joseph
employment. Some of the internees remained in the Tsukamoto officiated; Yuki’s father, Tetsushiro
WRA relocation centers until they closed in 1946. Shiozawa,gave her away;andTaro’s best man was his
brother,Jerry Katayama. The article also describes the
Relocation Center Newspapers couple’s wedding attire:
The newspapers served as a means for disseminat-
ing WRA rules, regulations, and surveys. The WRA The bride, with a “Victory” pompadour hairdress,
initially banned the use of Japanese in the newspa- wore a wine-colored velveteen dress and accessories
pers, but later issues sometimes included Japanese- with 1 strand of pearls. She wore an orchid corsage
language inserts. Newspaper articles cover a wide rounded off with white bouvardias.The benedict
range of topics including daily activities,beauty tips, [bridegroom]wore a navy blue tailored suit.
diet and nutrition, crime and law enforcement, edu-
cation, hobbies, social activities, and sports. The The article also puts the wedding in the context
newspapers reported on military service, outside of internment:
employment opportunities, and vital statistics as Prior to evacuation the bride was a Civil Service

52 Prologue Winter 2009


stenographer in the Alameda County Charities with wood carvings of a monkey and birds. The
Commission in Oakland.The bridegroom,formerly article describes Mukai’s personality: “He is very
of Salt Lake City, is a graduate of the University of modest about his work and laughingly replies,‘One
Utah, and was working on a San Francisco paper minute,’ when asked how much time is required to
before the evacuation.He was also the editor of the make each animal.”7
TanforanTotalizer [an assembly center newspaper]. The Heart Mountain Sentinel ran a series of arti-
They are “at home” in 36-12-A [relocation center cles that showed different barracks to give readers
barracks address] until Thursday.6 interior decorating ideas. These articles include
sketches of the featured barracks, such as Mr. and
Living Quarters Mrs. Bob Sato’s “apartment”:
In addition to general articles about the barracks
and community living, a small percentage of the When is a closet not a closet? We have been
Front page of the first articles show the creative ways in which individu- informed it was intended for a coal bin, but Mrs.
issue of the Heart
Mountain Sentinel, Oct-
als modified their living quarters.Yoshimatsu Mukai, Sato has cleverly converted her “closet” to a den
ober 24, 1942.
an internee at the Rohwer relocation center in or nook,with card table and chairs.The chairs are
Arkansas, decorated the exterior of his barracks fashioned out of orange boxes,draped in stripped
denim.The upper part of the den was made for
storage space, covered with monks cloth, the
same material used for her dressing table and
closet which was built in one corner. Adding life
to the otherwise drab monks cloth is a gay yel-
low, red, and blue bias tape trim on the hem of
the drapes.
The den is made cozy with lights. For [the]
lamp shade, Mrs. Sato used the white corrugated
paper which came with the mail order wrap-
pings.
An oval mirror adds to the modernistic touch of
her spacious dressing table which was fashioned
out of left-over celotex. Three shelves on each side,
18 inches deep, hold linens, clothing, shoes, etc.8

Artwork
Despite the difficult living conditions, people con-
tinued to express themselves artistically. Comic
strips and other works of art appear in most WRA
relocation center newspapers. One example is the
artwork of Eddie Sato,a staff artist for The Minidoka
Irrigator.Sato,a talented political cartoonist,created
a comic strip character that he considered calling
Potato, but the newspaper decided to run a charac-
ter-naming contest.Three articles about the contest
provide information about Sato, the cartoon char-
acter, and the Minidoka community. The November
7, 1942, issue announced Yasuko Koyama’s winning
submission,Dokie.9 Dokie first appears to be an ordi-
nary comic strip character, but a closer look at the
strips reveals that Sato captured the reality of
internment. In May 1943, Sato left the Minidoka
relocation center to serve in the military.Although he
was no longer interned,the newspaper occasionally ran

Newspapers at Japanese Internment Centers Prologue 53


articles about him, including information about his
winning art contest submissions and his return visit
to Minidoka.10 Eddie Sato is just one example of the
numerous JapaneseAmerican internees who went to
war for a country that had confined its loyal citizens
behind barbed wire fences.

Availability of the Records


The publications created by the Japanese Amer-
ican internees, including church papers, newspa-
pers, and school papers, are among the records of
the relocation centers (entry 4b) in the Records
of the War Relocation Authority (Record Group
210).
The National Archives does not have a complete
set of relocation center newspapers. Densho–:The
Japanese American Legacy Project digitized approx-
imately 4,000 newspapers from the 10 WRA reloca-
tion centers.Researchers must register (registration
is free) to obtain access to Densho–’s “Camp News-
papers Collections” Digital Archive (www.densho.
org).11 The Bancroft Library’s (University of Cali-
fornia at Berkeley) “Japanese American Evacuation
and Resettlement Records, 1930–1974,” and the
Library of Congress’s “Japanese Camp Papers”
(microfilm number 2022) may have additional news-
paper issues.
Entry 4b records have been microfilmed and are
available as Field Basic Documentation of the War
Relocation Authority, 1942–1946 (Microfilm Pub-
lication C53).The records are arranged by reloca-
tion center; however, the microfilm roll list only
records the first and last record that appears on
each roll of microfilm. The staff of the National
Archives created a finding aid that provides the
titles and coverage dates of the church papers,
newspapers, and school papers published by the
Japanese American internees.
To receive a copy of this finding aid, contact the
Archives I Reference Section (NWCT1R), 700 Penn-
sylvania Avenue, NW,Washington, DC 20408-0001
Above: The setting
for this cartoon is
(e-mail archives1reference@nara.gov). locate articles about individuals, researchers need
a WRA relocation
Microfilm Publication C53 is available at the to read the WRA relocation center newspaper of
center. Note the
National Archives Building in Washington, D.C., interest.
and at the National Archives regional archives in Although this research can be time consuming, watchtower and
Laguna Niguel, California. For additional informa- the WRA newspapers provide a contemporary barbed wire fence.
tion about this microfilm publication, including a description of the often difficult and desolate con-
Right: This political
cartoon depicts
digital copy of the microfilm roll list, visit the ditions of the relocation centers.The newspapers
Adolf Hitler, Benito
online microfilm catalog through Order Online at can also show how the Japanese Americans
www.archives.gov. The records can be difficult to adapted to both the physical and psychological Mussolini, and
use because there is no master name index. To pressures of internment. P Emperor Hirohito.

54 Prologue Winter 2009


NOTES

The author would like to thank the following staff mem-


bers for their professional guidance: Rebecca Crawford,
John Deeben, Constance Potter, Claire Sadar, Sally
Schwartz,Katherine Vollen,William Wade,and Nancy Wing.
She would like to acknowledge Michelle Farnsworth for
digitizing the original relocation center newspapers
described in this article.

1
This letter is part of a special Christmas 1942 issue. See
“Irrigator Asks: Contributions for Yule Issue,” Minidoka Irri-
gator, Dec.12,1942,vol.I,no.26,p.1.Tambara’s letter is pub-
lished as “In This, Our Land,” Minidoka Irrigator, Dec. 25,
1942,vol.I,no.29,p.7.Both articles are found in Field Basic
Documentation of the War Relocation Authority,
1942–1946 (Microfilm Publication C53,roll 91),Records of
the War Relocation Authority, Record Group (RG) 210.
2
U.S. naturalization laws prohibited Japanese immigrants,
the issei, from obtaining United States citizenship.Children of
the issei born in the United States, the nisei, were automati-
cally U.S.citizens.Densho –:The JapaneseAmerican Legacy Pro-
ject emphasizes that“[b]y the time of World War II,most issei
had lived in the United States for decades and raised their chil-
dren here.Although they were technically aliens and ethnically
Japanese,many considered themselves permanently settled in
the United States ...[and] had no plans for returning to Japan,
and would have become naturalized citizens if that had been
allowed.” In light of this, the term Japanese American will be
used to refer to both citizens and noncitizens. Densho –: The
Japanese American Legacy Project web site,Terminology and
Glossary section,www.densho.org (accessed June 19,2009).
3
Executive Order No. 9066, Feb. 19, 1942, General
Records of the United States Government, RG 11.Available
online at www.ourdocuments.gov (accessed June 12,2009).
4
Estimates vary from 100,000 to 120,000 interned
Japanese Americans.The WRA was established within the
Office for Emergency Management on March 18, 1942.
5
The staff usually self censored, but omissions of
reports of conflicts between the Japanese American
internees and the WRA suggest WRA censorship.
6
“First Wedding Held,” Topaz Times, Nov. 17, 1942, vol.
I, no. 16, p. 2, Field Basic Documentation of the War Relo-
cation Authority, 1942–1946 (C53, roll 10), RG 210.
7
“HeWasn’t Stumped,” The Rohwer Outpost,Apr.7,1943,
vol. II, no. 28, p. 4, Field Basic Documentation of the War
Relocation Authority, 1942–1946 (C53, roll 100), RG 210.
8
“The Social World:Your Home and Mine,”Heart Moun-
tain Sentinel, Oct. 24, 1942, vol. I, no. 1, p. 3, Field Basic
Documentation of the War Relocation Authority,
1942–1946 (C53, roll 58), RG 210.
9
For additional information, see the following issues of
the the Minidoka Irrigator:
“Name Sought for ‘Imp’ Who Makes Debut,” Oct. 21,
1942, vol. I, no. 11, p. 6;“Cartoon Hero Still Nameless, asks
Readers to Aid Plight,” Nov. 4, 1942, vol. I, no. 15, p. 7; and
“Irrigator Mascot Christened,” Nov. 7, 1942, vol. I, no. 16,
p. 7, all in Field Basic Documentation of the War Reloca-
tion Authority, 1942–1946 (C53, roll 91), RG 210.
10
“Sounding Off . . . ,”Minidoka Irrigator, May 15, 1943,
vol. III, no. 12, p. 4;“Four Hunt Entrants in Art Contest Win
Honors: Exhibit Sponsored by Friends Ass’n for Ten Cen-
ters,” Minidoka Irrigator, May 29, 1943, vol. III, no. 14, p.

Author
5; and “Hunt is Home for Shelby Boys,” Minidoka Irriga-
tor, Sept.11,1943,vol.III,no.29,p.3,all in Field Basic Doc-
umentation of the War Relocation Authority, 1942–1946
Rebecca K. Sharp is an archives specialist (C53, roll 92), RG 210.
11
To learn more about Densho –’s newspaper digitization
in the Research Support Branch of the project, visit www.densho.org and click on “Archive,” then
National Archives and Records Admin- “From the Archive,” followed by “June 2007—Free Press
behind Barbed Wire.Newspapers Published in the Incarcer-
istration, Washington, D.C. She specializes in federal
ation Camps.”
records of genealogical interest.

Newspapers at Japanese Internment Centers Prologue 55


AUTHORS ON THE RECORD

An Island Fort as PRESIDEN-


TIAL HIDEAWAY
By Hilary Parkinson
J. Michael Cobb was 12 years old when he first saw Fort Wool. He was on his cousin’s boat, out for a day on the
waters of Hampton Roads in Virginia. As he heard his cousin on the radio give their position off Fort Wool, Cobb
looked out and saw the abandoned fort at the entrance of Hampton Roads facing the Chesapeake Bay, a forebod-
ing sight under a gray sky.
Although it was a landmark for fishermen and boaters, the fort was closed.Today, a tour boat carries visitors, some
of them veterans who had been stationed there in World War II, out to explore several periods of fortifications and
to learn about the island’s presidential and military past. Cobb is now the curator of the Hampton History Museum
in Virginia.

How did you come to write Fort Wool: Star-Spangled What was it like to hold the dual roles of curator at
Banner Rising? the Hampton History Museum and researcher at the
I assisted in the opening of Fort Wool as a historic site some National Archives? Did your experiences in one role
25 years ago,and over the years since then I have chronicled influence the other?
the saga of the island fort. As the restoration and documen- As curator of the Hampton History Museum, my duties
tation of the old stone fort progressed, it became clear that include conducting research in all aspects of our city’s his-
its story needed to be told. tory. My first entry into the National Archives was almost
This is the first time that in-depth research has been three decades ago,uncovering material on Confederate Rich-
undertaken on this important battlement. We wanted the mond during the Civil War for an M.A. thesis. I remember
thousands of people who visit the island—and the many his- first entering the august central reading room in the impos-
tory buffs interested in its rich legacy—to have the oppor- ing National Archives in downtown Washington, D.C. In my
tunity to be exposed to the wealth of additional information current position, I have been repeatedly led back to the
gathered from new documents,plans,and images uncovered National Archives as a needed resource for information vital
in preparing this work. to performing my curatorial responsibilities.

Did you begin your research with the intent to write What materials did you consult in the National
a book on Fort Wool? Archives?
The research actually began to support the original exhibits I used supplemental maps and building plans in the DC area,
that were created for the opening of the fort in 1985.We had but I mainly used the National Archives in Philadelphia for
a very small budget,and I had worked in the NationalArchives the indispensable U.S. Army Engineer record books with
before.I made a two-day trip to theArchives research rooms in daily and monthly progress reports of Fort Wool’s con-
Washington, D.C., and Suitland, Maryland, and to the carto- struction. They are remarkable volumes, huge and dusty
graphic division then located in Alexandria,Virginia. (they’re like Ebenezer Scrooge’s account books).The West
There was a wealth of information including 81 plans Point–trained engineers recorded everything including the
going back to the genesis of the fort in 1819 and through the delivery of granite stone and timber, construction of build-
Second World War. ings, and the names of the workers, free and enslaved.
Over the last 20 years, it slowly formed in my mind to do It’s the details that transform the history into a narrative
the book, which took about one year to put together. that vividly captures the imagination.From these pages I not

56 Prologue Winter 2009


only drew specific accounts of the everyday activities but association with the site, I was thrilled at the numerous
also created profiles of Andrew Talcott and Robert E. Lee, social, political, and military narratives uncovered in pro-
who directed the work, along with the many stone masons ducing this work.
and laborers who were tasked with the arduous undertak- For instance, in the 1830s, South Carolina under the lead-
ing. It’s not really a guns and bugle story—it’s a nuts and ership of John C. Calhoun is threatening to secede from the
bolts history. Union, and Jackson is on the island threatening war. The
seeds of the coming of the Civil War were sown on the
Did you find anything in the records that was par- island.
ticularly surprising?
The big surprise was the discovery of three beautiful plans What was the most surprising thing you discovered
in pastel colors made in the 1820s that showed the fort and about Fort Wool’s past?
buildings in profile. The other surprise was learning the That the shaping of virtually every major issue of Andrew
names of the captains and Jackson’s administration was
their work boats that brought partially formulated while he
stone to the fort. The vessels was secluded at the fort—
bore names such as the including the Peggy Eaton
Andrew Jackson and Henry Affair, the Bank War, the Indian
Clay and expressed what removal, the nullification con-
patriotism meant to Americans troversy, and the annexation of
at that time—many of the Texas.
boats came from Port Deposit, And of course, people are
Maryland, and many of their always surprised to learn that
captains were veterans of the comedian Red Skelton enter-
War of 1812. tained the troops stationed on
Fort Wool during World War II
You’ve been working with and got seasick on the way
Fort Wool for more than 20 there.
years—were you aware of
its many presidential con- At the very end of the book,
nections before you began you say that there needs “to
researching it? be breathed into these ruins
I was aware of the presidential something essential to the
significance associated with spirit of a mighty fortifica-
the island—however,I was not tion.” Is there anything you
aware of the extent of Andrew would like to see on the
Jackson’s presence and how island that would show visi-
enamored he was with the tors the varied and impor-
natural attributes and solitude tant past of Fort Wool?
of the island retreat. For signif- We have recently placed eight
icant periods of time he governed America from this island historical markers interpreting the story and plan to estab-
of stone. lish additional ones in the near future. We are working
We knew he stayed in the officers’ quarters, but what I did with Dominion Power, which has funded an outdoor class-
not know was that he found solitude in a small hut he had room to enhance our ability to meet education needs. And
built for himself on the highest point of the fort’s ramparts. based on documentation from the National Archives, we
have the reconstruction of buildings—such as the original
How has your understanding of Fort Wool changed officers’ quarters that Andrew Jackson and Robert E. Lee
as result of the book? inhabited and the World War II period barracks—in our
Even through the lens of my perspective of many years of future planning.

An Island Fort as Presidential Hideaway Prologue 57


EVENTS
WASHINGTON, D.C. AUSTIN,TEXAS and candy before the show. Bush Library.
For up-to-date event information, consult Through February 15.“School House to White 979-691-4000.
NARA’s Calendar of Events.The free Calendar is House.” Johnson Library. 512-721-0200.
available from National Archives and Records DENVER, COLORADO
Administration, Calendar of Events (NPAC, February 20. Cen-Tex History Day, sponsored February 5.Part one of a two-day workshop for
Room G-1), 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, by the Johnson Library. Joe C.Thompson Con- Colorado State University alumni: “Using
Washington, DC 20408, or on the web at ference Center. 512-721-0200. Archival Materials.” Fort Collins. NARA–Rocky
www.archives.gov/calendar/. Mountain Region. 303-407-5700.
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
Permanent exhibit: “The Public Vaults.” Continuing exhibit:“Moon Shot—JFK and Space February 19. Part two of a two-day workshop
National Archives Building. 202-357-5000. Exploration.” Kennedy Library.866-JFK-1960. for Colorado State University alumni, includes
a tour and research time at NARA–Rocky Moun-
Through January 3. Exhibit: “BIG!” National Continuing exhibit: “The Making of a Pres- tain Region. 303-407-5700.
Archives Building. 202-357-5000. ident.” Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960.
GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN
January 29–February 28. Exhibit:“Fighting January 20. A Conversation with Reverend Through January 9. Exhibit: “Picturing the
for Democracy.” National Archives Building. Joseph Lowery. Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960. Century: One Hundred Years of Photography
202-357-5000. from the National Archives.” Ford Museum.
February 15. Lecture: Douglas Brinkley dis- 616-254-0400.
cusses his new book, The Wilderness Warrior:
Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for HYDE PARK, NEW YORK
America. Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960. Through March 31. Exhibit:“Action,and Action
Now! FDR’s First 100 Days.” Roosevelt Library.
February 17. An Evening with Garrison Keillor. 319-643-5301.
Kennedy Library. 866-JFK-1960.
January 30. FDR’s Birthday Ceremony. Roo-
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS sevelt Library. 319-643-5301.
January 14.Teacher Workshop:“Crime of the
’20s and Civil Rights through Court Records.” INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI
NARA–Great Lakes Region. Through January 24. Exhibit: “Capture the
Moment:The Pulitzer Prize Photographs.”Tru-
March 4.Teacher Workshop:“Native Americans man Library. 800-833-1225.
of the Great Lakes.”NARA–Great Lakes Region.
Opening March 27. Exhibit: “Memories of
To reserve a space at these workshops, send an Korea.” Truman Library. 800-833-1225.
e-mail to chicago.archives@nara.gov with the
ABILENE, KANSAS teacher’s name, school affiliation, preferred KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI
Through February 21. Exhibit: “The Gem on mailing address, phone number, and e-mail Through January 23. Exhibit: “It’s Big.”
the Plains: Ike’s Abilene, 1890–1910.” Eisen- address. NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000.
hower Library. 785-263-6700.
COLLEGE STATION,TEXAS Opening February 6. Exhibit: “Mapping Mis-
ANCHORAGE,ALASKA Continuing exhibit. “The Culture of Wine.” souri.” NARA–Central
Continuing exhibit:“Pribilof Islands Historical Bush Library. 979-691-4000. Plains Region. 816-268-
Photographs,” National Archives images from 8000.
the 1910s and 1920s. Alaska Heritage Center. January 14. Film: North by Northwest. Enjoy
907-261-7800. free popcorn, soda, and candy before the show. Opening March 16.
Bush Library. 979-691-4000. Exhibit: “Deadly Med-
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN icine: Creating the Mas-
Continuing exhibit: “Economy in Crisis.” Ford February 4. Wine Issue Forum Presents ter Race” NARA– Cen-
Library. 734-205-0555. Stephen Corley and Paul Roberts discussing tral Plains Region.
their experiences in American wine produc- 816-268-8000.
ATLANTA, GEORGIA tion. For more information, contact Tracy Paine
Opening March 16. Exhibit:“The Golden Age.” at 979-691-4014 or tracy.paine@nara.gov. LITTLE ROCK,ARKANSAS
NARA–Southeast Region. 770-968-2100. Bush Library. Through January 30. Exhibit:“Jewels to Jelly
Beans:Treasures from the Presidential Vaults.”
February 19.Naturalization Ceremony. NARA– February 6. Napa Valley Winemaker Weekend. Clinton Library. 501-374-4242.
Southeast Region. 770-968-2100. For tickets and information, please contact
Tracy Paine at 979-691-4014 or tracy.paine@ NEW YORK, NEW YORK
February 20. Black Family History Day. NARA– nara.gov. Bush Library. Continuing exhibit:“New York: An American
Southeast Region. 770-968-2100. Capital.” Federal Hall National Memorial.
February 11. Film: Butch Cassidy and the NARA–Northeast Region. Call 866-840-1752 for
Sundance Kid. Enjoy free popcorn, soda, more information.

58 Prologue Winter 2009


Continuing exhibit: “The National Archives at Through March 21. Exhibit: “Patterns of the PITTSFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS
75!” NARA–Northeast Region. 212-401-1620. Past: A Century of American Quilting, February 4; March 9, 20; April 9. “Beginning
1840–1940.” Hoover Library. 319-643-5301. Your Genealogy Research.” NARA–Northeast
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA Region. Call to register. 413-236-3600.
Continuing exhibit: “Picturing John Brown.” YORBA LINDA, CALIFORNIA
NARA–Mid Atlantic Region. 215-606-0112. Through January 10. “Holiday Festival of February 11; March 16, 20. “Using Federal
Trains.” Nixon Library. 714-983-9120. Census Records.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call
March 3–4. National History Day Philadelphia to register. 413-236-3600.
Competitions. NARA–Mid Atlantic Region.215- Through January 30. Exhibit: “Man on the
606-0112. Moon: A 40-Year Retrospective.”Nixon Library. February 18. “Using Military Records.”
714-983-9120. NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register. 413-
SEATTLE,WASHINGTON 236-3600.
Continuing exhibit: “Faces in the Pacific Opening March 13. Exhibit:“School House to
Northwest.” NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206- White House.” Nixon Library. 714-983-9120. March 11. “Examining the 1940 Census.”
336-5115. NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register. 413-
236-3600.
SIMI VALLEY, CALIFORNIA GENEALOGY EVENTS
Through February. Exhibit:“Heroes: A Cele- March 20. “Genealogy on the Internet.” NARA–
bration of Great Americans.” Reagan Library. Northeast Region. Call to register. 413-236-3600.
800-410-8354. WASHINGTON, D.C.
Genealogy workshops are conducted through- March 20. “Finding Your Immigrant Ancestors
Through January 10. “Christmas Around the out the year. For up-to-date information, consult at the National Archives.” NARA–Northeast
World.” Extended holiday hours, 10 a.m.–7 the monthly Calendar of Events. Region. Call to register. 413-236-3600.
p.m. Reagan Library. 800-410-8354.
April 14–15. Sixth Annual Genealogy Fair. March 23. “Researching French Canadian
Through February. Exhibit:“Fall of the Berlin National Archives Building. 202-357-5000. Ancestors.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to
Wall: The 20th Anniversary.” Reagan Library. register. 413-236-3600.
800-410-8354. DENVER, COLORADO
Genealogy workshops are conducted March 25. “Researching Irish American Ances-
Opening March 15.Exhibit:“The White House throughout the year. NARA–Rocky Mountain tors.” NARA–Northeast Region. Call to register.
in Miniature.” Reagan Library. 800-410-8354. Region. For more information, call 303-407- 413-236-3600.
5740.
December 31. New Year’s Eve Celebration at April 8. “Researching Polish Ancestors.”
the Reagan Library. Reservations are required. KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI NARA–Northeast Region.” Call to register. 413-
Reagan Library. 805-577-4057. January 12. “National Archives Online 236-3600.
Resources.” NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-
March 5. Mark Levin will discuss his new book, 268-8000. SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Liberty and Tyranny. Free book signing 4–5 p.m. January 14, February 11, and March 11.
in the Museum Store.Lecture and dinner ($45) at January 13.“Computers 101:Using NARA Records.” Brick Wall Genealogical Group. NARA–Pacific
6 p.m.Reagan Library.805-522-2977. NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. Alaska Region. 206-336-5115.

WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS January 26. “Famous Patent Records.” January 9. “The National Archives Online.”
Opening January: Exhibit:“African Americans NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115.
and the Civil War Draft.” NARA–Northeast
Region. 866-406-2379. January 27. “Computers 102: Using NARA January 9. “Overview of the National Archives.”
Records,” search U.S. Federal census. NARA– NARA–Pacific Alaska Region. 206-336-5115.
January 7. Application of Research Methods. Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000.
NARA–Northeast Region. 866-406-2379. WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS
February 9. “African American Genealogy.” January 5. “Preserving Your Permanently Valu-
February 4.Exploring African American Records NARA–Central Plains Region. 816-268-8000. able Records.” NARA–Northeast Region. 866-
of the Freedmen’s Bureau. NARA–Northeast 406-2379.
Region.866-406-2379. PALM BEACH, FLORIDA
January 13. Lecture: “Jewish Genealogy February 2.“African Americans and Under Doc-
March 4. 1775: Prequel to Independence. Records at the National Archives,” by NARA– umented Populations.” NARA–Northeast
NARA–Northeast Region. 866-406-2379. Southeast Region. Jewish Genealogical Society Region. 866-406-2379.
of Palm Beach. Call to register, 770-968-2100
WEST BRANCH, IOWA February 17.“Genealogy for Kids” (Grades 3–8
Through January 3. Exhibit: “Holidays with PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA with chaperones). NARA–Northeast Region.
the Hoovers,” features 20 decorated Christmas January 8, February 5, and March 5. First Fri- 866-406-2379.
trees based on the life and travels of Herbert day Open House. NARA–Mid Atlantic Region.
and Lou Henry Hoover. Hoover Library. 319- 215-606-0100. March 2. “Census, Passenger Lists, and Natural-
643-5301. ization Records.” NARA–Northeast Region. 866-
406-2379.

Events Prologue 59
NEWS & NOTICES
David Ferriero Sworn in as Archivist; ArchivistAdrienne C.Thomas said Updegrove“brings his deep
knowledge and interest in the presidency and a fresh per-
Headed New York Public Libraries spective and management style to the library.”Tom Johnson,
David S.Ferriero,formerly the
chairman of the Lyndon B.Johnson Foundation,added:“Mark
Andrew W. Mellon Director of
will take the LBJ Library to new heights of excellence,adding
the New York Public Libraries
to the splendid reputation of the library established by former
(NYPL), is the new Archivist of
directors Betty Sue Flowers and Harry Middleton.”
the United States.
Updegrove’s Second Acts:Presidential Lives and Legacies
Ferriero was sworn in as the
After the White House, published by Lyons Press in 2006,
agency’s 10th Archivist on
won the Book of theYear Silver MedalAward for Political Sci-
November 13, 2009; he was
ence from ForeWord magazine. Earlier this year, he wrote
confirmed by the Senate on
Baptism By Fire:Eight PresidentsWho Took Office in Times
November 6, 2009. He suc-
of Crisis, published by St.Martin’s Press.He received a bach-
ceeds Allen Weinstein, who served from February 2005
elor’s degree in economics from the University of Maryland
until December 2008;DeputyArchivistAdrienne C.Thomas
in 1984.
was Acting Archivist during the interim.
Updegrove came to the library from Rawle Murdy,a com-
Since 2004, Ferriero had been director of the NYPL,
munications firm,where he was director of business devel-
which with four research libraries and 87 branch libraries
opment. From 1990 to 2001, he was associated with Time
is one of the largest public library systems in the United
magazine, where his scholarly interest in the presidency
States and one of the largest research libraries in the world.
began while working on“Time and the Presidency,” a mul-
There, he was responsible for collection strategy, conser-
timedia program.The project included a traveling exhibition
vation, digital experience,reference and research services,
that appeared at four presidential libraries, the Newseum,
and education, programming, and exhibitions.
and the University ofVirginia’s Miller Center of PublicAffairs;
Before joining the NYPL,Ferriero served in top positions at
a book;a web site;a short film and ongoing editorial features
two of the nation’s major academic libraries, the Massachu-
in the magazine.
setts Institute ofTechnology in Cambridge,Massachusetts,and
Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. In those posi-
tions, he led major initiatives encompassing the expansion of National Archives to Hold
facilities, the adoption of digital technologies, and a reengi- 24th Preservation Conference
neering of printing and publications. The NationalArchives’24th annual preservation conference
Ferriero earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Eng- will be held March 18,2010,in theWilliam G.McGowanThe-
lish literature from Northeastern University in Boston and ater in the NationalArchives Building in downtownWashing-
a master’s degree from the Simmons College of Library ton, D.C.The theme is“Planning for Preservation:Assessment,
and Information Science, also in Boston. He served in the Prioritization,and Performance Management.”
Navy during the Vietnam War, then started in the human- Questions that will be addressed at the conference
ities library at MIT, where he worked for 31 years, rising include:How is the need for preservation determined? How
to associate director for public services and acting co- does an institution decide what the appropriate preserva-
director of libraries. tion actions are? How are resources allocated to meet the
In 1996, he moved to Duke University, where he preservation needs?
served as university librarian and vice provost for library Also, How can an institution meet both preservation
affairs until 2004, when he moved to the NYPL. and access objectives and goals? What role do partner-
ships in institutions play in the decision-making for effec-
PresidentialAuthor Mark Updegrove tive preservation action? How can success be deter-
mined in preserving records and what are appropriate
Named New Director of LBJ Library performance metrics?
Mark D. Updegrove, author
Specifics of the conference,including costs and speak-
of two major works on the
ers program,are available at www.archives.gov/preservation/
presidency,is the new director
conferences/2010/.
of the Lyndon Baines Johnson
Presidential Library in Austin,
Texas. He succeeds Betty Sue Top SAAAwards Given to NHPRC,New
Flowers, who resigned earlier WorldWar II Records Guide
this year. The National Historical Publications and Records Com-
In announcing the appoint- mission (NHPRC) and the National Archives’ new two-vol-
ment in September, Acting ume finding aid World War II: Guide to Records Relating

60 Prologue Winter 2009


to U.S.Military Participation, won top honors at the annual because the policies laid out in the circular contributed to
Society of American Archivists meeting this year. one of the earliest challenges to the new government.”
The SAA’s 2009 Distinguished ServiceAward went to the “The men and women of ATF have a long and distin-
NHPRC, the grant-making arm of the National Archives. guished history of serving the citizens of this country
“The NHPRC records grant program has arguably done and pursuing the nation’s most violent criminals,” said
more to advance our nation’s archives and records pro- ATF Acting Director Kenneth Melson.“But it all started
grams and the archival profession than any other program back in 1790, with Alexander Hamilton and this circular
or organization,” the SAA noted. letter.
The Archives received SAA’s CFW Coker award for the The early history of this circular remains a mystery, but
finding aid, published in 2008, which describes 200,000 it was discovered in the mid 1970s by ATF Public Infor-
feet of archival materials regarding U.S. military partici- mation Officer Howard Criswell Jr.,who bought it through
pation in World War II.The guide was compiled by Tim- a catalog for about $100, intending to use it. It had been
othy Mulligan and edited by Rebecca L. Collier, Judith kept in safes since then, and was rediscovered by ATF
Koucky, and Patrick R. Osborn, all of the National employees during a relocation of its headquarters building
Archives. in 2005.

National Archives, Partner Put Papers


Of Founding Fathers on the Internet PICTURE CREDITS
As a result of a partnership between the National Histor-
ical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) and Cover, pp. 14–21, Dwight D. Eisenhower
Documents Compass at the Virginia Foundation for the Library; pp. 4–13, Records of the U.S. House of
Humanities,5,000 previously unpublished documents from Representatives, RG 233; pp. 24–25, 64-NA-1-5;
our nation’s founders are now online through Rotunda,the p. 26, 64-NA-1-108; p. 27, 64-NA-1-116; p. 28, 64-
digital imprint ofThe University of Virginia Press. NA-1-278; p. 33 (top left and center), Richard
The Rotunda Founders Early Access project Nixon Library; p. 33 (middle left), Gerald R.
(http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu:8080/founders/FO Ford Library; pp. 33 (middle right and bottom
EA.html) makes available letters and other papers left),34,36,37,60 (top),photos by Earl McDon-
penned by important figures such as James Madison, ald; pp. 38–39, 57-N-Bagley-Moose Pass-54-2
John Adams,andThomas Jefferson.Users may freely read, and 54-3; p. 40 (top), Records of the U.S. Geo-
search, and browse the newly transcribed documents. logical Survey, RG 57; p. 40 (bottom); 57-N-Mis-
In 2008,Congress urged the National Archives to inves- cellaneous-Deteriorated; p. 41 (top), 57-N-Mis-
tigate ways to make the Founders Papers more readily
cellaneous-82-4; p. 41 (bottom), 57-N-Bagley-
available to historians, scholars, and the general public at
Port Valdez-89-2; pp. 42 (top) and 43, 57-N-
no cost to researchers.As long-time funders of the print
Bagley-Port Valdez-71-3 and 71-4;p.42 (center),
editions of the Founding Fathers documentary projects,
62, National Archives and Records Administra-
the NHPRC supported a pilot demonstration project
tion; p. 44, photo by Mary Schmidt-Rodriguez;
through Documents Compass, a nonprofit organization
pp. 45, 48 courtesy of the National Naval Med-
designed to assist in the digital production of historical
documentary editions. ical Center; p. 46, photo courtesy of the Lin-
coln Journal Star; p. 47, Bureau of Medicine
and Surgery Library and Archives; p. 51, 210-G-
OriginalAlexander Hamilton Document Is E644; pp. 53–55, Records of the War Reloca-
Transferred to NationalArchives tion Authority, RG 210; p. 57, courtesy of The
The Bureau of Alcohol,Tobacco, Firearms and Explo- History Press; p. 58 (left), 127-MN-83714; p. 58
sives (ATF) has transferred an original 18th-century (right), U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum; p. 60
Alexander Hamilton document to the National Archives (bottom), Lyndon Baines Johnson Library; p. 64
in which Hamilton, the first secretary of the treasury, (bottom right), 111-B-90; p. 65 (left), photo by
described the method for measuring the proof of dis- Melinda Johnson; p. 65 (right), courtesy of
tilled spirits for taxation under the Tariff of 1790. Annette Gordon-Reed; p. 65 (bottom), Founda-
The document, dated December 18, 1790, and signed tion for the National Archives; p. 72 (top),
Hamilton, is a circular letter distributed to the customs Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Offi-
agents of the United States.ActingArchivistAdrienneThomas cer, RG 111; p. 72 (bottom), 111-SC-67518.
said the letter was“an important piece of American history

News & Notices Prologue 61


PUBLICATIONS
Military Service Records in the NationalArchives Archives and Records Administration to make records
Reference Information Paper (RIP) 109, written by holdings more widely available for research. Current
Trevor K. Plante, has been updated and reprinted. RIP projects include the filming of records related to Nazi-
109 describes the military service records and indicates looted Holocaust-era assets and military service records
how researchers may obtain copies. of the United States Colored Troops (Civil War). A
The National Archives is the official depository for description of a recent publication is provided below.
records of military personnel separated from the U.S.Air A descriptive pamphlet (DP) is available where indi-
Force,Army,Coast Guard,Navy,and Marine Corps.There are cated.
two main repositories for these records: the National Indexes and Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Del Rio,
Archives Building inWashington,D.C.,and the National Per- Texas, June 1906–July 1953 (A3395, RG 85, 15 rolls)
sonnel Records Center Records of Aliens Pre-Examined at Saint John, New
(NPRC) in St.Louis,Missouri. Brunswick, ca. 1917– ca. 1942, Prior to Admission at
The revised publication the U.S.-Canada Border (A3450, RG 85, 7 rolls)
now has an index and has Index to Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Boston,
updated information on Massachusetts, 1921–1949 (4 rolls) (A3453, RG 85.
selective service records 16mm)
and military personnel files Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at Cor-
(including accessioned pus Christi, Texas, and Vicinity, June 1948–January
Official Military Personnel 1959 (A3458, RG 85, 13 rolls)
Files) located in St. Louis. Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Eastport, Idaho,
Each section of this ref- 1924–1956 (A3460, RG 85, 36 rolls)
erence information paper Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Presidio, Texas, ca.
refers the reader to addi- 1911–1955 (A3466, RG 85, 10 rolls)
tional sources of informa- Passenger Lists, 1929–1954, and Crew Lists,
tion such as published arti- 1941–1954, of Airplanes Arriving at San Diego, Cali-
cles, books,finding aids,or links to online sources.Quick fornia (A3472, RG 85, 10 rolls)
reference guides provide consolidated lists, or “hot Certificates of Identity Issued to U.S. Citizens Pre-
spots,”to search when conducting research. RIP 109 also Examined at Winnipeg, Manitoba, Who Entered the
includes descriptions of additional records relating to United States at Noyes, Minnesota, and Pembina and
pensions, bounty land files, headstones and burials, Walhalla, North Dakota, 1917–1929 (A3478, RG 85, 2
medals, and discharges is available free from the rolls)
Research Support Staff (NWCC1), 700 Pennsylvania Orders Relating to the Activation, Transfer, Redesig-
Avenue,NW,Washington,DC 20408-0001;telephone 202- nation, and Disbandment of U.S. Army Units,
357-5400 or 1-866-325-7208. 1942–1964 (A3701, RG 319, 53 rolls)
Records Concerning the Central Collecting Points
The National Archives in the Nation’s Capi- (“Ardelia Hall Collection”): Munich Central Collecting
tal Information for Researchers Point, 1945–1951 (M1946, RG 260, 334 rolls, DP)
General Information Leaflet (GIL) No. 71, has recently
been updated and reissued.This pamphlet highlights the For descriptions of the contents of National Archives
archival holdings and research support services available at microfilm publications, visit the Order Online web page
the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C., and the at Consult the roll list or table of contents for the series
National Archives at College Park, MD.The records in these before ordering specific rolls.
two buildings reflect our mission to ensure continuing Publications can be purchased for $85 per microfilm
access to the essential documentation of the rights ofAmer- roll or $125 per CD-ROM through Order Online! or by
ican citizens and the actions of their government. submitting an order form (available on to National
GIL 71 is available free from the Research Support Archives Trust Fund, Cashier (NAT), Form 72 Order, 8601
Staff (NWCC1), 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW,Washing- Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Make
ton, DC 20408-0001; telephone 202-357-5400 or 1-866- checks payable to the National ArchivesTrust Fund.VISA,
325-7208. MasterCard, Discover, and American Express are also
accepted. Provide the account number, expiration date,
Microfilm Publications and cardholder signature. Telephone: 1-800-234-8861;
Microfilm publications are produced by the National fax: 301-837-0483.

62 Prologue Winter 2009


NEW
F R O M T H E N AT I O N A L A R C H I V E S

World War II
Guide to Records Relating to U.S. Military Participation
Compiled by Timothy P. Mulligan

Published in two volumes, this essential new guide represents is available, pertinent Federal records still in agency custody, and
the most comprehensive and detailed finding aid to World War locations of other closely related materials—for example, personal
II source materials in the custody of the National Archives of papers of key figures.
the United States. These include records of
Information is organized by subject in chapters reflecting aspects
• Combined Allied staffs and organizations of the U.S. wartime effort. Topics include planning and strategy;
• U.S. Army and Navy administrative and operational head- administering the defense establishment; mobilization and train-
quarters, logistical and technical services, and field com- ing; armaments production and procurement; guarding the home
mands (including Army Air Forces headquarters and com- base; support and services; contributions of science and technol-
mands) ogy; intelligence; the wars at sea and in the air; military operations
• Some civilian agencies involved in war production, scien- in the European, Mediterranean, and Pacific/Asiatic Theaters; and
tific research and development, and intelligence collection prosecution of war crimes.
and evaluation
8 1/2 x 11, 1,088 pages
Descriptions of records extend to the series level, with examples 200124—Two-volume hardcover set—$75
given of specific documents. Materials emphasize the period ISBN 1-880875-09-8
December 1941 through September 1945, although extensive
documentation of the interwar and pre-Pearl Harbor period is To order call 1-866-272-6272 x 72066 weekdays 9 A.M.
also included. The guide also identifies, where such information to 4 P.M. Eastern time or visit estore.archives.gov.

$75 cloth/1,088 pages in 2 volumes/ISBN 1-880875-09-8


National Archives estore.archives.gov /1-866-272-6272 x 72066 weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Eastern time.
THE FOUNDATION f or the National Archives
“Discovering the Civil War”
New Educational Partnership and Legal Exhibit to Open in Spring 2010
Community Initiative Launched This Fall

S
The Foundation for the NationalArchives is very pleased to report on
a new partnership that we have initiated and helped to facilitate
between the NationalArchives and its Boeing Learning Center and the
Marshall-Brennan Constitutional Literacy Project ofAmerican Univer-
In commemoration of the sesquicentennial of the Civil War, the
National Archives, in partnership with the Foundation for the
National Archives, will peel back 150 years of accumulated analy-
sis, synthesis, and punditry to reveal a Civil War that is little known
and even more rarely displayed, introducing a new generation of
sity Law School.The Marshall-Brennan Project enables talented sec- Americans to records that reveal the stories of the real people and
ond- and third-year law school students to give back to the commu- dramatic events of the war.
nity by teaching courses on constitutional law and juvenile justice in Our largest and most ambitious traveling exhibit yet,“Discover-
public high schools in the District of Columbia and Maryland. ing the Civil War,” will open in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery in
This fall, as the start of an ongoing collaboration, the Marshall- two phases beginning in spring 2010,accompanied by educational
Brennan program included a special introductory session for the publications, public programming, and digital content. It will then
law school fellows and their high school students to participate travel to museums and cultural institutions in diverse communities
together in the “Constitution in Action” lab in the Boeing Learning nationwide, including the Houston Museum of Natural Science in
Center. Students were introduced to the major themes of the Con- Houston,Texas; the Durham Museum in Omaha, Nebraska; and the
stitution and the role it plays in our daily lives by working with Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.
archival records—the primary sources of “Discovering the Civil War” will give visitors the chance to walk
our history—and enjoyed the opportu- in the shoes of researchers, unlock secrets, solve mysteries, and
nity to see the original Constitution for uncover unexpected events in our records.The exhibit combines
themselves. great original treasures and engaging touch-screen interactives in
The Foundation staff and the Archives a physical environment inspired by 21st-century research rooms.
Education team have been working Letters, diaries, photographs, maps, petitions, receipts, patents,
closely with theAmerican University Law amendments, and proclamations all become powerful educational
School,where the Marshall-Brennan pro- tools to let visitors take a fresh look at a conflict that still touches
gram originated, to organize these ses- our lives.
sions. I cannot think of a more fitting way To learn more about how you can support this innovative travel-
for students in this program to begin ing exhibit, please visit www.archives.gov/nae/support/civil-war.
their school year,and we look forward to finding new ways to share
and advance the cause of civic literacy among students and life-long
learners with our friends at the Marshall-Brennan Project.
This partnership is a key element of the new Legal Council that
the Foundation has recently launched in an effort to engage lead-
ing law firms,schools,and associations to create a new community
of support.The Legal Council’s goals will parallel the Foundation’s
own mission, highlighting the importance of access to essential
documentation of the rights of citizens and the actions of our gov-
ernment, promoting public service based on the exploration of
truth from documents and evidence, inspiring a dedication to life-
long history and civics education,and encouraging intellectual pur-
suits centered on policy-related issues.
The Legal Council will also generate new revenue towards our
year-round education programs, including the Marshall-Brennan
activities.This new partnership and the Legal Council will be crit-
ical initiatives as we work to expand the educational reach of the
National Archives Experience to high schools in this region and
nationwide.

Ken Lore
President, Foundation for the National Archives
71st New York Infantry at Camp Douglas, 1861.

64 Prologue Winter 2009


2009 Primarily Teaching Institute Boeing Sponsors
Serves Educators Across the Country Annual Gala
Over the summer, 54 The Foundation for the National
teachers from 15 states Archives expresses its gratitude to
and 3 countries were The Boeing Company for its support
able to take part in the as sponsor of the 2009 Gala and
National Archives’ Records of Achievement Award Cer-
acclaimed Primarily emony. This year was the company’s Annette Gordon-Reed
Teaching Institute, with fifth as sponsor of the event, which
support from the Founda- was held on September 15.
tion’s scholarship pro- “As a committed partner of the Foundation, we are pleased to sup-
gram, which was under- port this annual celebration and to pay special tribute to the recipient
written for the third year of the Records of Achievement Award,Annette Gordon-Reed,”said Mary
by a generous $20,000 Foerster, vice president, Business Support, Communications and Com-
contribution from Texas munity Affairs, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems.“Professor Gordon-
Fort Worth Primarily Teaching participants Jef- Instruments. Reed’s work reminds us that the American story is incomplete without
frey Bateman, Sam Reeves, and Woody Latham Designed to give incorporating the African American experience into the narrative. No
and Education Specialist Jenny Sweeney view a teachers from across longer can we view these experiences as separate.”
presidential pardon signed by Ulysses S. Grant. the country access to The Achievement Award recognizes an individual who has signifi-
the National Archives’ cantly increased the public’s awareness of the critical role that primary
resources, Primarily Teaching demonstrates how records can be sources play in our understanding of the history of the United States.
used to sharpen students’ critical thinking skills and deepen Gordon-Reed is a lawyer, scholar, and author. Her most recent book is
their engagement with the subject matter. Participants conduct the Pulitzer Prize–winning The Hemingses of Monticello:An American
archival research and develop lesson plans, based on primary Family.
sources, that can be taken home and implemented in their class-
rooms, benefiting their students for years to come. Topics
explored in 2009 included school desegregation, the Works
Progress Administration, child labor, and the creation of the New Book Explores History
National Park Service.
“Primarily Teaching connects educators to primary source of National Archives Building
records for lessons that enhance children’s understanding of
With the release
our country’s history, society and culture,” said Paula Collins,
of The National
Texas Instruments vice president of governmental affairs.“We
Archives Build-
are pleased to continue our support for this time-tested train-
ing: Temple of
ing institute. It is one of the many ways we partner with the
American His-
Foundation for the National Archives and other organizations
tory, a 126-page
to make valuable resources available to teachers and educa-
exploration of
tors.”
the history of
the National Ar-
chives Building,
The Foundation for the National Archives supports the National readers will
Archives and Records Administration in developing programs, learn why the
building that
projects, and materials that tell the story of America through the
holds the country’s national treasures is actually one itself. The book,
holdings in NARA. produced by the Foundation and written by Foundation Senior Editor
For more information on how you can help others experience Patty Reinert Mason, is intended as a lay person’s guide to the National
Archives Building, explaining its history, architectural features, and the
the National Archives, contact the Foundation at 202-357-5946,
symbolism of its sculptures.
or write to us at foundationmembers@nara.gov. The book is available through the Archives Shop in Washington
To learn more about the Foundation, visit www.archives.gov/nae. (202-357-5271) and NARA’s online store at estore.archives.gov.

Foundation Prologue 65
INDEX to Volume Forty-one, 2009 Index compiled by Susan Carroll

9/11 Commission, 3-47; records opened, 1-66, 2-25 Biddle, Francis, 2-34, 2-36, 2-37; photo, 2-36 Clarke, Gilmore, 4-47
BIG! Big Records, Big Events, and Big Ideas in Clay, Henry, 4-12
Acheson, Dean, 1-38 American History, by Stacey Bredhoff, 1-68 Clifford, Clark, 1-60, 1-61
Ackerman, Kenneth D., 3-33–34 “BIG!” exhibit, 1-4, 2-70, 4-35 Clinton,William J., 1-61, 2-67
Acushnet, ship, 3-72 Bill of Rights, 2-17, 2-22–23, 4-29 Clinton administration missing hard drive, reward for,
Adams,Abigail, 2-49 Bingham McCutchen, 2-71 3-67
Adams, John, 2-49 Black, Edwin, 3-33 “Coastal Bastions and Frontier Forts,” by John P.
Addams, Jane, 3-60 Blanchard, James, 1-71; photo, 1-71 Deeben, 3-50–57
Adjutant General’s Office,2-53,2-58,2-59,3-50–51,3-56 Blondo, Rick, 2-4 Cobb, J. Michael, Fort Wool: Star-Spangled Banner Ris-
Advanced Research Project Agency, 4-18 Bloody Knife, photo, 2-58 ing, 4-56–57
“Adventures With Grandpa Truman,” by Clifton Tru- Boland, Edward P., 4-27 Cochran, Robert, 4-45
man Daniel, 1-36–41 Bolster, Jeffrey, 3-31 Cody,William F.“Buffalo Bill,” 2-58
Advisory Committee on the Records of Congress, 3-47 Borch, Fred L.,“Sitting in Judgment,” 2-34–40 Coffman, Edward M., photo, 3-27
African Americans, 3-70, 4-65; and slavery, 1-6–7; sur- Boritt, Gabor, 3-34 Cohen,Adam, 3-33
geons in the Union Army, 3-22–25 Boylan, Richard, 3-30, 3-33; photo, 3-27 Cold War intelligence operations, 4-14–22
Aitken, Robert, 3-36, 3-38; photographs of works by, 3- Bradley, Gen. Omar, 4-14, 4-16 Collier, Rebecca L., 4-61
37, 3-38 Bradsher, Gregory, 2-18, 3-33;“Shaping the National Collins, Paula, 1-71, 4-65
Alaska, photos of, 4-38–43 Archives,” 4-24–31 Colonial America, mail delivery in, 2-6–9
“Alaskan Frontier in Panorama,The,” by Richard E. Bredhoff, Stacey, BIG!, 1-68, 4-35; Moon Shot: JFK and Colorado, 1-45–46, 4-8
Schneider, 4-38–43 Space Exploration, 3-68 Colot,Thora, 1-70
Alfredson, Pat, 3-4 Brief Histories of U.S.Army Commands (Army Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 1-57
Alien enemies, 2-26–33 Posts) and Descriptions of Their Records, micro- Comanche, cutter, 3-41–42
Alldredge, Everett O., 4-26 film publication, 3-56 Combined Federal Campaign, 3-71
“Ambitious Agenda at the National Archives,An,” by Brinkley, Douglas, 3-26, photo, 3-31 Comic books, 3-46, 3-49
David S. Ferriero, 4-2 Brookhiser, Richard, 2-62 Commission on the Organization of the Executive
Ambrose, Stephen, 2-43 Brooks, Philip, 1-31, 4-26, 4-30 Branch of the Government, 4-28
American Archivist, The, 4-28, 4-29–30 Bruno, Mary, photo, 1-42 Committee for the Re-Election of the President
American Expeditionary Forces, 2-69, 4-72 Buck, Solon J., 2-14–15, 4-25, 4-27; photo, 2-14 (Nixon), 1-65
American Historical Association, 2-12, 2-48 Buckley, Cathy, 3-4 Compiled military service records, 3-50–51
“American Originals,” exhibit, 2-24 Bugliosi,Vincent, 3-28 Compromise of 1850, 4-12, 4-13
American Society of Magazine Photographers,1-43,1-45 Bunce, Peter, 3-33 “Congressional Archives,The,” by Rob Crotty, 3-46–49
American State Papers, 1-55 Bureau of Alcohol,Tobacco,Firearms,and Explosives,4-61 Congressional Globe, 4-12
Americans for Indian Opportunity, 3-67 Burial Registers for Military Posts, Camps, and Sta- Congressional Information Service, 1-58, 1-59
Ames, John, 1-58 tions, 1768–1921, microfilm publication, 3-57 Congressional Serial Set, 1-54–59, 4-12
Anderson, Claudia, 3-26, 3-33; photo, 3-30 Burke, Frank, 2-22 Connecticut, 1-68
Anderson, Edgar Leo, 3-26, 3-31 Burnes, Brian, ed., Your Land, Our Land, 3-10 Connor, R.D.W., 2-14, 4-25; photo, 2-12
Angel, Herbert E., 4-26 Bush, George H.W., 1-61, 2-67 Constitutional law, 4-64
Angel Island Immigration Station,2-26–33;photo,2-26 Bush, George W., 1-61, 2-21; electronic records acces- Coolidge, Calvin, 2-12
Anticommunism,and Richard Nixon,2-43,2-44–45,2-46 sioned, 2-66; executive order revoked, 2-67 Corcoran Gallery of Art,Washington, D.C., 1-48
Apache scouts, 2-55, 2-58 Butler, Patrick, 2-70 Corn, Jack, 1-45; photographs by, 1-45, 1-47
Applications for Headstones for U.S. Military Veter- CORONA, 4-17, 4-18, 4-19, 4-20, 4-21, 4-22
ans, 1925–1941, microfilm publication, 2-57 California, 2-55, 4-8, 4-9, 4-12, 4-13 Costello, John, 3-31
Arapahoe scouts, 2-53 California Territory, 3-68–69 Council of State Archivists, 2-51
Archival Research Catalog, 1-48, 2-24, 3-64 Cameras, panoramic, 4-40 Courts-martial, Indian Scouts, 2-55; records of, 3-53
Archives Leadership Institute, 2-50, 3-67 Canada, mural of the history of by Thomas Hart Ben- Cox-Paul, Lori, 1-53, 3-9
“Archivist’s Code,The,” 4-31 ton, 1-14–15; postal system, 2-7–8, 2-9 Cramer, Myron Cady, 2-34–40; photos, 2-35, 2-36, 2-37
Arizona, 2-53, 2-55, 2-56, 4-8 Carlin, John W., 2-22–23, 4-36; photo, 2-23 Criswell, Howard, Jr., 4-61
Arkansas, 1-58, 4-52, 4-53 Caro, Robert, 3-26, 3-33; photo, 3-30 Crotty, Rob,“The Congressional Archives,” 3-46–49;
Army registers, 1-58 Carr, Eugene, 2-55 “Marbury. Madison. Marshall. Mayhem. How to
Army Reorganization Act of 1866, 2-52 Carter, Jimmy, 2-19 Make a Supreme Court,” 2-62–63;“These Walls Can
Atkinson, Rick, 3-26, 3-30 “Cartography, Politics—and Mischief,” by Mark J. Talk,” 3-36–39
Augusta, Maj.Alexander T., 3-23; photo, 3-24 Stegmaier with Richard T. McCulley, 4-7–13 Cutler, Lawrence M., 3-65
Austrian alien enemies, 2-27–28 Center for Creative Photography, 1-48
Central Intelligence Agency, 4-16–17, 4-18, 4-20 Dahlie, Michael, A Gentleman’s Guide to Graceful
Bagley, Maj. James W., 4-40–42 Chang, Iris, 3-31 Living, 2-67
Bahmer, Robert H., 2-18, 4-26, 4-31; photo, 2-18 Chapman, Elizabeth, 1-71 Dakota, 2-55
Balch, Emily Greene, 3-60 Charters of Freedom, 4-29 Dallek, Robert, 3-33
Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, 4-54 Chase, Salmon P., letter to acquired, 3-65 Dallenbach, Dennis, 3-33
Baron,Jason R.,“‘I Wish to Acknowledge ...’,” 3-26–34 Checklist of United States Public Documents, Daly, Eileen, 2-70
Barrie, Diane, 1-61 1789–1909, 1-58 Dambrogio, Jana, photo, 2-71
Bataan Death March, 2-39 Chiles, Henry, 1-25 Daniel, Clifton, 1-40–41
Battle of Cibicue Creek, 2-55 China, aerial spying against, 4-16–17, 4-22 Daniel, Clifton Truman,“Adventures With Grandpa Tru-
Beatie, Russell H., 3-32 Churchill,Winston, 4-18 man,” 1-36–41;“Dear Harry . . . Love Bess,” 3-12–21;
“Becoming World Class,” by Adrienne Thomas, 2-4 Cincinnati, Ohio, Fountain Square, 1-46–47 photos, 1-36, 1-37, 1-40, 1-41, 3-21
“Behind the Words of History,” 1-60–61 Citizen diplomacy, 3-60, 3-61 Daniel, Harrison, photos, 1-40, 1-41
Behman, Frederick,“View of Fort Pierre,” illustrated, 3-50 Civic literacy, 1-64, 1-70, 2-24, 2-70, 2-71 Daniel,MargaretTruman,1-36–41;photos,1-38,1-39,1-40
Benton,Thomas Hart, 1-12–22; photos of works by, 1- Civil liberties, 1-6–9, 1-32 Daniel,Thomas, photo, 1-41
12, 1-14, 1-15, 1-16, 1-17, 1-18, 1-19, 1-20; photos, 1- Civil rights movement, 1-5, 1-6–9 Daniel,William Wallace, 1-39, 1-40; photos, 1-36, 1-37,
13, 1-17, 1-18, 1-19, 1-20, 1-21 Civil War, 4-57;African American surgeons in the, 3- 1-41
Berdichevsky, Ezequiel,“‘I Wish to Acknowledge . . .’,” 23–25; and the Congressional Serial Set, 1-57, 1-58; Daniels, Jonathan, 1-31
3-26–34 exhibit, 4-64; oaths of allegiance, 3-55; pensions, 3- Dasch, George John, 2-36; photo, 2-36
Bertholf, Commodore-Commandant Ellsworth P., 3-42, 4, 3-23, 3-25 “Deadly Medicine,” exhibit, 1-52
3-43, 3-44 Civil War Conservation Corps, 3-4 Deal Elementary School, Deal, New Jersey, 4-36
Beschloss, Michael, 3-26, 3-31 Civil War Widow’s Certificate Pension Project, 3-4 “Dear Harry . . . Love, Bess,” by Clifton Truman Daniel,
Best, Gary Dean, 3-33 Clark, Robert, 2-13–14 3-12–21

66 Prologue Winter 2009


Declaration of Independence, 2-11–12, 2-16, 2-17, 2- Exhibits, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6–9, 1-48–49, 1-52–53, 1-70, 2-24, 2- Geronimo, photo, 2-54
22–23, 4-29, 4-30, 4-36–37 70, 2-71, 3-64, 3-68 Geselbracht, Raymond H., 3-13;“Independence and
Declassified records, 2-67, 4-16, 4-21 the Opening of the West,” 1-12–22
Deeben, John P.,“Coastal Bastions and Frontier Forts,” “Face to Face with History,” by Jill L. Newmark, 3- Giegengack,Augustus E., 2-69
3-50–57 22–25 Gillette, Bill, 1-45–46; photographs by, 1-47
Delano, Frederic, 4-47 Facebook, 3-64 Gilman, Ephraim, 1848 map of the United States, 4-
Democracy Starts Here, film, 1-52 Fairbanks, Richard, 2-7 7–13; illustrated, 4-3–6
Democratic Party, 1-10, 1-11 Family Search, 3-4 Gimmereck, Gus, photo, 4-46
Densho –:The Japanese American Legacy Project, 4-54 Faust, Drew Gilpin, 3-32; photo, 3-29 Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor, 4-46
Department of the Pacific, U.S.Army, 3-68–69 Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2-36 Goodpaster,Andrew Jackson, 4-17, 4-18, 4-19, 4-20;
Deportation, of alien enemies, 2-28, 2-29–30; of politi- Federal Records Act of 1950, 2-17, 4-28 photos, 4-17, 4-18–19
cal radicals, 2-31–33 Federal records centers, 2-16, 2-17, 2-19–20, 4-28 Gordon-Reed,Annette, 3-70, 4-65; photos, 3-70, 4-65
Descriptive Commentaries from the Medical Histo- Federal Register Act, 2-13, 2-14 Government personnel, 1-58, 3-65
ries of Posts, microfilm publication, 3-56 Feeney, Joseph, 1-30; photo, 1-31 Government Printing Office, 1-54, 3-48
Diary of a Dream:A History of the National Ferriero, David S., 4-60;“An Ambitious Agenda at the Grantham,Alexander, 2-45
Archives Independence Movement, 1980–1985, National Archives,” 4-2 Grants, 1-66, 2-18, 2-49, 2-66, 3-66–67
by Robert M.Warner, 2-19 Field Basic Documentation of the War Relocation Great Decision: Jefferson, Adams, Marshall, and the
Digital Vaults, 2-70, 2-71 Authority, 1942–1946, microfilm publication, 4-54 Battle for the Supreme Court, The, by David McK-
Digitizing Historical Records grant program, 2-50 Finding aids, 3-4, 3-30, 3-31, 3-56, 3-68, 4-54 ean and Cliff Sloan, 2-62–63
Dinosaur tracks, 4-32–35 Finkel, Paul, 4-35 Great Men and Famous Women, by Charles F. Horne,
Diplomacy, and World War I, 3-60–61 Finlay, Hugh, 2-6–9 1-25, 1-33, 1-37–38
DISCOVERER, 4-18, 4-20 First Federal Congress, papers published, 2-49–50 Great Plains Originals, 3-7
“Discovering the Civil War,” 4-64 “First Nixon Library,The,” by Paul Musgrave, 2-42–47 Green, George, 4-34–35
Discovery Channel, 1-52 Flesher, Maria, 3-4 Greenwell, Regina, 3-33
District of Columbia, 4-64 Flickr, 3-64 Griffith, Robert K., Jr., 3-30
Disturnell, John, 1847 “Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Florida, coast patrols, 3-40–45 Grose, Peter, 3-31
Mejico,” 4-8, 4-13 Flowers, Betty Sue, 4-60 Grover,Wayne Clayton, 1-14–15, 2-15, 2-17, 2-18, 4-
Dobbs, Michael, 3-31, 3-33; photo, 3-31 Foerster, Mary, 4-65 25–31; photos, 2-15, 4-24, 4-26, 4-28
Documentary History of the Ratification of the Con- Foley, Capt. Daniel P., 3-42; photo, 3-43 Gruber, Robert, 3-56
stitution, The, 2-49 Footnote.com, 3-4 Guardian of Heritage, 2-15, 2-18
“Documented Rights—A National Archives Exhibit of Forbes, Edward, 3-40, 3-42–43, 3-44 Guggenheim Museum, 3-67
Documents About Human and Civil Rights,” 1-5, 1- Ford, Gerald R., 2-19, 4-32, 4-36 Guide to Genealogical Research in the National
6–9, 1-52 Forsythe, Scott, 3-33 Archives, 2-18
“Documented Rights: Defining Human and Civil Fort Lauderdale Life Saving Station, 3-42, 3-43, 3-44; Guide to Records of the National Archives, 2-15, 2-18
Rights,” by Jim McSweeney, 1-6–9 photo, 3-44 Guide to the Archives of the Government of the
Documents Compass, 4-61 Fort Pierre, watercolor of, 3-50 United States, 2-11, 2-12
Documents Relating to the Military and Naval Ser- Fort Wool,Virginia, 4-56–57 Gulf of Mexico, coast patrols, 3-40–45
vice of Blacks Awarded the Congressional Medal Fort Wool: Star-Spangled Banner Rising, by J. Michael Gullion, Maj. Gen.Allen W., photo, 2-36
of Honor From the Civil War to the Spanish- Cobb, 4-56–57 Gustafson, Milton, 2-17; photo, 3-29
American War, microfilm publication, 2-58 Foundation for the National Archives, 1-9, 1-70–71, 2- Guterman, Benjamin,“Women’s Activisim for Peace in
“DOCUMERICA,” by C. Jerry Simmons, 1-42–49 22, 2-23, 2-70–71, 3-36, 3-70–71, 4-64–65; Legal World War I,” 3-60–61
Dodd, Monroe,“Your Land, Our Land,” 3-6–10 Council, 4-64; scholarship program, 4-65 Guthrie,Woody,“This Land Is Your Land,” 3-10
Doerries, Reinhard, 3-33 Founders Papers, 4-61
“Dokie,” cartoon by Eddie Sato, 4–53; illustrated, 4-54 Franklin, Benjamin, 2-7, 2-8, 2-49; portrait, 2-7 Haight, David, 3-33;“Ike and His Spies in the Sky,” 4-
Dole, Robert, 3-67 Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, 2-14, 3-33; photo, 2-14; 14–22; photo, 4-22
Dominion Power, 4-57 renovation of, 2-66 Hall, Cargill, 4-22
Dotson, Bob, 3-71 Fraser, James Earl, 3-36; photographs of works by, 3-36, Hamby,Alonzo, 1-32
Douglas, Stephen A., 4-9 3-38, 3-39 Hamilton,Alexander, 2-49, 4-61
Dowd, Maureen, 3-26 Fraser, Laura, 3-39 Hampshire, Gifford D., 1-43, 1-44, 1-45, 1-46–47, 1-48
Downs, Solomon W., 4-12 Freedom of Information Act, compliance with, 2- Hampton History Museum,Virginia, 4-56
Duff, Diana, 1-50 66–67, 3-65 Harlow, Bryce, papers opened, 1-65
Duff,Wendy M., 3-29 Freedom Train, 2-15 Harriman,Averell, photo, 1-30
Dulles,Allen, 4-14, 4-19 Frontier forts, 3-50–57 Harris, LaDonna, 3-67
Dwight D.Eisenhower Library,2-17,2-68,3-33,4-14,4-16 Fulghum, Matt, 3-48, 3-49 Harry S.Truman Library, 1-12–22, 1-26, 1-31, 2-17, 3-13,
Dyer, Carol, 1-4, 2-67; painting by, 2-68 Furcher,W. B., 3-44 3-14, 3-28
Harry S.Truman Library, Inc., 1-13, 1-14, 1-17
Eales,Anne Bruner, 2-16 Gales & Seaton, 1-55 “Harry Truman’s History Lessons,” by Samuel W.
Edwards (Spalding), Elizabeth L., 1-29 Gallaudet University, 1-57 Rushay, Jr., 1-24–34
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 1-60, 1-61, 2-43, 2-44, 2-46, 2- Gardner, Martha, 3-33 Hartley, Jeffery,“‘I Wish to Acknowledge . . .’,” 3-26–34;
68, 4-30; and aerial intelligence operations, 4- Gaugler, Bob, 3-4 “Using the Congressional Serial Set for Genealogi-
14–22; photos, 4-15, 4-18 Gavin,Alison M.,“In the King’s Service,” 2-6–9 cal Research,” 1-54–59
Eisenhower administration,and aerial intelligence,4-14–22 Genealogical research, 1-4–5, 1-54–59, 2-52–59, 2-69, 3- Hassett,William, 1-30
Electronic RecordsArchives,1-64,2-21–22,2-23,2-66,3-4 4, 3-50–57, 3-65, 3-66, 4-50–55 Hasting, Lt. Col. Howard H., 2-38
Electronic records preservation, 2-20, 2-21–22, 2-24, 2-50 General Index to Pension Files, 1861–1934, micro- Hawaii, 2-44
Ellis, Robert, 3-33 film publication, 2-56 Hayashi, Brian Masaru, 3-33
Elsey, George, 1-30–31 General Land Office, 4-7, 4-10–11 Headstone applications, 2-57–58, 2-59
England, 3-23, 3-25; and mail delivery in colonial Amer- General Services Administration, 1-51, 2-4, 2-16, 2-17, Heart Mountain Sentinel, 4-53
ica, 2-6–9 2-19–20, 2-24, 4-28, 4-30, 4-31 Helms, Richard, 3-66
Environmental Protection Agency, photodocumentary George Bush Library, 2-22, 2-23, 2-66, 2-67 Hemingses of Monticello:An American Family, The,
project, 1-42–49 George W. Bush Library, 1-65, 2-18, 2-66 by Annette Gordon-Reed, 3-70
Erickson, Janet, 3-4 Gerald R. Ford Library, 2-19, 2-21, 2-22, 3-33 Hemingway, Mary, 2-67
Evans, Luther, 2-17, 4-30 German alien enemies, 2-27–29, 2-30 Hemingway, Patrick, 2-67
Evening State Journal, Lincoln, Nebraska, 4-46 German U-boat saboteurs, 2-34, 2-36–37 Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award, 2-67
Ex parte Quirin, 2-37 Germany, and perceived threat to U.S. coasts in World Herbert Hoover Library, 2-18
“Excellence in Genealogy Research Award,” 1-4–5,3-66 War I, 3-40–45 HeritageQuest, 1-58, 1-59

Index Prologue 67
“Hero Pigeon of World War I,A,” 4-72 International Tribunal of the Far East, 2-34–35, 2- Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant Gen-
Hickok, J. B.“Wild Bill,” 2-58 37–40; photo, 2-34 eral (Main Series), 1871–1880, microfilm publica-
Higgins, Chester, photograph by, 1-45 Iowa, 2-69 tion, 2-58
Higgins, John P., 2-38 Ireland, Don, 3-4 Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant Gen-
Hill, John, photo, 2-71 “Island Fort as Presidential Hideaway,An,” by Hilary eral (Main Series), 1881–1889, microfilm publica-
Hill,Walter D., Jr., 3-26, 3-31; photo, 3-29 Parkinson, 4-56–57 tion, 2-58
Hirota Koki, 2-38, 2-40; photo, 2-40 “It’s Big,” exhibit, 1-5, 1-52 Lew, Jennie, 3-66
Hiser, David, 1-46; photo of, 1-46; photographs by, 1- Lewis,Tab, 3-34
45, 1-46 Jackanicz, Donald, 3-33 LexisNexis, 1-58
Historical Information Relating to Military Posts Jackson,Andrew, 4-57 Library of Congress, 2-12, 2-16, 2-17, 4-29, 4-30, 4-54
and Other Installations, 1700–1900, microfilm Jackson County, Missouri, 3-14, 3-20–21 Life magazine, 2-44
publication, 3-56 Jacobs,Aletta H., 3-60 Life Saving Service, 3-41, 3-42, 3-43, 3-44–45
Hoffman, Jon T., 3-26, 3-30 Jameson, J. Franklin, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-48, 2-51; photo, Lighthouse Service, 3-42
Hog Island,Texas, 3-41 2-11 Lincoln,Abraham, letter by acquired, 3-65
Holland, 3-60 Japan, war crimes trials, 2-34–35, 2-37–40 Little Cloud, 2-59
Holt, Beatrice H., photo, 2-43 “Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Liu, Snowpine, 2-46–47; photo, 2-45
Holt, Dan, 3-33 Records, 1930–1974,” Bancroft Library, University Livingston, Rebecca, 3-34
Holy Bear, 2-56–57 of California at Berkeley, 4-54 Lloyd, David, 1-13, 1-14–15, 1-16, 1-18
Hong Kong, 2-42–47 Japanese Americans, 1-6, 1-8, 4-50–55 Logan Airport, Boston, Massachusetts, 1-45
Hoof, John, 1-19 “Japanese Camp Papers,” Library of Congress micro- Long, Michael, 3-33
Hoover, Bill, photo, 2-71 film publication, 4-54 Lore, Ken, 1-70, 2-70, 2-71, 3-70, 4-64
Hoover, Herbert, and the National Archives, 2-12–13, 2- Japanese internment centers, 4-50–55 Louisiana, 1-55–56
17, 4-28; photo, 2-11 Jefferson,Thomas, 1-70, 2-49, 2-51, 2-62–63, 3-70 Low, Jeanie W. C., 3-66
Hoover Commission, 4-28 Jessee, Fern, 1-20 Lowe,Alan C., 1-65
Horne, Charles F., Great Men and Famous Women, 1- Jessee, Randall, 1-14, 1-15, 1-20 Lowell,Waverly, 3-33
25, 1-33, 1-37–38 Jimmy Carter Library, 2-21, 2-22 Lowry,Thomas P., 3-32
Horne, Gerald, 3-31 John F. Kennedy Library, 2-19, 2-21, 2-67, 3-33; exhibit, Lyndon B. Johnson Library, 1-65, 2-18, 2-19, 3-33, 4-31,
Horrocks, David, 3-33 3-68; renovation of, 2-66 4-60
Hot Springs, North Carolina, internment camp, 2- Johnson,Albert, 2-33 Lyon, Danny, photograph by, 1-49
28–29, 2-30 Johnson, Catherine A., 3-29
Houston, Sam, 4-13 Johnson, Lady Bird, 1-39–40 Machen, Lewis, 3-48
“‘How an Eagle Feels . . .’,” by Rebecca K. Sharp, 4- Johnson, Lyndon B., 1-38–40, 1-60, 1-61, 1-65, 4-31; Mad magazine, 3-46
50–55 photos, 1-38, 1-39 Madison, Dolley, 2-62
Howe, Fisher, photo, 3-28 Johnson,Tom, 4-60 Madison, James, 2-49, 2-62–63
Howe, Louis, 2-13 Johnston, Col.Wayne, photo, 3-27 Magruder, Jeb, papers opened, 1-65
Hubbard,Tom, 1-46–47 Judge Advocate General’s Department, 2-36, 2-37 Mahoney,William, 3-33
Hufford, Harold, 3-48 Junior Chamber of Commerce, 2-43–44, 2-45 Mail delivery, in Canada, 2-7–8, 2-9; in colonial Amer-
Hull, Gen. John, 4-19–20 Jupiter Inlet Light House, 3-42 ica, 2-6–9
Human rights, 1-6–9 Maine, 1-68
Hume, Paul, 3-5 Kahn, Herman, 3-34 Manheim, Michael Philip, 1-45; photographs by, 1-42
Humphrey, Hubert, 1-39 Kansas, 2-69 “Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Mejico,” 1847, by
Hungarian alien enemies, 2-27–28 Kansas City, Missouri, 1-50 John Disturnell, 4-8, 4-13
Hunt, Jarvis, 1-51 Kansas City Star, 3-7 Maps, Gilman 1848 map of the United States, 4-7–13;
Hunt, Richard, 3-48–49 Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, 1-52–53 in the National Archives used in World War II, 2-16
Hurst, James W., 3-34 Keep, Charles, 2-48 “Marbury. Madison. Marshall. Mayhem. How to Make a
Husted, Lemuel John, 3-41 Kempton, Greta, portrait by, 1-29 Supreme Court,” by Rob Crotty, 2-62–63
Kennedy, John F., 2-49; inaugural address, 1-68; speech- Marbury,William, 2-62–63
“‘I Wish to Acknowledge . . .’,” by Jason R. Baron, Jef- writers for, 1-60, 1-61 Marbury v. Madison, 2-62–63
frey Hartley, and Ezequiel Berdichevsky, 3-26–34 Kentuckian, The, painting by Thomas Hart Benton, 1- Marshall, John, 2-62–63
Idaho, 4-8, 4-9–10, 4-50 15–16; illustration, 1-15 Marshall-Brennan Constitutional Literacy Project, 4-64
“Ike and his Spies in the Sky,” by David Haight, 4-14–22 Kentucky, 4-11 Maryland, 4-64
Immigrants, alien immigration files, 3-66; from enemy Khrushchev, Nikita, 4-16, 4-19, 4-20 Mason, Patty, The National Archives Building:Temple
nations, 2-26–33; political radicals, 2-26–27, 2- Killian, James R., 4-17–18, 4-19; photo, 4-16 of American History, 3-36, 4-65
31–33; during World War I, 2-26–33 King,Wallace, 3-42, 3-44; photos, 3-40, 3-42 Massachusetts, 1-68
Immigration, Bureau of, 2-31, 2-32 Kirby, Bill, 3-13–14, 3-21 Massachusetts Bay Colony, 2-7
Immigration Acts of 1917 and 1918, 2-31, 2-32 Kirkpatrick, Lyman, 4-21 Massachusetts Historical Society, 1-66
“In the King’s Service,” by Alison M. Gavin, 2-6–9 Kissinger, Henry, 2-47, 3-66 Mathis, James, 3-28
“Independence and the Opening of the West,” by Ray- Kleiman, Miriam,“A Place in the Archives,” 4-32–37 McAllister, Bruce, photograph by, 1-45
mond H. Geselbracht, 1-12–22 Klein, Herbert, 4-35 McCarthy, Joseph, 1-32
Independence and the Opening of theWest,mural by Kotz, Mary Lynn, photo, 2-71 McCarthyism, 1-32
Thomas Hart Benton,1-13–22;illustration of,1-12,1-14 Kotz, Nick, photo, 2-71 McCoy, Donald R., 2-13
Index to Indian War Pension Files, 1887–1926, Koucky, Judith, 4-61 McCulley, Richard, 3-46, 3-48, 3-49;“Cartography, Poli-
microfilm publication, 2-57, 2-59 Krenn, Michael L., 3-33 tics—and Mischief,” 4-7–13
Indian motorcycles, 3-40, 3-42; photo of, 3-41 McCullough, David, 2-49, 3-26, 3-28; photo, 3-26
Indian Territory, 2-53 Lacy, Leigh, 4-36–37; photos, 4-33, 4-37 McDonald, Larry, 3-33
Indian Wars, 2-56, 2-57 Lancaster, Burt, 1-16 McGhee, Myron, 3-66
Industrial Workers of the World, 2-27, 2-31–32 Land, Edwin “Din,” 4-17–18, 4-19 McGreevey, Joyce, 4-36
Inspection Reports of the Office of the Inspector Land claims, 1-55–56 McIntosh, Elizabeth, photo, 3-28
General, 1814–1842, microfilm publication, 3-57 Langdale, Mark, 1-65 McKean, David, and Cliff Sloan, The Great Decision:
Institute for Editing Historical Documents, 2-50 Lankford, Nelson, photo, 3-27 Jefferson, Adams, Marshall, and the Battle for the
Intelligence operations, aerial, 4-14–22 Larson, Jess, 4-27 Supreme Court, 2-62–63
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 2-40 “Lead the Way,” by Trevor K. Plante, 2-52–59 McNitt,William, 3-33
International military tribunals, Japan, 2-34, 2-37–40 Lee, Erika, 3-33 McSweeney, Jim,“Documented Rights: Defining
International Research on Permanent Authentic Lee, Robert E., 4-57 Human and Civil Rights,” 1-6–9
Records in Electronic Systems, 2-50 Leland,Waldo Gifford, 4-26 Medals of Honor, 2-58

68 Prologue Winter 2009


Medical records, for Indian Scouts, 2-55; for military exhibits, 1-6–9, 1-70, 2-70, 2-71, 4-29, 4-64; guide for Nisbet, Miriam, 3-65; photo, 3-65
personnel, 3-54–55, 3-56 researchers, 4-62; historical timeline of, 2-10–25; Nitrate film, 4-40–43
Meese, Edwin, photo, 2-20 Independence Day celebration, 3-71; indepen- Nixon, Pat, 2-43, 2-45
Meigs, Gen. Montgomery, 2-11 dence for the, 2-4, 2-19–20, 2-21, 4-28, 4-31; Infor- Nixon, Richard M., 1-60, 2-19, 2-43, 4-32, 4-34–35; pho-
Melson, Kenneth, 4-61 mation Security Oversight Office, 2-24; microfilm tos, 2-44, 2-45; tapes opened, 1-65, 3-66; trip to Asia,
Melville, Herman, 3-72 publications, 1-68–69, 2-69, 3-68–69, 4-62; mission, 2-43–45
Mexican Cession, 4-7, 4-8, 4-9, 4-11–12 1-5, 2-10–11, 2-17, 2-23; news and notices, 1-64–66, Nixon Library,Yuen Long, Hong Kong, 2-42–47
Mexican War, 4-7, 4-8, 4-9 2-66–68, 3-64–67, 4-60–61; Office of Government Noland, Ethel, 1-32
Microfilm publications, 1-68–69, 2-69, 3-68–69, 4-62; Information Services, 2-66, 3-65; Office of Records Norris, George W., 4-46; photo, 4-46
alien entries, 1-69, 2-69, 4-62; California, 4-62; Management, 2-19; Office of the Federal Register, 2- North, Frank, 2-58
Canada, 2-69, 3-69, 4-62; Certificates of Identity, 4- 17, 4-29; Office of the Inspector General, 2-66; North Dakota, 2-55, 2-56, 2-58, 2-69
62; Chinese immigrants, 2-69; compiled military online offerings, 3-64; preservation conference, 4-
service records, 2-69; concentration camp inmate 60; publications, 1-68–69, 2-69, 3-68–69, 4-29, 4-62; Oaths of Allegiance to the Union, 3-55
cards, 1-69; Connecticut, 3-69; crew lists, 1-69, 2-69, role of staff archivists, 3-26–34; Special Media Obama, Barack, 1-61, 2-66, 2-67
3-69, 4-62; European Theater of Operations, 1-69, 2- Preservation Division, 4-42–43; Still Pictures unit, 1- O’Brien, Gail, 4-31, 4-36; photos, 4-33, 4-36
69; Fort Mackinac, Michigan, 2-69; Idaho, 4-62; 48, 4-42; Strategic Plan, 2-24;Visitor Services, 4- Office of Strategic Services, 2-16, 4-26
immigration, 1-69; Maine, 1-69; maps, 2-69; Massa- 36–37; volunteers, 3-4; web site, 1-4, 2-22, 2-24–25, Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, 1-58
chusetts, 3-69, 4-62; military posts, 3-54, 3-56–57; 2-70, 3-66 Oglala Sioux tribe, 2-56–57
Minnesota, 2-69, 3-69, 4-62; Montana, 2-69; Nazi- National Archives at College Park, 2-20–21, 2-22, 2-25 Oklahoma, 2-53, 2-55, 2-56
looted Holocaust-era assets, 1-68–69, 4-62; New National Archives Building, construction of, 2-12–13, Olsen, Paul, 4-32, 4-34–35; photo, 4-34
York, 1-69; North Carolina, 1-69; North Dakota, 4- 2-14, 2-70, 2-72; painting of, 2-67, illustration, 2-68; O’Rear, Charles, 1-47–48; photographs by, 1-43, 1-49
62; Nova Scotia, 1-69; Ohio, 3-69; Oregon, 2-69; pas- photos of, 2-10, 2-14, 3-36–40; renovation of, 2- Oregon, 2-55, 4-8, 4-9–10
senger lists, 1-69, 2-69, 3-69, 4-62; quartermaster 22–23, 2-24; shop, 2-67, 2-70; symbolism of sculp- Oregon Territory, 3-68–69, 4-8, 4-9–10
officers, 2-69; Rhode Island, 2-69, 3-69;Texas, 4-62; tural elements, 3-36–40, 4-65 Organization Index to Pension Files of Veterans Who
U.S.Army, 1-69, 2-69, 4-62; U.S.Army Air Forces, 1- National Archives Building:Temple of American His- Served Between 1861 and 1900, microfilm publi-
69, 2-69; U.S. Colored Troops, 2-69; U.S. Senate, 1-69; tory, The, by Patty Mason, 3-36, 4-65 cation, 2-56
volunteer Union soldiers, 2-69; war crimes, 1-69; National Archives Experience,1-70,2-23,2-70,2-71,4-64 Osborn, Patrick R., 4-61
War Relocation Authority, 4-54;Wiesbaden Central National Archives in Kansas City, leaflet, 2-69 “Our Only World,” exhibit, 1-48–49
Collecting Point, 1-69;Wisconsin, 3-69;World War National Archives Regional Archives System, 2-19–20, “Our Story,” by James Worsham, 2-10–25
II, 1-69 2-24, 3-6–10; book of samples from, 3-6–10; Central “Our Wonderful Volunteers,” by Adrienne C.Thomas,3-4
Midwest Center for Holocaust Education, 1-52 Plains, 3-6, 3-7–10, relocation of, 1-5, 1-50–53; edu-
Military commissions, 2-34, 2-36–37 cational programs, 1-53, 1-68; exhibits, 1-5, 1-52–53; Palmer,A. Mitchell, 2-33
Military enlistment records, 2-53–56, 2-57, 2-59 Great Lakes, 3-9–10, 3-33; Mid Atlantic, 3-9; North- Palmer, Mrs.W.L.C., 1-25
Military personnel records, 2-18–19, 3-50–57, 4-62 east, 1-68, 3-72; Pacific (San Francisco), 3-9, 3-10, 3- Papers of John Adams, 2-49
Military prisoners, records of, 3-53, 3-55 33; Pacific Alaska, 3-9; Rocky Mountain, 3-9; South- Parkinson, Hilary,“An Island Fort as Presidential Hide-
Miller, Edward S., 3-31 east, 1-5, 1-6–9, 2-24, 3-10; Southwest, 1-71; away,” 4-56–57
Miller, Merle, 1-32; photo, 1-33; Plain Speaking, 1-29 symposia, 1-5, 1-9 Patent Office, reports to Congress, 1-56–57
Minidoka Irrigator, newspaper, 4-50, 4-53–54 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the Paterson,William, 2-63
Minidoka Relocation Center, Idaho, 4-50, 4-53–54 United States, records opened, 1-66 “Patrolling the Coastline on Wheels,” by William R.
Minnesota, 2-69, 4-9, 4-10 National Historical Publications and Records Commis- Wells II, 3-40–45
Mirshah, Nancy, 3-33 sion, 2-20, 2-48–51; appropriations for, 2-66; Patterson, David S., The Search for Negotiated Peace:
Missouri, 2-69 awards, 4-60–61; grants, 1-66, 2-18, 2-49, 2-66, 3- Women’s Activism and Citizen Diplomacy in
Missouri Compromise, 4-9, 4-10, 4-12, 4-13 66–67, 4-60–61; mission, 2-48–49 World War I, 3-60–61
Moby-Dick, by Herman Melville, 3-72 National Historical Publications Commission, 2-13, 2- Pawnee scouts, 2-58
Moley, Raymond, 1-60, 1-61 14, 2-18, 2-20, 2-48–49, 4-29 Peace activists, 3-60–61
Montana, 2-55, 4-8, 4-9–10 National History Day, 1-5 Pease, Capt.Valentine, 3-72
Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Section, 1-69 National Holocaust Museum, 1-52 Peckham Guyton Albers and Viets, 1-51
Moon Shot: JFK and Space Exploration, by Stacey National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, 4- Pecora Investigation of 1933–1934, 3-47
Bredhoff, 3-68 45–48; illustrations, 4-47, 4-48; photo, 4-45 Pension case files, 3-4, 3-23, 3-25
Morris, Gouvernuer, 2-62–63 National Personnel Records Center, 2-18–19, 2-20, 2- Pensions, 1-57–58, 2-56–57, 2-59
Moses, Floyd, 1-18 23–24, 2-35, 3-65, 4-62; photo, 2-19 Pensions, Bureau of, 2-56
Motorcycles, 3-40–45 National Security Council, and intelligence opera- Perry,Angie, 1-20; photo, 1-19
Moynihan, Mary C.“Molly,” 1-71; photo, 1-71 tions, 4-14, 4-16, 4-21–22 Perry, Milton, photo, 1-33
Mulligan,Timothy, 3-34, 4-61; photo, 3-32 Native Americans, 1-6, 1-8, 1-15, 1-18–20, 1-21–22, 3- Pershing, Gen. John J., 2-69, 4-72
Musgrave, Paul,“The First Nixon Library,” 2-42–47 68–69; illustration of, 1-16; Indian Scouts, 2-52–59; Peterson,Trudy Huskamp, 2-22
Musick, Michael, 3-26, 3-32; photo, 3-27 and postal service in colonial America, 2-8 Peuser, Rick, 3-32–33
Muster rolls, 2-55, 2-57, 2-58 Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks, 4-47 Pfeiffer, David, 3-33
Navy registers, 1-58 Philip L. Graham Fund, 2-70
Naftali,Timothy, 3-71 Nazi-looted Holocaust-era assets, 1-68–69 Philippine Islands, German nationals in the, 2-28–29,
Nakaidoklini, 2-55 Nebraska, 1-47–48, 2-55, 2-56, 2-69, 4-9; state capitol, 4- 2-30
Nanking, China, Japanese atrocities in, 2-38–39, 2-40 45–48, photo, 4-44 Photographs, of Alaska, 4-38–43; DOCUMERICA, 1-
“NARAThrough theYears,” web page photo feature,1-4 Nenninger,Timothy, 3-26, 3-30, 3-33; photo, 3-27 42–49; NARA history, 1-4
“NARA’s Up-to-Date in Kansas City,” by Kimberlee N. Nevada, 4-8 Pigeon messengers used in World War I, 4-72
Ried, 1-50–53 Neville, Katherine, photo, 2-71 Pitch,Anthony, 3-32, 3-34; photo, 3-29
National Archives and Records Administration, 2-16; New Hampshire, 1-68 “Place in the Archives,A,” by Miriam Kleiman, 4-32–37
75th anniversary celebration activities, 1-4–5, 1-6, New Jersey, 1-68, 4-32, 4-34–35 Plante,Trevor K., 3-26, 3-27, 3-29–30, 3-31, 3-34, 4-62;
1-52, 2-67, 2-70, 2-72; appropriations for, 2-66, 2-67, “New Look,” national security policy, 4-16 “Lead the Way,” 2-52–59; photos, 3-29
4-31;Archives Library Information Center, 1-58; New Mexico, 2-53, 2-55, 2-56, 4-8–9, 4-12, 4-13 Plutarch, Lives, 1-29, 1-33
Archivist appointed, 4-60; Boeing Learning Center, New York, 1-68 Podoski, Barbara, photo, 3-28
4-64; Center for Legislative Archives, 2-25, 3-5, 3- New York Public Library, 3-60 “Poetry and Power”:The Inaugural Address of Presi-
46–49, 4-12; conservation laboratory, 4-12; Con- Newmark, Jill L.,“Face to Face with History,” 3-22–25 dent John F. Kennedy, 1-68
trolled Unclassified Information Office, 2-66; Data Newspapers in Japanese internment centers, 4-50–55 Polk, James K., 4-8–9, 4-10, 4-11–12, 4-13
Archives Staff, 2-18, 2-19; Division of War Depart- “NHPRC: Extending the Archives’ Reach,The,” by Kath- Poore, Benjamin, 1-58
ment Archives, 4-26; Document Conservation Labo- leen Williams, 2-48–51 Pope, John Russell, 2-12–13, 2-70, 2-72, 3-34, 3-36
ratory, 3-65; educational programs, 2-4, 2-70; Nichols, David, 3-33 Postal systems, 2-6–9

Index Prologue 69
Postmasters, 2-7 Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800–1916, micro- Skelton, Red, 4-57
Powell,William P., Jr., 3-23–25; photo, 3-22 film publication, 3-56–57 Skogsberg, Charles, 3-42, 3-43
Powers, Francis Gary, 4-20 Reynolds, Michael, 1-46; photos, 1-45, 1-46 Slavery, 1-6–7; in U.S. territories, 4-8, 4-9, 4-10, 4-13
Prechtel-Kluskens, Claire, 2-4 Rhoads, James B., 2-18, 4-30; photo, 2-18 Sloan, Cliff, The Great Decision: Jefferson, Adams,
Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the United Rhode Island, 1-68 Marshall, and the Battle for the Supreme Court,
States Army Continental Commands, 1821–1920, Richard Nixon Library, 1-65, 2-19, 2-22, 2-25, 2-43, 3-66, 2-62–63; photo, 2-62
Volume V: Military Installations, 1821–1920, by 4-35; photo, 2-24 Sloan, Hugh W., 4-34–35
Robert Gruber et al., 3-56 Richardson, John W., 3-42, 3-43, 3-44 Smith, Gregory B., 3-66
Presidential libraries, 1-13–22, 1-65, 2-14, 2-19–20, 2- Ried, Kimberlee N.,“NARA’s Up-to-Date in Kansas Smith, Stephanie D., 3-66
22, 2-66–67, 2-68, 4-28 City,” 1-50–53 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service,
Presidential Libraries Act, 2-17, 4-29 Rio Grande, 4-8–9, 4-13 1-48–49
Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Rives,Tim, 3-9 Society for the National Archives, 2-71
Act of 1974, 2-19, 2-20 Roberts, Cokie, photo, 2-71 Society of American Archivists, 2-15, 4-29–30, 4-60–61
Presidential Records Act, 2-19, 2-20, 2-24, 2-66–67 Rohwer relocation center, 4-52, 4-53 Sorensen,Theodore C.“Ted,” 1-60, 1-61, 1-68
Presidential speechwriters, 1-60–61 Romanski, Fred, 3-34 South,Aloha, 3-31, 3-33, 3-34
President’s Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelli- Ronald Reagan Library, 2-22, 2-66–67 South Dakota, 2-55, 2-56, 2-69
gence Activities, 4-17, 4-18, 4-19–20 Roosevelt, Eleanor, 3-9, 3-13 Soviet Union, aerial spying against, 4-14–22
President’s Technological Capabilities Panel, 4-17 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1-10, 3-5, 3-12–13, 3-20, 4-52; Space program, U.S., 3-68
Pribram, Karl, 2-71 and military commissions, 2-37; and the National Speier, Jackie, 3-66
“Primarily Teaching,” 1-53 Archives, 2-10–11, 2-13–14, 2-17, 2-25, 2-48–49; and Star Books, 1-53, 3-7, 3-9
Primarily Teaching Institute, 1-71, 4-65 the National Naval Medical Center, 4-45–48; pho- Stars and Stripes: Newspaper of the American Expe-
Prisoners of war, Japanese crimes against, 2-39 tos, 4-46, 4-47; speechwriters for, 1-60, 1-61 ditionary Forces, 1918–1919, microfilm publica-
Prologue:The Journal of the National Archives, 2-19 Roosevelt administration (Franklin D.), 2-36–37 tion, 2-69
Public Papers of the Presidents, 4-29 Ross, Charles, 1-25, 1-30, 1-38 State, U.S. Department of, and the archives of the
Public Printing and Binding Act (1907), 1-55 Ross, Rodney, 2-15, 3-34 United States, 2-12; and the Nixon Library in Hong
Public Vaults, 2-23, 2-24, 2-71, 4-36 Rossiter,Adm. Percival S., photo, 4-47 Kong, 2-47
Pulitzer, Joseph, 3-5 Rothstein,Arthur, 1-43, 1-44 State and National Archival Partnership, 2-51, 3-66–67
Rotter,Arnold J., 3-33 State archives, 2-48–50
Quinan, J.W., 3-42, 3-43 Rotunda Founders Early Access project, 4-61 State Historical Records Advisory Boards, 2-51
Ruckelshaus,William D., 1-44 Stegmaier, Mark J.,“Cartography, Politics—and Mis-
Raaska, Helmi, 3-33 Rushay, Samuel W., Jr.,“Harry Truman’s History chief,” 4-7–13
Ratcliff, R.A., 3-34 Lessons,” 1-24–34 Steinbeck, John, 3-9
Readex, 1-58 Russian immigrants, 2-27 Stimson, Henry L., 2-37
Reagan, Ronald, 1-60–61, 2-20, 2-67 Sullivan, John Fox, 1-71; photo, 1-71
Reconstruction, 3-56 Safire,William, 1-60 Surgeons in the Civil War, 3-23–25
Records Concerning the Central Collecting Points Safly, Liz, 3-14 Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 3-60
(“Ardelia Hall Collection”):Wiesbaden Central St. Gill, Marc, photograph by, 1-48 Sweeney, Jenny, photo, 4-65
Collecting Point, 1945–1952, microfilm publica- Sakovich, Maria,“When the ‘Enemy’ Landed at Angel
tion, 1-69 Island,” 2-26–33 Taft,William Howard, 2-12
Records declassification, 2-24, 2-25, 4-16 Sales,Arnaldo de Oliveira, 2-43–44, 2-45, 2-46 Talcott,Andrew, 4-57
Records destruction, 2-18 Salkin, Robert, 4-34 Tambara, Kimi, 4-50
Records management, 2-14–15, 2-16–17, 2-18, 2-50, 4- San Carlos Reservation, 2-55 Tames, George, 1-39
26–27, 4-28–29, 4-30;Truman executive order San Francisco Bureau of Immigration, 2-26–33 Taos, New Mexico, 1-46
regarding, 4-27, 4-28 San Francisco Police Department, 2-31–32 Taylor, John E., 3-26, 3-27, 3-30–31; photo, 3-28
Records of Achievement Award, 3-70 Satellites, use of in intelligence operations, 4-17–18, 4- Taylor, Zachary, 4-12
Records of Our National Life, 3-70 19, 4-20, 4-21–22 “Temple to History,A,” 2-72
Records of the Adjutant General’s Office,1780’s–1920, Sato, Eddie, 4-53–54; cartoons by illustrated, 4-54, 4-55 Tennessee, 1-45, 4-11
Record Group 94,2-53–54,2-55,2-59,3-56–57 Saudi Arabia, 2-67 Territorial acquisitions, maps of, 4-7–13; slavery in, 4-8,
Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs, Record Save Our National Archives, 3-66 4-9, 4-10
Group 15, 2-57 Schellenberg,Theodore R., 4-26, 4-28, 4-31 Terrors of the Jungle, 3-49; illustration, 3-47
Records of the Judge Advocate General (Army), Schlesinger,Arthur M., Jr., 1-30, 1-31, 1-32, 1-60, 1-61, 3- Texas, 2-53, 2-55, 2-56; annexation of, 4-8; boundary
Record Group 153, 2-55 34; photo, 1-30 with New Mexico, 4-8–9; coast patrols, 3-40–45;
Records of the Public Buildings Service, Record Schlesinger, Robert, White House Ghosts, 1-60–61 maps of, 4-8–9, 4-10, 4-12–13
Group 121, 2-72 Schmidt, Raymond P.,“A Tower in Nebraska,” 4-44–48 Texas Instruments, 1-71, 4-65
Records of the Quartermaster General, Record Group Schneider, Richard E.,“The Alaskan Frontier in “These Walls Can Talk,” by Rob Crotty, 3-36–39
92, 2-58–59, 3-57 Panorama,” 4-38–43 “This Land Is Your Land,” by Woody Guthrie, 3-10
Records of the U.S.Army Commands, 1784–1821, Schwimmer-Lloyd papers, 3-60 Thomas,Adrienne C., 1-64, 1-65, 3-66, 3-71, 4-60, 4-61;
Record Group 98, 3-56 Search for Negotiated Peace:Women’s Activism and “A Year of Celebration for Our 75th Anniversary,” 1-
Records of the War Relocation Authority, Record Citizen Diplomacy in World War I, The, by David 4–5;“Becoming World Class,” 2-4;“Our Wonderful
Group 210, 4-54 S. Patterson, 3-60–61 Volunteers,” 3-4; photos, 1-64, 2-66, 2-71
Records of U.S.Army Continental Commands, Selective service records, 4-62 Thomas,Albert, 4-27
1821–1920, Record Group 393, 2-55–56, 3-51–57 Seminole scouts, 2-57, 2-58 Thomas, Elbert D., 4-26
Records of U.S.Army Continental Commands, SENSINT, 4-16 Thompson, Neil, 3-33
1920–1942, Record Group 394, 3-56 Settle, Jean, 3-13–14, 3-21 Thomsen, Neil, 3-33
Records of U.S. Military Posts, 1821–1920, 3-5 Shakespeare, Frank, 2-47 Thurston, Samuel R., 4-12–13
Records of U.S. Regular Army Mobile Units, “Shaping the National Archives,” by Greg Bradsher, 4- Tilley, Steven, 3-26, 3-28–29; photo, 3-27
1821–1942, Record Group 391, 2-58, 2-59 24–31 Time magazine, 2-44, 4-60
Records preservation, 2-48–51, 4-28–29, 4-42–43, 4-60 Sharp, Rebecca K.,“‘How an Eagle Feels . . .’,” 4-50–55 Tojo Hideki, 2-38; photo, 2-39
Records processing, 2-66–67 Sharp Nose, 2-53, 2-54–55; photo, 2-53 Tokyo War Crimes Trial, 2-34–35, 2-37–40
Records publication, 2-49–50 Shearer, Brooke, 3-71 Tone,Andrea, 3-34
Records Relating to Personal Participation in World Sieber,Al, 2-58 Topaz Times, 4-52
War II:American Military Casualties and Sienang,Willie, photo, 2-28 Topographic surveying, in Alaska, 4-38–43
Burials, RIP 82, 3-68 Simmons, C. Jerry,“DOCUMERICA,” 1-42–49 “Tower in Nebraska,A,” by Raymond P. Schmidt, 4-
Registers of Enlistments in the U.S.Army, Simmons, John L., 3-42, 3-43 44–48
1798–1914, microfilm publication, 2-54 “Sitting in Judgment,” by Fred L. Borch, 2-34–40 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 4-7, 4-8, 4-13

70 Prologue Winter 2009


Truman, Bess Wallace, 1-72, 3-5; letters, 3-5, 3-12–21; Vermont, 1-68 otage attempts, 2-34, 2-36–37; Japanese internment
photos, 1-72, 3-12, 3-13, 3-16, 3-17, 3-18, 3-19, 3-21 Vice President, records, 2-67; role of, 2-43, 2-46 centers, 4-50–55; National Archives’ role in, 2-15–17
Truman, Harry S., 1-10–11, 2-17–18, 4-17, 4-25, 4-27, 4- Vinson, Carl, photo, 4-47 World War II: Guide to Records Relating to U.S. Mili-
28; family life, 1-36–41; history lessons, 1-24–34; let- Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 1-66, 4-61 tary Participation, 2-17, 4-60–61
ters, 3-5, 3-12–21; and the mural for his library, 1- Volunteers, 3-4 Wormser, Paul, 3-33
13–22; photos of, 1-10, 1-11, 1-13, 1-19, 1-21, 1-24, “Voyage into History,A,” 3-72 Worsham, James,“Our Story,” 2-10–25
1-28, 1-30, 1-36, 1-37, 1-40, 1-41, 2-15, 3-13, 3-14, 3- Wright, C.W., 4-40
16, 3-17, 3-18; portrait of by Greta Kempton, 1-29; Walker,Alan, 3-34 Wyoming, 2-55, 4-8
speechwriters for, 1-60, 1-61 Wallace, Carrie, photo, 1-26
Truman, Margaret, 3-5, 3-12–13, 3-14, 3-17–19; photos, Wallace, David Willock, 3-13 “Year of Celebration for Our 75th Anniversary,A,” by
3-13, 3-19 Waller, Douglas C., photo, 3-27 Adrienne C.Thomas, 1-4–5
“Truman at 125,” 1-10–11 Walsh, David I., photo, 4-47 Yockelson, Mitchell, 3-34; photo, 3-27
Tsarev, Oleg, 3-31 Walter Kidde Dinosaur Park, 4-34–35 Young, Richard M., 4-11–12
Tuohy, Martin, 3-33 Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, “Your Land, Our Land,” by Monroe Dodd, 3-6–10
Twining, Gen. Nathan, 4-19, 4-21 Bethesda, Maryland, 4-48; illustrated, 4-48 Your Land, Our Land:Two Centuries of American
War crimes tribunals, Japan, 2-34, 2-35, 2-37–40 Words and Images from the Regions of the
U-2 flights, 4-14, 4-16–17, 4-18–21, 4-22 War Department, and alien enemies, 2-28–29, 4-52; National Archives, edited by Monroe Dodd and
Ulke, Capt. Henry, 3-41 General Order No. 28, 2-59; records in the National Brian Burnes, 3-6–10
Union Army, 3-4;African American surgeons in the, 3- Archives, 2-16, 3-50–57; records management, 4-25, YouTube, 3-64
22–25; soldiers, 3-4 4-26–27
Union Carbide Company, 1-45–46, 1-47 War Department Records of the Division and Zerby, Barry, 3-33
United Kingdom, and Hong Kong, 2-45 Department of the Pacific, 1847–1873, microfilm Zimmerman, Jay, 1-71, 2-71; photo, 1-71
U.S.Air Force, and aerial intelligence programs, 4-16, 4- publication, 3-68–69 Zobrist, Benedict, photo, 1-33
17–18 War Relocation Authority, 4-52–54
U.S.Army, alien enemy soldiers discharged from, 2-29; Ward, Geoffrey C., 3-10
records management, 4-26–27 Warner, Robert M., 2-4, 2-19–20, 2-21, 2-22; photos, 2- STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND CIRCULATION
U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, 4-56–57 20 (REQUIRED BY 39 USC 3685)
U.S.Army Indian Scouts, 2-52–59 Warren, Earl, 1-21; photos, 1-21, 1-30 TITLE: PROLOGUE: QUARTERLY OF THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES
U.S.Army Signal Corps, 4-72 Washington, 2-55, 4-8, 4-9–10 AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION (ISSN 0033-1031)
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service, 3-66 Washington, George, 2-49; portrait, 2-49 FREQUENCY:QUARTERLY / ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION PRICE:$24.00
U.S. Coast Guard, 3-40–45 Washington National Records Center, 2-20 PUBLISHER AND OWNER:NATIONAL ARCHIVES TRUST FUND
United States Colored Troops (Civil War), 1-68 Watergate scandal, 2-19, 3-66 BOARD,NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION,
U.S. Commerce Building, 2-12; photo, 2-12 Webb,William F., photo, 2-35 8601 ADELPHI ROAD,COLLEGE PARK,MD 20740-6001
U.S. Congress, and the National Archives, 2-12, 2-13, Weinman,Adolf Alexander, 3-36, 3-39 TOTAL PAID AND/OR REQUESTED CIRCULATION (AVG. DURING
2-14, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21, 3-46–49, 4-28, 4-29; presi- Weinstein,Allen, 1-64, 2-24, 2-25, 4-37, 4-60; photos, 1- PRECEDING 12 MONTHS) MAILED PAID SUBSCRIPTIONS:
dential messages to, 4-8, 4-9, 4-10, 4-11; reports 64, 2-24, 3-32 2379 / OTHER SALES & REQUESTED DISTRIBUTION: 2362
to, 1-56–57; and slavery in the territories, 4-8, 4-9, Weissenbach, Karl, 2-68 / FREE DISTRIBUTION BY MAIL: 15 / FREE DISTRIBUTION
4-10, 4-13 Wells,William R., II,“Patrolling the Coastline on OUTSIDE THE MAIL: 50 / TOTAL DISTRIBUTION: 4872 /
U.S. Constitution, 1-32, 2-12, 2-16, 2-17, 2-22–23, 2- Wheels,” 3-40–45; photo, 3-45 PERCENT PAID AND/OR REQUESTED CIRCULATION: 98.67%
49–50, 4-29, 4-30, 4-64; amendments to, 1-27 Wertheimer, Linda, photo, 2-71 TOTAL PAID AND/OR REQUESTED CIRCULATION (FALL 2009)
U.S. Department of Justice, and alien enemies, 2-29, 2- West Virginia, 1-45 MAILED PAID SUBSCRIPTIONS: 2265 / OTHER SALES &
30; and political radicals, 2-31–33 Wheeler,Tom, 3-32–33 REQUESTED DISTRIBUTION: 344 / FREE DISTRIBUTION BY
U.S. Department of Labor, and political radicals, 2-31, “When the ‘Enemy’ Landed at Angel Island,” by Maria MAIL: 10 / FREE DISTRIBUTION OUTSIDE THE MAIL: 20 /
2-32;World War I internment camps, 2-28, 2-30 Sakovich, 2-26–33 TOTAL DISTRIBUTION: 2689 / PERCENT PAID AND/OR
U.S. Department of the Navy, 3-41, 3-42, 3-43, 3-44 Whitaker, R. Reed, 1-52, 3-7, 3-9 REQUESTED CIRCULATION: 98.88%
United States Geological Survey, 4-38–43 White, Edward, 2-27, 2-28, 2-30, 2-33
U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Private White House files opened, 3-66
Land Claims, 1-55; records, 1-55–59, 3-46–49 White House Ghosts: Presidents and Their Speech- Staff Contributions to Prologue 2009
U.S. Information Agency, 2-47 writers, by Robert Schlesinger, 1-60–61
U.S. military posts, records of, 3-50–57 Whitmer, Matt, 4-36–37; photos, 4-33, 4-37 Each issue of Prologue reflects the contributions of
U.S. Senate, Committee on Territories, 4-9; records, 1- Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, 1-69
many employees of the National Archives and Records
55–59, 3-46–49 William J. Clinton Library, 2-22, 2-25, 2-66–67
Administration (NARA).This is as it should be, for Pro-
U.S. Serial Set Index, 1-58 Williams, Kathleen,“The NHPRC: Extending the
logue is very much a journal of NARA. Often, however,
U.S. Supreme Court, and Marbury v. Madison, 2- Archives’ Reach,” 2-48–51
the contributions of these staff members go unrecog-
62–63; and military commissions, 2-37; papers pub- Williams, Kathleen Broome, 3-30
nized.The Prologue staff,therefore,would like to salute
lished, 2-49–50 Wilmot, David, 4-9
the following individuals for their contributions.
University of Maryland, 1-5, 2-20–21 Wilmot Proviso, 4-9
RobertAlper,JulietteArai,Rick Blondo,Crystal Brooks,
University of Michigan, 1-66 Wilson, Charles Banks, 1-18, 1-20
Bob Clark,William Cunliffe,Donna Denslow,Mike Devine,
University of North Carolina, 1-66 Wilson, Don W., 2-22; photo, 2-21
Laura Diachenko, Dean Donovan, Diana Duff, Bob Ellis,
University of Toronto, 1-66 Wilson, Douglas L., photo, 3-27
Micelle Farnsworth, Jane Fitzgerald, Sharon Fitzpatrick,
University of Virginia Press, 4-61 Wilson, Henry, 1-58
Kate Flaherty, Eric Flanagan, Matt Fulgham, Joan Gearin,
University of Wisconsin, 3-67 Wilson,Woodrow, 3-41, 3-61
Christina Gehring,Raymond Geselbracht,Sandra Glasser,
Updegrove, Mark D., 4-60 Winton, Harold, 3-30
Robert Goddard,Allen Goodrich,William Greene, Steve
Uranium mining, 1-45–46, 1-47 Wisconsin Historical Society, 2-50
Greene,Martha Grove,Paul Harrison,Jeffery Hartley,James
Uravan, Colorado, 1-45–46; photograph of, 1-47 Wishaar, Lt.William P., 3-41
Hastings, Sheri Hill, Michael Horsley, Mary Ilario, Michael
Use of the Panoramic Camera in Topographic Sur- Wolfe, Bob, 3-33
veying, The, by Maj. James W. Bagley, 4-40–42 Women, alien enemies, 2-28, 2-29
Knight, Jessie Kratz, Patty Mason, Richard McCulley, Earl
Using Civilian Records in the National Archives in “Women’s Activism for Peace in World War I,” by Ben-
McDonald,Tara McLaughlin, Mark Mollan, Kelly Osborn,
Washington, DC, Area for Genealogical Research, jamin Guterman, 3-60–61 Ira Pemstein,Trevor Plante,Lawrence Post,Constance Pot-
reference information paper, 2-69 Women’s rights, 1-7 ter, Deborah Powe,Jeff Reed,Holly Reed,Allen Rice,Rob
“Using the Congressional Serial Set for Genealogical Woods, Rose Mary, 2-44; photo, 2-45 Richards, Kimberlee Ried,Tim Rives, Holly Russo, Jason
Research,” by Jeffery Hartley, 1-54–59 World War I, 2-69; coastline patrols, 3-40–45; and Schiltz, Richard Schneider, Jason Schultz, Jennifer Seitz,
Utah, 2-55, 4-8, 4-12, 4-52 enemy aliens, 2-26–33; use of carrier pigeons in, 4- Jerry Simmons,Randy Sowell,Maria Stanwich,Peter Staub,
72; women’s activism for peace in, 3-60–61 Kathy Struss,Doug Swanson,RichardTaylor,PaulineTester-
Vandereedt, John, 3-31 World War II, casualties and burials, 3-68; German sab- man, SandraTucker,Tim Walch,Reed Whitaker.

Index Prologue 71
PIECES OF HISTORY

A HE RO P IGEO N O F W W I
Above: Upon the hero pigeon’s death, the Signal Corps

W
hen the United States entered He was transferred to I Corps Signal,
World War I in 1917, the Army’s which was engaged in the Meuse-Argonne at Fort Monmouth sent a telegram to the War
Signal Corps brought along a con- offensive. On November 5, 1918, he was Department. Signal Corps files contain an acknowl-
tingent of new messengers to carry vital released into heavy artillery action,carrying edgment of the telegram and several summaries of
information between the front and head- an important message.His record notes that the bird’s war service.
quarters—pigeons. European armies had “this game little soldier came thru fire and Below: President Wilson poses for his portrait at Fort
long had success with pigeon messengers, fog,” successfully reaching his destination Monmouth, his retirement home, in 1919.
and Gen. John J. Pershing requested that even though one of his legs was shot off and
pigeon specialists be commissioned into the his breast was pierced by a bullet.The mes-
U.S.Army. Over the course of the war, more sage tube was hanging by the ligaments of
than 15,000 birds were sent to theAmerican the torn leg. Most remarkably, the injured
Expeditionary Forces. President Wilson reached his destination 40
The bird pictured here, named President kilometers (25 miles) away in 25 minutes.
Wilson, was one of the hero pigeons of the President Wilson returned to the United
war. His file in Signal Corps records notes States after the war and spent his retire-
that he was “a powerful bird, of remarkable ment in the pigeon lofts at Fort Mon-
vitality and rapidity of flight.” President Wil- mouth, New Jersey.He lived to be 11 years
son was bred in France and began his Army old and died on June 8, 1929.The feathery
career with the Tank Corps. During the St. war veteran bird was stuffed and mounted
Mihiel operation he distinguished himself for display in the museum at Fort Mon-
“because of splendid work when all other mouth and was later donated to the Smith-
communcations failed.” sonian Institution. P

72 Prologue Winter 2009


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Above: The Archivist's Code was created by the third Archivist of the United States,Wayne C. Grover. Learn more about the longest-serving Archivist on page 24.
Cover: President Dwight D. Eisenhower identified the need for aerial reconnaissance of Communist-bloc nations and supported several intelligence-gathering pro-
grams. An article on page 14 surveys those programs.
Back cover: When the third grade at Deal Elementary School wrote this letter to President Gerald R. Ford, they couldn't have imagined that it would become a fea-
tured document in the National Archives' permanent exhibition. Read more about people whose lives intersected with the National Archives on page 32.