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Grand Ayatollah

Grand Ayatollah

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If the h}ala>l-meat animal is slaughtered according the shari‘ah method

and the normal amount of blood leaves the body, the remaining blood in

the body of the animal is t}a>hir.

Miscellaneous Queries

a) On the rulings of naja>>>>sah

1. Conduction of naja>>>>sah from bottom up

Q: If there were moisture on the wall, and najis moisture met the wall at

a lower place of the wall, would the wall become najis?

A: The upper [part] is not rendered najis by the lower.

2. Sweat of jonob from h}}}}ara>>>>m

Q: Is the sweat of a jonob [person who is in a state of jana>bah] of a

h}ara>m act t}a>hir or not?

A: The sweat of a jonob from h}ara>m is not najis, although practicing

ih}tiya>t} (i.e. treating it as najis) is preferable, regardless of whether the

Acts of Worship

42

sweat was perspired during intercourse or after it, the person was man or

woman, if this were through zina, or anal intercourse, or that with an

animal, or through masturbation.

3. Vapour from an intrinsically najis thing

Q: The vapour or steam from an intrinsically najis thing such as urine or

the garment that has become najis, which may form into drops on the

wall or glass, is it najis?

A: [It is] t}a>hir.

4. Public washing machines

Q: There are public washing machines, where everyone uses them to

wash their clothes. Are these washing machines t}a>hir? i.e. is it binding

to render t}a>hir clothes washed in those washing machines?

A: Everything is t}a>hir until you are certain of it being najis.

5. Public dryers

Q: Do the clothes that are dried in public dryers that various people use

render najis?

A: Everything is t}a>hir until you definitively know it is najis.

6. Surgery tools

Q: When a surgeon inserts a surgery tool in the human body, where it

meets the naja>sah inside the body, but when withdrawn there is not

evidence of naja>sah on it, is the tool considered t}a>hir?

A: The tool is considered t}a>hir.

b) Blood

1. Blood of Insects (mosquito & flea)

Q: What is the ruling concerning the blood that a mosquito/flea sucks

from the body?

A: If it enters its body and is considered to have become part of its

blood, it is t}a>hir.

T{aha>rah

43

2. Separated blood constituents

Q: In laboratories blood constituents are separated from each other.

When are the constituents said to be t}a>hir?

A: When transformation (istih}a>lah) has occurred.

3. Caesarean blood

Q: Is the blood of a caesarean operation, where the abdomen is cut open

to facilitate childbirth, considered nifa>s?

A: Vaginal bleeding is considered nifa>s, other [bleeding] is not.

c) Dead skin

1. Dried lips skin

Q: What is the ruling of the thin skin of the lips and of other body parts

that fall off?

A: They are t}a>hir, even if they were peeled off, although as a mostah}ab

precaution they should be avoided if they were peeled off before they

were due to fall off.

2. Imported leather

Q: What is the ruling on the leather imported from non-Muslim

countries of animals whose meat is not normally eaten such as fox, lion,

and suchlike?

A: It is najis, if the animal is of gushing blood.

d) Wine

1. Perfume alcohol

Q: Is the alcohol used in perfumes najis?

A: In principle it is t}a>hir.

2. Distilled industrial alcohol

Q: It is said that industrial alcohol is derived from intoxicating alcohol

in that it is steamed and distilled and in this way it turns into deadly

poison not suitable for drinking. Is this considered najis?

Acts of Worship

44

A: It is considered t}a>hir.

e) Menstruation

1. Entering holy places

Q: Is it permissible for a woman who is going through her menstruation

period to enter the arcades of the holy shrines of the Ma‘s}oomeen?

A: Yes, but without entering the shrines themselves.

2. Manipulation of occurrence of menstruation

Q: Is it permissible for a woman to use such pills to cause menstruation

so that she is not required to perform the daily prayers, fasting, etc.?

Also is it permissible to use such medications to prevent the occurrence

of menstruation so that she is able to perform the prayers, fasting, and

suchlike?

A: Yes.

f) Non-believer

1. Foreigners in Muslim countries and Muslims in foreign countries

Q: Is it permissible to treat workers, who come from countries such as

India to Muslim countries, as t}a>hir and marry from them when it is not

known whether they are Muslim or ka>fir? What about the workers from

western countries (when in doubt as to whether or not one is Muslim)?

A: Given the above assumption, they should be treated as non-Muslim

[from the t}aha>rah point of view, i.e. observing the t}aha>rah issues and

avoiding the naja>sah in every aspect]. On the other hand, people from

Muslim countries who live in non-Muslim countries are treated as

Muslims, by association.

2. Muslim and non-Muslim integration in foreign countries

Q: In Muslim and non-Muslim mixing in their countries, it becomes

difficult to avoid contact – in terms of observing the t}a>hir and najis

aspects – to the extent it sometimes proves awkward, or this may even

T{aha>rah

45

lead to misunderstanding and discomfort. What is the ruling of

observing these concepts in this light?

A: the need for abstention is excused, and in order to [be able to]

perform the prayers; the najis parts must be washed.

3. Non-Muslims entering the mosques

Q: Is it imperative to prevent non-Muslims – people of the book or

others – from entering the mosques? And what is the ruling if this is for

the purpose of learning about Islam and perhaps accepting Islam?

A: Yes it is obligatory, but if it is for a more important matter, then there

is no objection [to it].

4. Moisture

Q: What is the ruling of the moisture that is transferred from a non-

Muslim to the items they handle such as milk cartons and suchlike,

considering the awkwardness that this causes if they were to be

prevented from touching the items?

A: the moisture is najis, and awkwardness and difficulty is evaluated on

its own merit.

5. Christian or Buddhist servants

Q: Is it permissible for the servant to be Christian or Buddhist?

A: there is no objection to this provided the t}a>hir and najis aspects are

observed.

6. Certainty about religion and adherence

Q: if one wishes to deal with foreign or non-Muslim people in matters

that require one to be t}a>hir or Muslim, is it mandatory for one to ask

about their religion?

A: if it is in a Muslim country there would be no need to ask, unless if

one knows the individual to be from a non-Muslim country.

Acts of Worship

46

g) Purifiers (mot}}}}ahhira>>>>t)

1. Street puddles

Q: Are the small puddles formed by rainwater in the roads t}a>hir or najis?

This is specially when dogs and their faeces are often seen in them

before and during the rainfall, and sometime they are not seen in them

but it is known with certainty of being there previously.

A: if one does not know for certain, or if they [the puddles] were of Kurr

quantity, or if contact is during the rainfall not after, then they are t}a>hir.

2. Rendering t}}}}a>>>>hir by walking on asphalt and wood

Q: is the sole of the foot or shoe rendered t}a>hir by walking on asphalt or

on wooden floor? What is the limit for the sole of the foot or shoe being

rendered t}a>hir?

A: it is not unlikely that the asphalt renders t}a>hir [a najis object], but it is

unlikely that wood does so. It is recommended that one walks fifteen

strides or more, even if the naja>sah itself would with less than that. It is

not necessary that the najis sole of the foot or shoe be wet, for it would

be rendered t}a>hir if it were dry too.

3. Rendering large carpets t}}}}a>>>>hir

Q: how is a large carpet rendered t}a>hir?

A: using tap water. The naja>sah itself must be eliminated, the locality

that has become najis encircled or barricaded and then water that is

connected to the tap poured on it once [such that water overcomes that

area]. The [washing] water should then be collected, absorbed and

removed with sponge, cloth or suchlike.

4. Seats in public transport

Q: In non-Muslim countries sometimes one finds wetness on the seats of

a bus, train, and suchlike and it is not known whether this wetness is

from dogs, or spilt liquor, or rain. Furthermore, the seats are not

rendered t}a>hir but cleansed with detergents or with Little water, which is

T{aha>rah

47

normally not unpolluted with naja>sah. What is the ruling of such

wetness?

A: it is considered t}a>hir, so long as it is not certain it is najis.

5. Furniture in rented accommodation

Q: is it mandatory to treat the furniture and utensils of rented

accommodations in non-Muslim countries as najis or not?

A: by default [should be treated as] t}a>hir unless certain about the

naja>sah.

6. Mats being rendered t}}}}a>>>>hir by the sun

Q: Does the sun render t}a>hir only the type of mats that were available at

the time of the narration of the h}adith, or is this applicable to every type

that is used today to lie on the ground, such as those made from nylon

material, and other carpets?

A: [it is applicable to] all types of carpets.

h) Transformation (Istih}}}}a>>>>lah)

1. Transformation of fat used in soap

Q: the ingredients of some of the detergents and soaps include fat of pig

or meetah [i.e. animal not killed according the shari‘ah] but this is after

transformation to something else. Would this transformation render the

intrinsically najis thing t}a>hir?

A: if it constitutes transformation (istih}a>lah) as commonly accepted,

then it is rendered t}a>hir.

2. Cattle bone material in the ingredients

Q: What is the ruling concerning products from Muslim and non-

Muslim countries such as biscuit, chocolate, chewing gum, etc. when

one of their ingredients is extracted from the bones of cattle and

suchlike? Does this constitute istih}a>lah or a transformation that renders a

najis thing t}a>hir?

Acts of Worship

48

A: If that is considered as istih}a>lah, according to commonly accepted

definition, then it would be t}a>hir, and if there is a doubt it would be

najis.

i) The Sacrosanct

1. Touching the Names of Allah

Q: Is it permissible for one who is not t}a>hir [i.e. does not have wud}u’] to

touch the word “God” in English or its equivalent in other languages

that signify the word Allah in Arabic?

A: It is not permissible to touch a word has the meaning of His Name

exalted be He.

2. Computer disc in lavatory

Q: A computer disc that has the holy Qur’an stored on it, if it fell in the

lavatory, is it mandatory to salvage it?

A: if by falling the content is deleted, then it is not mandatory to salvage

it, otherwise it is.

j) Food & Drink

1. Bone material in sugar

Q: What is the ruling of the sugar that has been processed – for

whitening purposes – with animal bone imported from Muslim or non-

Muslim countries? Does this come under the purifiers after the change

that has taken place?

A: There is no objection to this.

2. Consuming non-intoxicant barley drink

Q: Is it permissible to drink the non-intoxicant barely drink that is free

from alcohol, which is sold in Muslim countries?

A: There is no objection to the medical barley drink that is not

intoxicant, and is free from alcohol.

T{aha>rah

49

k) Miscellaneous

1. Imported shoes and leather

Q: The shoes, and leather belts, and wrist-watch straps that are imported

from non-Islamic countries and sold in Muslim countries, are they

permissible to wear during prayers?

A: if one does not know whether they are made from natural or man-

made leather, or on the other hand, if one knows they are in fact made

from man-made leather, they would be permissible to wear during

prayers.

2. Place of separation of part of the body

Q: if part of the human body is separated from it, whether it was skin,

flesh or bone, would the place of separation on the body be considered

najis if no bleeding takes place or would it be t}a>hir?

A: T}a>hir.

3. Food remnants mixing with sewage

Q: These days household washing up water ends up mixing with the

sewage. Would it be h}ara>m to throw food remnants in those water

outlets? And if h}ara>m, what would be the ruling about those remnants

sticking to the hands?

A: [in this case] should not throw. As for those pieces sticking to the

hands and suchlike, there is no objection, for they will be annihilated.

4. Treatment and reuse of water

Some countries resort to treating the water used by people in their home

for all their needs.

The question is that after treatment of the sewage water could that be

considered t}a>hir, and can it be treated as mot}laq water, given that

chemical materials are used for the water treatment?

A: there is no objection so long as it does not carry the previous label,

and it is not less than Kurr.

Acts of Worship

50

5. Rendering milk t}}}}a>>>>hir

Q: is [najis] milk rendered t}a>hir when it turns into cheese, or do we have

to soak it in water so that it seeps into it and renders it t}a>hir?

A: must be soaked in Kurr water.

6. Ruling of t}}}}aha>>>>rah of those who do not know it

Q: Many Muslim people do not know the rulings of t}aha>rah or do not

make the effort to apply them [in the various aspects of their daily

lives]. Would it be mandatory upon us to avoid their food, or render our

clothes t}a>hir if we came in wet contact with them?

A: no, except with the knowledge [of a particular thing being] najis.

7. Touching the internal organs of a deceased

Q: What is the ruling concerning touching with bare hands the internal

organs of a deceased that are not attached to the bone – such as the

heart, liver, etc.?

A: if this is after the body having gone cold, and before it is washed the

ghusl wash, it would be mandatory to perform a ghusl for touching

them/it.

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