A reporL bv LIe AssocIuLe PurIIumenLurv

DesIgn & ¡nnovuLIon Group
In ussocIuLIon wILI LIe DBA
CREATIVITY
VS
THE PROCUREMENT
PROCESS?
DESIGN AND THE
PUBLIC GOOD:
Group
Associate Parliamentary
2
3
‘ DESIGN IS NEITHER AN
INTELLECTUAL NOR
MATERIAL AFFAIR –
BUT SIMPLY AN
INTEGRAL PART OF
THE STUFF OF LIFE,
NECESSARY FOR
EVERYONE IN A
CIVILISED SOCIETY’
– WALTER GROPIUS
4 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?

5
Foreword 6
List of abbreviations 8
Introduction 9
The context 10
Summary of recommendations 14
Knowledge 16
Create the evidence base 16
Design leadership 19
Common knowledge 22
‘Design is the new management consultancy’ 24
Skills 27
The effective management of creative expertise 27
Tailored training 29
The role of the Central Office of Information 32
Process 36
A single, simplified, below-threshold tender approach 36
The internal process 38
Clearer messaging 41
Conclusion 43
Appendix 45
Bibliography 48

CONTENTS
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Contents
6
FOREWORD
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Foreword
I was pleased to see
this report - and even
more pleased to read its
recommendations.
As ¡ sLressed In LIe &R[5HYLHZRI
&UHDWLYLW\LQ%XVLQHVV, pubIIsIed bv HM
GovernmenL In zoo=, LIe use oI good
desIgn IIes uL LIe IeurL oI successIuI
InnovuLIon. And Ior busIness, LIe
ubIIILv Lo InnovuLe Is LIe kev Lo survIvIng
und ßourIsIIng In un IncreusIngIv
compeLILIve worId. ¡n LIe pubIIc secLor
IL Ius un equuIIv ImporLunL buL dIIIerenL
sIgnIhcunce: IL Is LIe onIv wuv LIuL ever-
growIng pubIIc expecLuLIons cun be meL In
u hnuncIuIIv consLruIned envIronmenL.
7 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Foreword
¡n recenL veurs, LIe prIvuLe secLor Ius IncreusIngIv undersLood LIe nuLure und
ImporLunce oI good desIgn: recognIsIng LIuL IL Is more LIun u muLLer oI uesLIeLIcs.
WIeLIer LuIkIng ubouL u producL or u servIce, good desIgn Is concerned wILI Issues
sucI us hLness Ior purpose, cusLomer uppeuI, euse oI use, suILubIIILv Ior munuIucLure
or deIIverv, euse oI muInLenunce, cupucILv Ior IurLIer deveIopmenL und envIronmenLuI
ImpucL. ¡L uIso seeks ouL ImugInuLIve responses Lo probIems or opporLunILIes. ¡L Is u
compeLILIve dIIIerenLIuLor In u worId wIere LIe UK cunnoL compeLe - In unv spIere - on
LIe busIs oI IowesL cosL.
TIe pubIIc secLor - wILI u Iew worLIv excepLIons - Ius been sIower Lo recognIse eILIer
LIe reIevunce or LIe poLenLIuI oI good desIgn. TIIs Is noL u muLLer oI IndIvIduuI IuIIIngs
buL IurgeIv u reßecLIon oI un envIronmenL wIere requIremenLs ure oILen Loo nurrowIv
dehned und poLenLIuI soIuLIons Loo nurrowIv consLruIned: un envIronmenL wIere
procuremenL processes mIIILuLe uguInsL LIe non-sLundurd soIuLIon or LIe unproven
suppIIer, und wIere uccounLubIIILv Is Iocused on process ruLIer LIun ouLcomes.
YeL LIe ImperuLIve Lo InnovuLe - ImugInuLIveIv, sensIbIv und conLInuuIIv - Is equuIIv us
sLrong us In LIe prIvuLe secLor. TIere Is no Issue LIuL LIe pubIIc secLor Iuces LIuL cun be
soIved bv LIrowIng resources uL IL. TIuL uppIIes Lo IeuILIcure, educuLIon, socIuI servIces,
energv provIsIon, wusLe munugemenL, poIIcIng, LrunsporL InIrusLrucLure, wIuLever.
TuckIIng LIe demunds needs new LIInkIng.
Moreover, munv soIuLIons come uL remurkubIv Iow cosL, us recenL exumpIes promoLed
bv LIe DesIgn CouncII Iuve sIown: IospILuI IurnIsIIngs LIuL ure more reudIIv cIeuned,
IeIpIng Lo LuckIe LIe IospILuI InIecLIon probIem; newIv desIgned puLIenL gowns, endIng
veurs oI IndIgnILv; und sIuLLer-prooI beer gIusses, reducIng LIe poLenLIuI Ior boLI
uccIdenLs und vIoIence.
However, udopLIng new upproucIes Lo Iong sLundIng probIems requIres more LIun
jusL u wIIIIngness Lo embruce new Ideus. ¡L needs greuLer undersLundIng oI Iow Lo
exumIne Issues In u wIder conLexL, Iow Lo evuIuuLe new soIuLIons und Iow Lo InnovuLe
In u conLroIIed und rIsk-IImILed munner. ¡L needs u procuremenL process LIuL demunds,
ruLIer LIun jusL permILs, u brouder Iook uL requIremenLs und one LIuL encouruges LIe
seurcI Ior InnovuLIve soIuLIons.
¡ookIng buck on LIe hve recommenduLIons Irom mv RevIew, ¡ Iuve been gruLIhed uL
LIe progress mude In severuI ureus. TIe one LIuL Iugs Is seeIng LIe pubIIc secLor muke
greuLer use oI LIe desIgn LuIenLs LIuL ure ubundunL In LIe UK.
¡ verv mucI Iope LIuL LIIs IuLesL sLudv wIII IeIp Lo cIunge LIuL. ¡ IeurLIIv endorse ILs
recommenduLIons.
George Cox
¡ormer CIuIrmun oI LIe DesIgn CouncII und uuLIor oI LIe Cox RevIew oI CreuLIvILv
In BusIness
8 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
List of abbreviations
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
APD¡G AssocIuLe PurIIumenLurv DesIgn und ¡nnovuLIon Group
B¡S DepurLmenL Ior BusIness ¡nnovuLIon und SkIIIs
CABE CommIssIon Ior ArcIILecLure und LIe BuIIL EnvIronmenL
CAPEXJ OPEX CupILuI ExpendILureJ OperuLIonuI ExpendILure
C¡B BrILIsI AssocIuLIon oI CommunIcuLors In BusIness
C¡M CIurLered ¡nsLILuLe oI MurkeLIng ServIces
C¡PR CIurLered ¡nsLILuLe oI PubIIc ReIuLIons
C¡PS CIurLered ¡nsLILuLe oI PurcIusIng und SuppIv
CO¡ CenLruI OIhce oI ¡nIormuLIon
DBA DesIgn BusIness AssocIuLIon
DCMS DepurLmenL Ior CuILure MedIu und SporL
DDC DunIsI DesIgn CenLre
¡CP ¡orwurd CommILmenL ProcuremenL
GCN GovernmenL CommunIcuLIons NeLwork
GPS GovernmenL ProcuremenL ServIce

¡TT ¡nvILuLIon Lo Tender
NAO NuLIonuI AudIL OIhce
NESTA NuLIonuI EndowmenL Ior ScIence TecInoIogv und LIe ArLs
OEP OperuLIonuI EIhcIencv Progrumme
OGC OIhce oI GovernmenL Commerce
PQQ Pre-QuuIIhcuLIon QuesLIonnuIre
PLP PoIIcv TIrougI ProcuremenL
R¡BA RovuI ¡nsLILuLe oI BrILIsI ArcIILecLs
SEE SIurIng ExperIence Europe
SME SmuII und MedIum EnLerprIses
9 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Introduction
TIe AssocIuLe PurIIumenLurv DesIgn und ¡nnovuLIon Group und LIe DesIgn BusIness
AssocIuLIon underLook LIIs InquIrv, buIIdIng on LIe hndIngs oI LIe &R[5HYLHZRI
&UHDWLYLW\LQ%XVLQHVV, Lo ussess LIe reIuLIonsIIp beLween governmenL und ILs desIgn
provIders, und Lo expIore desIgn`s poLenLIuI Lo unIock InnovuLIon Ior LIe pubIIc secLor.
We Luke LIe Lerm desIgn In ILs broudesL sense, us u verb ruLIer LIun u noun, us u seL oI
LooIs LIuL enubIes u beLLer wuv oI doIng LIIngs - wIeLIer LIuL meuns desIgnIng eIIecLIve
poIIcv, desIgnIng ouL wusLe, or desIgnIng servIces LIuL work Ior users.
Two LIemes - LIe need Lo cureIuIIv monILor und munuge LIe governmenL-murkeL
reIuLIonsIIp, und LIe need Lo InnovuLe Lo ucIIeve smurLer procuremenL - ure
IIgIIIgILed us procuremenL prIorILIes In LIe recenL B¡S pubIIcuLIon, *RLQJIRU*URZWK
1
.
¡or boLI oI LIese objecLIves, governmenL`s engugemenL wILI SMEs Is seen us kev. ¡n LIe
recenL 3ROLF\7KURXJK3URFXUHPHQW$FWLRQ3ODQ
z
, 'LIe kev ugendus LIuL governmenL
InLends Lo pursue us PLP prIorILes` IncIude 'smuII und medIum sIzed enLerprIses -
IowerIng burrIers Lo LIeIr purLIcIpuLIon.`
TIe InquIrv Iound LIuL LIe drIve Lo Improve sLundurds oI procuremenL Ior creuLIve
servIces (LIe governmenL-murkeL reIuLIonsIIp Ior LIe desIgn IndusLrv) und enubIe
uccess Ior SMEs, us recommended bv Cox und reILeruLed In 3ROLF\7KURXJK
3URFXUHPHQW, Ius seen IImILed success; und LIe IncreusIng pressure Lo InnovuLe wILIIn
governmenL couId be LIe cuLuIvsL Ior un Improved reIuLIonsIIp beLween LIe pubIIc
secLor und LIe desIgn IndusLrv.
There is now u reul opportonity to move to ootcome-bused commissioninu,
Ior poblic services to re-desiun their rootes to procorement. Soch u
purudium shiIt woold sopport SMI enuuuement, und, most importuntly,
beneñt the end-oser. Bot soch u shiIt - soch u comprehensive
oruunisutionul coltore chunue - will reqoire uction on moltiple Ironts.
The inqoiry hus considered the ureus oI knowledue, skills und process in
torn, mukinu recommendutions Ior improvement on euch.
INTRODUCTION
1 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, ‘Government and the Market’, Going for Growth: Our Future Prosperity,
p48
2 OGC, Policy Through Procurement Action Plan
http://www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/PtP_Action_Plan.pdf
10
The Cox Review
TIe Cox RevIew wus commIssIoned bv HM Treusurv In zoo=
Lo Iook uL Iow besL Lo enIunce UK busIness producLIvILv
bv druwIng on our worId-IeudIng creuLIve cupubIIILIes, und
mukes recommenduLIons Lo governmenL Lo LIuL end. One sucI
recommenduLIon suggesLs governmenL musL 'use LIe mussIve
power oI pubIIc procuremenL, boLI cenLruIIv und IocuIIv,
Lo encouruge more ImugInuLIve soIuLIons Irom suppIIers.`
¤

TIe InquIrv Iound LIuL, In spILe oI enIIgILened guIdunce und
exIorLuLIons comIng Irom cenLruI governmenL, und excepLIng
IsoIuLed exumpIes oI good prucLIce, LIe pubIIc secLor Ius u
resLrIcLed reIuLIonsIIp wILI ILs creuLIve provIders.
¡Ive veurs on, Cox`s gouIs ure us reIevunL us ever: LIe InquIrv
Ieurd exumpIes oI procuremenL procedures LIuL ucLIveIv
mIIILuLe uguInsL smuIIer ugencIes or IndIvIduuIs workIng wILI
pubIIc secLor cIIenLs. TIe burden oI reguIuLIon deLers oLIers,
IncIudIng experIenced prucLILIoners wILI u Iong pubIIc secLor
Lruck record. And IL Is IncreusIngIv dIIhcuIL Ior commIssIoners Lo
procure smuII projecLs boLI economIcuIIv und In uccordunce wILI
reguIuLIon.
Pressure to innovate
TIere Is growIng recognILIon LIuL InnovuLIon wIII be LIe kev Lo
beLLer pubIIc servIce deIIverv
q
und benehLs reuIIsuLIon. DesIgn
sIouId be un IndIspensubIe LooI In LIuL process.
=
However, LIe
InquIrv Iound LIuL LIe pubIIc servIce IndusLrIes wouId benehL
Irom u IeuILIIer reIuLIonsIIp wILI LIe creuLIve IndusLrIes. TIe
pubIIc secLor`s ubIIILv Lo procure InnovuLIon Is Iumpered bv
cumbersome und compIex processes, wIIcI reguIurIv cosL more
LIun necessurv, In Lerms oI LIme und monev, Lo boLI buver und
suppIIer, und uILImuLeIv deIIver u worse producL.
TIe InquIrv Iound LIuL Loo oILen, Iur Irom doIng wIuL Cox`s
revIew urged, governmenL Is dumugIng ILs own repuLuLIon us
u cIIenL In u IIgIIv skIIIed secLor, und pubIIc servIces IuII Lo
exLrucL muxImum vuIue Irom u worId-cIuss IndusLrv und IeudIng
specIuIIsLs - purLIv becuuse LIe rehned LooIs Lo do so ure IuckIng.
TIe resuIL Is LIuL good desIgn, u cIIeI eIemenL In suLIsIucLorv
procuremenL, suIIers, pubIIc secLor cusLomers ure LIwurLed
In LIeIr ubIIILv Lo deIIver, und LIe end-user, LIe cILIzen, Is noL
weII-served.
THE CONTEXT
3 Cox, G., ‘Executive Summary’, Cox Review of Creativity in Business: Building on the UK’s Strengths
4 HM Government, ‘Putting innovation at the heart of central government’, Putting the Frontline First: Smarter Government,
p51-2
5 European Commission Staff Working Document, Design as a driver of user-centred innovation
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
The context
11
Why are some elements failing?
TIe cuuses ure deep-rooLed und compIex. TIe pubIIc secLor Is
vusL und IIgIIv dIIIerenLIuLed, und procuremenL Is LIe IInge
oI prIvuLe und pubIIc InLerucLIon. SInce 1¤¤; pubIIc secLor
expendILure Ius grown bv IuII In reuI Lerms
6
und generuLed,
umong oLIer LIIngs, un IncreusIng demund Ior LIe servIces oI LIe
desIgn secLor. BuL Increused expendILure Ius uIso engendered
Increused empIusIs on rIsk munugemenL und eIIecLIve
procuremenL, wIIcI In Lurn Ius Ied Lo greuLer compIexILv oI
process. AILIougI oI course we supporL LIe noLIon oI IuIr, open,
LrunspurenL procuremenL, uL presenL LIere Is un InIerenL LensIon
beLween LIe workIngs oI unv creuLIve process - requIrIng u
degree oI LrusL, und u responsIve und cIose reIuLIonsIIp beLween
suppIIer und buver - und LIe objecLIve ussurunces LIuL u
rIgorousIv uudILed procuremenL process demunds.
¡uce-Lo-Iuce cIemIsLrv Is kev Lo esLubIIsIIng undersLundIng
und enubIIng co-creuLIon, und In cuses wIere LIere Is u 'broker`
orgunIsuLIon, sucI us LIe CO¡, LIe creuLIve reIuLIonsIIp cun
be ImpuIred.
TIe sILuuLIon Is uggruvuLed bv exLreme vurIuLIons In
undersLundIng oI desIgn. AL worsL, LIIs meuns u poor grusp
umongsL pubIIc secLor commIssIoners und procurers oI wIuL
'desIgn` meuns, IILLIe uwureness oI LIe vuIue desIgn LIInkIng cun
udd, und suspIcIon oI LIe perceIved cosLs und uncerLuInLv oI
deuIIng wILI 'desIgners`.
Why does this matter?
- The citizen's interest is ut stuke, boLI In respecL oI
LIe weII-beIng Lo be guIned Irom good desIgn oI servIces
und producLs, und In respecL oI vuIue Ior pubIIc monev.
- There is money to be suved here, eIñciencies to
be uuined, better resolts within reuch. AIIevIuLIng
LIe procuremenL probIems uIßIcLIng LIe desIgn
IndusLrv wouId Improve LIe sILuuLIon Ior oLIer reIuLed
IndusLrIes und SMEs LrvIng Lo negoLIuLe pubIIc secLor
procuremenL.
;
- In the drive to deliver more Ior less, desiun cun
help deliver innovution und eIñciency in every
urenu oI the poblic sector.
8

6 ‘Trends in Public Sector Expenditure’, Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2009 p65
7 http://www.research-live.com/comment/public-sector-procurement-leaves-small-suppliers-out-in-the-cold/4000837.article
8 Design Council, ‘The role of design in public services’, Design Council Briefing 02, November 2008
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
The context
‘How you buy something
naturally affects the end
result of what you buy.
We have decades of
history of buying on price
instead of purpose.’
- Witness to the inquiry
12
¡nnovuLIon, 'new Ideus LIuL work uL creuLIng pubIIc
vuIue`,
¤
wIII be kev Lo IucIng LIe ImpendIng 'perIecL
sLorm` oI budgeL resLrIcLIons und Increused demund.
¡nnovuLe or IuII. GovernmenL recenLIv conhrmed
ILs commILmenL Lo puLLIng InnovuLIon uL LIe IeurL
oI governmenL.
1o
TIe HM Treusurv-commIssIoned
2SHUDWLRQDO(I¿FLHQF\3URJUDPPH)LQDO5HSRUW
ucknowIedges desIgn us u purL oI LIuL process:
'¡nnovuLIon und servIce redesIgn wIII be crILIcuI In order
Lo ucIIeve ImprovemenLs In LIe quuIILv und eIhcIencv
oI pubIIc servIces In more cIuIIengIng economIc
cIrcumsLunces.GovernmenL uIso needs Lo buIId LIe
pubIIc secLor`s undersLundIng oI LIe ImporLunce oI good
desIgn In deIIverIng eIIecLIve pubIIc servIces und buIId
LIe upproprIuLe skIIIs Lo Lurn LIIs undersLundIng InLo
LungIbIe ImprovemenLs`.
11

- The rupidly chunuinu sociul context reqoires
uuile procorement, buL oILen LIe upproved rouLes ure
noL LIe mosL expedIenL. PubIIc secLor commIssIoners
sIouId noL Iuve Lo resorL Lo IrreguIur rouLes, Lo deIIver
LIeIr projecLs on LIme und Lo budgeL.
- The poblic sector shoold leud by exumple. ¡n LIIs
counLrv we conLInuuIIv uccepL und LoIeruLe producLs und
svsLems LIuL ure poorIv desIgned. WIeLIer we ure ubouL
Lo emburk on un uge oI uspIruLIon or oI cIunge, pubIIc
servIces sIouId, wILIouL excepLIon, drIve up sLundurds,
expecLuLIons, und LIe uspIruLIons oI end users.
- The LK's creutive indostries ure one oI its
most dynumic, und u world-leudinu sector,
1z

envied internutionully. BuL LIe pubIIc secLor does
noL cupILuIIse on LIIs nuLuruI udvunLuge. GovernmenL
ougIL Lo supporL LIese IndusLrIes LIrougI sLruLegIc
procuremenL. Or, us George Cox puL IL, uddress 'u
quesLIon LIuL Is vILuI Lo LIe UK`s Iong Lerm economIc
success - numeIv, Iow Lo expIoIL LIe nuLIon`s creuLIve
skIIIs more IuIIv`.

RecenL reseurcI Irom NESTA Ius
sIown LIuL uILIougI In generuI LIe UK provIdes u
IuvourubIe envIronmenL Ior InnovuLIon, LIere ure
sIorLcomIngs In u Iew kev ureus, numeIv 'LIe roIe oI
demund, und In purLIcuIur governmenL procuremenL.`
1q

9 Mulgan, G., NESTA, Ready or Not? Taking innovation in the public sector seriously
10 ‘Putting the Frontline First: Smarter Government.’
11 Operational Efficiency Programme: final report, 5.29, 5.34
12 Will Hutton, Staying ahead: the economic performance of the UK’s creative industries
13 Cox, G., Cox Review of Creativity in Business: Building on the UK’s Strengths, p1
14 NESTA, The Innovation Index: Measuring the UK’s investment in innovation and its effects, p4
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
The context
‘Everything around us
has been designed,
but modern design is
increasingly a process
driven by the end
users. When you ask
if something is well-
designed you mean is
it truly fit for purpose.
And many public service
systems at the moment
are just not fit for purpose’
- Witness to the inquiry
13
‘ THE INQUIRY HAS
CONSIDERED THE
AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE,
SKILLS AND PROCESS
IN TURN, MAKING
RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR IMPROVEMENT
ON EACH’
14
OUR RECOMMENDATIONS
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Our recommendations
TIe IoIIowIng recommenduLIons ure proposed us meuns Ior
ucIIevIng vuIue Ior monev und smurLer workIng In pubIIc
servIces, u more rewurdIng experIence Ior desIgners LrvIng Lo
serve LIe pubIIc secLor, und, mosL ImporLunLIv, our overurcIIng
ureu oI concern: ensurIng LIuL decIsIons uILImuLeIv benehL LIe
end-user.
TIe unuIvsIs und recommenduLIons ure grouped InLo LIree ureus
Ior ucLIon: knowIedge, skIIIs und process, buL ure InLended Lo
be compIemenLurv, consIsLIng oI uwureness-ruIsIng ucLIvILIes
coupIed wILI new, prucLIcuI LooIs.
Knowledge
TIese recommenduLIons wIII deepen undersLundIng oI LIe vuIue
oI desIgn umongsL poIIcvmukers und buvers

1. Improved understanding of design and innovation
A revIew oI cosLs, suvIngs und cuse sLudIes, Lo demonsLruLe
Iow desIgn cun suve monev, und IdenLIIv wIere resources ure
currenLIv beIng wusLed.
2. A Chief Advisor for design and innovation
An uppoInLed udvIsor - experL boLI In LIe sLruLegIc use oI desIgn
und LIe workIngs oI LIe pubIIc secLor - Lo drIve LIe desIgn
messuge wILIIn GovernmenL.
3. A campaign to raise the profile of design
A Iong Lerm commILmenL Lo promoLe LIe benehLs oI desIgn
ucross uII orgunIsuLIons, LoucIIng poIIcv, procuremenL und
communIcuLIons.
4. A register of expert advisors
A regIsLer oI upproved desIgn und InnovuLIon specIuIIsLs,
uvuIIubIe Lo governmenL Ior udvIce on svsLem, servIce und
producL deveIopmenL.
spend
15
Skills
TIese recommenduLIons wIII Improve LIe cupucILv und skIIIs oI
pubIIc secLor desIgn und InnovuLIon procurers.

5. A design and procurement panel
A group Iormed Lo promoLe desIgn vuIue und Improve desIgn
procuremenL skIIIs bv supporLIng LIose wIo muke procuremenL
decIsIons.
6. A tailored training programme
A LruInIng und deveIopmenL progrumme Ior commIssIoners und
procurers oI desIgn.
7. An appropriate role for the COI
A commILmenL Irom GovernmenL Lo buv servIces dIrecL Irom
LIe prIvuLe secLor, uIIowIng orgunIsuLIons Lo munuge LIeIr own
creuLIve servIces.
Process
TIese recommenduLIons wIII LrunsIorm LIe procuremenL
process Ior desIgn und InnovuLIon, purLIcuIurIv wILI regurd Lo
engugIng SMEs.
8. A single, simplified tender approach
A sIngIe upproucI Ior procurIng desIgn und InnovuLIon beIow LIe
OJEU LIresIoId.
9. A best practice pilot
ResoIvIng LvpIcuI dIIhcuILIes wILIIn depurLmenLs, usIng
desIgn procuremenL us u LesL-bed Ior evoIvIng some sImpIer
procuremenL meLIods.
10. An information and advisory service
A Lwo-wuv servIce Lo udvIse procuremenL munugers on besL
prucLIce, Lo sIgnposL Lo u dIrecLorv oI procuremenL-reudv
suppIIers und IeIp desIgn ugencIes undersLund LIe roud Lo
wInnIng GovernmenL work.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Our recommendations
16
Building policymakers’ and buyers’
understanding of the value of design
Create the evidence base
TIe InquIrv Iound LIuL, uncIurucLerIsLIcuIIv, LIere Is IILLIe
coIerenL duLu on pubIIc secLor spend wILI regurd Lo desIgn.
1=

GIven LIe runge oI ucLIvILIes underLuken und ouLsourced
(murkeLIng und communIcuLIons, servIce desIgn, producL
desIgn), desIgn spend Is IIkeIv Lo be u sIgnIhcunL sum. ¡I prIvuLe
secLor puruIIeIs ure unv guIde, desIgn wIII consLILuLe u Iurger
proporLIon oI spend LIun pubIIc secLor munugers mIgIL reuIIse.
BuL IL Is dIIhcuIL Lo ussess Ior u number oI reusons. DesIgn
encompusses munv vurIed ucLIvILIes. TIere Is dIspurILv In
uccounLIng svsLems beLween LIe mvrIud orgunIsuLIons oI wIIcI
LIe pubIIc secLor Is comprIsed. And desIgn Is oILen 'sIIenL`,
embedded In oLIer projecLs, unrecognIsed.
TIe InquIrv Iound LIere Is monev beIng wusLed on IneIhcIenL
process,
16
purLIcuIurIv In LIe reuIm oI smuII projecLs. TIe
upproucI mukes procurIng desIgn un expensIve underLukIng,
rureIv ucIIevIng LIe resuILs LIuL sIouId be possIbIe. TIe InquIrv
Ieurd mucI unecdoLuI evIdence Lo LIIs eIIecL, Irom boLI
suppIIers und procurers. TIere ure uncounLed cosLs Incurred uL
muILIpIe poInLs LIrougIouL LIe process, noL jusL In udmInIsLerIng
conLrucLs once uwurded - In LIe InLernuI process, In LIe (oILen
dIsproporLIonuLe) number oI munIours spenL bIddIng und
evuIuuLIng Lenders, noL Lo menLIon LIe Ionger-Lerm prIce oI
sub-opLImuI resuILs. TIese cosLs ure uImosL never oIhcIuIIv
quunLIhed, und, oI course, IL Is dIIhcuIL Lo Improve someLIIng
wILIouL hrsL meusurIng IL.
TIere Is uIso LIe poInL LIuL, Iur Irom beIng u cosLIv underLukIng,
desIgn cun suve monev, even uL ILs mosL busIc, und LIIs Is oILen
eusIIv proven (see Cuse SLudv p18).
AILIougI hrsL-Iund experIence oI LIe benehLs cun be persuusIve,
ussurunces oI quuIILuLIve vuIue ure rureIv enougI Lo jusLIIv
pubIIc secLor budgeLs. 'BeLLer meusuremenL wouId IeIp
orgunIsuLIons Lo muke u sLronger cuse Ior InvesLIng In desIgn
umId compeLIng prIorILIes`.
1;
TIe zoo¤ OEP reporL recognIses
'LIe currenL meusuremenL gup` und empIusIses LIe ImporLunce
KNOWLEDGE
15 There are some interesting existing pieces of research with regard to the private sector: NESTA’s recently compiled
Innovation Index is a pioneer in measuring innovation activity within the private sector, and including design as a key
driver of that activity (previous surveys have counted only R&D spend). The Design Council publishes its annual Value of
Design turnover estimates, and is about to publish updated statistics on the size and shape of the design industry.
16 See Chapter 3: Process
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
‘There is a perception
of ‘design’ being an
expensive option. I would
refer you to the saying:
‘if you want to know how
expensive design is, look
at how expensive bad
design is’. ’
- Witness to the inquiry
17
oI uccounLubIIILv und meusurubIIILv oI desIgn und InnovuLIon.
18

¡or GovernmenL Lo recognIse und uddress u IuuILv svsLem LIuL Is
noL hL Ior purpose - one LIuL Is 'puLLIng busIness ouL oI busIness`
und IumperIng LIe pubIIc secLor`s own cupucILv Lo InnovuLe - u
crucIuI hrsL sLep Is Lo buIId LIe quunLILuLIve evIdence buse.
BuIIdIng on boLI LIe DesIgn CouncII`s und LIe DBA`s work In
documenLIng LIe eIIecLIveness oI desIgn, creuLIng u subsLunLIuI
IIbrurv oI cuse sLudIes wouId be u good sLurL. On LIIs poInL
LIere Is ugreemenL umongsL LIe governmenL`s sLruLegIc desIgn
udvIsorv bodIes.

Recommendation 1
Improved understanding of design and innovation spend
TIIs reporL cuIIs Ior u revIew oI cosLs und suvIngs (IncIudIng
u compreIensIve und uccessIbIe IIbrurv oI cuse sLudIes), Lo
demonsLruLe Iow desIgn cun suve monev Ior LIe pubIIc secLor,
und IdenLIIv wIere resources ure currenLIv beIng wusLed.
BeLLer undersLundIng oI GovernmenL spend on desIgn couId
poLenLIuIIv be ucIIeved LIrougI un IndependenL experL revIew
oI expendILure, wIIcI sIouId esLubIIsI LoLuI spend, InvesLIguLe
reLurn on InvesLmenL oI good desIgn (CAPEX vs OPEX) und
uLLempL Lo deLermIne 'pubIIc suLIsIucLIon`.
17 Innovation across central government, National Audit Office, March 2009.
18 Operational Efficiency Programme: final report, 5.39
19 Feedback from both CABE and the Design Council was strongly supportive of redressing this gap
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
CASE
STUDY
18
CASE STUDY
REDESIGNING
THE TAX FORM:
SAVING TIME
AND MONEY
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
TrudILIonuIIv, ¡umbeLI CouncII Iud u poor record oI coIIecLIng
councII Lux. So wIen LIev Increused councII Lux demunds bv
zz%, LIeIr expecLuLIons were IuIrIv Iow. To muke muLLers more
cIuIIengIng, LIere wus no uddILIonuI expendILure on producLIon
oI LIe bIIIs LIemseIves or promoLIonuI ucLIvILv. TIev usked ¡eILon
CommunIcuLIon Ior IeIp.
TIe desIgn Leum soon reuIIsed LIere were u number oI oLIer
Issues. Anv redesIgn oI LIe councII Lux bIIIs Iud Lo uccommoduLe
u runge oI LecInIcuI und prucLIcuI consLruInLs Lo do wILI LIe duLu.
And crucIuIIv, unv deIuv In generuLIng und sendIng ouL LIe bIIIs
wus InconceIvubIe. Bv goIng buck Lo busIcs, ¡eILon deveIoped u
IIerurcIv oI InIormuLIon, IormIng u generIc buL versuLIIe grId Lo
uII councII Lux bIIIs und reIuLed communIcuLIons, wILI us mucI
wIILe spuce us possIbIe. SImuILuneousIv, LIev InvesLIguLed LIe
producLIon process - Irom prInLIng Lo muIIIng - Lo IdenLIIv oLIer
IneIhcIencIes.
TIe resuILs were sLuggerIng. TIe umounL oI pre-puvmenLs
Increused bv 8o% - Irom £1.z=m Lo £z.z=m. TIe number oI
IndIvIduuIs prepuvIng Increused bv =o%. TIe LoLuI coIIecLIon ruLe
wus ¤o.1% (LIe councII`s besL ever). TIe number oI summonses
Ior IuLe puvmenL IeII bv zq%. And LIe bIIIs cosL Iess Lo generuLe
LIun usuuI.
SuvIngs were uIso mude becuuse oI LIe Increused number oI
dIrecL debILs. SuvIngs on posLuge were mude becuuse Iewer
remInders were requIred. And suvIngs were mude on sLuII LIme,
becuuse LIere were Iewer compIuInLs und Iewer querIes. So
evervone benehLLed. ¡umbeLI und ¡eILon CommunIcuLIon won u
DBA DesIgn EIIecLIveness Awurd.
19 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
Box 1
The Design Ladder
21
Step 1: Non-design
Design is an inconspicuous part of, for instance,
product development and is performed
by members of staff who are not design
professionals. Design solutions are based on the
perception of functionality and aesthetics shared
by the people involved. The points of view of end-
users play very little or no part at all in the design
process.
Step 2: Design is styling
Design is perceived as a final aesthetic finish of
product. In some cases professional designers
may perform the task, but generally other
professions are involved.
Step 3: Design as process
Design is not a finite part of a process but a
work method adopted very early in product
development. The design solution is adapted
to the task and focused on the end user
and requires a multidisciplinary approach,
e.g., involving process technicians, material
technologists, marketing and organisational
people.
Step 4: Design as innovation
The designer collaborates with the owner/
manager in adopting an innovative approach
to all – or substantial parts of – the business
foundation. The design process combined with
the company vision and future role in the value
chain are important elements.
Design leadership
TIe InquIrv IdenLIhed LIuL, jusL us LIere Is no coIerenL nuLIonuI
desIgn poIIcv - wILI desIgn sILLIng uwkwurdIv beLween B¡S und
DCMS - LIere Is equuIIv u vucuncv Ior sLrong desIgn IeudersIIp
und experLIse wILIIn cenLruI governmenL.
ResponsIbIIILv Ior puIIIng LogeLIer desIgn poIIcv Ius been
IurgeIv devoIved Lo LIe DesIgn CouncII, wIIcI works Iurd Lo
demonsLruLe LIe ImporLunce oI desIgn In 'IeIpIng busInesses
become more successIuI und pubIIc servIces more eIhcIenL.`
zo

However us un udvIsorv bodv Lo governmenL IL necessurIIv Ius
IImILed power Lo munduLe ucLIvILv.
TIe exIsLence oI mInIsLerIuI desIgn cIumpIons, under u
GovernmenL DesIgn CIumpIon (currenLIv LIe SecreLurv oI SLuLe
Ior CuILure MedIu und SporL, Ben BrudsIuw) Is un ImprovemenL,
buL LIe remIL oI LIese cIumpIons Is soIeIv LIe buIIL envIronmenL.
DesIgn meuns mucI more LIun LIe buIIL envIronmenL. And we
beIIeve LIe Issue oI pusIIng good desIgn wILIIn governmenL
Is Loo crILIcuI Lo be subsumed InLo un uIreudv crowded
mInIsLerIuI porLIoIIo.
DesIgn IeudersIIp Is one dIscIpIIne wIere LIe prIvuLe secLor
Is probubIv more progressIve In ILs LIInkIng. One oI LIe more
sopIIsLIcuLed uLLempLs Lo InvesLIguLe µ7KH(FRQRPLF(IIHFWV
RI'HVLJQ¶ wus LIuL underLuken In zoo¤ bv LIe DunIsI DesIgn
CenLre. TIIs sLudv InvoIved u survev oI DunIsI busInesses,
und exumIned perIormunce uccordIng Lo LIe desIgn 'Iudder`
deveIoped bv LIe DDC. TIe Iudder IdenLIhes Iour IeveIs oI
commILmenL Lo desIgn (see Box 1).
CeIebruLed prIvuLe secLor exumpIes oI 'desIgn In LIe bourd
room` IeudIng Lo success IncIude brunds sucI us AppIe, BT,
¡EGO, MIcrosoIL, Sonv, SLurbucks und VIrgIn ALIunLIc.
zz
TIe
prucLIce oI embeddIng desIgn uL sLep q brIngs desIgn experLIse
InLo coIIuboruLIon wILI more LrudILIonuI busIness deveIopmenL
LIInkIng Lo reconsIder core busIness sLruLegv.
SImIIur IeudersIIp LecInIques sIouId be uvuIIubIe Lo
governmenL.

TIe ¡nnovuLors CouncII seems Lo be u
commendubIe InILIuLIve In LIIs dIrecLIon.
zq

20 http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/
21 (Danish) National Agency for Enterprise, The Economic Effects of Design, September 2003, p28
22 http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/About-Design/managingdesign/Eleven-lessons/
23 The Singaporean Government, as part of their National Design Policy, have instituted an International Advisory Panel
on design ‘to develop Singapore into a design hub in Asia, and to grow design into one of the key pillars of economic
growth.’
24 http://www.hmg.gov.uk/innovation.aspx
20
¡L sIouId be noLed LIuL LIe wIdespreud prucLIce oI ouLsourcIng
pubIIc servIce provIsIon meuns LIuL ouLsourcIng provIders Iuve
responsIbIIILv Ior, und u sIgnIhcunL roIe Lo pIuv ImprovIng pubIIc
servIces LIrougI desIgn. TIe NHS CIoIces Cuse SLudv (pz1) Is u
good exumpIe oI generuLIng u purudIgm sIIIL In servIce provIsIon
LIrougI one sucI provIder.
TIere Is IIp servIce puId uL LIe IIgIesL IeveI Lo LIe sLruLegIc
ImporLunce oI desIgn und ILs vuIue Ior LIe economv.
z=
TIe hnuI
reporL oI HM Treusurv`s 2SHUDWLRQDO(I¿FLHQF\3URJUDPPH,
pubIIsIed uIongsIde LIe zoo¤ budgeL, IdenLIhed u need 'Lo
Improve desIgn und InnovuLIon In pubIIc servIces, dIIIusIng
InnovuLIons In boLI cenLruI und IocuI governmenL.`
z6
BuL In
reuIILv LIere Is no uppoInLed ugenL Lo drIve LIIs desIgn messuge.
Recommendation 2
Government should appoint a Chief Advisor for design
and innovation
TIIs reporL cuIIs Ior LIe uppoInLmenL oI un upproprIuLe hgure -
experL boLI In LIe sLruLegIc use oI desIgn und LIe workIngs oI LIe
pubIIc secLor - Lo drIve LIe desIgn messuge wILIIn GovernmenL.
TIe roIe wouId oversee desIgn munugemenL wILIIn cenLruI und
IocuI governmenL, scruLInIse, drIve up sLundurds und promoLe
und expund desIgn und InnovuLIon procuremenL cIuIIenges
uround pressIng und InLrucLubIe socIeLuI probIems (sImIIur
progrummes ure uIreudv underwuv uL LIe DesIgn CouncII
z;
und
NESTA.
z8
) TIe roIe wouId IncIude cIuIrIng LIe proposed DesIgn
und ProcuremenL PuneI.

25 “We will continue to work with the creative industries in our country, a sector that goes from film and fashion to architecture and the media, to support
and extend the one million jobs. And Britain now enjoys its position as the leading creative-industries sector in Europe, and that is something we are
determined to maintain and extend”
– PM Gordon Brown speaking at Going for Growth Launch (http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page22085);
“I don’t think people yet realise just how important architecture and design are going to be to our economic, as well as to our cultural and social future. I
believe that the countries that will succeed in the modern world are the countries that have that creativity, are able to show that in practice by architecture,
design, fashion, music and everything else that is associated with creative industries. Nowhere are we better placed than in architecture and design”
– PM Gordon Brown speaking at No 10 reception for architects,
(http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/news/daily-news/prime-minister-british-design-and-architecture-are-second-to-none/5210866.article)
26 Chapter 5, Summary Recommendations, Operational Efficiency Programme: Final Report, p69
27 Design Council, Designs of the Time:
http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/Design-Council/1/What-we-do/Our-activities/20-reasons-to-go-to-Dott/
28 NESTA, Public Services Lab: http://www.nesta.org.uk/areas_of_work/public_services_lab
29 See Recommendation 5: A Design and Procurement Panel.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
‘80% of innovation fails,
so you should be very
careful in government of
pushing innovation as a
target – you should push
for progress’
- Witness to the inquiry
CASE
STUDY
21
NHS CIoIces Is LIe governmenL IeuILI InIormuLIon servIce
Lo cILIzens, wILI u compreIensIve dIgILuI componenL. ¡n un
InnovuLIve pIece oI procuremenL In zoo8 LIe servIce wus
ouLsourced Lo u wInnIng consorLIu oI orgunIsuLIons, munugIng
LIe operuLIonuI, conLenL deveIopmenL, murkeLIng und desIgn
progrumme
TIe Teum ure LIe Ieud communIcuLIons purLner In LIe consorLIu,
Ied bv CupILu. TIe purLnersIIp sLrucLure Is unusuuI In LIuL IL
uIIows purLners Lo proucLIveIv suggesL wuvs oI ImprovIng cILIzen
engugemenL. TIIs mIndseL Ieuds Lo IusLer InnovuLIon, no red Lupe
und u cIose workIng reIuLIonsIIp LIuL deIIvers rupId beIuvIour
cIunge und reuI eIhcIencv guIns Ior LIe cIIenL. NHS CIoIces
Is u perIecL exumpIe oI Iow Lo drIve eIIecLIveness bv pIucIng
pubIIc servIces In LIe Iunds oI LIe prIvuLe secLor. TIIs Is uIso u
demonsLruLIon oI Iow desIgn cun deIIver u purudIgm sIIIL In LIe
wuv peopIe use pubIIc servIces.
TIe NHS CIoIces resource conLuIns urLIcIes on u wIde runge oI
IeuILI LopIcs, IncIudIng uuLIorILuLIve und uccuruLe guIdunce Ior
expecLunL moLIers. BuL In u noIsv murkeL, LIe number oI women
hndIng und usIng LIIs pregnuncv servIce wus IeIL Lo be Iow.
TIe Teum were usked Lo IeIp NHS CIoIces hnd u new wuv oI
provIdIng mums-Lo-be wILI LIe InIormuLIon LIev needed, und Lo
ruIse uwureness oI LIe NHS CIoIces Pregnuncv Cure PIunner.
TIe Teum`s response Lo LIe brIeI Is u new wuv oI communIcuLIng
wILI cILIzens on IeuILI LopIcs, In LIe Iorm oI un InnovuLIve
deskLop uppIIcuLIon. AII LIuL LIe users - In LIIs cuse pregnunL
women - Iuve Lo do Is downIoud LIe uppIIcuLIon und Iog LIeIr
due duLe, und LIev uuLomuLIcuIIv receIve reguIurIv upduLed
urLIcIes und Imugerv upproprIuLe Lo LIeIr sLuge oI pregnuncv.
TIe cumpuIgn und uppIIcuLIon Ied Lo u ¤8% Increuse In LIe
number oI women vIsILIng LIe pregnuncv secLIon oI LIe websILe.
TIe uppIIcuLIon Ius un ongoIng ucquIsILIon ruLe oI z,¤z¤ new
moLIers per monLI, wILIouL unv puId-Ior medIu - meunIng Iow-
cosL und IIgIIv eIIecLIve communIcuLIon.
Due Lo LIe success oI LIIs cumpuIgn und LIe posILIve reucLIons
Lo LIe pregnuncv pIunner Irom boLI mIdwIves und pregnunL
women, NHS CIoIces Ius recommended LIuL u sImIIur onIIne
cumpuIgn, deuIIng wILI dIIIerenL IeuILI Issues, Is repeuLed everv
sIx monLIs Lo enguge new uudIences.
CASE STUDY
NHS CHOICES
PREGNANCY
PLANNER:
RETHINKING
SERVICE
PROVISION
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
22
Common knowledge
¡L Is eusv Lo IorgeL LIe ImmeusurubIe conLrIbuLIon oI desIgn
Lo evervduv IIIe. GovernmenL und LIe pubIIc secLor ure no
excepLIon Lo LIIs IuIIIng. ¡n LIe prIvuLe secLor, sLundurds ure seL
bv compeLILIon, bv cILIzens` experIence oI cusLomer servIce IeveIs
und LIeIr ubIIILv Lo cIoose. YeL In cuses wIere IL urguubIv muLLers
LIe mosL - LIe IeuILI servIce, pubIIc LrunsporL, socIuI cure (uII
pubIIc servIces) - cusLomer experIence oILen uppeurs Lo Iuve
been woeIuIIv overIooked. To Luke u common exumpIe: uILIougI
IL muv Iuve IILLIe hnuncIuI beurIng, wIuL Is LIe Iumun cosL oI
beIng Iunded u deceused reIuLIve`s beIongIngs In u bIuck bIn bug?
DesIgn concerns ILseII wILI LIe experIence oI LIe end-user oI
producLs und servIces. So, jusL us IeudersIIp Is crucIuI, LeIIIng LIe
desIgn sLorv uL LIe IronL IIne, umongsL LIose wIo commIssIon
und procure, Is vILuI.
PoIIcvmukIng uL uII IeveIs Ius been IurgeIv InsensIbIe oI LIe
unuIvLIc und sLruLegIc roIe desIgn couId pIuv In eurIv dIscussIons,
IImILIng creuLIve InpuL Lo LIe end oI LIe process, Ior murkeLIng
or communIcuLIons Ior exumpIe. TIe vIew Irom IndusLrv Is LIuL
LIev ure excIuded Irom u conversuLIon In wIIcI LIev couId pIuv
u IeIpIuI roIe, 'IIke u IeurL surgeon sLundIng ouLsIde LIe room oI
u puLIenL compIuInIng oI cIesL puIns.` TIe InquIrv Iound LIuL IL Is
LIIs dIugnosLIc IucIIILv oI cerLuIn eIemenLs oI LIe desIgn IndusLrv
oI wIIcI LIe pubIIc secLor Is mosL IgnorunL.
6PDUWHU*RYHUQPHQW
¤o
sLuLes LIe currenL udmInIsLruLIon`s
InLenLIon Lo 'Iree up LIe IronL IIne Lo InnovuLe`. GreuLer ßexIbIIILv
In procuremenL, und un enIunced ubIIILv Lo work wILI desIgners,
InnovuLors und creuLIve experLs, wIII be u vILuI LooI In reuIIzIng
LIuL InLenLIon. TIe InquIrv Ieurd repeuLedIv oI process InIIbILIng
munugers LrvIng Lo InnovuLe, und oI overIv-specIhed poIIcv
movIng bevond LIe cIeur sLuLIng oI desIred ouLcomes, InLo LIe
reuIm oI requIred ouLpuL. A cuILure oI 'ouLcome` und noL 'ouLpuL`
Iocused poIIcv wouId empower munugers Lo brIng LIeIr own
knowIedge und experIence Lo beur.
Cox IdenLIhed u gup 'beLween LIe brIdge und LIe rudder`,
beLween GovernmenL poIIcv (guIdunce Irom OGC) und wIuL
Iuppens In LIe mvrIud ugencIes oI LIe pubIIc secLor. TIIs gup
wouId be Iessened bv uwureness-ruIsIng ucLIvILIes und sIurIng
oI besL prucLIce, us weII us LIe persuusIon oI experIence. TukIng
purL In u reuI IIIe cuse sLudv, ImmersIng pubIIc secLor munugers
30 HM Government, Putting the Frontline First: Smarter Government, December 2009
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
‘They (clients) can’t see
what they can have. Our
job is one of helping them
gaze into a crystal ball . . .’
- Witness to the inquiry
23
In hrsL-Iund experIence, wus regurded us mosL IIkeIv Lo
communIcuLe LIe benehLs - Iumun und hnuncIuI - oI desIgn.
TIe InquIrv IdenLIhed u need Lo
- educuLe us Lo LIe benehLs oI workIng wILI desIgnJ
desIgnersJcreuLIve ugencIes
- demonsLruLe Iow Lo geL LIe besL ouL oI u conLrucL,
I.e. wIIcI procuremenL processes Lo use
- beLLer pubIIcIse OGC besL prucLIce
- engender compeLILIon beLween depurLmenLs

Recommendation 3
Campaign to recognise the value and raise standards of
design and innovation
GovernmenL sIouId commIL Lo LIe promoLIon oI LIe benehLs oI
desIgn ucross uII orgunIsuLIons, LoucIIng poIIcv, procuremenL
und communIcuLIons. Kev wouId be reguIurILv und u Iong-Lerm
commILmenL Lo geLLIng LIe messuge LIrougI. DeIIverubIes wouId
IncIude semInurs, exIIbILIons, pubIIcuLIons, dIgILuI soIuLIons und
uwurd-scIemes, numeIv: GovernmenL sIouId consIder u scIeme
LIrougI wIIcI LIe prIvuLe secLor cun nomInuLe und ucknowIedge
LIose pubIIc secLor munugers wIo perIorm eIIecLIveIv, LIus
creuLIng u cuILure oI knowIedge sIurIng, puss-IL-on LruInIng und
besL prucLIce, LIe resuILs oI wIIcI couId be dIssemInuLed onIIne.
ConsIderuLIon wouId be gIven Lo RO¡ In Lerms oI hnuncIuI,
sLruLegIc und socIuI ImpucL. TIe deveIopmenL oI LIIs onIIne
resource wouId ucL Lo InspIre commIssIoners und munugers Lo
demund more oI desIgners.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
24
‘Design is the new management consultancy’
31

TIe UK Is regurded us u Ieuder In InnovuLIon,
¤z
wILI u IIsLorIc
repuLuLIon Ior exceIIence In uII Lvpes oI desIgn. We educuLe more
desIgners LIun mosL oLIer deveIoped nuLIons.
¤¤
DesIgners ure
nuLuruI probIem soIvers, experLs wIo cun IeIp wILI 'IuIIures oI
ImugInuLIon`.
¤q
TIe InquIrv Iound LIuL LIe vuIue oI LIIs resource
Is underesLImuLed und underuLIIIsed bv LIe pubIIc secLor.
ReseurcI bv NESTA, 1XGJLQJ,QQRYDWLRQ, seLs ouL LIe urgumenL
LIuL InnovuLIon servIces provIded bv creuLIve busInesses cun
IeIp overcome beIuvIouruI IuIIures (mvopIu, InerLIu, rIsk or Ioss
uversIon) Lo Improve LIe InnovuLIon perIormunce oI hrms. TIe
reseurcI exumIned perIormunce In SMEs, buL In us mucI us LIe
beIuvIouruI economIcs uppIv Lo peopIe In generuI, LIIs wouId
suggesL LIuL InnovuLIon servIces Irom creuLIve busInesses couId
Iuve vuIue Ior LIe pubIIc servIce IndusLrIes. 'JusL us economIc
growLI und deveIopmenL sIIILs LIe IndusLrIuI sLrucLure oI un
economv ever Lowurd servIces, LIe growLI und deveIopmenL oI
LIe InnovuLIon svsLem IoIIows LIe sume puLLern.`
¤=
EIemenLs oI
LIe desIgn IndusLrv Iuve evoIved LIeIr oIIerIng Lo keep up wILI
LIIs requIremenL Ior InnovuLIon servIces Irom busIness.
¤6
BuL
LIese new cupubIIILIes ure rureIv Luken up bv LIe pubIIc secLor.
TIe DesIgn CouncII descrIbes 'LIe roIe oI desIgn In
pubIIc servIces` LIus: 'RecenL evIdence sIows LIuL desIgn
meLIodoIogIes cun drIve InnovuLIon In pubIIc servIces. RupId
proLoLvpIng creuLes eIhcIencIes bv desIgnIng ouL probIems
eurIv, und LIe coIIuboruLIve nuLure oI munv desIgn projecLs cun
enguge pubIIc secLor workers, IronLIIne sLuII und users In LIe
deveIopmenL und deIIverv oI new servIces. However, reseurcI
uIso sIows munv pubIIc servIce provIders Iuck LIe knowIedge
und skIIIs Lo use desIgn us u sLruLegIc upproucI Lo InnovuLIon.
DeveIopIng LIIs cupucILv wouId IeIp pubIIc secLor orgunIsuLIons
munuge LIeIr creuLIve processes und hnd InnovuLIve soIuLIons
Ior servIce deIIverv.`
¤;

'DeveIopIng LIIs cupucILv` couId meun empIovIng desIgners us
IucIIILuLors oI InnovuLIon processes, us sLruLegIc LIInkers, us
weII us sImpIv Lo desIgn LIe servIce or producL ILseII. ¡n buvIng
sLruLegIc udvIce, pubIIc secLor munugers sIouId recognIse LIuL IL
Is noL onIv LIe 'suIe` consuILuncIes - sucI us LIose on LIe BuvIng
SoIuLIons 'MuILIdIscIpIInurv ConsuILuncv` ¡rumework - LIuL
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
31 http://noisydecentgraphics.typepad.com/design/2006/06/the_future_of_g_1.html
32 European Innovation Scoreboard 2008
33 International Design Scoreboard, p59
34 Dr Jason Potts and Kate Morrison, NESTA, Nudging Innovation, April 2009
35 Dr Jason Potts and Kate Morrison, NESTA, Nudging Innovation, April 2009
36 Innovation consultancy IDEO are a perfect example: http://www.ideo.com/
37 http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/briefing02
‘Government tries to
choose design, when
actually it needs to
get better at choosing
designers’
- Witness to the inquiry
25
38 http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/Design-Council/1/What-we-do/Our-activities/Public-services-by-design/
39 ‘Recently published research commissioned by the Cabinet Office and carried out by the Sunningdale Institute again
makes the case for a Whitehall policy culture that seeks out, captures and values frontline insights and experiences in
order to ensure policies that are practical, effective and relevant’
– Operational Efficiency Programme: final report, 5.30
cun IeIp. TIere ure creuLIve ugencIes und IndIvIduuIs LIuL cun
(und do) provIde InnovuLIve, sLruLegIc InpuL, pre-procuremenL.
TIe DesIgn CouncII`s DesIgn Bugs OuL ProjecL (see Cuse SLudv,
pqz) wus purLIcuIurIv successIuI In ussembIIng un experL puneI
pre-procuremenL Lo deLermIne, wILI LIe DepurLmenL Ior
HeuILI, wIuL LIe bounds oI LIe InnovuLIon cIuIIenge sIouId
be. TIe DesIgn CouncII Is now LesLIng LIIs upproucI wILI oLIer
depurLmenLs, buL LIe progrumme Is LIe excepLIon Lo LIe ruIe.
¤8

¡n mosL cuses sucI experL IndIvIduuIs ure Iurd Lo uccess uL
presenL. TIe procuremenL svsLem Is u IurdIe.
TIere Is unoLIer sIgnIhcunL druwbuck Lo LIe presenL seL-up:
In LIe prIvuLe secLor, desIgn ugencIes und IndIvIduuIs ure ubIe
Lo work proucLIveIv Ior LIe benehL oI LIeIr cIIenL`s busIness. ¡n
LIe pubIIc secLor, LIe resLrIcLIons oI due process render LIIs
reIuLIonsIIp reucLIve uL besL. NowIere Is LIIs beLLer exempIIhed
LIun In LIe operuLIons oI LIe CenLruI OIhce oI ¡nIormuLIon,
wIose IuncLIon us u broker, uILIougI experL uL IundIIng LIe IeguI
requIremenLs, eIImInuLes LIe unIque cIemIsLrv beLween creuLIve
und cIIenL LIuL deIIvers excepLIonuI InnovuLIve Ideus.
EnubIIng LIese reIuLIonsIIps, enubIIng pre-empLIve InpuL Irom
u LrusLed purLner - wIose experIence mukes LIem experL In
unLIcIpuLIng needs, even beIore LIev become uppurenL - wIII be
kev Lo ImprovemenL. GovernmenL recognIses LIuL LrudILIonuI
soIuLIons wIII no Ionger suIhce.
¤¤
¡L musL go IurLIer In openIng ILs
doors Lo creuLIve IndIvIduuIs Lo udvIse.
Recommendation 4
A register of expert design and innovation advisors
To IucIIILuLe u move Lo more ouLcome-bused commIssIonIng,
GovernmenL sIouId esLubIIsI u regIsLer oI desIgn und InnovuLIon
specIuIIsLs, uvuIIubIe Ior poIIcvmukers und pubIIc secLor
munugers (wILI mInImum procuremenL work) Lo udvIse on
svsLem, servIce und producL deveIopmenL, und more eIIecLIve
procuremenL.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Knowledge
‘Where design can help
government is very
strategically, by helping
managers in government
lead. We can do more than
create pretty signs, we
can help these agencies of
government work out what
an excellent customer
experience is’
- Witness to the inquiry
26
‘ THE ANSWER TO THE
PROBLEM CANNOT
BE TO ASK A LOT
OF DESIGNERS TO
GO THROUGH A
COMPLEX APPLICATION
PROCESS AND THEN
DO CREATIVE WORK
FOR FREE – WHICH
IS AGAINST OUR
TRADE ASSOCIATION
GUIDANCE’
27
Improving the capacity and skills of design
and innovation procurers
The effective management of creative expertise
¡n concIudIng LIe cIupLer on pubIIc procuremenL, LIe SEE poIIcv
bookIeL, ,QWHJUDWLQJ'HVLJQLQWR5HJLRQDO,QQRYDWLRQ3ROLF\,
urges procurers Lo 'recognIse LIuL InnovuLIon und desIgn ure
noL commodILv ILems und do noL hL LrudILIonuI procuremenL
processes, so LIe eIIecLIve munugemenL oI creuLIve experLIse Is
requIred.`
qo
TIuL sucI experL munugemenL Is rure wus u concern
reßecLed bv munv suppIIers LIrougIouL LIe InquIrv - 'You`re
buvIng udvIsors IIke beuns`. TIIs suggesLs LIere Is u breukdown
beLween LIe procuremenL guIdunce comIng Irom OGC und B¡S,
und evervduv prucLIce.
TIIs 'gup` beLween poIIcv und busIness reuIILv wus un Issue
IdenLIhed In zoo= bv Cox, und summurIsed us IoIIows:
'sucI decIuruLIons und LIe uccompunvIng guIdunce (Irom HMT)
uren`L suIhcIenL Lo overcome veurs oI IngruIned LIInkIng und
beIuvIour or u Iuck oI necessurv skIIIs Lo puL poIIcv InLo prucLIce.
TIIs Is compounded bv LIe IrugmenLed nuLure oI procuremenL,
currIed ouL noL jusL bv LIe munv dIIIerenL cenLruI governmenL
depurLmenLs buL bv LIousunds oI IocuI bodIes. ¡L Is possIbIe Ior
governmenL Lo seL overuII ruIes LIuL consLruIn prucLIce buL mucI
more dIIhcuIL Lo munduLe posILIve beIuvIour. ¡L Is un ureu wIere
LIere Is no hrm connecLIon beLween LIe brIdge und LIe rudder.`
q1
SopIIsLIcuLed procuremenL LooIs Ior deuIIng wILI SMEs (In
wIIcI cuLegorv LIe vusL mujorILv oI creuLIve ugencIes wouId
sIL)
qz
do exIsL und ure currenLIv beIng revIewed, upduLed und
rehned on LIe buck oI LIe GIover reporL, $FFHOHUDWLQJWKH60(
HFRQRPLFHQJLQHWKURXJKWUDQVSDUHQWVLPSOHDQGVWUDWHJLF
SURFXUHPHQW.

BuL LIe InquIrv Iound LIuL u combInuLIon oI
IImILed knowIedge und u nuLuruI IncIInuLIon Lo rIsk uversIon cun
sLIII Ieud Lo bud prucLIce, boLI In LIe InLernuI operuLIons oI un
orgunIsuLIon und In deuIIng wILI suppIIers (see Box z).
40 SEE Policy Booklet 01, November 2009, Integrating Design into Regional Innovation Policy, p9
41 Using the power of public procurement, Cox Review of Creativity in Business, p35
42 80% of design agencies employ fewer than 5 people
43 http://www.ogc.gov.uk/key_policy_principles_creating_opportunities_for_smes_and_third_sector_organisations.asp
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
SKILLS
Box 2
Failings in the management of creative
expertise
Frequently-occurring complaints from both
buyers and suppliers:
- miscommunication and misunderstandings
between commissioners and procurers
- artificial dividing of projects into smaller
procurement tasks, often when an integrated
approach would be more effective
- poor knowledge of how to write a design brief –
suppliers complained of having to negotiate ‘the
straitjacket of a bad brief’ – or evaluate a tender
- under-appreciation of design skills: demands for
free creative pitching and an unwillingness to
pay ‘the right price’ for design
- ‘Value for Money’, although defined by the OGC
and NAO as ‘Optimising the cost of delivering
a service or goods over the full life of the
contract rather than minimising the initial price’,
is still often interpreted as lowest cost
Overall: a confusing lack of consistency in
process.
28
TIe InquIrv Iound room Ior ImprovemenL In LIe skIIIs oI boLI
commIssIoners und procurers Lo munuge creuLIve experLIse,
und u need Ior cIeurer ground ruIes regurdIng besL prucLIce In
procuremenL oI desIgn.
Recommendation 5
A Design and Procurement Panel
We recommend LIuL GovernmenL uppoInL u joInL desIgn und
procuremenL puneI, wILI supporL Irom C¡PS, LIe purpose beIng
Lo Improve desIgn procuremenL ouLcomes LIrougI supporLIng
LIose wIo muke procuremenL decIsIons.
TIe puneI wouId promoLe desIgn vuIue Lo pubIIc servIces,
expIuIn LIe roIes LIuL desIgn cun pIuv, wIen und Iow IL sIouId
be used, und udvocuLe InLeIIIgenL procuremenL prucLIces geured
Lowurds ouLcome-bused commIssIonIng (see Cuse SLudv, p¤1).
TIIs udvIsorv group oI pubIIc servIce experLs wouId be u muLrIx
oI senIor pubIIc secLor und desIgn IndusLrv hgures, recognIsed
bv LIe OGC und cIuIred bv LIe new roIe oI GovernmenL CIIeI
AdvIsor Ior DesIgn und ¡nnovuLIon.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
‘There seems to be an
absolute acceptance to
pay for science but a
reluctance to pay the
right price for creativity –
creative thinking or design’
- Witness to the inquiry
29
Tailored training
JusL us 'desIgn` cun be depIoved uL munv dIIIerenL IeveIs, LIere
ure equuIIv munv dIscIpIInes, Lvpes oI ugencv und cuIIbre oI
desIgner (see Box ¤). ¡L Is noL cIeur LIuL buvers ure uwure oI LIIs
vurIeLv oI suppIIers. EvIdenLIv, LIe greuLesL success wIII come
wIen compunIes wIo cun LruIv IuIhI LIe requIremenLs ure InvILed
Lo Lender. ConIusIon uL LIe ouLseL over wIo Is beIng usked Lo
Lender Ior wIuL Lvpe oI ucLIvILv cun Ieud Lo mIsundersLundIngs
und dIIhcuIL reIuLIonsIIps, und cosLs LIuL ure unexpecLedIv IIgI.
Our InLervIews suggesLed LIuL pubIIc secLor cusLomers wouId
benehL Irom udvIce Lo IeIp LIem dIIIerenLIuLe beLween LIe munv
dIIIerenL desIgn dIscIpIInes, LIe kInds oI consuILuncIes LIuL
suppIv LIem, und wIIcI ure LIe besL In LIeIr heId.
TIe InquIrv uIso Ieurd LIuL one oI LIe Ieurs In commIssIonIng
desIgn Is vuInerubIIILv - purLIcuIurIv II LIe resuILs ure
conLroversIuI or medIocre - Lo crILIcIsm und exposure oI spend
bv LIe medIu und PurIIumenLurv quesLIonIng. TIe medIu Iurore
surroundIng LIe unveIIIng oI LIe ¡ondon zo1z OIvmpIc Iogo
qq

Is u LvpIcuI exumpIe. ¡L Is crucIuI Lo undersLund LIuL noL uII
InnovuLIons wIII succeed; buL one oI LIe udvunLuges oI u weII-
munuged creuLIve process ougIL Lo be 'IuIIIng eurIv und cIeupIv`.
(PusIIng III-IuLed projecLs LIrougI becuuse oI u poIILIcuI
ImperuLIve Is IuIIIng expensIveIv, und pubIIcIv.) GovernmenL
communIcuLors need Lo Iuve LIe skIIIs Lo urgue LIe cuse noL onIv
Ior spendIng monev on desIgn, buL Ior IuIIure us u nuLuruI purL
oI progress.
ProcurIng weII Is IuII LIe buLLIe. RecenL Lenders Ior ¡ondon
zo1z und u Brund Ior ¡ondon were doomed Irom LIe sLurL,
cIurucLerIsed bv LIe Iuck oI u proIessIonuI upproucI Lo
procuremenL. TIere seems Lo be IILLIe IeIp Ior procurers
negoLIuLIng LIe specIuIIsL ureu oI creuLIve udvIce or servIces.
TIe GovernmenL ProcuremenL ServIce
q=
und LIe GovernmenL
CommunIcuLIon NeLwork
q6
boLI provIde weII-esLubIIsIed
supporL Lo cIvII servunLs. BuL IL Is our undersLundIng LIuL
currenLIv LIere Is no desIgn-specIhc udvIce on oIIer.
AIongsIde LIe December zoo¤ Pre-BudgeL ReporL, governmenL
pIedged Lo InsLILuLe u new NuLIonuI ScIooI Ior GovernmenL
LruInIng progrumme Ior pubIIc secLor InnovuLIon
q;
. SucI u
progrumme sIouId IncIude LruInIng In LIe use und procuremenL
oI desIgn us un InLegruI purL oI LIe InnovuLIon Iundscupe.
44 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1553545/Olympic-chiefs-under-fire-for-puerile-logo.html
45 http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/my-civil-service/networks/professional/gps.aspx
46 http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/my-civil-service/networks/professional/gcn.aspx
47 Putting the Frontline First: Smarter Government p52
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
Box 3
The ‘Design Does It’ categories of designer
1 The ‘consultant’ designer is focused on finding
the right problem, using conceptual thinking,
and is oriented towards improving the way
something works functionally – thereby making
it better.
2 The ‘visionary’ designer is focused on exploring
problems (rather than working with a given
solution), by using conceptual thinking methods
that are oriented towards bringing a unique
twist to something – making it new, fresh and
eye-catching.
3 The ‘contractor’ designer is focused on
delivering design solutions that are oriented
towards making something functionally better
rather than simply more aesthetically pleasing.
4 The ‘specialist’ designer is focused on
delivering design solutions, using traditional
design methods that are oriented towards
being efficient and aesthetically pleasing.
30
ProcurIng desIgn InLeIIIgenLIv cun enubIe 'smurL`
q8
or '=LI
generuLIon` InnovuLIon buL LIIs Is u messuge LIuL needs cIeurer
und wIder dIssemInuLIon.
Recommendation 6
A tailored training programme
¡n purLnersIIp wILI GPS und GCN, LIe DesIgn BusIness
AssocIuLIon sIouId reIresI und expund LIe 'DesIgn Does ¡L`
LruInIng und deveIopmenL progrumme Ior commIssIoners und
procurers oI desIgn, Lo IncIude LruInIng In desIgn procuremenL,
und Ior servIces bevond LIe reuIm oI murkeLIng und
communIcuLIons desIgn.
TIe course ougIL Lo pIuce empIusIs on demonsLruLIng vuIue
Ior monev LIrougI desIgn. TIIs reporL cuIIs Ior uII GovernmenL
depurLmenLs und NDPBs Lo encouruge LruInIng LIrougI u newIv
uccredILed course oI LIIs kInd, uIongsIde LIose oIIered bv C¡B,
C¡MS und C¡PR.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
48 See the Design Council’s ‘Design Bugs Out’ Case Study, p42
‘Designers know about
risk – design is one of the
‘riskiest’ industries. The
design process is a simple
human activity of trial
and error. If you punish
people for errors they will
not trial. There needs to
be a way of rewarding
controlled failure’
- Witness to the inquiry
CASE
STUDY
31
HMPS wus u pIoneer In usIng LIe ¡orwurd CommILmenL
ProcuremenL modeI, wILI wIIcI LIev sourced un uILernuLIve
soIuLIon Lo u IIgIIv unsusLuInubIe svsLem Ior dIsposIng oI used
muLLresses In prIsons.

TIe ¡orwurd CommILmenL ProcuremenL modeI InvoIves
provIdIng LIe murkeL wILI udvunce InIormuLIon oI IuLure needs
In ouLcome Lerms, eurIv engugemenL wILI poLenLIuI suppIIers
und LIe IncenLIve oI u ¡orwurd CommILmenL: un ugreemenL Lo
purcIuse u producL or servIce LIuL currenLIv does noL exIsL, uL
u specIhed IuLure duLe, provIdIng IL cun be deIIvered Lo ugreed
perIormunce IeveIs und cosLs.

¡n HMPS`s cuse, LIev were buvIng 6o,ooo IIgI specIhcuLIon
muLLresses und pIIIows per veur und dIsposIng oI LIe mujorILv Lo
IundhII or us cIInIcuI wusLe. TIe prucLIce wus cosLIv (esLImuLed Lo
cosL over £¤ mIIIIon pu), envIronmenLuIIv unsusLuInubIe und ouL
oI sLep wILI HMPS susLuInubIe deveIopmenL poIIcv.

HMPS IdenLIhed un 'unmeL need` LIus:
¨HMPS uspIres Lo u zero wusLe prIson muLLress LIuL meeLs or
exceeds currenL operuLIonuI requIremenLs und deIIvers wIoIe IIIe
cvcIe cosL eIhcIencIes. Bv zo1z, HMPS wunLs uII ILs muLLresses
und pIIIows noL cIussIhed us Iuzurdous wusLe Lo be recvcIed,
repurposed or reused InsLeud oI goIng Lo IundhII; und Lo reduce
Lo z per cenL pu LIe number oI muLLresses dIsposed oI us
Iuzurdous or cIInIcuI wusLe.¨

TIrougI u process oI ¡CP murkeL soundIng und consuILuLIon,
HMPS mude sure LIuL LIe murkeL knew ubouL LIe requIremenL,
Iud LIme Lo deveIop new suppIv cIuIns und InnovuLe, und
(crILIcuIIv) wus convInced oI LIeIr commILmenL Lo deIIverIng LIe
ouLcomes. TIe response oI LIe suppIv cIuIn wus exceIIenL: over
¤6 IIgI quuIILv responses were receIved, Irom wIIcI u runge oI
opLIons were IdenLIhed.

TIe resuILs: InnovuLIve new covers wIII reduce Lurnover und uII
buL eIImInuLe LIe need Ior cIInIcuI wusLe dIsposuI; no end oI IIIe
muLLresses wIII be senL Lo IundhII, buL InsLeud wIII be recvcIed
InLo useIuI producLs. HMPS esLImuLes LIuL IL wIII suve beLween
£¤-£= mIIIIon over LIe IIIe oI LIe conLrucL, und Is now workIng
wILI B¡S Lo buIId on LIe success oI LIIs projecL und deveIop u
second ¡CP projecL, Lowurds zero wusLe prIsons.
CASE STUDY
HM PRISON
SERVICE
ZERO WASTE
MATTRESSES:
FORWARD
COMMITMENT
PROCUREMENT
PIONEER
PROJECT
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
32
The role of the Central Office of Information
TIrougIouL LIe InquIrv, wILnesses Irom boLI LIe suppIv und
demund sIde expressed mIsgIvIngs ubouL LIe operuLIons oI LIe
CenLruI OIhce oI ¡nIormuLIon (CO¡).
EsLubIIsIed In 1¤q6 us governmenL`s communIcuLIon ugencv,
LIe CO¡ Ius grown Lo over z=oo sLuII In u nuLIonwIde neLwork,
IundIIng LIe communIcuLIons needs oI u vusL runge oI pubIIc
secLor orgunIsuLIons. Toduv CO¡ munuges LIe mujorILv oI
governmenL spend on communIcuLIons ucLIvILv,

und Lo
do so IL Ius creuLed exLensIve Irumeworks - In uccordunce
wILI EU guIdeIInes - Ior u runge oI desIgn-reIuLed ucLIvILIes,
IncIudIng sLruLegIc consuILuncv, reseurcI und InsIgIL, cusLomer
experIences, murkeLIng und communIcuLIons servIces, brundIng
und evenLs.
BuL sInce LIe IncepLIon oI LIe CO¡, LIe conLexL Ior GovernmenL
communIcuLIon Ius cIunged. TIe need Lo communIcuLe more
eIIecLIveIv und InnovuLIveIv meuns IundIIng mosL servIces
LIrougI one guLekeeper Is no Ionger susLuInubIe, und doesn`L
uIIord LIe ugIIILv Ior munugIng cross-cuLLIng projecLs LIuL
requIre InLegruLed soIuLIons und specIuIIsL ugencIes workIng In
purLnersIIp. TIere Is now some debuLe over wIuL LIe CO¡`s roIe
sIouId be.
Duplication of services
As IL Ius grown LIe CO¡ Ius expunded ILs oIIerIng Irom
commIssIoner, Lo udvIsor, Lo suppIIer, dupIIcuLIng servIces
governmenL depurLmenLs or NDPBs cun und sIouId provIde
Ior LIemseIves, und servIces LIuL LIe prIvuLe secLor Is beLLer
pIuced Lo suppIv. ¡n munugIng LIe Irumeworks Ior ouLsourcIng
projecLs IL removes LIe responsIbIIILv und experLIse Irom
IndIvIduuIs wILIIn depurLmenLs. ¡L uIso reLuIns LIe creuLIve
cupubIIILIes Lo deIIver projecLs In-Iouse, eIIecLIveIv operuLIng
us un ugencv cuLerIng soIeIv Lo LIe pubIIc secLor, und puLLIng
ILseII In dIrecL compeLILIon wILI LIe prIvuLe secLor. TIIs Is un
ubnormuI sILuuLIon.
As u guLekeeper LIere Is u IundumenLuI conßIcL oI InLeresL In
beIng boLI reguIuLor und producer, und sucI un operuLIon Is
IIkeIv dIsLorLIng LIe murkeLpIuce Ior desIgn und creuLIve servIces,
us weII us beIng IneIhcIenL. AddILIonuIIv, LIIs needIess eIemenL
oI compeLILIon resuILs In wIuL some wILnesses cIurucLerIsed
49 90% by its own admission – with total operating expenditure of £542m and running costs of £54m in 2008/09,
download the annual report here:
http://coi.gov.uk/documents/coi-annualreport2008-9.pdf
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
33
us bIzurre, 'LerrILorIuI` beIuvIours ('CO¡ Is wurv oI ugencIes
deveIopIng u reIuLIonsIIp dIrecLIv wILI cIIenLs, und sLeuIIng LIeIr
busIness`) und breeds u cuILure oI suspIcIon ruLIer LIun LrusL.
Risk and reward
Becuuse CO¡ beIuves us II IL wus u prIvuLe secLor ugencv, In
reuIILv IL Ius IILLIe rIsk oI IuIIure. ¡n LIe prIvuLe secLor LIe buIunce
oI rIsk und rewurd drIves quuIILv und InnovuLIon. BuL Ior LIe CO¡
sucI IncenLIves ure reduced. WIuLever LIe quuIILv oI servIce,
work Is guurunLeed becuuse LIere Is no oLIer cIoIce Ior cIIenLs.
¡Ls sIze und monopoIv oI LIe murkeL mukes IL un expensIve
servIce Ior cIIenLs Lo use, wIereus compeLILIon wouId encouruge
besL vuIue spend oI pubIIc monev. MurkeL Iorces ougIL Lo be
uIIowed Lo drIve economIc vuIue Lo LIe secLor und pubIIc vuIue
Lo cILIzens.
The middleman inhibits creative relationships
TIe InquIrv Ieurd concerns LIuL CO¡`s roIe us u broker
- medIuLIng beLween pubIIc secLor cIIenL und ugencv -
compromIses LIe quuIILv und vuIue oI soIuLIons. TIeIr
InLervenLIon sIows down wIuL someLImes needs Lo be u rupId
commIssIonIng process, proIIbILs unv open dIscussIon oI budgeL,
und LIeIr purLIcuIur InLerpreLuLIon oI EU procuremenL ruIes
denIes uccess Lo opporLunILIes Ior smuII und specIuIIsL provIders.
AddILIonuIIv, LIe quuIILv oI LIe reIuLIonsIIp Is dIIuLed. TIe
cuILure oI suspIcIon menLIoned ubove Is counLer Lo wIuL
sIouId drIve LIe creuLIve process - LrusL, InsIgIL und pussIon
Ior resuILs. WorkIng LIrougI u broker cun duII moLIvuLIon und
enLIusIusm on boLI sIdes In wIuL sIouId be u muLuuIIv excILIng
und rewurdIng ucLIvILv. PrIvuLe secLor ugencIes cun never commIL
IuIIv und esLubIIsI u successIuI reIuLIonsIIp becuuse LIev never
LruIv geL Lo know LIeIr cIIenL. GovernmenL cIIenLs sIouId be ubIe
Lo InvesL In desIgn dIrecLIv, und work wILI LIe besL oI LIe secLor
Lo creuLe Iong-Lerm susLuInubIe purLnersIIps wILI provIders.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
‘People buy from
people. A problem with
procurement, inherently,
is it’s a barrier to the
relationship’
- Witness to the inquiry
34
A mismatch with current policy
¡n IIgIL oI recenL GovernmenL poIIcv LIuL Ius
1. cIumpIoned supporL Ior LIe creuLIve economv us u
sIgnIhcunL conLrIbuLer Lo GDP,
=o

z. uIIeged ILs InLenLIon Lo Improve opporLunILIes Ior SMEs,
=1

¤. pIedged Lo promoLe InnovuLIve procuremenL,
=z
und
q. udmILLed IL needs Lo hnd u wuv Lo drIve down pubIIc
spendIng


IL Is sLrunge LIuL GovernmenL sIouId be IundIng un ugencv LIuL,
In ILs operuLIons, works counLer Lo munv oI LIose LurgeLs.
TIere Is udmILLedIv u murkeL Ior LIe servIce LIuL CO¡ provIdes
umongsL smuIIer pubIIc secLor ugencIes, buL LIere Is no reuson
wIv oLIer Iurger governmenL depurLmenLs cun`L provIde LIIs
servIce bv sIurIng LIeIr own Irumeworks, Ior Iree.
=q

However, In LIe conLexL oI LIe breudLI oI pubIIc servIces, In
wIIcI communIcuLIons ure u duIIv ouLpuL, LIere Is u roIe Ior LIe
CO¡. ¡Ls vuIue wouId be In provIng u suvIng on buIk purcIuse
oI supporL servIces sucI us medIu or prInL, or II IL cun beLLer LIe
economIes oI scuIe LIuL ure ucIIeved bv BuvIng SoIuLIons.
Recommendation 7
An Appropriate Role for the COI
TIe CO¡ sIouId noL be LIe Iuce oI GovernmenL Lo LIe desIgn
IndusLrv. GovernmenL sIouId commIL Lo buvIng servIces dIrecL
Irom LIe prIvuLe secLor, eIImInuLIng LIe cIvII servunL Lo cIvII
servunL LrunsucLIon cuILure, uIIowIng depurLmenLs Lo munuge
LIeIr own creuLIve experLIse.
DesIgn-reIuLed ucLIvILIes currenLIv IundIed bv LIe CO¡
(IncIudIng sLruLegIc consuILuncv, reseurcI und InsIgIL, cusLomer
experIences, murkeLIng und communIcuLIons servIces, brundIng
und evenLs) ougIL Lo be removed Irom LIe porLIoIIo. CO¡`s vuIue
Is In provIng u neL suvIng on buIk purcIuse und repeuL busIness.
50 Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Creative Britain: New Talents for the New Economy, February 2008
51 HM Treasury, Accelerating the SME Economic Engine: Through transparent, simple and strategic procurement, November 2008
52 OGC, Driving Innovation Through Public Procurement, 2009
53 HM Government, Putting the Frontline First: Smarter Government, December 2009
54 DCSF is experimenting with a potential model: http://prweek.com/channel/PublicSector/article/983180/Department%20for%20Children,%20
Schools%20and%20Families%20to%20streamline%20government%20comms/
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Skills
‘60% of our work is public
sector. We’ve found it can
be much more rewarding
than working in the private
sector’
- A designer, witness to the inquiry
35
‘ GOVERNMENT TRIES
TO CHOOSE DESIGN,
WHEN ACTUALLY
IT NEEDS TO GET
BETTER AT CHOOSING
DESIGNERS’
36
Transforming the procurement process for
design and innovation
A single, simplified below-threshold tender approach
PubIIc secLor procuremenL processes ure Iurd Ior uII SMEs.
¡n procurIng desIgn und InnovuLIon, LIere Is LIe udded
unpredIcLubIIILv - und mIsLrusL - oI LIe creuLIve process.
So uILIougI LIe word desIgn does descrIbe u vusL runge oI
ucLIvILIes, LIe sIured eIemenL oI 'LIe creuLIve process` meuns
LIuL In LIeIr deuIIngs wILI pubIIc secLor, desIgn busInesses Iuve
u common experIence. ¡n sIorL, desIgn ugencIes suIIer mucI
LIe sume probIems us oLIer SMEs In negoLIuLIng pubIIc secLor
procuremenL, buL oILen wILI LIe udded compIIcuLIon oI desIgn
IIIILeruLe cIIenLs.
Some LvpIcuIIv IneIhcIenL prucLIces:
- Lender processes LIuL ouLIIve LIe need LIev were InILIuLed
Lo meeL;
- muILIpIe, subLIv dIIIerenL und IuborIous PQQs und ¡TTs;
- reums oI puperwork;
- un-nuvIgubIe e-procuremenL porLuIs;
- more eIIgIbIe ugencIes LenderIng Ior beIow-LIresIoId
conLrucLs LIun evuIuuLors Iuve resources Lo process
SucI IuIIIngs cun umounL Lo bId cosLs LIuL ouLweIgI LIe conLrucL
vuIue, und Iundreds oI unnecessurv mun-Iours spenL on boLI
LIe suppIv und demund sIde. See Cuse SLudv, p¤¤, Ior un uccounL
oI u LvpIcuI uccounL oI poor prucLIcs. SucI experIences deLer
suppIIers Irom compeLIng Ior work wILI pubIIc secLor bodIes.
Munv oI LIese probIems Iuve been LurgeLed bv LIe
recommenduLIons oI Anne GIover`s reporL Ior HMT,
$FFHOHUDWLQJWKH60((FRQRPLF(QJLQH, wIIcI LIIs InquIrv
commends. TIe OGC ure currenLIv workIng on ImpIemenLuLIon
oI LIe recommenduLIons LIrougI LIeIr Access Ior AII
Progrumme. ¡n reIuLIon Lo GIover`s recommenduLIons 1, z und
¤, concerned wILI movIng uII procuremenL ucLIvILv onIIne,
==

we urge LIe OGC Lo cureIuIIv evuIuuLe currenL e-procuremenL
servIces, wIIcI LIe InquIrv IdenLIhed us beIng InudequuLe
und unworkubIe.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
55 HM Treasury, Accelerating the SME Economic Engine: Through transparent, simple and strategic procurement,
November 2008
PROCESS
‘You can answer the
question in a very human
way: why should anyone
invest a lot of time and
effort, put themselves
under a high level of
scrutiny, with a lot of
information about their
business, for a very low
possibility of gain?’
- Witness to the inquiry
37
¡n reIuLIon Lo GIover`s hILI recommenduLIon, sLundurdIzIng
PQQs,
=6
OGC Is upduLIng ILs beIow LIresIoId PQQ: 'we Iuve
deveIoped u druIL 'core quesLIon` seL wIIcI IncIudes quesLIons
LIuL ure unIversuI Lo uII poLenLIuI provIdersJ suppIIers bIddIng
Ior pubIIc secLor conLrucLs (hnuncIuI, IeguI sLuLus eLc) und u
druIL 'uddILIonuI quesLIons` seL (HeuILI und SuIeLv, equuIILv,
envIronmenLuI eLc) wIere IL Is uL LIe dIscreLIon oI LIe procurer Lo
IncIude quesLIons reIevunL Lo LIeIr procuremenL`.
BuL OGC cunnoL muke besL prucLIce munduLorv. To Luke u
common exumpIe: currenL guIdunce (us oI AprII zoo8) sLuLes
LIuL onIv Lwo veurs worLI oI uccounLs, or oLIer evIdence II Lwo
veurs worLI Is noL uvuIIubIe, Is requIred. BuL LIe InquIrv Ieurd
evIdence LIuL SMEs ure commonIv usked Ior ¤ vrs worLI oI
uccounLs us purL oI compIeLIng LIe PQQ.
A sLrengLIened roIe Ior LIe OGC wouId cIeurIv be IeIpIuI.
GovernmenL sIouId uIso pursue uwureness-ruIsIng ucLIvILIes
LIrougIouL LIe pubIIc secLor oI LIe ImporLunce oI InLeIIIgenL
procuremenL - und LIe exIsLence oI u sImpIIhed PQQ.
To suppIemenL LIIs, LIe InquIrv puneI commIssIoned un
IndependenL redesIgn oI LIe procuremenL process. A summurv oI
LIe resuILs Is IncIuded In LIe AppendIx.
Recommendation 8
A single approach for tendering below threshold projects
We recommend LIe InsLILuLIng oI u sIngIe upproucI Ior
procurIng desIgn und InnovuLIon beIow LIe OJEU LIresIoId. A
greuLer benehL Ior governmenL wouId be ucIIeved bv uppIvIng u
sIngIe sImpIIhed process us recommended In LIe GIover reporL.
TIe DBA sIouId work wILI LIe OGC on pubIIcIsIng besL prucLIce,
und deveIopIng secLor-specIhc semInurs In Iow Lo procure und
suppIv (see RecommenduLIon 6: A LuIIored LruInIng progrumme).
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
56 HM Treasury, Accelerating the SME Economic Engine: Through transparent, simple and strategic procurement,
November 2008
‘I’ve yet to use an
e-procurement system
that comes anywhere near
to meeting government
guidelines on usability.’
- Witness to the inquiry
38
The Internal Process
¡L Is our undersLundIng LIuL overIv compIex process cun
InIIbIL boLI buver und suppIIer, Lo LIe exLenL LIuL boLI wIII
Luke meusures Lo sIdesLep IL. ¡n LIe cuse oI communIcuLIons
procuremenL, deuIIng wILI LIe CO¡ Is oILen vIewed us un
uddILIonuI IIndrunce, ruLIer LIun u IeIp. ¡or pubIIc secLor
commIssIoners, poIILIcuI ImperuLIves demund u quIck
Lurnuround on munv projecLs; und expedIencv someLImes
precIudes emburkIng on u IengLIv procuremenL process -
prucLIces wIIcI ure IrreguIur, II noL unIuwIuI.
ProcuremenL depurLmenLs Iuve Lo meeL u wIde vurIeLv oI
resource needs - Irom puper cIIps Lo murkeL reseurcI Lo
specIuIIsL equIpmenL - und cunnoL be expecLed Lo be experL
In unv IndIvIduuI heId. Good communIcuLIons beLween
commIssIoner und procurer, und conhdence LIuL boLI purLners
undersLund LIe procuremenL requIremenLs, LIereIore IeIp.
TIe InquIrv Ieurd LIuL LIe wuvs In wIIcI procedures ure
ImpIemenLed oILen depends on IndIvIduuIs - Iow mucI
puLIence LIev Iuve Ior due process, LIe reIuLIonsIIp beLween
commIssIoners und procurers, personuI experLIse. TIIs Ieuds Lo
Iuge InconsIsLencIes In procuremenL sLundurds ucross WIILeIuII
und LIe wIder pubIIc secLor, wIIcI Is reßecLed In LIe vurvIng
experIence oI suppIIers.
PubIIc secLor cIIenLs sIouId be ubIe Lo uccess und commIssIon
uII murkeLIng, desIgn und creuLIve servIces dIrecLIv LIrougI new
depurLmenLuIIv-munuged Irumeworks. UsIng OGC besL prucLIce
und experLIse, LIere Is no reuson wIv depurLmenLs cunnoL creuLe
LIeIr own, suILubIe, Irumeworks Ior u IuII runge oI suppIIers -
Irom Iurge InLegruLed consuILuncIes, Lo smuII specIuIIsL ugencIes
und experL IndIvIduuIs - Lo provIde IuIIv InLegruLed soIuLIons.
One poLenLIuI, us veL unLrIed, wuv oI uccommoduLIng LIe
broudesL runge oI prucLILIoners wouId be Lo pIIoL u roIIIng rosLer
oI new smuII specIuIIsL InnovuLIon consuILuncIes.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
‘most of our clients in
the public sector do
their level best to avoid
getting involved in the
procurement system’
- Witness to the inquiry
‘Our most successful
experiences have been
working with people
that have bent the rules:
‘flexible interpretation’.’
- Witness to the inquiry
CASE
STUDY
39
=¤ compunIes responded Lo LIe PQQ. zo were InvILed Lo Tender.
; were uwurded u pIuce on LIe Irumework. TIe vuIue oI LIe work
goIng Lo LIe Irumework wus £zoo,ooo per unnum.
TIe procuremenL process, wIIcI unIoIded over u 1o monLI
perIod, wus us IoIIows:
- December zoo8: Tender pubIIsIed
- z6LI Jun zoo¤: DeudIIne Ior LIe PQQ
- ¤oLI AprII zoo¤: ¡TT pubIIsIed
- z¤LI June zoo¤: DeudIIne Ior ¡TT
- ;LI OcLober zoo¤: ¡InuI resuIL unnounced
Once on LIe Irumework we wouId Iuve been requIred Lo pILcI
(Ior Iree) Ior eucI pIece oI work LIuL cume LIrougI. We unswered
uII LIe quesLIons In LIe desIgn und medIu specIhcuLIon und
provIded creuLIve work und cosLIngs Ior un ImugInurv job us weII
us u ruLe curd. ¡L Look ¤ oI us q weeks noLcIIng up over 16o Iours
worLI oI work on LIe creuLIve.
RuLIer IrrILuLIngIv we cume 8LI.
WIen we Ieurd we weren`L successIuI In geLLIng on LIe
Irumework ¡, us uIwuvs, usked Ior Ieedbuck. WIen ¡ usked Iow
our creuLIve work Iud been evuIuuLed, LIe murkeLIng oIhcer,
suId LIuL LIev Iud decIded noL Lo evuIuuLe LIe creuLIve work.
WIen ¡ IncreduIousIv usked wIv, ¡ wus LoId ¨¡ know, vou sIouId
Iuve Ieurd LIe urgumenLs ubouL IL!¨ ¡n sIorL, LIev suId LIuL IL
wouId be consIdered Lo be 'Loo subjecLIve`. AII ¡ couId do Is IIsLen
wILI mv mouLI open.
¡ wenL Lo LIe ¡ocuI AuLIorILv und spoke Lo LIe Ieud oI conLrucLs
und ¤ Iuwvers. TIev wouIdn`L udmIL unvLIIng ubouL noL scorIng
LIe pILcI, buL dId udmIL LIuL LIev Iud been negIIgenL In deuIIng
wILI mv cIurIhcuLIon enquIrIes. TIev IeIL LIe room und, wIen
LIev reLurned, oIIered me z opLIons: redo LIe wIoIe Lender
process (1o monLIs Ior evervone) or uccepL u pIuce on LIe
Irumework.
¡ poInLed ouL LIuL Lo be IuIr LIev sIouId re-do LIe wIoIe process,
buL LIuL IL probubIv wouIdn`L serve unvone`s InLeresL - neILIer
LIe ¡ocuI AuLIorILv`s, nor uII LIe compunIes LIuL Iud gone
LIrougI LIe process.
So we uccepLed u pIuce on LIe rosLer.
CASE STUDY
A TYPICAL
EXAMPLE OF
POOR PRACTICE
THIS IS A FIRST
HAND ACCOUNT
FROM A DESIGN
AGENCY
APPLYING TO
BE ON A LOCAL
AUTHORITY
DESIGN
AND MEDIA
SERVICES
FRAMEWORK
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
40
Recommendation 9
A best practice pilot
We recommend LIe deveIopmenL oI u besL prucLIce pIIoL Ior
LIe procuremenL oI creuLIve servIces, begInnIng wILI u seIecL
number oI WIILeIuII depurLmenLs. DesIgn procuremenL wouId
be un IdeuI LesL-bed Ior resoIvIng LvpIcuI dIIhcuILIes wILIIn
depurLmenLs, und evoIvIng some sImpIer procuremenL meLIods.
¡I successIuI LIe modeI couId be roIIed ouL ucross LIe wIder
pubIIc secLor.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
‘I suspect the
communication internally
is not eloquent enough in
some respects to be able
to brief the procurement
person as to what they
should be trying to
achieve’
- Witness to the inquiry
41
Clearer messaging
GovernmenL Is uIreudv LrvIng Lo Improve procuremenL und
workIng Lo enguge wILI SMEs. B¡S Ius recenLIv IuuncIed u Iree
onIIne procuremenL course, :LQQLQJWKH&RQWUDFW, wIIcI Is u
commendubIe ImprovemenL Ior suppIIers LrvIng Lo work wILI LIe
pubIIc secLor. TIe OGC Ius uIso recenLv pubIIsIed new guIdunce
Ior procurers on ILs websILe: µ)ODJJLQJ<RXU&RQWUDFWVWR60(V¶.
However LIe InquIrv IdenLIhed conIusIon - Irom boLI buvers
und suppIIers - over excessIve und conßIcLIng sources oI
InIormuLIon on procuremenL In generuI, conLrusLed wILI un
ubsence oI quuIILv guIdunce In LIe specIhc urenu oI procurIng
creuLIvILv.
CurrenL sources oI udvIce IncIude LIe OGC, B¡S, LIe DesIgn
CouncII, GPS und C¡PS. TIe InquIrv beIIeves, und OGC
recognIzes, LIuL LIere Is u need Ior u cIeur und sLrong pun-
governmenL voIce on procuremenL, us weII us Improved guIdunce
on procurIng desIgn und InnovuLIon, Lo muke IIIe sImpIer Ior
boLI suppIIers und buvers.
¡n LIe Iong Lerm, GovernmenL couId consIder pussIng some
guLekeepIng responsIbIIILIes Lo Lrude bodIes. TIe DBA Is ubouL Lo
IuuncI ILs upproved IIsL oI suppIIers, LIe DBA DesIgn DIrecLorv,
wIIcI wIII enubIe buvers Lo IusL-Lruck Lo LIe besL (procuremenL-
reudv) consuILuncIes Ior LIe job.
Recommendation 10
An information and advisory service
We recommend LIe esLubIIsImenL oI u Lwo-wuv servIce
provIdIng cIeur guIdunce, Lo dIrecL procuremenL munugers
Lo udvIce on besL prucLIce (promoLIng LooIs sucI us ¡orwurd
CommILmenL ProcuremenL, encourugIng conversuLIons wILI
suppIIers, ucLIveIv dIscourugIng prucLIces sucI us Iree-pILcIIng)
und Lo IeIp desIgn ugencIes undersLund LIe roud Lo wInnIng
governmenL work. TIe servIce wouId poInL buvers Lo u source
oI procuremenL-reudv suppIIers undo co-ordInuLe wILI exIsLIng
procuremenL servIcesJIrumeworks sucI us 'BuvIng SoIuLIons`,
wIIcI couId be sLrengLIened und broudened In IIne wILI currenL
busIness sImpIIhcuLIon prucLIce.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
CASE
STUDY
42
An uILernuLIve upproucI Lo procurIng desIgn Ius been pIoneered
bv LIe DesIgn CouncII In purLnersIIp wILI LIe DepurLmenL oI
HeuILI und LIe NHS PurcIusIng & SuppIv Agencv, In order
Lo hnd new soIuLIons Lo LIe probIem oI conLroIIIng IeuILIcure
ussocIuLed InIecLIons (HCA¡s).

TIe cosL oI HCA¡s Is boLI Iumun und hnuncIuI. TIev uccounL
Ior over =ooo deuLIs per unnum. ¡n zoo;, =o,ooo C.DIIhcIIe
InIecLIons udded un uveruge oI ¤ - 1o duvs Lo puLIenLs` sLuvs, wILI
ussocIuLed cosLs oI £qooo - £1o,ooo per unnum. UnsurprIsIngIv,
LIe NHS und DepurLmenL oI HeuILI ure keen Lo hnd wuvs oI
mInImIzIng LIIs duIIv rIsk.

As un InILIuI, pre-procuremenL sLep, beIore unv brIeI or
specIhcuLIon wus deLermIned, un experL puneI wus uppoInLed.
TIe puneI - wIIcI IncIuded InLernuLIonuI experLs In puLIenL cure,
cross InIecLIon conLroI, IurnILure munuIucLure, und mIcrobIoIogv
- ucLed us specIuIIsL udvIsors Lo LIe procuremenL Leum. TIev
conducLed reseurcI In u number oI NHS IospILuIs Lo InvesLIguLe
LIe kev Issues, IdenLIIv currenL desIgn ßuws und Ieur concerns oI
sLuII, puLIenLs, cIeuners und oLIer sLukeIoIders.

TIese InsIgILs were LIen Ied InLo Len desIgn brIeIs. TIe InILIuLIve
becume un open InnovuLIon cIuIIenge Lo LIe UK`s desIgn und
munuIucLurIng communILv, Lo desIgn und proLoLvpe new
IurnILure, equIpmenL or servIces Ior IospILuI wurds Lo IeIp
reduce HCA¡s. TIe desIgn brIeIs were uwurded Lo Leums Irom
LIe RovuI CoIIege oI ArL und Iour IndusLrv Leums, consIsLIng oI u
desIgn consuILuncv und munuIucLurer, IdenLIhed vIu u nuLIonuI
compeLILIon.

TIe resuILIng new desIgns, In LIe Iorm oI IuIIv workIng
proLoLvpes, Iuve now been sIowcused Lo IeuILIcure sLuII,
puLIenLs und LIe generuI pubIIc uL kev IeuILIcure conIerences
und evenLs uround LIe counLrv. AImosL everv proLoLvpe Is now
mukIng ILs wuv Lo LIe murkeL.

AII oI LIe producLs were desIgned Lo muLcI exIsLIng IncumbenL
unIL cosLs, und wIIIsL LIere Ius been no cIInIcuI LrIuIs or IuLIgue
LesLIng Lo duLe, IL Is predIcLed LIuL LIe DesIgn Bugs OuL producLs
sIouId Iuve u posILIve eIIecL upon boLI cupILuI und operuLIonuI
cosL, und LIe reducLIon oI HCA¡s. ¡nLeIIecLuuI ProperLv wus
reLuIned bv LIe DepurLmenL oI HeuILI Ior LIe concepLs deveIoped
bv LIe RCA, buL reLuIned bv LIe IndusLrv Leums uIIowIng LIem
Lo InvesL und commercIuIIv expIoIL LIeIr InvenLIons. EvuIuuLIon
meLIods Lo record LIe desIgns` ImpucL ure currenLIv beIng
consIdered bv LIe DepurLmenL oI HeuILI
CASE STUDY
DESIGN BUGS
OUT:
EFFICIENCY
ACHIEVED
THROUGH
A NEW
APPROACH TO
PROCUREMENT
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Process
43
¡n reseurcIIng, wrILIng und consuILIng on LIIs reporL, we Iuve
conLInuuIIv encounLered un Issue oI percepLIon, reIuLed Lo one
oI Iunguuge, uround LIe Lerm 'desIgn`. TIIs Is besL cIurucLerIsed
us u IImILed undersLundIng und Iuck oI cIurILv ubouL LIe roIe,
cupubIIILIes und purpose oI desIgn; und u reducLIon oI ILs
meunIng Lo non-essenLIuI uesLIeLIcs.
¡n IucL, LIe sLruLegIc use oI desIgn cun eIIecL mucI-needed
ImprovemenL In pubIIc servIces, cun cIunge beIuvIour wILIouL
uddIng Lo IegIsIuLIon or expendILure, cun beLLer muLcI provIsIon
wILI need und cun benehL LIe cILIzen.
TIe mIsconcepLIon Is us mucI u cIuIIenge In LIe counLrv
uL Iurge, us IL Is wILIIn LIe pubIIc secLor, und IL Is noL LIe
remIL oI LIIs reporL. BuL gIven LIe Iuge poLenLIuI Ior desIgn
Lo Inßuence quuIILv oI producL und deIIverv, we beIIeve LIIs
mIsundersLundIng consLILuLes u serIous ßuw Ior LIe pubIIc
servIce IndusLrIes.
¡n LIe Iuce oI severeIv reduced budgeLs und Increused demund,
poIILIcIuns, poIIcvmukers und pubIIc secLor munugers ure
cusLIng ubouL Ior LIe mugIc soIuLIon, LIe beLLer wuv oI doIng
LIIngs. DesIgn cun IeIp. TIe crILIcuI quesLIon Is Iow Lo unIock
LIIs poLenLIuI Ior LIe pubIIc secLor. ¡n LuckIIng LIe procuremenL
Iundscupe we Iope we Iuve gone some wuv Lo provIdIng
unswers.
TIIs reporL cuIIs Ior more LIun IIp servIce Irom GovernmenL In
supporL oI our creuLIve IndusLrIes: Ior un uuLIenLIc commILmenL
Lo undersLundIng und depIovIng desIgn eIIecLIveIv, Ior LIe benehL
oI uII.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Conclusion
CONCLUSION
‘There’s a confusion in
this country between
designers as artists and
… as people who are
agents of change in
organisations’
- Witness to the inquiry
44 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?

45
A possible prototype
Public Sector Design Buying Process - Initial Decision Tree
(DBA)
What are you commissioning?
TIIs box covers LIe Lvpe oI servIce LIuL LIe buver Is IookIng Lo commIssIon. TIe reuson
Ior breukIng IL down Lo LIIs IeveI Is bused on LIe brIehng IormuL requIred. TvpIcuIIv
LIe brIeI Ior un unnuuI reporL documenL or IILeruLure wIII be dIIIerenL Irom u brundIng
projecL or un exIIbILIon sLund. A brIehng LempIuLe wIII be deveIoped Ior eucI servIce LIuL
reßecLs LIe InIormuLIon needed bv LIe desIgner Lo sLurL LIInkIng ubouL LIe projecL und
wIII enubIe LIem Lo eILIer prepure u proposuI or come prepured Lo u meeLIng or pILcI.
What is your budget?
TIIs Is u recommenduLIon bused on LvpIcuI projecL vuIues. TIe purpose Iere Is Lo beLLer
reßecL LIe vuIue oI LIe projecL uguInsL LIe LIme IL Lukes Lo deveIop u response. TIIs wIII
work Ior boLI LIe commIssIoner us weII us LIe ugencv.
Process
TIe processes reßecL LIe LIme requIred Lo procure u suLIsIucLorv resuIL bused on LIe
vuIue oI LIe projecL und LIe needs oI u commIssIonIng cIIenL. TIIs wIII ensure LIuL LIev
boLI Iuve un uudIL LruII In pIuce us weII us noL IosIng possIbIe deveIopmenL LIme Ior LIe
projecL bv IuvIng Lo spend u Iurger proporLIon oI LIe deIIverv LIme-Irume seIecLIng u
suILubIe ugencv.
EucI process Is expIuIned IurLIer In u Ionger documenL wIIcI wIII be uvuIIubIe on
LIe DBA websILe IoIIowIng u consuILuLIon perIod (wILI LIe excepLIon oI LIe IuII OJEU
process wIIcI Is uIreudv documenLed eIsewIere). TIese Iuve been prepured Ior
dIscussIon und uL LIIs sLuge do noL necessurIIv represenL u hnuI recommenduLIon. ¡L
Is expecLed LIuL LIere wIII be some dIscussIon, especIuIIv wIen IL comes Lo dIIIerenL
servIces und LIe wuv eucI ugencv In LIuL secLor runs u projecL.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Appendix
APPENDIX
What are you
commissioning?
What is your
budget?
Up to £12,000 Corporate identity
Branding
Packaging
Annual reports
Digital (non web)
Website
Exhibition/Events
Literature
Product design
Service design
Innovation
Three written quotes
Short list - 3 to 6 to pitch
Long list - short list, 6 to pitch
Full OJEU process
£12,001 - £60,000
£60,001 - £100,000
Over £100,001
(inc framework or roster)
Process
46
Definition of terms
(As dehned In LIe Cox RevIew)
Creativity
TIe generuLIon oI new Ideus - eILIer new wuvs oI IookIng uL
exIsLIng probIems, or oI seeIng new opporLunILIes, perIups bv
expIoILIng emergIng LecInoIogIes or cIunges In murkeLs.
Design
¡Inks creuLIvILv und InnovuLIon. ¡L sIupes Ideus Lo become
prucLIcuI und uLLrucLIve proposILIons Ior users or cusLomers.
DesIgn muv be descrIbed us creuLIvILv depIoved Lo u specIhc end.
Innovation
TIe successIuI expIoILuLIon oI new Ideus. ¡L Is LIe process LIuL
currIes LIem LIrougI Lo new producLs, new servIces, new wuvs oI
runnIng LIe busIness or even new wuvs oI doIng busIness.
Dedication
We wouId IIke Lo dedIcuLe LIIs reporL Lo AIun BIrd, un exIIbILIon
desIgner und LIe InspIruLIon Ior LIIs pIece oI work.
As LIe owner oI u smuII busIness, AIun wus overcome bv
procuremenL processes LIuL mude IL uImosL ImpossIbIe Ior IIm
Lo Lrude wILI LIe pubIIc secLor despILe u successIuI Lruck record
spunnIng zo veurs. ¡L wouId muke u hLLIng Iegucv Lo AIun II LIe
IuLure Ior oLIer desIgners couId be Improved so LIuL desIgn und
GovernmenL couId work Iund In Iund.
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Appendix
47 Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Appendix
Panel Members
Buroness JuneL WIILuker, House oI ¡ords (co-cIuIr)
Buroness EsLeIIe MorrIs, House oI ¡ords (co-cIuIr)
DeboruI DuwLon, CIIeI ExecuLIve, DesIgn BusIness AssocIuLIon
JuIIun GrIce, CEO, TIe Teum
¡uuru Huvnes, CIuIr, AppeLILe
DuvId Godber, DepuLv CIIeI ExecuLIve, DesIgn CouncII
Inquiry Witnesses
Andv Normun Brund und DesIgn Munuger, OGC
Andrew PrInce DIrecLor oI PubIIcuLIons, CenLruI OIhce oI ¡nIormuLIon
CoIum ¡owe Iormer Heud oI DesIgn und Humun ¡ucLors uL LIe NuLIonuI
PuLIenL SuIeLv Agencv
Duncun EuLon Non-ExecuLIve DIrecLor, B¡P SoIuLIons
EmIIv TIomus DesIgn CouncII PoIIcv AdvIsor
Gus DesburuLs CIuIr, TIe AIIov
Jun Cusev ¡ndependenL DesIgn ConsuILunL
JIII MorLImer ¡eud AnuIvsL Ior HorIzon ScunnIng, ¡GA
JIm DuwLon DesIgn¡L ¡ondon
JuIIu ScIueper ServIce DesIgner und AssocIuLe, NHS ¡nsLILuLe Ior ¡nnovuLIon
und ¡mprovemenL
Kusper de GruuI CIuIr, A¡G
KuLe BIundIord KuLe BIundIord ConsuILIng
NIgeI KeoIune SenIor ReseurcIer, New ¡ocuI GovernmenL NeLwork
Peggv Connor BusIness DIrecLor, AAR Group
PIII Deun TIompson Brund PurLners
RIcIurd SIude GrupIIc DesIgner, CommunIcuLIons und MurkeLIng Teum,
HMRC
RoberL Hurdmun ProcuremenL CuLegorv Munuger, OGC
Seun O`HuIIorun Hoop AssocIuLes
SImon Muv ¡ndependenL DesIgn ConsuILunL
SLIun WesLIuke ExecuLIve DIrecLor oI PoIIcv und ReseurcI, NESTA
Written submissions
OGC
CABE
DesIgn CouncII
SouLI WesL DesIgn ¡orum
DBA Members
AII puII-ouL quoLes In LIIs reporL ure Luken Irom LIe InquIrv LrunscrIpLsJwILnesses Lo
LIe InquIrv.
48
CommIssIon oI LIe Europeun CommunILIes, CommIssIon SLuII WorkIng DocumenL:
DesIgn us u drIver oI user-cenLred InnovuLIon, BrusseIs, AprII zoo¤
Cox, G., Cox RevIew oI CreuLIvILv In BusIness: BuIIdIng on LIe UK`s SLrengLIs,
HM Treusurv, Junuurv zoo=
DunIsI NuLIonuI Agencv Ior EnLerprIse, TIe EconomIc EIIecLs oI DesIgn,
SepLember zoo¤
DepurLmenL Ior BusIness, EnLerprIse & ReguIuLorv ReIorm (BERR), MunuIucLurIng:
New CIuIIenges, New OpporLunILIes, SepLember zoo8
DepurLmenL Ior BusIness, ¡nnovuLIon und SkIIIs, GoIng Ior GrowLI: Our ¡uLure
ProsperILv, Junuurv zo1o
DepurLmenL Ior CuILure, MedIu und SporL, CreuLIve BrILuIn: New TuIenLs Ior LIe New
Economv, ¡ebruurv zoo8
DepurLmenL Ior ¡nnovuLIon, UnIversILIes und SkIIIs (D¡US), ¡nnovuLIon NuLIon,
MurcI zoo8.
DepurLmenL oI Trude und ¡ndusLrv (DT¡), CreuLIvILv, DesIgn und BusIness
PerIormunce, EconomIcs Puper No 1=, November zoo=
DesIgn CouncII ReseurcI und KnowIedge Teum, DesIgn CouncII BrIehng oz:
TIe roIe oI desIgn In pubIIc servIces, November zoo8
HM GovernmenL, PuLLIng LIe ¡ronLIIne ¡IrsL: SmurLer GovernmenL, December zoo¤
HM Treusurv, AcceIeruLIng LIe SME economIc engIne: LIrougI LrunspurenL, sImpIe und
sLruLegIc procuremenL, November zoo8
HM Treusurv, OperuLIonuI EIhcIencv Progrumme: hnuI reporL, AprII zoo¤
HM Treusurv, PubIIc ExpendILure SLuLIsLIcuI AnuIvses, June zoo¤
MouILrIe, J. und ¡Ivesev, ¡., ¡nLernuLIonuI DesIgn Scorebourd UnIversILv oI CumbrIdge
¡nsLILuLe Ior MunuIucLurIng, AprII zoo¤
MuIgun, G., Reudv or NoL? TukIng InnovuLIon In LIe pubIIc secLor serIousIv, NESTA,
AprII zoo;
NuLIonuI AudIL OIhce, ¡nnovuLIon ucross cenLruI governmenL, MurcI zoo¤
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY
49
NESTA, TIe ¡nnovuLIon ¡ndex: MeusurIng LIe UK`s InvesLmenL In InnovuLIon und ILs
eIIecLs, November zoo¤
OGC, DrIvIng ¡nnovuLIon TIrougI PubIIc ProcuremenL, zoo¤
OGC, PoIIcv TIrougI ProcuremenL AcLIon PIun, Junuurv zo1o
PoLLs, Dr J., und KuLe MorrIson, NudgIng ¡nnovuLIon, NESTA, AprII zoo¤
Pro ¡nno Europe, Europeun ¡nnovuLIon Scorebourd zoo8: CompuruLIve unuIvsIs oI
InnovuLIon perIormunce, Junuurv zoo¤
TIe Work ¡ounduLIon, SLuvIng uIeud: LIe economIc perIormunce oI LIe UK`s creuLIve
IndusLrIes, DepurLmenL Ior CuILure, MedIu und SporL, June zoo;
WIIcIer, A., GIseIe RuuIIk-MurpIv und GuvIn Cuwood, SEE PoIIcv BookIeL 1:
¡nLegruLIng DesIgn InLo RegIonuI ¡nnovuLIon PoIIcv, SEE ProjecL, November zoo¤
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Bibliography
50
ASSOCIATE PARLIAMENTARY
DESIGN & INNOVATION GROUP
DBA
TIe APD¡G Is LIe IeudIng udvocuLe Ior desIgn und InnovuLIon In PurIIumenL,
esLubIIsIed In 1¤¤q bv u group oI MPs und Peers, Ied bv Burrv SIeermun MP.

Our projecLs, ucLIvILIes und reseurcI brIng LogeLIer PurIIumenLurIuns, represenLuLIves
Irom LIe desIgn secLor und InnovuLIon IndusLrIes, us weII us ucudemIcs, cIvII
servunLs und poIIcv mukers. We ure u LrusLed und reIIubIe source oI InIormuLIon Ior
PurIIumenLurIuns und IndusLrv members.

TIe APD¡G`s mIssIon Is Lo communIcuLe wILIIn PurIIumenL LIe enormous poLenLIuI
vuIue oI desIgn, InnovuLIon und LIe creuLIve IndusLrIes Ior boLI LIe pubIIc und prIvuLe
secLor - und socIeLv uL Iurge. We promoLe excIunge und undersLundIng, Lo enubIe
PurIIumenLurIuns Lo enIunce LIeIr knowIedge oI LIe Issues und prIorILIes Ior LIe desIgn
und InnovuLIon secLors.

TIe remIL oI LIe APD¡G Is verv broud und LIe group presIdes over u dIverse runge oI
ucLIvILIes. Our work vurIes uccordIng Lo LIe needs oI our purIIumenLurv members und
our progrumme Is conLInuuIIv evoIvIng.

As un AII PurLv PurIIumenLurv Group we IucIIILuLe dIscussIon In u neuLruI und LrusLed
envIronmenL, wIere our PurIIumenLurv members cun meeL LIe experLs LIev need Lo
keep up Lo duLe wILI deveIopmenLs und IeudIng edge prucLIce In desIgn und InnovuLIon.
TIe DesIgn BusIness AssocIuLIon Is LIe Lrude ussocIuLIon Ior LIe desIgn IndusLrv In LIe
UK. We promoLe proIessIonuI exceIIence, producLIve purLnersIIps beLween commerce
und LIe desIgn IndusLrv und cIumpIon eIIecLIve desIgn wIIcI Improves LIe quuIILv oI
peopIe`s IIves.
DesIgn BusIness AssocIuLIon ozo ;z=1 ¤zz¤
¤= - ¤¤ OId SLreeL enquIrIesOdbu.org.uk
¡ondon EC1V ¤HX www.dbu.org.uk
Designed by Lloyd Northover & Richard P Chapman Design Associates
Design and the public good: creativity vs the procurement process?
Associate Parliamentary Design & Innovation Group and the DBA
¡or IurLIer InIormuLIon, pIeuse conLucL
JoceIvn BuIIev, Group Munuger
AssocIuLe PurIIumenLurv DesIgn &
¡nnovuLIon Group
PoIIcv ConnecL
CAN MezzunIne
¤z-¤6 ¡omun SLreeL
¡ondon SE1 oEH
ozo ;zoz 8=88
desIgnOpoIIcvconnecL.org.uk
www.poIIcvconnecL.org.uk
PrInLed on recvcIed puper

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