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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Problem Specification

roof truss. The maximum pull in the tie rods is 75KN.

Construction

central portion called coupler and two rods. One has right hand threads while

the other rod has left hand threads. The threaded portions of the rods are

screwed to the coupler at the two ends. As the central coupler rotates, the

rods are either pulled together or pushed apart depending upon the direction

of the rotation of the coupler. The outer portion of the coupler is given

hexagonal shape so that it can be rotated by means of a spanner.

Sometimes a hole is provided in the coupler as indicated by a dotted circle in

the figure. Instead of using a spanner, a tommy bar is inserted in this hole

rotate the coupler. The turnbuckle is used for connecting two rods which are

in tension and which require slight adjustment in length during the assembly.

Some of its applications are as follows:

and

Fig. 01 Turnbuckle

Selection of Materials

make the coupler in casting. Casting reduces number of machining

operations. Grey cast iron of grade FG 200( =200Pa) is selected as the

material for the coupler. The rods are subjected to tensile force and torsional

moment. From strength considerations, plain carbon steel of grade 30C8 (

=400 Pa) is selected for the rods.

General Considerations

Sometimes, workers use a pipe to increase the length of the spanner and

tighten the rods. Some workers even use a hammer to apply force on the

spanner. To account for this mis-use, a higher factor of safety of 5 is used in

present design.

The coupler and the rods are provided with ISO metric coarse threads.

Coarse Threads are preferred because of the following advantages:

The rods are tightened by applying force on the wrench handle and

rotating the hexagonal coupler. The expression for torque required to tighten

the rod with specific tension P can be derived by suitable modification of the

equation derived for the trapezoidal threads. The torque required to

overcome thread friction in case of trapezoidal threads is given by Equation.

Where, d is the normal diameter of the threads. The coefficient of friction

varies from 0.12 to 0.2 depending upon the surface finish and accuracy of

the thread profile and lubricantion. Assuming,

Or =0.098Pd

The above expression is used to find out torsional moment at each end of

the coupler.

The free body diagram of forces acting on the rods and the coupler is

shown in Fig. 02. Each rod is subjected to a tensile force P and torsional

moment . In the initial stages, it is not possible to find out torsional

moment. Considering only tensile force,

P=A

Where, A is tensile stress area of the treaded portion of the rod and is

permissible tensile stress. The rod is made of steel 30C8 ( = 400Pa) and

factor of safety is 5. Therefore,

75KN= A=937.5

From table, ISO metric coarse screw thread of M36 designation is suitable

for the rod (stress area = 817 ).For M36 size, the core diameter ( as

per table is 31.093 mm.

Trial No.01

d = 36 mm and = 31.093 mm

= =

98.77 Mpa or N /

= 264,600 N-mm

= =

44.83 N /

= 66.69988 N /

And,

= =

= 2.9985

The factor of safety is less than the required value of 5. The next size

of ISO metric coarse thread is M42 with 36.479 mm as minor diameter (

and 4.5 mm pitch. The stress area is

Trial no. 02

d = 42 mm and = 36.479 mm

= =

71.76 Mpa or N /

= 308,700 N-mm

= =

32.38754 N /

= 48.33575862 N /

And,

= =

= 4.1377

The factor of safety is slightly less than the required value of 5. The

next size of ISO metric coarse thread is M48 with as minor

diameter ( and 6.5 mm pitch. The stress area is

Trial no. 03

d = 48 mm and =45.802 mm

= =

49.36 Mpa or N /

= 352,800 N-mm

= =

21.116N /

The principal shear stress is given by,

= 32.48 N /

And,

= =

= 6.15745

and the pitch of threaded portion of the rod should be 48 mm and 6.5 mm

pitch respectively. In Fig. 03, the length of threaded portion of the rod in

contact with coupler threads is denoted by l. It is determined by shearing

of the threads at the minor diameter . Equating shear resistance of the

threads to the tension in the rod,

=P

Where,

= = = 40 N /

Therefore,

= 75KN

= 13. 569276mm

This length is too small compared with the nominal diameter of 42 mm.

In practice, the length l varies from d to 1.25d. Or,

l = d = 48mm

From (i) and (ii) the length of threaded portion l is assume as60mm.

DESIGN OF COUPLER

The two ends of the coupler are called coupler nuts. As shown in Fig.

03, the coupler nuts are integral with the coupler. The outer and inner

diameter of the coupler nuts are D and d respectively and length is denoted

by l. It acts as a hollow rod. Considering tension,

P=

75KN =

Therefore,

= = 40 N /

Substitute the above value in Equation.

75KN =

Or, D = 68.49 mm or 70 mm

From the two result of diameter, it is decided that the dimension for D

should be 70 mm.

The coupler nut is subjected to direct tensile stress as well as torsional shear

stress due to torque

= 352,800 N-mm

r= = = 35mm

J= = = 1,836,023.716

= r = = 6.7254 N /

= 36.785 N /

Coupler is made of cast iron. Cast iron is brittle material. For brittle

materials, maximum principal stress theory is applicable. The maximum

principal stress is given by,

=

=

= 37.9757 N /

( )= = = 5.2665

are decided by the following empirical relationships,

d + 10 = 48 mm + 10 = 58 mm

=2 ( 58mm ) = 116 mm

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