Predisposing Factors - Age - Sex - Race

Acute Renal Failure

Precipitating Factors - Diabetic nephropathy Glomerulonephritis - Renal Obstruction

Decreased blood flow to the renal arteries

Release of rennin by the juxtaglomerular

Renin enters the blood stream

Conversion of angiotensinogen in the liver to angiotensin I

Angiotensinogen I passes through the lung capillaries

ACE in the Lung capillaries converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II (potent vasoconstrictor)


Release of Aldosterone in the adrenal glands

Sodium retention

Increase Plasma

Increase BLOOD PRESSURE Signs and Symptoms: - Decrease Urine output - Increase BUN - Increase Serum Creatinine - Edema

Decrease Tissue Perfusion

Unable to excrete metabolic waste


If TREATED: Dialysis Antihypertensive Meds Diuretics etc.


Good Prognosis/ Poor Prognosis (It depends on the patient’s Coping abilities)

Recurrent ARF

Further damage to the glomeruli

Hypertrophy of the remaining healthy glomeruli

A number of the hyperthrophied glomeruli dies Signs and Symptoms: Nocturia fatigue lassitude anorexia uremia


Renal Impairment (40-50% remaining GFR)

Further stimulation of RAAS (rennin angiotensin aldosterone system)

Further damage occurs Signs and Symptoms: - Muscle cramps - hypereflexia - seizure - nausea and vomiting - uremic frost

Renal Insufficiency (20-40% remaining GFR)

Renal Failure (10-20% remaining GFR)



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