Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid

and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. A definition more inclusive of followers comes from Alan Keith of Genentech who said "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen. FUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (Hackman & Walton, 1986; McGrath, 1962) is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviors expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness. This theory argues that the leader’s main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion (Fleishman et al., 1991; Hackman & Wageman, 2005; Hackman & Walton, 1986). While functional leadership theory has most often been applied to team leadership it has also been effectively applied to broader organizational leadership as well In summarizing literature on functional leadership Hackman and Walton (1986), Hackman & Wageman (2005Knight, and Xiao (2006) observed five broad functions a leader performs when promoting include: organization’s (1) effectiveness. These (2) functions environmental monitoring,

organizing subordinate activities, (3) teaching and coaching

subordinates, (4) motivating others, and (5) intervening actively in the group’s work. A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman (1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors’ behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating in structure. fostering Consideration includes behavior involved

effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others. Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment. This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable to those standards. Leadership is one of the most salient aspects of the organizational context. However, defining leadership has been challenging. In reviewing the leadership literature stodgily argued that “there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept. Even though leadership is a term that is commonly used, defining leadership in specific terms can prove difficult likely leading to such a large number of definitions. Despite the multitude of leadership definitions, Zaccaro and Klimoski (2001) argued there are several common elements

that transcend the many available definitions. Specifically, leadership involves a) processes and proximal outcomes that contribute to the organizational objectives the application of non-routine influence, and is contextually defined and caused. Proximal outcomes that a leader could facilitate in the pursuit of achieving organizational objectives could include developing organizational commitment among subordinates. Non-routine influence implies that leaders must to have discretion in their actions and that their behavior should differ from influence provided through organizational routines. Finally, leadership needs to be considered with respect to the context in which it is occurring. One example is examining how leadership changes across levels of the organization. Functional leadership theory is model that concentrates on how leadership occurs, rather than focusing on who does the leading. It defines the types of behaviors that guide an organization and then looks at how those behaviors occur. Under this model, leadership is a distributed function. People at all levels can participate in guiding the organization. One of the cornerstones of this leadership model is its focus on how instead of who. This approach has some tremendous advantages when studying leadership. The models that focus on who leads tends to look at the person with formal authority in an

organization. In many situations, the person with formal authority is not the real leader. Sometimes there is no single “real” leader. Even an organization that appears to be floundering with no leadership is being led. People are still making decisions and forming opinions. The functional leadership model looks at how these types of decisions are being made—even when there is no single person who is acting as a leader. By focusing on the function of leadership, it is easier to see the stimuli that are actually influencing the behavior of the organization—even if the input is coming from informal and unlikely sources. Functional leadership is often used to describe job positions where an individual is expected to take leadership responsibility without any delegated authority. In this sense, they are asked to take on functions of leadership by helping to guide a team or process without being put into a formal leadership position. The up-side of this type of arrangement is that it can keep the individual’s focus on how to influence their team’s behavior instead of how to exert their authority. These functions include: (1) Environmental monitoring, (2) Organizing subordinate activities, (3) Teaching and coaching subordinates, (4) Motivating others, and (5) Intervening actively in the group’s work.

A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman (1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors’ behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating in structure. fostering Consideration includes behavior involved

effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others. Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment. This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable to those standards. Organizations are relying increasingly on teams to improve quality, efficiency, and adaptive change. Cross-functional teams are used to improve coordination among the different parties involved in carrying out a joint project. Self-managed teams are delegated most of the responsibility and authority traditionally vested in fir line supervisors. Self-defining teams represent an extreme form empowerment, because the team can determine its mission given the ability of the leader. Regulate its internal processes, and negotiate relationships with other parts of the organization and outsiders. The potential advantages of teams include greater employee

satisfaction and commitment, better quality of products and services, and greater efficiency and productivity. However, the benefits do not occur automatically, and successful implementation depends on a variety of facilitating conditions, including the quality of leadership. Some essential leadership processes in teams include building consensus around shared objectives, identifying effective performance strategies, organizing team activities, enhancing member skills and role clarity, building mutual trust and cooperation, procuring needed resources, and facilitating external coordination. In the Functional Leadership model, leadership does not rest with one person but rests on a set of behaviors by the group that gets things done. Any member of the group can perform these behaviors, so any member can participate in leadership. The Functional theory of leadership, places greater

emphasis on how an organisation or task is being led rather than who has been formally assigned a leadership role. To be effective the group must clearly establish and understand the task, delegate responsibilities, identify resources and establish accountabilities and evaluate progress. The maintenance of the group requires all participants to work together in a co-ordinate approach and in the same direction

with opportunities and recognition of all participant efforts. Functional Leadership is effective if the For clear understanding of functional theory of leadership there is need to define group, leadership and effectiveness as these three concepts move hand in hand to give leadership a more wider meaning not only that but also clear demarcation of this discussion. Group these are set of individuals who are similar, who are in proximity , and who share common fate on task relevant events .the intent was to include those groups in which perceive themselves as interdependent in members

achieving common goal . A Leader is a group member who directs and coordinates tasks relevant to group activities ,to be considered a leader, the individual mast either be appointed by an agent or organisation of which the group is part ,be elected by a group or be identified as most influential member of the group. Effectiveness, the leader’s effectiveness is defined in terms of his or her group’s performance in achieving goals. This means the more the group achieves its goals, the more effective is the leader .This means the leader will do everything possible to see that his group or organisation achieve its objectives . This will increase his being loyal to the group because people join into groups with different

objectives so if the leader is results oriented then the groups’ success will be clear and group members will be willing to accomplish their tasks on time and being identified with successful leader. The functional theory of leadership puts the leader into position to assign tasks to his followers with clear instructions not only that but also participate in the daily activities of the organisation or group to achieve the desired goals so as to register success as a leader . Furthermore, he can also use his power as a leader to control rewards and suctions to group members who are an comparative and the degree to which he will be supported by the organisation or group .The powerful leader may be able to influence the group even if the leader-follower relationship are poor .The more powerful the leadership position, the more favourable the situation for the leader. It should be noted that the most favorable situation is one in which the effective leader –member relationship are good, the task is highly structured the leader power position is strong .The most unfavorable situation is one in which the leader-member relationship, the task is un structured and leader power position is week. In light of the above, the leader mast make sure that followers have task orientation if the organisation and group in general is to achieve goals and he or she as a leader is to achieve success. The is possible in situations where the

leader has powers .However, members mast be free to offer new ideas and suggestion, and the leader can force his followers to comply with his wishes. Perceptions of leadership appear to be changing. Research has shown a shift in emphasis in regard to the factors influencing leadership effectiveness in a group. Whereas early scholars focused on leaders’ personality characteristics as key to leadership effectiveness in group situations, today, there has been a turning toward a concern for group members' characteristics and a parallel concern for the ensuing influence on leadership behavior. Leadership is no longer regarded a one-person affair. In any group, the influence of the personality characteristics of group members on leadership effectiveness cannot be overemphasized. It would be difficult to imagine a world of leadership without followership. Leadership obviously implies followership. Leaders cannot do it alone. As claimed in the literature, it takes both the leader and the group members to get things done (Kouzes & Posner, 1987; Rost, 1991; Clark & Clark, 1994). Leaders have been unsuccessful because of their failure to harness the strengths of their group. A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman (1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors’ behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure.

Consideration

includes

behavior

involved

in

fostering

effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others. Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment. This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable to those standards. Leadership and emotions Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process. In an organization, the leaders’ mood has some effects on his/her group. These effects can be described in levels.
1.

The

mood

of

individual

group

members.

Group

members with leaders in a positive mood experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a negative mood. The leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of contagion. Mood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by which charismatic leaders influence followers.
2.

The affective tone of the group. Group affective tone represents the consistent or homogeneous affective reactions within a group. Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of

the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis. Groups with leaders in a positive mood have a more positive affective tone than do groups with leaders in a negative mood.
3.

Group processes like coordination, effort expenditure, and task strategy. Public expressions of mood impact how group members think and act. When people experience and express mood, they send signals to others. Leaders signal their goals, intentions, and attitudes through their expressions of moods. For example, expressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders deem progress toward goals to be good. The group members respond to those signals cognitively and behaviorally in ways that are reflected in the group processes.

Effective leadership requires followers who are more than Pavlovian reactors to their leaders' influences," notes Woodward. "When followers actively contribute, are aware of their function and take personal pride in the art of followership, then the joint purpose of leadership and followership -- higher levels of mission accomplishment -- is achieved effectively. Professionalism in followership is as important in the military service as professionalism in leadership.

In

summary,

leadership

performance

has

been

conceptualized very broadly, often incorporating outcomes such as effectiveness, emergence, and advancement. As with more general considerations of job performance (Campbell, 1990), it is important to distinguish between leader performance and effectiveness. While it is important to evaluate the influence of leadership on organizational outcomes (Kasier et al., 2008), specifically assessing leader performance, or behaviors that have expected value to organizational outcomes, allows practitioners and researchers to avoid conceptual confusion.

NAME: MUWAGA MUSA NOR: 190220093001 INSTRUCTOR: DR.SRI RAHAYU ASTUTI, M.Si SUBJECT: THEORIES OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY TASK: ANALYSING LEADERSHIP THEORY IN A SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE. FUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (HACKMAN

DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL UNIVERSITAS PADJADJARAN PROGRAM PASCA SARJAN FAKULTAS PSIKOLOG PROGRAM MAGISTER PSI MARCH 06/O3/2010

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Bergmann, H., Hurson, K. and Russ-Eft, D. (1999) everyone a Leader: A grassroots model for the new workplace. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Blackler, F. and Kennedy, A. (2003) The Design of a Development Programme for Experienced Top Managers from the Public Sector. Working Paper, Lancaster University. Department for Education and Skills (2003) Management and Leadership Attributes Framework. DfES Leadership and Personnel Division, April 2003.

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