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Chapter 3 Notes

CELLS

An Introduction to Cells
Cell Theory
Developed from Robert Hookes research
Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
All cells come from the division of preexisting cells
Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level

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An Introduction to Cells
Sex Cells (Germ Cells)
Reproductive cells
Male sperm
Female oocyte (a cell that develops into an egg)

Somatic Cells
Soma = body
All body cells except sex cells

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Cells
Human body contains trillions of cells
Human body has over 200 different cell types that vary in size, shape, and function
Cells carry out chemical activities needed to sustain life

Cell Shapes:
Disc- RBC

Sphere- Fat
Long Extensions- Nerve
Toothpicks- Smooth muscle

Cubed- columns, flat-epithelial

Cell Functions
Made mainly of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen (protein)
Connect body parts

Cover and line organs


Store nutrients
Fight disease
Gather information
Control the body
Carry out the chemical activities needed to sustain life

Types of Cells
Prokaryotic: Does NOT have membrane bound organelles or a nucleus
Eukaryotic: Has membrane bound organelles and a nucleus

Trace Elements:
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen (protein)
Key Elements:
Calcium (Blood Clotting), Iron (Carry Hemoglobin), Iodine (Metabolism), Sodium,
Potassium

Cell Parts
Nucleus: Control Center
Mitochondria: ATP produced here
Cell Membrane: allows movement of molecules; proteins are binding sites and receptors for
hormones and chemical messages
Ribosomes: Proteins are produced here
Lysosomes: digestive enzymes to break down non- usable substances

Cilia/ Flagella: move substances along cell surface


Golgi Body: transport proteins from ER to other parts of the cell
ER: Synthesizes, Modifies materials to prepare for transport by Golgi Apparatus for use in and
out of cell

Cell Organelles
Cell Membrane: regulates flow of materials inside and outside of body (composed of a lipid
bylayer)
Function- Communication, Electrochemical gradient, shape and protection, selectively permeable
(dependent on solubility, size, charge)

Cytoplasm: holds cellular content (Cytosol- fluid portion)


Nucleus: largest organelle; control center; contains genes to control cellular activity
Ribosomes: tiny granules composed of protein and rRNA site for protein synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): system of double membrane channels continuous with nuclear
envelope
Rough- has ribosomes attached for protein synthesis
Smooth- no ribosomes; synthesize fats and steroids

More Organelles
Golgi Apparatus: 4-6 flattened sacs located near nucleus; packages and sorts proteins and lipds
Lysosomes: membrane bound sacs that contain digestive enzymes
Mitochondria: Powerhouse of the cell; produce ATP during cellular respiration

Cytoskeleton: Internal structure in cytosol


Composed of microfilaments and microtubules
Cilia/ Flagella: projections used for movement

Singular- sperm
Multiple- cilia
Centrioles: microtubules used in cell division

3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Membrane Transport
The plasma (cell) membrane is a barrier, but:
Nutrients must get in
Products and wastes must get out

Permeability determines what moves in and out of a cell, and a


membrane that:
Lets nothing in or out is impermeable
Lets anything pass is freely permeable
Restricts movement is selectively permeable

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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Membrane Transport
Plasma membrane is selectively permeable
Allows some materials to move freely
Restricts other materials

Selective permeability restricts materials based on:

Size
Electrical charge
Molecular shape
Lipid solubility

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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Membrane Transport
Transport through a plasma membrane can be:
Active (requiring energy and ATP)
Passive (no energy required)

Diffusion (passive)
Carrier-mediated transport (passive or active)
Vesicular transport (active)

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ANIMATION Membrane Transport:


Diffusion

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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Diffusion
All molecules are constantly in motion
Molecules in solution move randomly
Random motion causes mixing
Concentration is the amount of solute in a solvent
Concentration gradient
More solute in one part of a solvent than another

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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Factors Influencing Diffusion
Distance the particle has to move
Molecule Size
Smaller is faster

Temperature
More heat, faster motion

Concentration gradient
The difference between high and low concentrations

Electrical forces
Opposites attract, like charges repel
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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Diffusion across Plasma Membranes
Can be simple or channel mediated
Materials that diffuse through plasma membrane by simple
diffusion
Lipid-soluble compounds (alcohols, fatty acids, and steroids)
Dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)

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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Diffusion across Plasma Membranes
Channel-mediated diffusion
Water-soluble compounds and ions

Factors in channel-mediated diffusion


Size
Charge
Interaction with the channel leak channels

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3-5 Diffusion and Osmosis


Osmosis: A Special Case of Diffusion
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across the cell membrane

More solute molecules, lower concentration of water molecules


Membrane must be freely permeable to water, selectively permeable to solutes
Water molecules diffuse across membrane toward solution with more solutes
Volume increases on the side with more solutes

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Movement Across Membrane


Passive Transport: Movement without energy
Active Transport: Movement with energy
TERMS:
Enzymes: speeds up chemical reactions

Selective Permeability: controls substances moving in and out of cells


DNA: contains genetic material and instructions to make proteins
RNA: aides in making proteins at the ribosomes

Movement of Molecules
Cell membrane is selectively permeable, which allows substances to pass through while
excluding others

Passive Transport (without energy)Diffusion: passive transport from higher to lower concentration using kinetic energy; affected by
size and temperature

Osmosis: Diffusion of water molecules across a permeable membrane; lower to higher solute
concentration (water concentration is lower)

Active Transport (with energy)

Endocytosis Packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle for transport into a cell

Receptor-Mediated: target molecules bind to receptor proteins


on membrane surface, forming vesicles
Phagocytosis: vesicles form at plasma membrane to bring solid
molecules into a cell
Pinocytosis: vesicles for large membrane and bring fluids ad small
molecules to cell; cell drinking
Exocytosis Intracellular vesicles fuse with plasma membrane releasing fluids from cell

3-6 Carriers and Vesicles


Endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Endosomes drink extracellular fluid

Phagocytosis
Pseudopodia (pseudo- = false, pod- = foot)
Engulf large objects in phagosomes

Exocytosis (exo- = outside)


Granules or droplets are released from the cell
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3-8 Cell Life Cycle


Mitosis
Divides duplicated DNA into two sets of chromosomes
DNA coils tightly into chromatids
Chromatids connect at a centromere
Protein complex around centromere is kinetochore

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3-8 Cell Life Cycle


Mitosis
Prophase
Nucleoli disappear
Centriole pairs move to cell poles
Microtubules (spindle fibers) extend between centriole pairs
Nuclear envelope disappears
Spindle fibers attach to kinetochore

Metaphase
Chromosomes align in a central plane (metaphase plate)

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3-8 Cell Life Cycle


Mitosis
Anaphase
Microtubules pull chromosomes apart
Daughter chromosomes group near centrioles

Telophase
Nuclear membranes re-form
Chromosomes uncoil
Nucleoli reappear
Cell has two complete nuclei

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3-9 Regulation of the Cell Life Cycle


Cell Division
Normally, cell division balances cell loss
Increased cell division
Internal factors (M-phase promoting factor, MPF)
Extracellular chemical factors (growth factors)

Decreased cell division


Repressor genes (faulty repressors cause cancers)
Worn out telomeres (terminal DNA segments)

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Cancer Terms
Oncology: Study of cancer, tumors and treatments
Malignant: Tumor that spreads fast and is life threatening
Benign: Non-cancerous tumor that is slow growing and easily removeable
Metastasis: Spread of cancer cells to other areas of the body via lymphatic and
circulatory systems through the blood (normal cells compete for space)
Carcinogen: Cancer causing substance
Treatment Options for Cancer:
Radiation (kills tissue)
Chemotherapy(chemicals to destroy cancerous cells)
Surgery

3-10 Cell Division and Cancer


Cancer Develops in Steps
Abnormal cell
Primary tumor
Metastasis
Secondary tumor

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3-10 Cell Division and Cancer


Tumor (Neoplasm)
Enlarged mass of cells
Abnormal cell growth and division
Benign tumor
Contained, not life threatening unless large

Malignant tumor
Spreads into surrounding tissues (invasion)
Starts new tumors (metastasis)

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Mitosis (Cell Division)


Somatic Cell
Parent divides into 2 identical cells
Body cells
1 division
No sperm or egg
46 chromosomes

Meiosis (Cell Division)


Reproductive Cells
Parent divides 2 times into 4 non-identical cells
Germ Cells
2 divisions
Includes sperm and egg
23 chromosomes