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25. Faults (II)


Slip along Faults

Structure along faults

Strike-slip faul<ng
Dip-slip faul<ng
Normal Faul<ng
Reverse Faul<ng

Oblique slip faul<ng

Echelon paHerns
Tail cracks
Slickenlines

Structure across faults


Fractures
Deforma<on bands

How do natural faults


form?
Faulted Joints
Faulted Dikes
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Strike-slip Faults

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San Andreas Fault, CA


Carrizo Plain

hHp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:San_Andreas_Fault_Aerial_View.gif
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Oset of rows in plowed eld


1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake

hHp://www.smate.wwu.edu/teched/geology/eq-faults.html
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2.6 m fence oset


1906 San Francisco earthquake

hHp://www.smate.wwu.edu/teched/geology/eq-faults.html
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Dip-slip Faults: Normal Faults

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abbasimehr.ir
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Faceted Spurs
Deep Springs, CA

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piH.edu
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Halemaumau

sa\tp.soest.hawaii.edu
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Kilauea Caldera

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ged.rwth-aachen.de
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Kilauea Caldera

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rst.gsfc.nasa.gov
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Horsts and Grabens


Rima Ariadaeus, Moon

hHp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fault-Horst-Graben.svg
hHp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:As10-31-4646.jpg
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Dip-slip Faults: Reverse Faults


Reverse Fault, Himalaya

From Grasemann et al., 2005


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Oblique-slip Faul<ng
Pleasant Valley, Nevada, 1915 (M= 7.7)

hHp://www.smate.wwu.edu/teched/geology/GeoHaz/eq-faults/eq-faults-16.JPG

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Structure Along Faults

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Echelon fractures along Imperial Fault


1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake

hHp://www.smate.wwu.edu/teched/geology/eq-faults.html
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MoleTrack, with Echelon Ridges


1976 Guatamala Earthquake

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yuprocks.com
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Echelon Segments
2010 Christchurch Earthquake

utrackers.com
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Echelon fractures in fault-parallel bands


Sierra Nevada, CA

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Right step between two leP-lateral


fault segments, Sierra Nevada, CA

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FoliaQon along fault,


Sierra Nevada, CA

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Deforma<on at fault steps

AlteraQon along fault,


Sierra Nevada, CA

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Fractures linking leP-lateral faults,


Sierra Nevada, CA

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Tail cracks at the end of a fault trace


Sierra Nevada, CA

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Tail cracks at the end of a fault trace


Grimsel Underground Laboratory

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A mechanical explana<on for echelon


structure along strike-slip faults

From Martel and Boger, 1998


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Slickenlines, Sierra Nevada, CA

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Structure Across Faults

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Fractures in budding fault zone,


Sierra Nevada, CA

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Faults in Trench Exposures

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murbachgeotech.com
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Fault Trench Log


Hayward Fault, CA

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geomaps.wr.usgs.gov
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Trench Log, San Andreas Fault,


Pallet Creek, California

hHp://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/pp1515/chapter4/g4-19.jpg
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DeformaQon along a fault,


Homestake Mine, South Dakota

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Fault in a tunnel, Grimsel Underground Rock


Laboratory, Switzerland

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Deforma<on Bands, Utah

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Deforma<on Bands, Utah

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How Do Real Faults Form?

hHp://www.geology.cwu.edu/facsta/charlier/courses/g360/graphics/nor_fault.jpg
hHp://courses.eas.ualberta.ca/eas421/diagramspublic/Mohrstressdiag.gif
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How Do Real Faults with Nearly-


straight Segmented Traces Form?
From Joints?

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How Do Real Faults with Nearly-


straight Segmented Traces Form?
From Dikes?
From dAlessio and Martel, 2005
Fault zones

Fault zone Dike

Regional Joints

Dike

Host rock

Aplite Dike

Fractu

res

Slickenlines

Martel and d'Alessio


Figure 5
Development of strike-slip faults from dikes, Sequoia National Park, California

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