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TLIG207C Lead a

work team or
group
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 3  
Planning your learning ........................................................... 4  
How you will be assessed ...................................................... 7  

Section 1............................................................................................. 9  
Team planning ....................................................................... 9  

Section 2........................................................................................... 17  
Developing work team commitment ..................................... 17  

Section 3........................................................................................... 25  
Participate and facilitate the work team ............................... 25  

Section 4........................................................................................... 41  
Manage team performance .................................................. 41  

Additional resources ....................................................................... 55  


TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Page 2 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  lead  
a  work  team  or  group  including  participating  in  team/group  planning,  
managing  and  developing  team/group  performance,  participating  in  
and  facilitating  the  work  team/group  in  its  achievement  of  workplace  
tasks,  and  documenting  and  reviewing  work  team/group  performance.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLIG207C  Lead  a  work  
team  or  group  covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  listed  below.  
Participate  in  team/group  planning  
Manage  and  develop  team/group  performance  
Participate  in  and  facilitate  the  work  team/group  
Document  and  review  work  team/group  tasks  
This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  
Training  Package  (TLI07).  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 3


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TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  
already  have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  
Learner’s  Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
• you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  
and/or  
• you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  
following  pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  
the  questions  in  the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  
this  Learner’s  Guide  you  need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  
more  relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  
industry.  This  means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  
who  can  show  you  things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  
questions  you  have.  Also  you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  
what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  
a  job  in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  
work  experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  
workplace.    

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TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Section 1: Team planning

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. describe  what  the  term  ‘work  team’  
means?        
2. identify  the  difference  between  effective  
and  poor  work  teams?          
3. participate  in  team  planning  sessions?        

Section 2: Developing team commitment

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. identify  the  different  stages  of  team  
development?        
2. work  effectively  with  others  in  a  work  
team?        
3. identify  when  a  team  is  performing  well?        

Section 3: Participate in and facilitate the work


team

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. actively  encourage  team  effectiveness?        
2. actively  encourage  individuals  to  take  
individual  and  joint  responsibility?        
3. support  the  team  to  identify  and  resolve  
problems  that  impede  its  performance?        
4. participate  in  a  small  group  discussion  to  
reach  agreement  on  a  work-­‐related  issue?        

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 5


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Section 4: Manage team performance

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. monitor  team  performance  regularly  to  
confirm  that  the  team  is  able  to  achieve  
its  goals?        
2. mentor  and  coach  team  members  to  
enhance  their  knowledge  and  skills?        
3. document  and  review  work  team  tasks?        

Page 6 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

How you will be assessed

Assessment  of  this  Unit  of  Competency  will  include  observation  of  real  
or  simulated  work  processes  using  workplace  procedures  and  
questioning  on  underpinning  knowledge  and  skills.  It  must  be  
demonstrated  in  an  actual  or  simulated  work  situation  under  
supervision.  

You  will  be  required  to:  


• set  goals  and  schedule  work  within  your  team  
• measure  team  commitment  and  co-­‐operation  via  a  survey  
• measure  how  well  you  manage  team  performance  via  a  
survey  
• measure  how  well  you  contribute  to  the  team’s  activities.    

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 7


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Page 8 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Section 1

Team planning

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 9


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

The  characteristics  of  an  effective  work  team  

The  importance  of  team  goals  and  objectives  

How  to  set  smart  goals  

Page 10 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

What is a work team?

Work  teams  are  groups  of  people  who  work  together  towards  the  
same  goals  and  objectives.  These  goals  and  objectives  could  be  to:  
• reduce  workplace  accidents  and  incidents  
• reduce  the  number  of  quality  problems  
• increase  customer  satisfaction  
• solve  a  particular  workplace  problem.  

Some  work  teams  stay  together  for  a  long  period  of  time  (e.g.  the  
sales  team)  while  others  are  formed  to  deal  with  one  specific  issue  or  
problem.  

Work  teams  are  often  used  to  increase  the  effectiveness  of  a  business  
and  to  quickly  solve  workplace  problems  as  they  happen.    

The  most  effective  teams:  


• are  made  up  of  three  or  more  people  
• are  made  up  of  people  who  have  different  skills  and  
interests  
• are  made  up  of  people  who  trust  each  other  
• are  made  up  of  people  who  support  each  other  
• are  made  up  of  people  who  know  their  jobs,  have  the  skill  
to  do  them  well  and  are  committed  to  their  team  
• are  made  up  of  people  who  resolve  their  differences  in  a  
constructive  manner  
• are  formed  because  of  a  clear  goal  or  objective  that  all  
members  of  the  team  are  aware  of.  

Team  goals  

Before  a  team  can  achieve  anything,  it  needs  a  clear  vision  of  where  it  
is  going  and  how  it  is  going  to  get  there.  Team  goals  are  a  clear  
statement  of  the  results  the  team  is  working  to  achieve.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 11


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

What are objectives and goals?

A  team’s  objectives  or  goals  are  public  statements  of  what  they  are  
working  together  to  achieve.    

Team  goals  are  important  because  goals:  


• give  the  team  a  purpose  
• act  as  ‘signposts’  during  the  life  of  the  team  
• help  the  team  know  that  it  is  on  the  right  track  and  is  
actually  doing  the  things  it  should  be  doing?  
• help  to  build  the  team’s  sense  of  accomplishment  
• You  have  not  doubt  heard  people  saying  things  like,  “I  
have  no  idea  what’s  going  on.”  This  doesn’t  often  happen  
to  teams  that  have  clear  goals.  The  goals  are  determined  
by  the  team  and  therefore  having  meaning  to  each  and  
every  team  member.  

Why do teams fail to set goals?

You  have  already  learned  that  a  team  needs  to  know  where  it  is  
heading  and  determine  how  to  get  there.  Without  goals,  how  will  we  
know  if  we  are  successful  or  our  efforts  are  useful?  Here  are  a  number  
of  different  reasons  why  teams  fail  to  set  goals:  
• because  we  are  too  busy  
• because  we’ve  tried  it  in  the  past  and  it  didn’t  work  
• because  we  simply  don’t  see  the  point.  

Too  busy  to  set  goals  

It  is  very  easy  for  people  to  say  that  they  are  too  busy  getting  things  
done  to  work  out  what  needs  to  be  done.  But  this  sort  of  attitude  
usually  only  leads  to  people  feeling  effective  and  busy.  Without  goals  it  
is  all  too  easy  to  do  things  that  are  not  really  priorities.  

Goal  setting  hasn’t  worked  in  the  past  

Failure  is  one  of  the  greatest  demotivators.  Failing  to  achieve  
something  can  lead  to  discouragement  and  eventually  stopping  what  
it  was  you  were  trying  to  achieve.  Often  teams  will  set  goals  and  head  
off  in  the  right  direction  but  over-­‐enthusiasm,  individual  team  

Page 12 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

member’s  personal  goals  or  ‘bright  ideas’  may  get  in  the  way  of  proper  
planning  and  reduce  the  team’s  ability  to  actually  achieve  their  goals.  

What’s the point of setting goals?

Many  teams  go  about  their  day  to  day  life  in  a  way  that  they  feel  
comfortable  with.  Goals  often  encourage  teams  to  take  calculated  
risks.    

SMART goals

If  your  team  wants  to  be  effective  you  need  to  set  SMART  goals.    

That  is,  goals  that  are:  


• Specific  
• Measurable  
• Achievable  
• Realistic  
• Time-­‐oriented.  

Specific  

For  each  goal,  your  team  should  be  able  to  describe  exactly  what  it  
wants  to  achieve.  

Measurable  

For  each  goal,  your  team  should  be  able  to  know  when  the  goal  has  
been  achieved.  

Achievable  

Goals  should  be  challenging  but  achievable.  

Realistic  

At  times  teams  set  goals  that  are  really  beyond  their  reach  or  abilities.  
While  it  is  a  good  idea  to  challenge  the  team,  your  goals  should  be  
realistic.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 13


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Time-oriented

For  each  goal,  set  a  time  when  that  goal  should  be  met.  

Page 14 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 1: Goal setting

With the help of your trainer and/or supervisor complete the


following table.

Date: ............................. Yes No

Does your team establish team goals and


objectives?

Does your team establish methods for attaining


team goals?

Does your team develop action plans to meet


goals?

Does your team regularly establish and review


goals and/or objectives?

Does your team set realistic goals?

Does your team set reachable targets?

Does your team develop individual and team goals


to attain organisational objectives?

Does your team set both short and long-term


goals?

Together with your trainer and/or supervisor determine how you


can work on improving the effectiveness of your team. Set goals
and action plans and regularly review these with your trainer and/or
supervisor.

Was your team formed to deal with a specific problem or issue?

Yes No

What is your team’s objective?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Together with your team members, review your team’s goals.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 15


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Page 16 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Section 2

Developing work team


commitment

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 17


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

The  different  stages  of  team  development  

The  different  decision  making  models  

Deciding  on  the  best  decision  making  method  

Page 18 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Team players

A  team  can  only  be  successful  if  every  member  of  the  team  is  a  team  
player.  

Team  behaviour  

Research  carried  out  in  the  area  of  ‘Team  Development’  shows  that  
teams  grow  and  develop  and  in  doing  so  they  go  through  several  
different  stages.  There  are  a  number  of  different  models  that  can  be  
used  to  assess  what  stage  your  team  is  at;  one  of  them  is  Tuckman’s  
Model.  

Tuckman’s  Model  lists  the  following  four  stages  of  team  development:  
• forming  
• storming  
• norming  
• performing.  

Forming  

When  a  team  begins,  team  members  are  not  always  sure  of  what  is  
expected  of  them  individually  or,  in  some  cases,  the  team  itself.  During  
this  stage  the  team  relies  heavily  on  the  team  leader  for  guidance.  

It  is  common  behaviour  for  team  members  to  be:  


• polite  
• formal  
• quieter  than  usual.  

If  you  are  the  team  leader  it  is  useful  to  give  team  members  an  
opportunity  to:  
• get  to  know  each  other  
• clearly  understand  the  purpose  of  the  team.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 19


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Storming  

After  the  forming  stage,  team  members  start  to  question  the  goals  of  
the  team.  They  express  their  opinions  and  feelings  more  freely.  If  you  
are  the  team  leader  it  is  useful  to  give  team  members  an  opportunity  
to:  
• debate  issues  
• be  open  
• give  and  receive  constructive  feedback  
• handle  conflict  positively.  

Norming  

At  this  stage  the  team  has  established  the  ground  rules  and  agreed  on  
working  procedures.  Team  members  will  feel  comfortable  confiding  in  
each  other  and  sharing  their  problems  and  feelings.  

Performing  

The  team  is  well  and  truly  established  and  operating  effectively.  Team  
members  have  a  commitment  to  team  goals  and  conflicting  views  are  
handled  positively  and  constructively.  

Page 20 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 2: Team development

What stage of team development is your team at?

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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 21


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Group decision making

There  are  four  basic  decision-­‐making  methods:  


• unilateral  
• minority  
• majority  
• consensus.  

Unilateral  decision  making  

A  unilateral  decision  is  a  decision  that  is  made  by  one  person  in  
authority.  They  may  make  the  decision  on  their  own  or  based  on  
information  they  have  received  from  others.  

An  unilateral  decision  could  be  made  because:  


• only  the  leader  has  the  required  information  or  knowledge  
to  make  it  
• an  emergency  situation  requires  a  quick  decision  
• it  may  be  the  decided  policy  for  a  certain  area  of  
responsibility.  

Minority  decision  making  

A  minority  decision  is  made  by  less  than  half  the  member  of  a  team.  

A  minority  decision  could  be  made  because:  


• one  team  member  dictates  group  discussion  
• a  team  member  is  supported  in  their  decision  by  one  
person  and  doesn’t  check  with  the  rest  of  the  team  
• two  or  three  members  push  a  decision  through  quickly.  

Page 22 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Majority  decision  making  

A  majority  decision  is  made  by  more  than  half  the  members  of  a  team.  

A  majority  decision  could  be  made  by:  

Voting  

After  discussion,  team  members  vote  ‘for’  or  ‘against’  an  idea.  

Polling  

After  discussion,  the  team  leader  may  ask  if  everybody  agrees  and  
make  a  decision  based  on  whether  the  majority  of  people  do  agree  
with  the  proposed  action.  

Consensus  decision  making  

A  consensus  decision  is  agreed  to  by  all  members  of  a  team,  for  
whatever  reason.  

A  consensus  decision  could  be  made  because:  


• team  members  influence  other  team  members  to  get  
support  for  the  decision  (basic  consensus)  
• all  team  members  are  prepared  to  support  the  decision,  
even  if  all  don’t  fully  agree  that  it  is  the  right  decision  to  
make  (basic  consensus)  
• all  team  members  completely  agree  that  the  decision  is  
the  right  one  to  make  (unanimous  consensus).  

What decision-making method is the best?

There  are  number  of  things  that  determine  the  best  decision  making  
method.    

They  include:  
• the  amount  of  time  available  
• how  easy  it  is  to  get  all  team  members  together  
• the  importance  of  the  decision  
• how  important  it  is  to  gain  support  for  the  decision.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 23


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 3: Analysing your own team

For one or more of your team discussions and/or meetings, list


examples of decisions made that fall into the following categories.

Unilateral decision making

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Minority decision-making

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Majority decision making

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Consensus decision making

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

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Section 3

Participate and facilitate the work


team

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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

The  importance  of  valuing  each  and  every  team  member  

Guidelines  for  managing  problem  behaviours  

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Who is the leader?

As  a  team  matures  the  style  of  the  team  leader  should  change.  Team  
leaders  should  not  dominate  the  team.  In  fact,  the  leadership  should  
shift  from  member  to  member,  depending  on  the  circumstances.  This  
is  because  different  members  possess  their  own  unique  set  of  
experiences,  skills  and  knowledge.  Sometimes  it  will  be  appropriate  
for  different  members  to  assume  a  leadership  role  because  of  their  
strengths.  The  team  should  be  focussed  on  getting  the  job  done,  not  
on  who  is  controlling  the  team.  

It  is  important  to  value  others  

Effective  team  leaders  are  generally  ‘in  tune’  with  their  team.  They  are  
conscious  of  how  the  team  operates  and  sensitive  to  each  member’s  
needs.  You  may  be  called  on  to  present  information  or  your  opinion  to  
your  team.  Give  your  team  members  an  opportunity  to  seek  
clarification,  build  on  discussion  or  present  their  opinions.  Your  ability  
to  handle  questions  can  make  or  break  team  discussion.    

Make  sure  that  you:  


• receive  all  questions  (value  each  and  every  team  member’s  
input)  
• receive  all  questions  in  a  respectful  manner  (remain  calm  
even  if  you  are  presented  with  a  negative  attitude)  
• evaluate  the  relevance  of  the  questions  (if  the  question  is  
not  really  related  to  the  topic  of  your  discussion,  tell  your  
team  member  that  you  feel  it  would  be  better  to  deal  with  
his/her  question  at  another  time).  
• respond  to  questions  in  a  clear  and  concise  manner  (you  
will  break  the  flow  of  your  presentation  and  decrease  
understanding  of  your  message  if  you  give  lengthy  
answers).  

Treat  everybody  equally  

Every  team  member  is  an  individual.  They  will  be  different  from  each  
other  in  a  number  of  ways.  How  you  handle  your  interactions  with  
each  member  of  your  team  will  determine  your  success  as  a  team  
member.    

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The  following  guidelines  should  help  you  manage  problem  behaviours  


like:  
• argumentative  team  members  
• team  members  who  like  the  sound  of  their  own  voice  
• dominant  team  members  
• disruptive  team  members  
• quiet  team  members.  

The argumentative team member

Team  members  may  from  time  to  time  appear  argumentative.    

This  may  be  for  a  number  of  reasons,  including:  


• it  is  part  of  their  nature  
• they  are  normally  good-­‐natured  but  have  become  upset  by  
others  
• they  are  natural  ‘show-­‐offs’  
• they  find  it  difficult  to  state  suggestions  constructively  
• they  feel  their  opinions  are  being  ignored.  

Dealing  with  argumentative  team  members  

When  dealing  with  this  type  of  team  member:  


• control  your  own  temper  
• respond  to  the  content  of  the  member’s  comments  not  
the  style  of  delivery  
• try  to  find  merit  in  their  comment,  express  your  agreement  
and  move  on  
• try  to  find  out  in  a  non-­‐threatening  way  what  is  irritating  
the  team  member,  in  private  at  another  time.  

Team  members  who  like  the  sound  of  their  own  voice  

Some  team  members  may  like  to  share  information,  regardless  of  
whether  they  actually  have  something  to  contribute.  They  often  share  
information  that  has  no  direct  relationship  to  the  task  at  hand  and  
steer  the  group  ‘off  track’.    

This  may  be  for  a  number  of  reasons,  including  that  they:  
• get  bored  easily  

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• like  to  be  involved  


• find  it  difficult  to  remain  silent  
• feel  stupid  if  they  don’t  contribute.  

Dealing  with  team  members  who  like  the  sound  of  their  own  voice  

In  this  situation,  you  could:  


• thank  them  for  their  comments  when  they  take  a  breath  
• refocus  the  team’s  attention  by  rephrasing  your  last  point  
(e.g:  as  I  was  saying  ...)  and  then  move  on  from  there  
• use  the  rest  of  the  team  to  cut  a  talker  off  by  asking  
questions  like  “How  does  everybody  feel  about  spending  
more  time  on  this?”  or  “Does  everybody  feel  we  should  
move  on?”  

The  dominant  team  member  

Dominant  team  members  usually  take  over.  They  are  often  the  first  
person  to  talk  and  rarely  give  other  members  a  chance.    

This  may  be  for  a  number  of  reasons  including  that:  


• they  enjoy  an  audience  
• it  is  part  of  their  nature  to  seek  attention  
• they  are  very  skilled  and  eager  to  show  it  
• they  like  to  be  involved  
• they  find  it  difficult  to  remain  silent.  

Dealing  with  dominant  team  members  

When  you  have  dominant  team  members,  try  to:  


• interrupt  with  statements  like  “That’s  an  interesting  point,  
what  do  the  rest  of  you  think  about  that?”  
• give  other  team  members  a  chance  to  influence  the  
discussion  with  statements  like  “Great  point.  Can  you  add  
to  that  Linh?”  
• seek  the  team’s  opinion  of  the  comments  by  asking  
questions  like  “Does  anyone  else  have  a  different  
opinion?”  or  “I  can  see  your  point,  can  anyone  else  think  of  
another  possibility?”  or  “Great  idea.  Victor,  given  your  

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experience  with  this  matter,  can  you  add  anything  to  what  
Chris  has  just  raised?”  

The  disruptive  team  member  

Disruptive  team  members  usually  hold  side  conversations  with  other  


members.  Sometimes  they  are  discussing  the  same  topic  or  they  could  
be  having  a  completely  different  conversation.  Their  behaviour  is  
disruptive.    

This  may  be  for  a  number  of  reasons,  including  that  they:  
• they  find  it  difficult  to  state  suggestions  to  the  group  
• they  feel  their  opinions  will  be  ignored  by  the  group  
• they  are  bored  
• they  get  easily  distracted.  

Dealing  with  disruptive  team  members  

With  this  type  of  team  member,  try  to:  


• call  the  individual’s  name,  restate  the  last  comment  made  
(by  you  or  another  team  member)  ask  for  his/her  opinion  
• as  a  last  resort,  ask  the  whole  group  to  remain  focussed  on  
the  discussion.  

The  quiet  team  member  

Quiet  team  members  are  team  members  who  rarely  contribute  and  
often  appear  apart  from  the  group.    

This  may  be  for  a  number  of  reasons,  including  that  they:  
• are  bored  
• are  timid  and  insecure  
• come  from  a  culture  that  doesn’t  encourage  verbal  
participation  in  groups  
• feel  superior  and  above  the  rest  of  the  group  
• are  annoyed  about  having  to  attend.  

Dealing  with  quiet  team  members  

To  deal  with  quiet  team  members,  try  to  involve  them,  and:  

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• ask  for,  but  do  not  force,  the  team  member  to  give  their  
opinion  
• maintain  eye  contact  with  those  who  appear  shy  when  you  
ask  a  question  
• try  to  find  out  in  a  non-­‐threatening  way  the  reason  why  
the  team  member  is  not  contributing  such  as  in  private  at  
another  time,  ask  –  “Do  you  feel  that  you  have  nothing  to  
contribute?”  
• observe  the  team  member  outside  of  team  discussions  
and/or  meetings  and  find  out  if  the  person  
− sits  alone  at  breaks  and  meal  times?  
− appears  to  have  few  friends?  
− has  disrespectful  remarks  made  about  them  by  other  group  
members.  
• give  the  team  member  an  opportunity  to  succeed  (i.e.  
utilise  their  knowledge,  skills  and  experiences).  

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Activity 4: Teamwork

With the help of your trainer and/or supervisor complete the


following table.

Date: ............................. Yes No

Do you recognise the benefits of teamwork?


Do you promote team efforts?
Are you more concerned with your individual
achievements and getting your own work done
than team tasks?
Do you enjoy interacting with others and does
this enthusiasm often make you successful in
your interactions with people?
Do you practise listening and questioning skills to
achieve mutual understanding?
Are you a strong participant in team efforts? (i.e.
you don’t prefer to just getting your own work
done)
Do you keep quiet when you know you could contribute
to team discussions?
Do you communicate confidently and effectively
in team meetings?
Do you dominate team discussions?
Do you allow others to dominate team
discussions?
Do you display a calm, even temperament in
team discussions?
Do you spend most of your time talking and rarely
listen?
Do you feel relaxed and confident with your team
members?
Do you actively work together with your team
members for positive responses to negative
situations and/or problems?

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Together with your trainer and/or supervisor look at the questions


you answered NO to and determine how you can work on
improving your work team communication skills. Set goals and
action plans and regularly review these with your trainer and/or
supervisor.

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Team  problem  solving  

If  you  are  team  leader  you  will  regularly  be  required  to  guide  your  
team  through  a  problem-­‐solving  process.  As  the  team  leader  you  are  
not  responsible  for  controlling  the  content  of  discussions.  Your  role  is  
to  maintain  the  structure  of  the  problem-­‐solving  process  and:  
• make  sure  that  the  team  follows  the  problem-­‐solving  steps  
• make  sure  that  the  team  does  not  leap  to  solutions  before  
completing  the  problem-­‐solving  process  
• make  sure  that  each  team  member’s  contributions  are  
included  and  valued  
• make  sure  that  each  team  member  feels  valued    
• make  sure  the  team  remains  focussed  on  its  goals.  

Problem  identification  

The  following  statements  only  give  broad  clues  about  a  particular  


problem:  
• the  conveyor  keeps  breaking  down  
• the  parts  won’t  fit  
• the  motor  won’t  start.  

A  clever  technique  developed  by  Japanese  car  manufacturers  is  the  ‘5  
Whys’.  Asking  the  question  ‘why’  until  you  can  no  longer  answer,  will  
certainly  uncover  some  clues.  

For  example:  

The  motor  won’t  start  


1.   Why?  
  The  engine  is  not  receiving  any  petrol.  
2.   Why?  
  The  petrol  is  not  being  pumped  in.  
3.   Why?  
  The  pump’s  not  working.  
4.   Why?  
It’s  not  receiving  power.  
5.   Why?  

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The  lead  is  broken.  

Obviously  you  would  need  to  do  some  visual  checks  in  between  the  
questions  and  the  answers  but  using  the  ‘5  Why’s’  technique  helps  you  
to  narrow  down  the  problem  of  the  motor  not  working,  to  problems  
with  the  pump.    

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 35


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Activity 5: The ‘WHY’ technique


With the help of your team and your trainer and/or supervisor,
apply the ‘5 Why’s’ technique to a workplace problem.

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What is a problem?

A  problem  can  come  in  a  number  of  different  forms  but  is  basically  the  
difference  between  the  actual  results  and  the  results  you  expected.  

For  example:  

You  should  be  able  to  fully  load  a  vehicle  in  under  an  hour.  Over  the  
past  week  we  have  not  been  able  to  load  a  vehicle  in  less  than  75  
minutes.  

Expected  results:   You  should  be  able  to  fully  load  a  vehicle  in  under  
an  hour.  

Actual  results:   It  is  taking  around  75  minutes  to  load  a  vehicle.  

Problem:   The  problem  is  that  we  are  15  minutes  behind  
schedule  for  each  vehicle.  

Problem  solving  process  

There  are  many  variations  of  problem  solving  models.    The  one  we  will  
use  here  has  the  following  four  steps:  
• define  problem  and  set  goals  
• plan  
• take  corrective  action  
• evaluate  and  follow  up.  

Step  1  -­‐  Define  problem  and  set  goals  

In  the  planning  stage  it  is  important  to  work  out  what  the  problem  is  
and  determine  goals.  For  example:  

Problem:   High  rate  of  workplace  injuries.  

Goal:   Reduce  injuries  by  30%  within  3  months.  

Once  you  define  the  problem  you  set  a  SMART  goal.  

Step  2  -­‐  Plan  

As  a  team,  collect  and  analyse  data.  Then  you  need  to  break  the  data  
into  small  pieces.  Taking  this  data  into  consideration  you  can  use  
problem-­‐solving  tools  to  determine  potential  causes  and  then  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 37


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establish  and  test  for  the  root  cause.  The  tools  most  often  used  are  
Pareto  charts,  cause  and  effect  diagrams,  and  brainstorming  sessions.  

Step  3  -­‐  Identify  potential  solutions  

As  a  team,  using  a  variety  of  problem  solving  tools,  you  will  identify  
potential  solutions.  Where  there  are  several  possible  solutions  that  
seem  capable  of  solving  the  problem,  the  solution  chosen  should  be  
for  one  of  the  following  reasons:  
• simplest  solution  
• cheapest  solution  
• longer  term  solution.  

Step  4  -­‐  Evaluate  and  follow  up  

It  is  very  important,  once  a  solution  has  been  introduced  that  you  
measure  its  effect.  This  is  for  two  important  reasons:  
• you  need  proof  to  know  that  something  has  worked  
• showing  that  the  solution  has  worked  tells  everybody  that  
their  work  is  worthwhile.  

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Activity 6: Problem solving

Ask your trainer and/or supervisor to show you how to use problem
solving tools that are used by your organisation.
• Pareto charts
• brainstorming sessions
• cause and effect diagrams.

Lead your team through a problem solving process in order to


resolve one or more recurring problems in your workplace (e.g.
backlogs, transport delays, damaged products, equipment failure).

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 39


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Section 4

Manage team performance

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 41


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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

How  to  monitor  team  performance  regularly  to  confirm  that  the  team  
is  able  to  achieve  its  goals  

How  to  mentor  and  coach  team  members  to  enhance  their  knowledge  
and  skills  

How  to  document  and  review  work  team  tasks  

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Assigning tasks

Team  members  should  meet  regularly  for  a  short  period  of  time  in  
order  to  identify  who  will  be  responsible  for  which  work  tasks.  Every  
team  member  should  be  clear  about  what  they  need  to  do  and  what  
other  team  members  are  expected  to  do.  When  working  in  teams  it  is  
the  team  leader’s  job  to  make  sure  that  work  is  allocated  fairly.  

When  allocating  work  tasks:  


• give  each  member  of  the  team  the  chance  to  do  different  
jobs  and  encourage  them  to  build  up  skills  and  confidence  
in  new  areas  
• get  input  from  team  members  about  where  they  would  
like  to  work  and  how  they  think  tasks  should  be  allocated  
• let  people  know  that  they  are  trusted  to  perform  the  task  
you  have  set  for  them.  

You  might  like  to  use  the  following  steps  to  help  your  team  allocate  
tasks.  

• List  all  the  tasks  you  team  needs  to  complete  in  order  of  
importance.  

• Assign  tasks  to  team  members  based  on  their  areas  of  competence  
and  expertise  and  their  availability.  

• Brief  each  team  member  on  their  assigned  tasks  and  the  
relationships  of  their  tasks  to  those  of  others.  

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TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 7: Work task allocation


With the help of your team and your trainer and/or supervisor,
discuss how effective you are at allocating work tasks.

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ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Monitoring team performance

The  team’s  performance  must  be  regularly  reviewed  so  that  team  
members  know  how  well  they  are  meeting  their  objectives/goals  and  
have  a  chance  to  implement  strategies  to  improve  their  outcomes.  It  is  
your  job  as  team  leader  to  ensure  that  your  team  continues  to  grow  
and  adapt  to  the  ever-­‐changing  conditions  of  the  work  environment.  

Some  of  the  questions  you  can  ask  yourself,  as  a  team,  in  order  to  
determine  how  well  you  are  performing  include:  
• have  we  completed  all  our  set  tasks?  
• were  our  deadlines  met?  
• was  the  work  done  to  an  acceptable  standard?  
• did  we  run  into  any  problems?  
• was  there  any  conflict  between  team  members?  

Whatever  the  result,  you  should  take  the  time  to  really  understand  the  
factors  that  led  to  either  success  or  failure  and  to  discuss  how  
performance  in  the  future  can  be  improved.  It  is  important  that  
everyone  is  given  the  opportunity  to  comment  on  the  results.  Make  
sure  that  you  also  recognise  the  efforts  of  those  involved  with  praise  
and  supportive  comments.    

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 45


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 8: Team effectiveness


With the help of your team and your trainer and/or supervisor,
analyse how well you monitor the effectiveness of your team.

Page 46 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Giving performance feedback

Very  often  someone  is  performing  well  below  either  their  capacity  or  
your  expectations.  Do  not  stick  your  head  in  the  sand  and  hope  that  
they  will  realise  what  they  are  doing  and  change.  Indeed,  teammates  
will  often  cover  up  for  another  team  member  rather  than  tackle  the  
issue  head  on.  Whilst  it  is  tempting  to  avoid  performance  problems  
you  are  only  protecting  yourself  from  the  emotional  trauma  of  a  
difficult  situation  and  are  being  grossly  unfair  to  the  team  member.  By  
discussing  performance  problems  you  will  provide  an  opportunity  to  
allow  that  person  to  develop  and  grow.  

Informal  feedback  

When  you  give  informal  feedback  to  a  team  member  on  their  
performance  make  sure  that  you:  
• give  the  feedback  privately  to  the  team  member  involved  
• are  as  relaxed  and  informal  as  possible  
• maintain  a  calm,  objective  point  of  view.  
 
For  example:  
 
Subjective  statements  such  as  ‘you  don’t  work  as  hard  as  
others,’  ‘you  are  easily  upset,’  or  ‘you  don’t  show  any  
interest  in  your  job’  are  subjective  statements  that  are  
likely  to  offend.    
 
An  objective  statement  like  ‘the  average  time  to  load  a  
truck  is  one  hour  and  you  are  taking  on  average  an  hour  
and  a  half’  is  on  the  other  hand  less  likely  to  offend  and  
obviously  has  more  meaning  than  ‘you  don’t  work  as  hard  
as  others.’  
• decide  with  the  employee  on  how  his/her  future  
performance  can  be  improved  
• close  the  feedback  session  courteously.  

Formal  performance  appraisals  

Formal  performance  appraisals  that  are  agreed  upon  between  team  


members  in  accordance  with  company  procedures  are  used  to  develop  
information  that  may  be  helpful  to  the  team  member  being  appraised,  
who  both  needs  and  wants  to  learn  about  his/her  particular  strengths  
and  weaknesses  in  relation  to  his/her  job.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 47


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Specifically,  performance  appraisals:  


• give  team  members  feedback  on  what  management  thinks  
about  their  performance  
• give  team  members  an  opportunity  to  discuss  their  own  
feelings  about  their  job  performance  (e.g.  identifying  
training  needs,  motivation  levels)  
• assist  team  members  to  plan  their  career  
• give  team  leaders  an  opportunity  to  implement  mentoring  
and  coaching  support  to  assist  the  team  member  to  
enhance  his/her  knowledge  and  skills  
• allow  both  the  team  member  and  team  leader  to  clarify  
the  objectives  of  the  job.  

Page 48 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 9: Feedback
With the help of your team and your trainer and/or supervisor,
discuss how effective you are at giving feedback to team members.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 49


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Mentoring and coaching team members

Team  members,  busy  completing  their  work  tasks,  solving  problems  


and  carrying  out  their  responsibilities  may  find  it  difficult  to  evaluate  
their  performance  objectively.  Each  work  environment  has  its  own  
distinct  culture.  A  team  member  may  firmly  believe  that  they  are  
behaving  correctly  whilst  the  organisation’s  management  may  hold  a  
different  view.  We  all  need  help  from  another  person  to  enable  us  to  
be  successful  within  our  career.  A  mentor  can  provide  a  team  member  
with  feedback  in  a  manner  that  brings  about  a  change  in  behaviour  
and  work  improvement.    

It  is  important  that  the  team  member  is  given  an  opportunity  to  select  
their  mentor.  It  is  equally  important  that  the  person  chosen  is  willing  
to  act  as  a  mentor  for  the  team  member  and  is  given  time  and  support  
from  the  company  to  act  in  this  role.  

Just  remember  that  it  is  your  job  as  team  leader  to  help  your  team  to  
be  successful  in  their  jobs,  and  to  give  and  do  everything  you  possibly  
can  to  help  them  achieve  their  personal  best.  Therefore,  coaching  is  an  
essential  skill  for  a  team  leader  to  have.  Good  team  leaders,  like  good  
coaches,  help  their  teams  realise  their  full  potential  by  giving  
individuals  feedback  on  their  performance,  passing  on  skills  to  
individuals  and  facilitating  the  team  so  that  it  functions  as  a  whole.    

Page 50 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 10: Mentoring system


With the help of your team and your trainer and/or supervisor,
develop a mentoring system/procedure that your team could use to
support team objectives.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 51


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Documenting and reviewing work team tasks

It  is  an  important  part  of  your  job  to  compare  your  team’s  task  
activities  with  the  planned  objectives,  task  instructions  and  
specifications  to  ensure  all  requirements  have  been  met.  

Regardless  of  the  work  task,  you  can  measure  your  team’s  
performance  on  the  following:  
• the  amount  of  work  completed  compared  to  the  work  
plan  or  action  plan  
• the  quality  of  the  work  completed  
• the  actual  costs  compared  to  the  budget    
• whether  the  deadline  was  met  
• whether  customer’s  expectations  were  met  
• all  necessary  documentation  related  to  job  planning  and  
progress  is  completed  and  recorded.  

Page 52 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Activity 11: Performance measure


With the help of your team and your trainer and/or supervisor,
discuss what performance outcomes can be measured against
goals for your work team.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 53


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Page 54 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Additional
resources

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 55


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1039
TLIG207C Lead a work team or group

Print  based:  
• company  procedures  and  quality  documentation  
• references  available  in  the  workplace  relating  to  leadership  and  
management  (you  may  have  a  library  or  individuals  may  be  
references  in  their  own  personal  collections  or  your  local  library  will  
have  references  in  this  area).  

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ADELG1039 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008