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normal distribution

PURE MATHEMATICS

Algebra

For the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :

b (b2 4ac)

x=

2a

For an arithmetic series:

un = a + (n 1)d ,

un = ar n 1 ,

Sn =

a(1 r n )

(r 1) ,

1 r

S =

a

1 r

( r < 1)

Binomial expansion:

n

n

n

(a + b)n = a n + a n 1b + a n 2b2 + a n 3b3 + L + bn , where n is a positive integer

1

2

3

n!

n

and =

r r! (n r)!

n(n 1) 2 n(n 1)(n 2) 3

x +

x L , where n is rational and x < 1

(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

2!

3!

Trigonometry

Arc length of circle = r ( in radians)

Area of sector of circle = 12 r 2 ( in radians)

sin

cos

cos2 + sin2 1 ,

1 + tan 2 sec2 ,

cot 2 + 1 cosec2

sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B

cos( A B) cos A cos B m sin A sin B

tan A tan B

tan( A B)

1 m tan A tan B

sin 2 A 2 sin A cos A

cos 2 A cos2 A sin2 A 2 cos2 A 1 1 2 sin2 A

2 tan A

tan 2 A =

1 tan 2 A

Principal values:

12 sin 1 x 12

tan

0 cos1 x

1

2

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

30

normal distribution

Differentiation

f(x)

f ( x)

xn

nx n 1

1

x

ex

cos x

sin x

sec2 x

dv

du

u +v

dx

dx

du

dv

v u

dx

dx

v2

ln x

ex

sin x

cos x

tan x

uv

u

v

If x = f(t ) and y = g(t ) then

dy dy dx

=

dx dt dt

Integration

f(x)

f( x) dx

xn

x n +1

+ c (n 1)

n +1

1

x

ex

sin x

cos x

sec2 x

ln x + c

ex + c

cos x + c

sin x + c

tan x + c

du

dv

u dx = uv

v dx

dx

dx

f

(

)

x

f( x) dx = ln f ( x) + c

Vectors

If a = a1i + a2 j + a3k and b = b1i + b2 j + b3k then

a.b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 = a b cos

Numerical integration

Trapezium rule:

b

f( x) dx

a

1

2

h{ y0 + 2( y1 + y2 + L + yn1 ) + yn } , where h =

ba

n

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

31

normal distribution

MECHANICS

v = u + at ,

s = 12 (u + v)t ,

s = ut + 12 at 2 ,

v 2 = u2 + 2as

Motion of a projectile

Equation of trajectory is:

y = x tan

gx 2

2V 2 cos2

T=

x

,

l

E=

x 2

2l

Motion in a circle

For uniform circular motion, the acceleration is directed towards the centre and has magnitude

v2

2r

or

r

Centres of mass of uniform bodies

Triangular lamina: 23 along median from vertex

Solid hemisphere or radius r:

3r

8

from centre

1r

2

from centre

r sin

from centre

2r sin

Circular sector of radius r and angle 2 :

from centre

3

Solid cone or pyramid of height h: 43 h from vertex

Circular arc of radius r and angle 2 :

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

32

normal distribution

Summary statistics

For ungrouped data:

x

x=

,

n

For grouped data:

x=

xf

,

f

standard deviation =

( x x )2

x 2

=

x2

n

n

standard deviation =

x 2 f

( x x )2 f

x2

=

f

f

E( X ) = xp

For the binomial distribution B(n, p) :

n

= np ,

2 = np(1 p)

pr = p r (1 p)n r ,

r

For the Poisson distribution Po(a) :

pr = ea

ar

,

r!

2 = a

=a,

E( X ) = x f( x) dx

Var( X ) = x 2 f( x) dx {E( X )}2

Sampling and testing

Unbiased estimators:

x

x=

,

n

s2 =

1 2 (x)2

x

n

n 1

2

X ~ N ,

p(1 p)

N p,

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

33

normal distribution

THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and

variance 1 then, for each value of z, the table gives

the value of ( z ) , where

( z ) = P( Z z ) .

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

0.5000

0.5398

0.5793

0.6179

0.6554

0.6915

0.7257

0.7580

0.7881

0.8159

0.8413

0.8643

0.8849

0.9032

0.9192

0.9332

0.9452

0.9554

0.9641

0.9713

0.9772

0.9821

0.9861

0.9893

0.9918

0.9938

0.9953

0.9965

0.9974

0.9981

0.5040

0.5438

0.5832

0.6217

0.6591

0.6950

0.7291

0.7611

0.7910

0.8186

0.8438

0.8665

0.8869

0.9049

0.9207

0.9345

0.9463

0.9564

0.9649

0.9719

0.9778

0.9826

0.9864

0.9896

0.9920

0.9940

0.9955

0.9966

0.9975

0.9982

0.5080

0.5478

0.5871

0.6255

0.6628

0.6985

0.7324

0.7642

0.7939

0.8212

0.8461

0.8686

0.8888

0.9066

0.9222

0.9357

0.9474

0.9573

0.9656

0.9726

0.9783

0.9830

0.9868

0.9898

0.9922

0.9941

0.9956

0.9967

0.9976

0.9982

0.5120

0.5517

0.5910

0.6293

0.6664

0.7019

0.7357

0.7673

0.7967

0.8238

0.8485

0.8708

0.8907

0.9082

0.9236

0.9370

0.9484

0.9582

0.9664

0.9732

0.9788

0.9834

0.9871

0.9901

0.9925

0.9943

0.9957

0.9968

0.9977

0.9983

0.5160

0.5557

0.5948

0.6331

0.6700

0.7054

0.7389

0.7704

0.7995

0.8264

0.8508

0.8729

0.8925

0.9099

0.9251

0.9382

0.9495

0.9591

0.9671

0.9738

0.9793

0.9838

0.9875

0.9904

0.9927

0.9945

0.9959

0.9969

0.9977

0.9984

0.5199

0.5596

0.5987

0.6368

0.6736

0.7088

0.7422

0.7734

0.8023

0.8289

0.8531

0.8749

0.8944

0.9115

0.9265

0.9394

0.9505

0.9599

0.9678

0.9744

0.9798

0.9842

0.9878

0.9906

0.9929

0.9946

0.9960

0.9970

0.9978

0.9984

0.5239

0.5636

0.6026

0.6406

0.6772

0.7123

0.7454

0.7764

0.8051

0.8315

0.8554

0.8770

0.8962

0.9131

0.9279

0.9406

0.9515

0.9608

0.9686

0.9750

0.9803

0.9846

0.9881

0.9909

0.9931

0.9948

0.9961

0.9971

0.9979

0.9985

0.5279

0.5675

0.6064

0.6443

0.6808

0.7157

0.7486

0.7794

0.8078

0.8340

0.8577

0.8790

0.8980

0.9147

0.9292

0.9418

0.9525

0.9616

0.9693

0.9756

0.9808

0.9850

0.9884

0.9911

0.9932

0.9949

0.9962

0.9972

0.9979

0.9985

0.5319

0.5714

0.6103

0.6480

0.6844

0.7190

0.7517

0.7823

0.8106

0.8365

0.8599

0.8810

0.8997

0.9162

0.9306

0.9429

0.9535

0.9625

0.9699

0.9761

0.9812

0.9854

0.9887

0.9913

0.9934

0.9951

0.9963

0.9973

0.9980

0.9986

0.5359

0.5753

0.6141

0.6517

0.6879

0.7224

0.7549

0.7852

0.8133

0.8389

0.8621

0.8830

0.9015

0.9177

0.9319

0.9441

0.9545

0.9633

0.9706

0.9767

0.9817

0.9857

0.9890

0.9916

0.9936

0.9952

0.9964

0.9974

0.9981

0.9986

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

8

8

7

7

7

7

6

5

5

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

12

12

11

11

10

10

9

8

8

7

6

6

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

5 6

ADD

16 20 24

16 20 24

15 19 23

15 19 22

14 18 22

14 17 20

13 16 19

12 15 18

11 14 16

10 13 15

9 12 14

8 10 12

7 9 11

6 8 10

6 7 8

5 6 7

4 5 6

4 4 5

3 4 4

2 3 4

2 2 3

2 2 2

1 2 2

1 1 2

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 1 1

0 0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

28

28

27

26

25

24

23

21

19

18

16

14

13

11

10

8

7

6

5

4

3

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

32

32

31

30

29

27

26

24

22

20

19

16

15

13

11

10

8

7

6

5

4

3

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

0

36

36

35

34

32

31

29

27

25

23

21

18

17

14

13

11

9

8

6

5

4

4

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

0

If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and

variance 1 then, for each value of p, the table

gives the value of z such that

P( Z z ) = p .

p

z

0.75

0.674

0.90

1.282

0.95

1.645

0.975

1.960

0.99

2.326

0.995

2.576

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

34

0.9975

2.807

0.999

3.090

0.9995

3.291

7. Mathematical notation

Examinations for the syllabus in this booklet may use relevant notation from the following list.

Set Notation

{x1, x2,}

{x : }

n(A)

A

=

is an element of

is not an element of

the set with elements x1, x2

the set of all x such that

the number of elements in set A

the empty set

the universal set

the complement of the set A

the set of natural numbers, {1, 2, 3, }

the set of positive integers, {1, 2, 3,}

+0

=

+

the set of positive real numbers, {x : x > 0}

+0

(x, y)

AB

the cartesian product of sets A, and B, i.e. A B = {(a, b) : a A, b B}

is a subset of

is a proper subset of

union

intersection

the closed interval {x : a x b}

[a, b]

[a, b)

(a, b]

(a, b)

yRx

y~x

p

q

the interval {x : a < x b}

the open interval {x : a < x < b}

y is equivalent to x, in the context of some equivalence relation

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

35

7. Mathematical notation

Miscellaneous Symbols

=

<

>

pq

pq

~p

pq

pq

pq

is equal to

is not equal to

is identical to or is congruent to

is approximately equal to

is isomorphic to

is proportional to

is less than

is less than or equal to, is not greater than

is greater than

is greater than or equal to, is not less than

infinity

p and q

p or q (or both)

not p

p implies q (if p then q)

p is implied by q (if q then p)

p implies and is implied by q (p is equivalent to q)

there exists

for all

Operations

a+b

ab

a b, ab, a.b

a

a b, , a/b

b

a plus b

a minus b

a multiplied by b

a divided by b

a1 + a2 + ... + an

i =1

n

a1 a2 ... an

i =1

a

|a|

n!

n

r

the modulus of a.

n factorial

the binomial coefficient

or

n!

for n +

r!(n r )!

n(n 1)...(n r + 1)

for n

r!

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

36

7. Mathematical notation

Functions

f(x)

f :A B

f :xa y

f1

gf

f is a function under which each element of set A has an image in set B

the function f maps the element x to the element y

the inverse function of the function f

the composite function of f and g which is defined by gf(x) = g(f(x))

the limit of f(x) as x tends to a

lim f( x)

x a

x, x

dy

dx

dn y

dx n

an increment of x

the derivative of y with respect to x

the n th derivative of y with respect to x

f (x), f (x), , f

(n)

y dx

b

a

y dx

V

x

x& , &x&,...

e

ex, exp x

loga x

ln x, loge x

lg x, log10 x

6

exponential function of x

logarithm to the base a of x

natural logarithm of x

logarithm of x to base 10

sin, cos, tan,

cosec, sec, cot

cosec1, sec1, cot 1

sinh, cosh, tanh,

cosech, sech, coth

cosech 1, sech 1, coth 1

the hyperbolic functions

the inverse hyperbolic functions

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

37

7. Mathematical notation

Complex Numbers

i

z

Re z

Im z

|z|

square root of 1

a complex number, z = x + iy = r(cos + i sin )

the real part of z, Re z = x

the imaginary part of z, Im z = y

arg z

z*

the complex conjugate of z, x i y

x2 + y2

Matrices

M

M1

MT

det M or |M|

9

a matrix M

the inverse of the matrix M

the transpose of the matrix M

the determinant of the square matrix M

Vectors

a

AB

the vector a

the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the directed line segment

a

i, j, k

a,a

unit vectors in the directions of the cartesian coordinate axes

the magnitude of a

AB

AB , AB

a.b

ab

the magnitude of AB

the scalar product of a and b

the vector product of a and b

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

38

7. Mathematical notation

A, B, C, etc.

AB

AB

P(A)

A

P(A | B)

X, Y, R, etc.

x, y, r, etc.

x1, x2, ...

f1, f2, ...

p(x)

p1, p2,

f(x), g(x),...

F(x), G(x),....

E(X)

E(g(X))

Var(X)

G(t)

events

union of the events A and B

intersection of the events A and B

probability of the event A

complement of the event A

probability of the event A conditional on the event B

random variables

values of the random variables X, Y, R etc

observations

frequencies with which the observations x1, x2 occur

probability function P(X = x) of the discrete random variable X

probabilities of the values x1, x2 of the discrete random variable X

the value of the probability density function of a continuous random variable X

the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P(X x) of a continuous

random variable X

expectation of the random variable X

expectation of g(X)

variance of the random variable X

probability generating function for a random variable which takes the values 0,

1, 2

B(n, p)

Po()

N(, 2)

x, m

Poisson distribution, mean

normal distribution with mean and variance 2

population mean

population variance

population standard deviation

sample mean

s2, 2

1

n 1

( x x)

N(0, 1)

r

Cov(X, Y)

product moment correlation coefficient for a population

product moment correlation coefficient for a sample

covariance of X and Y

Cambridge International A & AS Level Mathematics 9709. Examination in June and November 2012.

39

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