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Ternary Logic and Mass Quantum Numbers|Views: 46|Likes: 1

Published by mdsheppeard

Preprint for the proceedings of FFP10 at UWA (Perth)

Preprint for the proceedings of FFP10 at UWA (Perth)

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/27843035/Ternary-Logic-and-Mass-Quantum-Numbers

05/05/2011

text

original

M. D. Sheppeard

Ka Tiritiri O Te Moana, New Zealand

Abstract. Koide’s prediction of the tau mass may be formulated as a condition on the three

eigenvalues of a quantum Fourier series, using simple parameters, and similar triplets have been

found for neutrino and hadron masses [2]. Assuming these parameters arise from quantum gravity,

one would like to understand them from the more abstract context of category theory. In particular,

whereas the logic of lepton spin is a linear analogue of the ordinary Boolean logic of the category

of sets, mass triplets suggest an analogous ternary logic, requiring higher dimensional categorical

structures.

Keywords: category theory, particle masses, ternary logic, quantum information

PACS: 11.10.Cd, 11.10.Nx, 11.30.Na, 14.60.-z

INTRODUCTION

As quantum numbers, the rest masses of fundamental particles specify a tripling of spin

states to include generation number. In [2] it was shown that triplets of leptons and

hadrons yield phenomenologically viable mass matrices in the normalised Hermitian

form

√

M =

1

3

1 re

iθ

re

−iθ

re

−iθ

1 re

iθ

re

iθ

re

−iθ

1

, (1)

whose eigenvectors are a quantum Fourier transform matrix and which involve two

parameters. When θ = 2πn/3, r determines a square root mass difference for two

distinct eigenvalues, whereas a more generic θ determines a nondegenerate mass triplet.

When measuring masses with respect to the natural normalisation scale, the eigenvalues

obey a simple sum rule

√

m

1

+

√

m

2

+

√

m

3

= 1. The Koide rule [1] for the natural

masses of charged leptons then takes the form m

1

+m

2

+m

3

= 2/3.

The quantum information path integral representation of the generations [2] uses the

concept of mutually unbiased bases, the canonical example of which is the set of three

Pauli matrices in dimension 2, representing spin measurements X, Y and Z. Mutually

unbiased bases in prime power dimensions have a categorical description and are closely

connected with representations of ﬁnite ﬁelds [3]. Roughly speaking, the dimension

of the information space determines the number of elements in the ﬁnite ﬁeld, which

indexes the full set of mutually unbiased bases in a way that requires only a ﬁnite set of

complex numbers to deﬁne them. This suggests studying ﬁnite arithmetic structures in

category theory.

The complex number ﬁeld has the property that any two distinct phases form a pair of

mutually unbiased bases for the ﬁeld as a one dimensional space. As a set, the complex

numbers have uncountably many elements. Sets are considered as vector spaces over the

ﬁeld with one element, suggesting that there exists an alternative description of complex

numbers involving uncountably many unbiased bases. The idea of associating complex

numbers with uncountable matrices also naturally appears in monoidal category theory.

A 3×3 complex mass matrix should therefore be viewed as an inﬁnite reduction of some

higher dimensional operator.

Although it is easy to describe such mass operators in the language of quantum

information theory, we would prefer to understand their origins using the more abstract

mathematics of quantum gravity, namely higher dimensional category theory [5].

The question is, what are the natural categorical axioms associated to such operators?

Here we consider simple diagrams that express the ﬁnite geometry of mutually unbiased

bases and mass operators, without preselecting any known categorical axioms. Further

motivation for such an investigation comes from the rich categorical combinatorics of

twistor quantum ﬁeld theory [4], which uses the recursion of the associahedra polytopes

for massless particle scattering amplitudes.

CATEGORICAL DIAGRAMS AND BINARY LOGIC

Modular arithmetic does not usually play a fundamental role in categorical axioms. It is

said that the categoriﬁcation of the number 2 is a set with two elements. As an object

in the category of sets, the two element set plays the special role of representing the

two truth values, 0 and 1, of Boolean logic. On the other hand, the number 2, as an

ordinal, is the set with two elements. The lattice of subsets of the two element set takes

the diagrammatic form

00

!

//

!

01

10

//

11

where 00 represents the empty set and 11 the whole set, according to occupancy. The

association of simple logical entities with occupancy extends beyond sets to other object

types, such as Hilbert spaces of dimension 2

n

, representing n qubits. This is the domain

of monoidal categories [5], with tensor products.

For three qubits, the occupancy of states corresponds to a directed binary cube. Each

face of this cube is a copy of the binary square, ﬁxing one coordinate. The cube has a

source 000 and target 111. In a higher dimensional setting we allow directed 2-arrows

to decorate the faces of a cube, or general polytope law.

The Mac Lane pentagon axiom for monoidal categories may be raised in dimension

so that associator arrows become pseudonatural transformation squares. This pentagon

decorates ﬁve sides of a binary cube, but in a general categorical setting one must allow

the sixth side to represent a non trivial 2-arrow. This ﬁrst occurs in the axioms for

tricategories [6], rarely considered in physics (except for the braided monoidal case)

due to their complexity.

The two element set is also pivotal in describing the fundamental Stone duality

between algebraic and spatial structures, in analogy with the special role played by the

circle U(1) in the theory of the Fourier transform. The arithmetic of mutually unbiased

bases suggests that the extrapolation from two points to the full circle is carried out in

increasing dimension. Note that the categorical limit of the sequence of ﬁnite ﬁelds F

p

n,

for a ﬁxed prime p, is the p-adic integers, and the Fourier dual of this set is the subgroup

of U(1) consisting of all p

n

-th roots of unity.

So in this game, the subject of binary logic has tentacles reaching into diverse areas of

mathematics. Ternary logic must now mean more than a basic logic of three outcomes.

TERNARY STRUCTURE

The three qutrit analogue of the binary cube for three qubits was ﬁrst discussed in [7].

Note that 000 (and 111) are the source (and target) of a binary cube, and similarly for

the pairs (111, 222) and (222, 000). There is an arrow 2 →0, but the reverse only occurs

as the composition of two paths. These three binary cubes form a thickened triangle

with 21 vertices. The 6 other vertices associated to the 27 possible paths are those with

maximally mixed coordinates, namely 012, 120, 201, 021, 102 and 210.

•

•

• •

012

000 222

111

.

.

.

.

.....

Consider speciﬁcally the mixed vertex 012. It is the target of 1-arrows from 011, 212

and 002, each a vertex from one of the binary cubes. Similarly, the other mixed vertices

are targets for three 1-arrows from the binary cubes. The triangle of binary cubes, along

with this set of 1-arrows, forms a tetrahedron with source 000 and target 012. Between

maximally mixed paths, such as 012 and 210, there can never be a 1-arrow, since

more than one coordinate must change. However, it is natural to view triples such as

(012, 120, 201) as triangular analogues of the interval. In other words, ternary structure

involves inherently two dimensional objects, in contrast to a simple binary arrow 0 →1.

The vertex 012 is itself the source of 1-arrows to 112, 022 and 010. The cyclic nature

of 1-arrow rules ensures that there are no true sources and targets in the full ternary

diagram on 27 vertices. Since these vertices are 6-valent, the real embedding dimension

of the full diagram is 6, double that of the binary cube. This is like the doubling of

triangles to squares in the dual polygons for tree diagrams [4], where binary tree vertices

are replaced by ternary tree vertices, which have four legs when a root is included.

The tripling of spin states for generation quantum number would correspond to a

tripling in the basic arrow structure, as in the difference between the two diagrams

00

01

11

212

""

002

011

||

012

||

""

**112 022 010
**

where the arrows for tripled spin may be viewed as state rotation operators rather than

raising operators.

Thus for qutrit experiments, such as particle rest mass, the ternary labels 0, 1 and 2

stand for three possible outcomes. Now allow the categorical 1-arrows to correspond to

modular arithmetic on these indices, as in a basic triangle of successor arrows.

1

0

@@

2

oo

The full three qutrit diagram is unlike the structures usually considered in connection

with axioms for ordinary n-categories, where the associahedra naturally occur. However,

Batanin’s higher dimensional arithmetic accounts for a wider variety of special ﬁnite

graphs. Moreover, these generalised categorical diagrams for paths of mutually unbiased

bases are similar to those that occur in the diagrammatic realisation of mutually unbiased

bases for ordinary dagger monoidal categories [8], using Frobenius algebra objects.

The ternary diagram is also suggestive of the exceptional Jordan algebra of 3 ×3

Hermitian matrices over the octonions, for which the off diagonal octonion entries may

be written in terms of units lying on the vertices of a cube. The three real diagonal entries

of a Jordan algebra element may be labeled by the vertices 012, 120 and 201.

If the mass matrices are indeed reductions from a Hermitian Jordan operator, then

the off diagonal binary cubes collapse to a single complex index edge, and perhaps the

phase parameters are derivable from features of the qutrit logic, along with cosmological

considerations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author thanks UWA for their hospitality, Carl Brannen for his participation in

FFP10, and also Michael Rios for many interesting comments on M theory and en-

tanglement.

REFERENCES

1. Y. Koide, Nuovo Cimento A 70, 411 (1982).

2. C. A. Brannen, Koide mass equations for hadrons, http://www.brannenworks.com/koidehadrons.pdf

3. M. D. Sheppeard, Arithmetic, MUBs and complementary observables, J. Math. Phys. to appear.

4. N. Arkani-Hamed, F. Cachazo, C. Cheung and J. Kaplan, The S-matrix in twistor space, preprint

hep-th/0903.2110.

5. S. MacLane, Categories for the Working Mathematician, Springer, 2000.

6. R. Gordon, A. J. Power and R. Street, Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 117, no. 558 (1995).

7. M. Rios, http://uduality.blogspot.com/2007/03/ternary-logic.html

8. B. Coecke and R. Duncan, “Interacting Quantum Observables,” in ICALP (2) 2008, ref

DBLP:conf/icalp/2008-2, pp. 298–310; arxiv.org/abs/0906.4725

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