CHAPTER THREE

PERCEPTION

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PERCEPTION- DEFINITION
Perception is the process through which the information from outside environment is selected, received, organised and interpreted to make it meaningful to you.

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Environmental stimuli Observation Perceptual selection Perceptual organization Interpretation Response

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MAJOR INFLUENCES ON THE PERCEPTION PROCESS
Characteristics of the: Perceiver- needs, values, experiences, attitudes Perceived- appearance, communication, behaviour Situation- physical location, social setting, organizational setting

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PERECPTUAL SELECTION

is the process by which people filter out most stimuli so that they can deal with the most important ones.

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EXTERNAL PERCEPTION FACTORS
are characteristics that influence whether stimuli will be noticed. * Size * intensity * Contrast * Motion * Repition * Novelty * Familiarity * Order

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INTERNAL PERCEPTION FACTORS
are aspects of the perceiver that influence perceptual selection. * Personality dimension- field dependence/independence * Learning- past experience * Motivation

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PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION

is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognisable and identifiable patterns and whole objects.

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FIGURE GROUND PRINCIPLE

means we tend to be attentive to such perceived objects that standout against a background.

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PERCEPTUAL GROUPING

is the perceptual organization process of placing people and objects into recognisable and manageable patterns or categories.

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BARRIERS TO PERCEPTUAL ACCURACY
Errors in judging people/situation * Similarity error * Contrast error * Overweighing positive information * Race, sex and age bias * First impression error * Recency error
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ERRORS MADE IN PEOPLE PERCEPTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Perceptual defense Stereotyping Halo effect Expectancy effect Projection

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1. PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE

is the tendency for people to protect themselves against ideas, objects or situations that are threatening

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2. STEREOTYPING
is the tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of a category of people of which that person is a member.

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3. HALO EFFECT

is the tendency to judge a person entirely on the basis of a single trait which may be favourable or unfavourable

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4. EXPECTANCY EFFECT

in the perceptual process are the extent to which prior expectation bias perception of events, objects and people

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5. PROJECTION

is the tendency of people to see their own traits in other people.

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ATTRIBUTION THEORY

When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.

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FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
is the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when marking judgment about the behaviour of others.

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SELF SERVING BIAS

is the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

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PERCEPTION AND OB

    

Employment interview Performance expectations Performance evaluation Individual decision making Impression management

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IMPROVING PERCEPTIONS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Diversity management programmes Empathise with others Postpone impression formation Compare perception with others Becoming more aware of our values, beliefs and prejudices.

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