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12/6/11

30. Folds (III)


I Main Topics
A Mechanics of folds near faults (e.g., monoclines)
B Buckling mechanics (fold trains)
C Structural traps

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30. Folds (III)


Monocline in limestone,
Australia

Folds near reverese fault, Himalaya


(from Grasemann et al., 2005)

hGp://www.vic.gsa.org.au/Victorian_Geology/images/monocline.jpg
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30. Folds (III)


Radar Image, Folds in Pennsylvania

hGp://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect6/AppFolds.jpg
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30. Folds (III)


Geologic Map and Cross SecQon

From Willis, 1894


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30. Folds (III)


Bailey Willis

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Bernhard Grasemann & freinds

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30. Folds (III)

II Mechanics of folds near faults (e.g., monoclines)


Fractured Monoclines, Koae Fault System
View along fold axis

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View across fold axis

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30. Folds (III)

II Mechanics of folds near faults (cont.)


Monocline in limestone,
Australia

Folds near reverse fault, Himalaya


(from Grasemann et al., 2005)

Subsidence
Reversal
of slip
Normal
Fault
Reverse
Fault
hGp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/47/Monocline02.gif
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30. Folds (III)

II Mechanics of folds near faults (cont.)


Displacements arising from
slip on mode-II crack, 2D
elasQc model (from Pollard
and Segall, 1987)
ux =

II
R

r (1 2 ) cos cos + sin sin ( )

2G
r
R

Shear stress reducQon on fault

uy =

II
2G

r 2 (1 ) sin sin + sin cos ( ) 1

r
R

Shear modulus of host rock

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30. Folds (III)


Normal Fault
Model Displacement Field

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Normal Fault
Model Displaced Layers

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30. Folds (III)


Thrust Fault
Model Displacement Field

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Monocline

Monocline

Thrust Fault
Model Displaced Layers

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30. Folds (III)


Folding Around a Reverse Fault
From Grasemann et al., 2005

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ElasMc model of originally horizontal


layers with fault-parallel displacement

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30. Folds (III)


III Buckling mechanics (fold trains)

From Willis, 1894


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30. Folds (III)


III Buckling mechanics (fold trains)

From Willis, 1894


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30. Folds (III)

III Buckling mechanics


Dimensional analysis of
terms in governing equa,on
for buckling of an elasQc
layer (from Johnson, 1970)
H

d 2 v 12Pv
+
=0
dx 2 BbH 3
v = verQcal deecQon of mid-plane {Length}
x = horizontal distance {Length}
L = length of exed part of layer {Length}
P = axial force {Force}
B = sQness {Force/area}
b = width of beam {Length}
H = thickness of layer {Length}
Dimensions check

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30. Folds (III)

III Buckling mechanics


Form of soluQon
d 2 v 12Pv
=
dx 2 BbH 3
For sinusoidal (or cosinusoidal) funcQons the
second derivaQve is proporQonal to the
negaQve of the original funcQon

2 kx
Let v = A1 cos
L
dv 2 k
2 x
=
A1 sin

dx
L
L
d 2 v 2 k 2 k
2 x
=

A1 cos

dx 2 L L
L

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30. Folds (III)

III Buckling mechanics


Form of soluQon
d 2 v 12Pv
=
dx 2 BbH 3
2 kx
v = A1 cos
L
d 2 v 2 k

2 x 12Pv 12P
2 x
=
=
A cos
A1 cos
=
3
3 1
L
dx 2 L
L
BbH
BbH

Eliminatingcommonterms
2

12P
2 k
2 k 12P

=
3
L BbH 3
L
BbH
2

1/2

L 12P
k =
2 BbH 3

1/2

12P 1/2
v = A1 cos
x
3
BbH

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30. Folds (III)

III Buckling mechanics


Form of soluQon
A sinusoidal term would also
saQsfy the governing equaQon, so
the general soluQon should
include both a cosinusoidal term
and a sinusoidal term.
12P 1/2
12P 1/2
v = A1 cos
x
+
A
sin

BbH 3 x
3
BbH

Note that the amplitudes A1 and


A2 need not be equal.
A truly sinusoidal fold form
suggests a buckling origin
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30. Folds (III)


IV Folds as Structural
Traps

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hGp://www.wou.edu/las/physci/Energy/graphics/OilAnQcline.jpg
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30. Folds (III)


IV Folds as Structural
Traps

(e.g., low-permeability shale)


(e.g., hydrocarbons)
(e.g., water)
(e.g., high-permeability ss)
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hGp://www.wou.edu/las/physci/Energy/graphics/OilAnQcline.jpg
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30. Folds (III)


IV Folds as Structural
Traps

Saddles are unstable traps

(e.g., low-permeability shale)


(e.g., hydrocarbons)
(e.g., water)
(e.g., high-permeability ss)
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hGp://www.wou.edu/las/physci/Energy/graphics/OilAnQcline.jpg
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