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TINSMITH

A tinsmith is a maker and repairer of tinware. They make


various industrial and domestic containers and objects
from sheets of steel coated with of tin (tinplate).

HISTORY
Tinsmith work flourished after the Industrial Revolution in
the eighteenth century due to the ready availability of
affordable sheet metal. A tinker was a travelling tinsmith
who repaired household utensils such as buckets, pots
and pans.

TRAINING
Originally, the trade was learnt through an
apprenticeship with a master craftsman and took four to
six years. The apprentice then travelled from town to
town in the hope of eventually being able to open a
shop. People learn the craft today by observing a
practising tinsmith or by undertaking an apprenticeship in
sheetmetal fabrication.

TRADES WORKING WITH METAL


TECHNIQUE
Tinplate is hammered, bent, rolled and planished (curving
metal into domes), pulled and twisted. Cut metal is put
through a roller in different directions to break the
grain. Metal shapes are cut out, hammered and joined.

PRODUCTS
Lanterns, household utensils such as scone and biscuit
cutters, candle lamps, pie plates, bowls, cutlery and
various containers.

WHY IS A TINSMITH A RARE TRADE?


Most household implements are now mass produced by
machines, often using plastic instead of tinplate.

BLADESMITH
A bladesmith is a person who produces metal swords
and knives.

HISTORY
The earliest metal blades were probably made of copper
thoudands of years ago. Bronze, a mixture of copper
and tin, was then used as it is stronger than copper. Then
came iron blades which were harder and stronger again.
Today most blades are made of steel.

TRAINING
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
For information regarding current apprenticeships in
sheet metal working at:
http://www.migas.com.au/trades.html

Originally, blades were made by blacksmiths. As more


about the process of making blades was discovered,
some smiths specialised and became highly skilled in just
making blades.

FUN FACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

The term, fairy tapper is sometimes used in reference to


tinsmiths as the metal is never hit with heavy blows - only
small gentle taps are used.

Forge: The forge holds the very hot fire used to heat
metal. Heating the metal makes it easier to shape using
the anvil and hammer. Heat is also used to change the
qualities of the metal.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Bick iron: - A tinsmiths anvil, which is used to hammer
sharp curves into the metal.
Jenny: - A crimping tool which forms a crease or fold in
the metal. This makes it less flexible or allows the edges
to be fastened together.

Anvil: - Metal is beaten on the anvil to change its shape.


The anvil is very heavy and has different surfaces, both
curved and flat, that are used in shaping hot metal.

Bossing stump and mallet: - A bossing stump is a


hollowed out tree stump used to shape metal into a bowl
or dome shape. A bossing mallet is used to tap the metal
into the desired shape.

Hammers: - a range of hammers are used to beat the


metal into shape.

Punches and stamps tools: - are used to impress, shape or


cut.
Tinsnips: - are modified scissors used to cut sheet metal;
straight and curved tinsnips are used.
Square faced cross peen hammer: - is used to shape metal
with light tapping. Tinsmiths use various hammers for
different purposes.

SAFETY
Bladesmiths work with sharp metal edges and are
dealing with extremely high temperatures so they need to
protect themselves. Most wear thick, long pants, covered
shoes and a leather apron.

PRODUCTS
Steel swords, blades and knives are produced.

WHY IS BLADESMITHING A RARE TRADE?

Firepot and soldering irons: - The firepot is used to heat


up the soldering irons. Soldering irons are used to melt
the solder in order to join metals.

Stick: - is used to flatten or turn metal.

blade. To do this the bladesmith needs to control the


temperature of the steel very accurately, and then to use
techniques such as folding and hammering the steel to
get just the right quality needed. The blade is then
sharpened and polished and a handle is attached.

Historically swords and blades were used as weapons of


war and for self-defence, but with the introduction of
gunpowder and firearms in the 16th century, the demand
for swords declined.
Most knives used for dining and for preparing food are
now made by machines.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Try this website for a very good description of how
blades are made.

Tongs: - Tongs are large pliers used to hold the metal


when it is being shaped

http://people.howstuffworks.com/sword-making1.htm

Water Stone: - A water stone is used to grind back and


polish the blade.

Australian Knifemakers Guild


8 Mann St, Seacliff Park, South Australia, 5049.

TECHNIQUE
The bladesmith selects the type of metal, usually a kind of
steel, that is needed to make a particular blade. Steel is
a mixture of mostly iron with a small amount of carbon.
By skillfully heating and cooling the steel while it is being
shaped into a blade, the bladesmith can change the
qualities of the steel to give a hard wearing, but flexible

Guild President can be contacted on:


knifemakers@ozbytes.net.au

INTERESTING FACT
A bladesmith apprentice could be expected to hand
forge up to 80 blades during their working week which
consisted of six, twelve hour days.

BLACKSMITH

COACHBUILDER

Blacksmiths make and repair metal objects. They heat


iron and steel in a fire so that it can be shaped with
hammers or other tools.
The word black comes from the colour of the metal,
when treated to prevent it from rusting. The word smith
comes from the word smite which is an old-fashioned
word that means to strike. Thus a blacksmith is the person
who strikes black metal.

The horn of the anvil is used for making bends and the
flat face is used for general hammering. The chipping
block is used for cutting. The round hole in the face is
used for punching holes. The hardy hole is used for
holding tools.

A coachbuilder is a person who designs and/or builds


automobile bodies.

Tongs: - Tongs are used for picking up pieces in the fire


and for holding hot iron while hammering.

In the past coachbuilders built carriages, wagons and


sleighs that were drawn by horses. They worked mainly
with wood. Whilst there are still some wooden coach
building operations in existence, most coachbuilders
transferred their skills from wood to metal when the new
motor car industry began in the early 1900s.

TECHNIQUE
HISTORY

The iron or steel is heated to a red glow in the forge,


which is kept hot (approximately 650 -9800C) by handoperated bellows or a mechanical air pump. The
blacksmith then works the metal by hammering, cutting,
hooking, drawing it out, twisting and shaping it, into the
desired form.

Blacksmithing can be traced back 3500 years to the


early Iron Age in central Asia.

TRAINING
Past
In the 1800s, an apprenticeship was undertaken by boys
aged from 12 15. They had to work for 5 7 years,
receiving little or no wages, just room and board and the
privilege of being taught the trade.

SAFETY

Present

PRODUCTS

The most common blacksmith today is a farrier, a


blacksmith who specialises in making and fitting shoes
for horses. There are also smiths who specialise in
ornamental objects such as candle sticks, garden gates
and fireplace furniture. Most people today learn from
observing practising blacksmiths, researching information
and virtually teaching themselves.

Blacksmiths use safety glasses, leather apron and gloves,


and steel capped shoes.

Traditionally the products were essential items such as


farming implements, cooking utensils, weapons, chains,
tools and horseshoes. Today the emphasis has changed
and they make items of a more decorative nature such as
candle sticks, garden furniture or bed heads.

HISTORY

TECHNIQUE
TRAINING
Coachbuilders undertake an apprenticeship; they learn
on the job under the direction of a master craftsman over
a number of years.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Wheeling machine (also called a rolling machine): - This
tool allows the metal to be stretched as it rolls through
upper and lower wheels.
Hammers: - Eight or nine kinds of hammers are used with
metal dollies to curve metal.

A blacksmiths most important tool is the fire.


They also use hammers, anvils, vices and tongs
Forge: - A fireplace where air is forced into the fire to
increase the temperature.

Prior to the 1900s the horse was an important form of


transport and the local blacksmith was as common as
todays service stations. The use of the car, rather than
horses, as well as mass production of items like farm
implements and cooking utensils, has reduced the need
for blacksmiths products.

Hammer: - A range of hammers are used for shaping hot


metal

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

Anvil: -

Australian Blacksmiths Association (Victoria) Inc.


P.O. Box 5048, WONGA PARK, VIC, 3115.
The Secretary - Ph: (03) 9722 1415

Chipping block
for cutting with
cold chisels

The anvil is Horn


the blacksmiths
work bench.

Rounded edge for bending


Face
Pritchel hole
Hardy hole

INTERESTING FACT
Our 20th Prime Minister 1945-1949, J. Chifley,
was the son a blacksmith.

SAFETY
Sharp tools and metal edges can cause injury. Fumes can
also cause problems so good ventilation is needed when
working.

PRODUCTS
Car panels and bodies are produced. Aluminium is a
light weight, strong metal that is preferred for coach
building today.

WHY IS BLACKSMITHING A RARE TRADE?


TOOLS OF THE TRADE

Modern coachbuilders manufacture the metal skin of


cars. Coach building is a labour intensive trade, relying
on a large degree of skill and little technology. For
example, it can take 500 hours to reskin a car.
Coachbuilders use a six-step process to make a whole
car body. First, a pattern is produced for each part. The
panels are then cut according to the pattern, then
shaped, fitted, painted and polished.

WHY IS COACH BUILDING A RARE


TRADE?
Dolly: - A hand tool with one end made heavy with lead
that is used to shape metal.
French curve: - A flat drawing instrument consisting of a
number of different curves that are used to guide the pen
or pencil in drawing curves of varying radii.
Tinsnips: - Modified scissors used for cutting metal.
Dreadnought file:- is used to file edges to get the metal to
the correct size.
Leather sandbag: - A bag used as an absorbent rest for
the work as it is being shaped.
Power tools are rarely used.

Mass production techniques for car bodies have


surpassed the labour intensive methods of coach
building.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


For information on apprenticeships in vehicle body
making see; http://www.automotivetraining.org.au/

INTERESTING FACT
Ford pioneered the mass production vehicle, which
standardized manufacturing methods into pressing out
millions of identical parts in the early 1900s.

WHEELWRIGHT

TRADES THAT WORK WITH TIMBER

A wheelwright makes and repairs wooden wheels for


carts, carriages and wagons.

HISTORY
The wheelwright craft is about 4 000 years old. However
it wasnt until Roman times that the iron hoop was used
over the rim of a timber wheel.

TRAINING
In the past, an apprenticeship was undertaken for
approximately seven years. Most wheelwrights learned
the trade from their fathers.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


A wheelwrights lathe: - A lathe holds and rotates the
timber so that it can be shaped with a hand held tool.
Traveller: - A measuring device for estimating the size of
an iron tyre.
Stools and cradles: - Tools which supported the wheel at
various stages in its making.
Draw knife and spoke shave: - These tools are used to
make spokes.
Saws and chisels: - These were used in forming
projections which fit into a hole or groove in another
piece of timber (tenons and tongues).

TECHNIQUE
The main parts of a wooden wheel are the nave or hub,
the spokes and the felloes (sections forming the rim). The
iron parts are the tyre, the nave hoops and the box
which is an iron lining in the nave.
First, the timber hub is turned on a lathe. The mortices
(the holes for the spokes) are then cut into the nave. The
spokes are driven into the nave. The felloes are joined to
form a circle using wooden dowels. Two holes are cut
into the concave side of each felloe to fit the spokes. An
iron hoop tyre is then heated to red hot and clamped on
to the rim using an iron tyring platform. Water is then
poured over it, to cool it. As it cools, it shrinks and the
joints in the woodwork are forced even more tightly
together. The wheel breaks if it is too tight, and if it is too
loose, it will not hold together when placed under load.

SAFETY
Wheelwrights use sharp carpentry tools so care must be
taken to avoid cuts. A wheelwright also deals with hot
metals and care must be taken to avoid burns.

PRODUCTS
As well as wooden wheels, wheelwrights make and
repair household utensils, farm implements and buildings,
as well as making gates and coffins.

Adze: - A tool used for shaping felloes (the rim sections).

WHY ARE WHEELWRIGHTS RARE?

Spoke dog: - Used for inserting the spokes into the felloes.

Wheelwrights used to be common when the horse and


carriage was the main means of transport. Todays
vehicles use steel rims and rubber tyres, so the need for
wheelwrights is not as great.

Samson: - A large iron clamp applied over the rim of the


wheel to squeeze the felloe joints together while the iron
strake (a strip of iron) was nailed into position.

INTERESTING FACTS
Iron tyre

Fellow
Spoke
Wooden nave
with iron nave hoops
Box axle end and cap

A typical wheelwrights request may be: "Farmer whatshis-name would send asking for a man because a dung
cart wheel was jammed and would not go around"
Source: G. Sturt "The Wheelwrights Shop" Cambridge
University Press, 1923.

BRIDGE CARPENTER
A bridge carpenter uses timber to construct bridges
across valleys, creeks and rivers.

Bolting planks

Kerb

Decking

Girder

Solid headstock

Girders
Corbels

HISTORY
The first wooden bridges were probably built between
12,000 and 10,000 BC. They were made of trees laid
across a stream.
Sill
Solid rock

TRAINING

Potted piles

Top capwale (headstocks)


Pile depth (always roman numerals)

Past

Bracing

The skills of bridge carpentry were passed down through


families, the younger family members working under the
supervision of elder members.

Bottom capwales

Present
Bridge carpenters still repair old wooden bridges, but not
many new wooden bridges are being built. Modern
bridges are usually constructed using prefabricated
concrete and steel components. These bridges are
designed by civil engineers and constructed by a team of
tradespeople including fitters, welders and engineers.

Driven piles

SAFETY
Protective clothing such as earmuffs, safety glasses and
chaps (protective pants) are essential to protect the
worker when using a chainsaw.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

PRODUCTS

Chainsaw: - The chainsaw is now the tool of choice for


cutting timber.

The raw materials are hardwood poles such as iron bark


and treated spotted gum, as well as heavy bolts. A
timber bridge is the final product. Bridge carpenters also
build marine structures like wharves and boardwalks.

Adze and broadaxe: - These are used for shaping timber.


Drills: - Power drills are used for drilling the holes for the
bolts that hold the bridge timbers together.
Excavator: - mechanical excavators are used to
manipulate the heavy logs, and to drive in the piles.

TECHNIQUE
The timber poles that will support the span of the bridge
are driven into the ground. These are called the piles.
Bracing timbers are bolted to the tops and bottoms of the
rows of piles. These are called the headstocks (at the top)
and the capwhales (at the bottom). Poles, called girders
or stringers, stretch from one row of piles to the next, and
decking is bolted to the girders to form the surface of the
bridge. The kerbing and handrails complete the bridge.

WHY IS BRIDGE CARPENTRY A RARE


TRADE?
The use of concrete and steel for the construction of
bridges has largely replaced the use of timber. However,
timber bridges are still being constructed in rural areas
because they quick to build and much cheaper than
concrete bridges.

INTERESTING FACT
The depth in feet, written in roman numerals, that a pile
is driven into the ground is always carved into each pile.

COOPER
A cooper is a person who makes or repairs wooden
barrels or casks. Coopers are usually associated with the
wine and brewing industries. Wet or tight coopers make
casks for holding liquids, and white or slack coopers
make casks for transporting dry goods.

HISTORY
Coopering goes back to Roman times. The Gauls claimed
to be the first coopers. There were coopers guilds in the
early Middle Ages in France and England.

TRAINING
Coopers learn their trade "on the job" from a master
craftsman. This apprenticeship takes several years.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


The tools of the cooper are almost the same as they were
hundreds of years ago, although power tools are now
sometimes used.
Saw and axe: A listing axe is used to cut and make the
staves gradually smaller at one end. Staves are the
longitudinal sections of timber which make up the outside
of the barrel.
Planes: A plane is a tool that shaves off wood. There are
specialised planes used for different jobs in coopering.
Croze: It is used to cut the
slot in the ends of the barrel stave.

PATTERNMAKER
TECHNIQUE
The work of the cooper begins in the forest where he
selects the best trees to make staves. The oak trees used
in barrel making are harvested when they are about 80100 years old.
The logs are cut into rough staves which are air dried
outside for a minimum of 2 years. Insert diagram of a
barrel
The inside of the stave is hollowed out with a drawknife,
turned over and a curved shape is put on the outer side
of the stave. When a number of staves have been
prepared in this way, they are raised up and put into a
hoop, while still loose. Two iron hoops are then driven
down over the top of the barrel, and the half completed
barrel is then toasted over a fire or cresset. The heat
softens the wood so that more iron bands can be placed
over the barrel.
The ends of the barrel are then fitted. A specialised plane
(a croze) cuts a slot in the ends of the barrel, into which
the staves will fit. All of the measuring needed to make a
barrel is done "by eye", which highlights the amount of
experience a cooper needs to make a barrel.

PRODUCTS
An assortment of wooden carrying products such as wine
barrels, wooden buckets, butter churns and domestic
kegs are all made by a cooper.

WHY IS A COOPER A RARE TRADE


TODAY?
Timber barrels have largely been replaced by metal
barrels, so the work of coopers has declined. The wine
industry still requires oak barrels to give wine an oak
flavour so coopers are still required for this industry.

A patternmaker is a person who makes shapes of things


to be cast in metal. Models are made of wood and are
called pattens. Pattens are used to produce threedimensional, cast-metal objects, such as car engine
blocks or the wheels on a train.

HISTORY
In the 18th century there was a huge increase in the
kinds of industrial machinery needed in the new factories
of the Industrial Revolution. Patternmakers were in great
demand to help make the metal parts used in the
machinery. Patternmakers are still in demand today,
however the patterns are now often made using a
computer driven cutting machine, so the job of the
patternmaker is bound to eventually disappear.

TECHNIQUE

Apprentice patternmakers undertake formal study as well


as on the job training over five years.

Patternmakers look at a technical drawing and use their


skills to produce a three dimensional model or pattern
from the drawing. This pattern is used to make a hollow
mould in which the metal object will be cast. Sand is
compressed around the wooden pattern to create the
desired cavity into which molten metal is poured. The
sand mould is broken open and removed from the cast
once the metal has cooled.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

SAFETY

There are some tools unique to patternmakers such as the


contraction ruler, pairing chisels and a patternmakers
hammer.

The foundries where many patternmakers work are often


places where occupational health and safety can be a
problem. Protective clothing, such as safety glasses and
footwear, and good ventilation are essential in this
workplace.

TRAINING

Planes: - Various planes are used to smooth the timber. A


compass plane was used to smooth curved surfaces. A
spokeshave is a type of plane also used on curved
surfaces.
Hand router: - Routers are used for cutting narrow
grooves in timber.
Chisels and gouges: - These are used for cutting or
shaping wood.

PRODUCTS
Car engines, water pumps, wheels, gears and
gearboxes, and large machine parts are all cast in
moulds made using patterns.

WHY IS PATTERN-MAKING A RARE


TRADE?
New fabrication techniques, using modern tools such as
computer controlled laser mills, have made making
patterns much quicker and more cost effective. These
techniques will eventually replace the skilled practice of
making wooden patterns.

FUN FACT
Some coopers claim they need a large belly to hold the
barrel in place while working.

INTERESTING FACT:
Knives: - There are various knives used for different
purposes hollowing, cutting, and trimming.

Contraction rule: - a contraction rule is used to allow for


the contraction of cooled metal. It had slightly bigger
graduations enabling the pattern to be made larger so
that when the casting shrunk it was the correct size.

Patternmaker Daryl Chandler once produced an 11 stage


pump which took 5 months to make and required a semi
trailer for transportation. He also made a gearbox as big
as a kitchen table for a piece of mining machinery.

SAIL MAKER
A sail maker makes and maintains ships sails.

HISTORY
Sail making goes back to before recorded time. Many
cultures built boats and ships powered by wind. They
used sails made from plant fibres such as flax or cotton.
These days sail makers usually make sails for cruising or
racing yachts.

TRAINING
In the past, trainees learned on the job from an
experienced sail maker, similar to an apprenticeship.
Little, if anything was written down. Sail makers used to
keep the secrets of their trade to themselves so nobody
took over their job. There is now a TAFE course available
for sail makers.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


INSERT DIAGRAMS OF TOOLS NB NOT ALL TOOLS
ORIGINALLY LISTED HAVE BEEN INCLUDED BELOW
Knives: Blade knives were used to cut the canvas, a
narrow knife was used for cutting eyelet holes and a dull
knife was used to score canvas.
Awl: - A small pointed tool for making holes.
Bench hook: - (also called sail hook, stretching hook and
third hand) - This secured the canvas to the bench to keep
it under tension, while stitching.
Twine: - Sail makers twine is traditionally made out of
flax.
Seam rubber: - A tool used for creasing the canvas and
rubbing the seams before sewing.
Tarred wax: - A waterproof preservative which helped the
needle and twine pass through the canvas more easily.
Sewing needles: - Special triangular needles used for
sewing the sails.
Sewing palm: - A safety
device used like a
thimble to protect the hand.

Fid: - A tool used to open the strands of fibre in rope


(for splicing) and for shaping grommets.

TRADES WORKING WITH FIBRE


TECHNIQUE
Once the size and shape of the sail is determined, the
sail maker draws the outline on a deck with twine. The
sail cloth is placed under the pattern and pieces are
overlapped to account for seams. The cloth is then cut. A
wooden batten is used to determine the curve along the
foot of the sail, and then the pieces of cloth are joined
with a flat seam to make an entire sail.
Old sails were made with their panels running vertically.
In the mid 19th century sail-makers began to experiment
with the panels running horizontally. This enabled more
control over the aerodynamic shape of the sail as it
allowed for the stretch in the canvas. A number of
different stitches are used for sails. Old sails had round
seams and more modern ones have flat seams.

PRODUCTS
Sail makers make and repair sails and flags. Most sails
today are made from lightweight synthetic materials that
are machine stitched or glued together. They are longer
wearing and more efficient than the traditional cotton
and flax sails.

WEAVERS
The Burarra language is spoken by a large number of
people in the Maningrida region of Arnhem Land in
northern Australia. The Burarra weavers make a wide
variety of objects using fibres from local plants.

HISTORY
Weaving has always been an important part of Burarra
society, particularly for women. Weaving usually takes
place in a social setting.

TRAINING
Past: The skills of weaving were passed down to junior
members by elder members demonstrating and providing
tips.
Present: Currently the process of passing on the skills in a
social setting still occurs.

WHY IS SAIL MAKING A RARE TRADE?

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

Most marine vessels used today are powered by engines


rather than wind, so there has been a decline in demand
for sail makers.

Weaving is all done by hand.

INTERESTING FACT
Australia has the worlds youngest sail maker.

Raw materials include: pandanus leaves, roots, ash and


bark.

TECHNIQUE
The pandanus leaves are split into long sections. They are
boiled with other parts of plants or ash to dye them
different colours.

PRODUCTS
Traditionally the items made were for everyday use such
as carrying bags, sleeping mats, fishtraps, headwear and
bags for ceremonial use.
More recently items are also made for sale.

WHY IS WEAVING A RARE TRADE?


The traditional weaving process is a social activity that
requires the skills to be passed onto the next generation
before the elder members die.

The dyed strips of leaves are dried.

Something about pressures on trad society from western


culture limiting opportunities for elders to pass on
knowledge?

They are then woven by hand, under tension to produce


a range of products.

INTERESTING FACT:

SAFETY
Care must be taken when dyeing the leaves using boiling
water.

The woven fish trap (an-gujechiya,) is used to catch fish


in tidal creeks. According to traditional stories, in its
ancestral form, the fish trap is also the creator of features
of part of the coastline, near the Blyth River.

CRAYPOT MAKER

MILLINER

A craypot maker is a person who constructs a basket-like


trap in which crayfish or crays are caught.

A milliner makes, trims and sells hats. Traditionally, a


milliner was also a dealer in fancy wares and articles of
apparel such as ribbons and lace.

HISTORY

HISTORY

Before traps were used, lobsters were generally caught at


night by spearing them from the shallow waters. As the
crayfish was more valuable if it did not have a spear
mark, the use of drag nets was another way of catching
the crayfish.

Throughout early Egyptian, Roman and Greek times hats


were worn as a mark of rank. Since the 16th and 17th
centuries milliners supplied fancy goods such as straw
hats and gloves. It was only in the 1770s that milliners
began to design and make hats exclusively as fashion
items.

Today crayfish are caught using craypots which are


baited and set out offshore on the sea bed.

TRAINING
Traditionally, the skills of hand making the craypots were
passed down through the family, with senior members
teaching children the tricks of the trade.

Working on a tree stump, the pot is closed in by weaving


a chain link wire mesh - a bit like knitting with thick steel
wire instead of wool, and big steel rods instead of
knitting needles.

TRAINING
Last century, primarily girls started apprenticeships as
milliners at a very young age, and learned on the job.
Today courses are run at millinery schools and TAFE
colleges.

TECHNIQUE
A sketch of the final product is made. Head
measurements are taken. A block with the corresponding
measurements is selected to support the hat as fabrics
and ribbons, etc., are pinned then stitched or glued into
position.

SAFETY
In the past, millinery was quite a hazardous occupation
due to the mercury compound that was used in hat
making during the 18th and 19th centuries. The term
"mad as a hatter" refers to the disease caused by
inhaling fumes of mercury and its compounds.
Today adequate ventilation is required to prevent inhaling
glue fumes. Care is also taken to prevent scalding from
steam and a thimble is worn to protect the fingers from
sharp needles.

SAFETY
TOOLS OF THE TRADE

Care must be taken when:

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

Axe: - An axe is used to cut thin branches from


Melaleuca trees

using sharp tools to cut branches and strip off bark.

working with wire

Sewing machine: - used for sewing the pieces of fabric


together.

welding

working with boiling water to soften the branches.

Jig: - This is used to make the neck of the craypot.


Cray key: - This tool is used to weave wire around the
wooden frame to create the basket shape.
Steel pipe: - A utensil in which the stripped branches are
boiled.
Wire drum: - This acts as the base around which the
branches are twisted to construct the craypot frame.
Old tree stump: - This supports the craypot as the pot is
woven.

TECHNIQUE
Melaleuca branches are cut and the bark is stripped off.
They are boiled in a steel pipe. The hot branches are
wrapped around wire drums to cool and take on the
basic, round shape.
Using a cray key, the craypot maker levers and plaits
wire around the wood, in the same way as a basket
weaver would weave fibres.
A welded steel slot is incorporated into the side of the pot
so that undersize crayfish can escape: (the slot is one of
the few prefabricated components in the whole structure).

PRODUCTS
The basic materials required are: wire, stripped branches
of Melaleuca trees and cane. Craypots are the final
product.

Straw-sewing machine: - A specialised machine used for


sewing straw hats.
Felt size: - A glue and starch mixture used to glaze, treat
and coat felt.
Spartre: - A tough, mouldable material used as a base for
hats.
Hat blocks: - The base over which the hat is worked.

WHY IS CRAYPOT MAKING A RARE


TRADE?
Today craypots can be mass-produced. Some are made
from moulded plastic while others can be made using
galvanised steel wire. The demand for traditionally made
pots is declining.

In the18th century, milliners used to sell fabrics and make


up items such as shirts, aprons, handkerchiefs, caps,
cloaks, hoods and muffs. Later, they specialised in
various shapes of hats made from different kinds of
fabrics: varying from heavy canvas through to fine netting
materials. Today milliners mainly produce hats for
fashion.

WHY IS MILLINERY A RARE TRADE?


Millinery has enjoyed a revival due to fashion trends;
however traditional methods are used less. A change in
lifestyle and fashion has reduced the demand for hats.
Hats are no longer worn to work and/or to church.
However, people still wear hats for protection from the
elements and for special occasions.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Millinery Association of Australia Inc
West Brunswick
Ph: (03) 9386 7112

INTERESTING FACT
A vessel named the Stella was the first vessel in South
Australia to use craypots and it led to the birth of the
crayfishing industry in South Australia at American River
in 1889.

PRODUCTS

Pin cushion and pins: - Pins are used to hold the fabric in
position before sewing. Whilst not in use pins are stored
safely in a pin cushion.
Thimble: - Worn on the fingers, the thimble prevents cuts
from sharp needles.

INTERESTING FACT
One of the reasons Jean Miller (the milliner in the
exhibition) gives for the decline of hats in the 1960s, is
the rise in the popularity of the beehive hairdo.

SCROLLING PAINTER
The swirls, stripes and flourishes that are seen on things
such as vintage cars and horse drawn vehicles through to
sewing machines and harvesters are the work of a
scrolling painter.
This is the high end of the signwriters art.

HISTORY
This form of signwriting is a traditional method of
applying paint to a surface that was originally designed
to paint horse drawn carriages. This method of hand
painting signs was used to produce graphics and
lettering for buildings and shopfronts as well as vehicle
markings.

TRADES WORKING WITH PAPER OR LEATHER


TECHNIQUE
After the design has been chosen, the area to be painted
must be cleaned to ensure it is free of grease and rust.
Next the area is either primed or sealed, depending on
whether it has been painted before. Once the surface has
been prepared the scrolling painter is ready to apply 'the
line of beauty', simply a curved line on which all
scrollwork is based. The scrolling painter first learns to
draw a perfect freehand circle, then perfects his own
perfect line of beauty, from which he develops his
individual style. Once the design has been painted and
allowed to dry thoroughly finishing products are used to
polish it to a high shine.

SAFETY
TRAINING
In some countries coachpainting and vehicle finishing is
offered as a subject in colleges and tertiary institutions.
Traineeships and apprenticeships are available with
signwriters. The apprentice works with a qualified
signwriter while also studying an accredited course
usually at a TAFE college.

Most paints are toxic and flammable and care must be


taken when near an open flame and to avoid inhaling
the fumes.
Suitable masks are worn when spraying paints and
primers.

PRODUCTS
TOOLS OF THE TRADE
Brushes: - Brushes need to be fully worked or 'broken in'
for best results. Sable chisel brushes are best to create
sharp lettering.
Rubbing block: - Used to remove rust before painting.
Sealers: - Sealers or isolators are used on suspect paint
areas which are liable to react when applying fresh
paint.
Finishing products: - Rubbing, polishing and finishing
compounds all contain various degrees of abrasives for
hard and soft paint. Soft cotton cloths are used for
polishing and final drying.

Scrolling work can be seen on trucks, vans, specialised


and vintage cars and horse drawn vehicles.

WHY IS SCROLLING PAINTING A RARE


TRADE?
The introduction of computer-cut vinyl peel-off lettering,
lines and scrolls has changed the trade almost beyond
recognition. The advent of new technology and a move
away from decoration to purely functional signs on
vehicles has seen a decline in the art practised by
scrolling painters.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Artisans Guild Australia
PO Box 280, Sunbury, Vic, 3424

BOOKBINDER
Bookbinders attach pages into a cover to make a book.
They produce new books or repair and conserve old books.

HISTORY
Modern day bookbinding in Europe began with the
change from scrolls to books. Initially wood was used to
protect the sheets, but later leather was wrapped around
the boards and the sheets to form the type of book we
are familiar with today.

TECHNIQUE
Today most bookbinding is concerned with the
conservation or restoration of old books. There are many
skills involved in bookbinding, including collating and
folding pages; making a cover, often from fine leather;
sewing the sections to the cover; trimming the pages and
finishing and decorating the cover.

TRAINING
Between the 10th and 14th century, English monks were
the foremost binders in Europe. Novices were trained
by senior monks. The introduction of printing in the
15th century increased the need for bookbinders.
In the 1920s a seven year apprenticeship was required
to become a qualified bookbinder. Today people usually
learn the craft through workshops, evening classes and
some college courses.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Bookpress: - is used to press the
sections of a book before sewing,
to get rid of all the air between
the pages and to ensure that items
have been adhered without air
bubbles and will dry flat.
Gold Tools: - used for the
application of gold to bindings
and to the edges of the text block.
Tools include: decorative and lettering tools, gold leaf
sheets, gold cushion and special adhesive for gold.
Hand Tools: - These include scissors, forceps, awls,
callipers, paring knives, punches and scalpels.
Hot Stamping Press: - is used to stamp titles on cases boxes
and labels. Brass type is used to set the cover of the book,
the type is then heated up to several hundred degrees and
the cover is stamped.
Board Shear: - makes accurate square cuts when using
the heavy binders board, used for the covers of books.

WHY IS BOOKBINDING A RARE TRADE?


Today books are printed, folded, sewn, glued and
trimmed by high speed machines.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION:


Victorian Bookbinders Guild
5 Dunsterville Street,
Sandringham, 3191
email: boundwords@labyrinth.net.au
Queensland Bookbinders' Guild Inc.
PO Box 73 Annerley,
Qld 4103, Australia
Guild of Craft Bookbinders
P0 Box 111 Glebe
Sydney, NSW 2037.

INTERESTING FACT
Paper was invented by the Chinese around 200 BC but
the process was kept a closely guarded secret for nearly
1000 years.

BESPOKE SHOEMAKER
A Bespoke Shoemaker makes custom made footwear. The
word 'bespoke means spoken for or custom-made. The
bespoke shoemaker only makes shoes that have already
been ordered for a particular person, or for a special
purpose such as a film or a stage production.

HORSE COLLAR MAKER


Paring Knife: - A very sharp knife used to trim away
excess leather.
Pincers: - Pliers used to pull reluctant needles through the
holes when stitching.

Horse collar and Harness makers are specialised saddlers


who make harnesses and collars. When a horse is
required to pull a heavy load the rigid collar is what takes
the strain, putting the load evenly across the horses
shoulders, rather than on its neck and windpipe.

Punch: - A tool for making holes in leather.

HISTORY
Records from the Egyptians, the Chinese and other early
civilisations all contain references to shoes. Early shoes
were simply a piece of plaited grass or rawhide strapped
to the feet. Comparatively little attention was paid to the
fitting or comfort of shoes up until about 1850. The
invention of the rolling machine and the sewing machine
in the 1840's revolutionised shoe making. Today all
major operations in shoemaking can be done by
machine.

Shears: - A large pair of scissors, made from a single


strip of metal, used for cutting leather.
Tranchet: - A form of French clicking knife that is held
along the arm, seated in the crook of the arm, for use.

TECHNIQUE

In the past the techniques were passed from master to


students through lengthy periods of apprenticeship. Years
of further practise were necessary to master the craft.

The feet are measured and the last maker uses these
measurements to make the lasts. Paper templates are
used to cut the pieces of leather that make up the shoe.
The cutting of the leather is called clicking. The leather is
sewn together with lining and stiffening. The uppers are
attached to the sole and the heel is built up to the
required height. Finally a thin piece of leather, bearing
the name of the bespoke shoemaker is glued to the insole
and the shoe is polished.

Today colleges and universities around the world offer


courses in shoemaking.

SAFETY

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

Protective clothing is worn and a thimble is used to


protect the thumb from needles.

TRAINING

PRODUCTS
Bespoke shoemakers make custom made shoes for
people who require orthopaedic shoes or for special
purposes such as films or stage shows.

Last: - A wooden model of the foot on which shoemakers


shape boots and shoes.

WHY IS BESPOKE SHOEMAKING A RARE


TRADE?

Clams: - A wooden clamp held between the knees to hold


the shoemakers work.

When machinery was introduced that could not only


make shoes quicker and cheaper but could also make
them more comfortable, this reduced the need for shoes
made by hand. Today bespoke Shoemaking is a boutique
industry catering for specialised needs.

Die: - A specially shaped knife used for cutting out


specific shapes and sizes of leather.

INTERESTING FACT

Awl: - A tool designed to poke a hole in fabric then


spread it wider without actually cutting the fabric.

Long Stick: - A tool used for rubbing the surface of the


outsole after rounding and tacking it.

At the end of the Middle Ages round and square toe


shapes became popular. Toes became larger and larger.
During the reign of Henry VIII soles reaching 6_ inches
wide were common and known as foot bags.

HISTORY
Beasts of burden were first harnessed with fixed rigid
collars in about 500 AD in China. The invention did not
reach Europe for some centuries. Previously breast plate
harnesses were used where the animal pulls against a
broad band of padded leather. However when the load
was very heavy the breast plate hampered the animals
breathing. The rigid collar allows the animal to pull a much
heavier load without any impediment.

TECHNIQUE
First the forewall is made. This is a long strip of leather
sewn into a tube, with one edge of the seam extending
well beyond the other to make a flap called the barge.
This tube is then stuffed tight with rye straw. When it is
tightly packed it is placed over a wooden model of the
horse's withers and beaten into shape with a mallet.
Next, leather and cloth are used to enclose the throat of
the collar and a piece of soft leather is sewn on to stop
the collar rubbing on the throat of the horse. Finally the
hames are attached. These are usually brass plated steel
and sit either side of the collar so the traces and reins
can be attached to them.
Housen
Housing strap

TRAINING
Past

Collar pad or Afterwale

Men were usually apprenticed to a master saddler. Even


highly skilled saddlers worked long hours for poor wages.
Male employees were paid by the hour, but women were
only paid by completed items. Women typically earned
half or a third of the male wage.

Hames

Present
Today there are numerous courses for those interested in
making a career in saddlery. Alternatively they can
become apprenticed to a master saddler

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Clam or clamp: - By squeezing the clam with the knees, the
work can be gripped leaving both hands free, for piecing
the leather with the awl or sewing with the needle.
Creases: - are usually heated before use, for marking the
leather.
Knives: - straight knife and a half moon or round knife are
used for cutting leather.
Palm Iron:- A type of indented thimble that sits in the palm
of the hand to stop the needle slipping.
Collar rod: - is gripped with the fist and used to compress
the stuffing into the collar.
Mallet: A large hammer used to beat the collar into shape.

PRODUCTS
As well as the collars a variety of harnesses are made.
All harnesses must be adjusted perfectly or the horse will
be unhappy and inefficient.

WHY IS HORSE COLLAR AND HARNESS


MAKING A RARE TRADE?
As mechanical vehicles overtook the horse as a means of
transporting heavy loads the trade nearly vanished. A
horse collar is a complex construction which was left to
an expert and a specialised group of saddlers.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Australian Horse Resources
http://www.knfpub.com/ahr/

INTERESTING FACT
To protect their horses the Romans had a law forbidding
horses to pull loads in excess of about half a ton.

CROSSCUT SAW MAKER


Crosscut saw makers make, repair and sharpen hand,
chain, band, crosscut and circular saws.

HISTORY
Tools from more than 60 000 years ago include flint
knives with toothed blades which indicate that the people
had discovered the effect of saw teeth on wood.

TRADES WORKING WITH STONE


TECHNIQUE
To make a saw, the Crosscut saw maker first takes a
length of steel and has the teeth cut by a laser cutter
(though once it was done by hand). The steel is then
softened by heating and an angle grinder and files are
used to set the angles on the teeth. The saw is then
hardened, tensioned and sharpened.

WALLERS
Drystone wallers use stones to build walls which define
boundaries and keep in livestock.
The name drystone comes from the fact that the walls
are built without any mortar to hold the stones together.

The first saws with metal blades were found in Egypt


6 000 years ago and were made of copper. By 1500BC
copper had given way to bronze. It was the Romans who
discovered the technique of offsetting the teeth left and
right which reduced the friction, thus enabling the saw to
be used in a smooth continuous motion. The production
of iron and steel meant the improvement in all types of
tools, but the basic saw remained unchanged until the
20th century.

History
Drystone walling is an ancient trade dating back to the
early Bronze Age, about 3000 years BC. Relics of
ancient boudary walls called "reaves" can be found
throughout England, Ireland and Scotland. Later farmers
used these walls not only as boundaries but also to keep
stock enclosed. Early settlers from these countries brought
this trade to Australia. Australian Aboriginal people used
drystone walling to build houses near Lake Conder in
Victoria

TRAINING
Past
Crosscut saw makers usually learnt by watching and
working with an experienced person and by trial and
error.
Present
Today Crosscut saw makers can undertake a 12 month
course which includes instruction and practice in
manufacturing and repairing the different kinds of saw
blades.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Files: - Crosscut saw makers use a variety of files to
sharpen the teeth on the saw.
Setting Stake: - A tool used to set the teeth of the saw. The
saw is placed with the teeth projecting over the bevelled
part of the stake in order to give the tooth the correct set.
The tooth is then struck two or three blows with a light
hammer.
Set Gauge: - An instrument that checks whether the teeth
are set correctly.
Heat: - The metal is treated with heat to make it harder;
this is called tempering.
Anvil and hammer: - A special slightly rounded anvil and
a crossface hammer are used to get even tension all over
the saw.

TRAINING
Past

SAFETY
Crosscut saw makers use safety glasses and steel-capped
boots.

Drystone walling is a physically demanding task and


often father and son worked together so that skills were
passed on.
Present

PRODUCTS
Crosscut saw makers make a large variety of saws
including cross-cut saws, ripsaws, bow saws, hacksaws,
coping saws and backsaws.

There are few people around with the skills to build


drystone walls today. Most have learnt by observation
and trial and error.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


WHY IS CROSSCUT SAW MAKING
A RARE TRADE?
Crosscut saw makering is still a major part of the forestry
industry; however the crosscut saw is now rarely used in
any industrial application, as the chainsaw has taken its
place.

A drystone waller's most important resource is stone.


Where possible, stones were gathered from the paddocks
to be walled. Today stones often have to be excavated
and brought to the construction site.
Often rocks have to be split before they can be used. A
chisel and hammer or a sledge hammer is usually used,
and a string line is used to keep the wall straight.

INTERESTING FACT
The Crosscut saw makers is also the name for an Irish
band. In 1990, their second single, 'I Useta Lover'
climbed to number one in the Irish Charts.

TECHNIQUE
One common practice is to cut a narrow trench and lay a
base of small stones, building it up in layers narrowing
slightly towards the centre. The inside was made up of

small stones and rubble called "Hearting" which


supported the outer stones so the wall did not collapse.
At a height of about 1/2 meter a layer of throughstones
was laid across the entire width of the wall to tie it
together. The wall is generally topped with a row of
slanting or vertical stones.

Coping
2 - 3
(50mm -75mm)

Throughs
Hearting
Footings

Face stones
2 (0.6m)

Bottom width 1 8 -3 (1500mm - 910mm)


depending on type of stone.

SAFETY
Steel capped boots are recommended footwear.

PRODUCTS
This technique is used primarily to construct walls as
boundaries or to keep stock from wandering, but it can
also be used for the construction of buildings.

WHY IS DRYSTONE WALLING A RARE


TRADE?
In the middle of the 20th century the introduction of
cheap wire, and especially barbed wire, made drystone
wallers almost redundant. Wire fences were cheaper and
a lot less labour intensive

INTERESTING FACT
Cavities are sometimes built into drystone walls to be
used as bee hives, storage places or even dog kennels.

STONEMASON
Stonemasons cut and shape stone for the construction and
renovation of stone structures and monumental masonry.
The word mason comes from an Old French word maon
meaning beat.

HISTORY
Stonemasonry is one of the oldest building trades, dating
back to when people first shaped stone to make tools and
later buildings. Medieval masons combined the role of
architect, builder, craftsman, designer, and engineer.

TRAINING

STONE TOOL MAKER


Cramp: - Device for anchoring two stones together.
Dogs: - Lifting hooks attached to a loop of chain for lifting
large blocks of stone.
Frame saw: - A multiple bladed mechanical saw capable
of sawing several slabs at once.
Shift stock: - A tool for setting the angles of bevels and
chamfers.
Trammel: - Tool for applying lines parallel to an edge.
Gavel: - A hammer used with a chisel to split stone.
Level: - Tool used to check horizontal and vertical
surfaces.

Past
Since the middle ages, those wanting to learn the trade of
stonemasonry had to join the guild of stonemasons. During
this time many of the great cathedrals of Europe were built.
In order to construct such edifices the masons had to have
considerable education in the principals of geometry,
arithmetic and engineering. At this time stonemasons not
only cut and shaped stone, but were responsible for
executing the architectural plans and building the majestic
cathedrals.
Present
Today stonemasons undergo a mixture of education and
vocational training. A stonemason still needs to know how
to cut, shape and polish stone, and how to repair and
replace stonework on old buildings and monuments.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Stonemasons use a variety of tools such as pitchers,
punches and chisels. Until recently a stonemason also had
to have many of the skills of a blacksmith to keep his tools
in good working condition. Today most tools are carbide
tipped, which reduces the need for resharpening.
Pitcher: - A broad, blunt nosed stonemason's chisel used for
removing large pieces of waste stone.

TECHNIQUE
In early times large chunks of stone were broken off by
pushing wooden wedges into cracks. Blocks were then
shaped with a chisel and mallet.
Today a stonemason may cut and shape the stone using
a range of power tools or hand tools,taking into account
the characteristics of the stone being used.

SAFETY

Stone tool makers cut and shape stone to make durable


tools for cutting, hammering and grinding.

HISTORY
Stone tool making is probably the oldest trade known to
man. Stone tools have been used for tens or even
hundreds of thousands of years. Earliest tools were core
choppers and flaked scrapers. Later stone tools, such as
adzes were used as components of other tools such as
spears and knives.

TRAINING
The skills of stone tool making were passed from parents
to children. Usually boys would learn the process from
observation and tutorage by an experienced man.
Today there are very few people still have the skills of
stone tool-making.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


A Stone tool makerss tools are the very stones he works
with. Different types of rock are used for different
purposes. Hammerstones and grindstones are the basic
tools used.

Stonemasons often work outdoors in all weather


conditions. They use the following safety equipment:

Core: The core is the stone being worked upon.

Hard hats when working on construction sites

Hammerstone: The hammerstone is used to strike the core


at the correct angle to detach a flake.

Steel capped boots

Dust mask, ear muffs and goggles when using power


tools to cut stone or cement.

PRODUCTS
Today stonesmasons do repairs to churches, cemetery
work and monumental masonry, and specialised work
like marble kitchen bench tops.

Punch: -A stonemason's pointed chisel for use with a


hammer, used in roughly removing waste stone.

WHY IS STONEMASONRY A RARE


TRADE?

Beak: - A long handled lever bar used for moving large


blocks of stone.

The solid stone construction of masons has been largely


replaced by concrete building techniques.

Boaster: - A wide chisel used in masonry for final dressing


of flat surfaces.

INTERESTING FACT

Claw Tool: - A chisel with replaceable toothed bits for its


cutting edge.

The Masonic Lodge is thought to be directly descended


from the Medieval Stone Masons Guilds.

Grindstones: A sharp edge can also be produced by


rubbing the roughly shaped stone against a grindstone
Anvil: Stone used as a platform on which the core rests
when being worked.
Flaked stone axe - A rock
with a sharp edge.

Hatchet - Primarily used for removing bark from trees.

TECHNIQUE
The three basic techniques used for producing stone tools
are flaking, pecking and grinding. The core rests on the
anvil and the platform of the core is struck at the correct
angle using a hammerstone to cause a piece of stone to
flake off. An experienced Stone tool maker can produce
flakes at the rate of one a second. Some stones, such as
greenstone lend themselves to grinding and were used for
making stone axes. The stone was roughly shaped using
a hammerstone then rough axe face was rubbed against
the grindstone.

SAFETY
Flaking stone produces dangerously sharp splinters that
fly off the rock. Today it is recommended to wear leather
gloves and goggles to protect eyes.

PRODUCTS
Stone can be used to make a range of tools and
implements including adzes, axes, spear heads and
grinding stones.

WHY IS STONE TOOL-MAKING A RARE


TRADE?
With the introduction of metal tools, especially axes and
spear heads, stone tools became quickly redundant.
Today stone tool-making is done by very few people for a
specialised market.

INTERESTING FACT
It is estimated that Aboriginal people have left around
10 000 stone artefacts per square km across the country.

WIG MAKER
A wig maker makes and cares for an artificial covering
of hair for the head.

TRADES WORKING WITH OTHER MATERIALS


TECHNIQUE

The word wig is an abbreviation of the word periwig


which comes from the French word perruque. A wig is
an arrangement of artificial or human hair worn to
conceal baldness, as a disguise, or as part of a costume,
theatrical, ceremonial, or fashionable.

The clients measurements are taken and are transferred


onto the wig-block. The block is then used to make a
close fitting foundation. The hair is then prepared by
sorting and matching to achieve the required result.
The 'knotting in' can take anything from 35 to 130 hours.
The wig is then combed, shampooed and styled.

HISTORY

SAFETY

Wigs are mentioned in books about the great Chinese,


Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilisations. In ancient
Egypt wigs were worn to protect the head from the sun.
In Greece, wigs were worn by both men and women and
were also used in the theatre. In the 17th century the
perruque or peruke was introduced into France during
the reign of Louis XIII and the fashion quickly spread
throughout Europe. Today the use of the wig is dictated
by fashion.

Working with needles and hooks means that precautions


must be taken to prevent injury. A metal finger shield with
a slanting end fits on the tip of a finger and is used for
picking up the point of the needle when the sewing is
done on a wooden block.

TRAINING
Past
Training was completed under an apprenticeship
program.
Present
Today there are colleges that run wig-making courses.
These are often run in conjunction with hairdressing or
theatre courses.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Wig-block: - This is a wooden block made to the
measurements of the client.
Foundation: - Made of silk, lace or heavy gauze,
this is the base into which the hair is knotted.
Hackle: - A series of metal prongs set in a wooden base
used for sorting the hair.
Drawing brushes: - A pair of brushes made with bristles
or steel pins, used for holding the hair.
Knotting hooks: used for knotting the
hair into the base.

PRODUCTS
Wigs come in all different shapes, sizes and colours.
They can be for a full head or hairpieces such as toupees
and falls. They can be natural looking, clown wigs,
character wigs or glamour wigs. Wigs are often used
today by people who have to undergo medical treatment
which causes hair loss.

WHY IS WIG-MAKING A RARE TRADE?


Today the low cost of synthetic and machine sewn wigs
has meant a decline in the profession of handmade wigs.
Also the high cost of labour has seen the trade of
handmade wigs shift largely to third world countries.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Professional Hairdressers Association
Level0/60 Pitt Street
Sydney, NSW, 2000

INTERESTING FACT
In 1795 the English government put a tax on hair
powder of 1 guinea per year. A guinea was equal to
$2.20 but this was a lot of money in 1795. As a
consequence of this both the fashion for wigs and
powder was over by 1800.

HAYSTACK BUILDER
A haystack builder takes the hay, which has been cut
while green, and builds a stack with a steeply pitched
roof which is reasonably waterproof and wind resistant.
A good stack will last for several years if necessary.

HISTORY
People have been building haystacks for a very
long time but its hard to know how far back it goes.
Originally the hay was cut with a hand held sickle
(cutting blade). It was then left on the ground for a
few days to dry, being raked regularly to expose the
underside for drying. Then a bed of branches was
laid down so that enough air circulated to stop the
bottom of the stack from rotting. The hay was then
piled on top and finished off with a pointed roof.

TECHNIQUE
The hay is cut while still green by a reaper-binder which ejects
it in sheaves. The sheaves are hand stacked into stooks (a pile
of sheaves) and loaded onto a truck or trailer pulled by a
tractor. They are then driven to the stack and positioned for
unloading. As the stack grows an elevator, attached to the
back of the truck, is used to lift the stooks to the stack. It takes
several days of hard steady work to build a stack.

SAFETY
One of the most important and difficult parts of haystack
building is to decide the earliest time at which hay can be
stacked without undue risk of heating and igniting. If the
stacked hay overheats, instant combustion can occur, and the
entire stack could be lost. Great care is exercised against the
risk of snakebite.

TRAINING
Past

PRODUCTS

Haystack building was once a skill all farmers


needed to know. Children learnt to make haystacks
by helping their parents.

Haystacks can come in different shapes and sizes. In 1935 at


Savernake Station in NSW two haystacks were built weighing
approximately 180 ton each and measuring 60 feet long, 24
feet wide and 25 feet tall. Ten years later during a
devastating drought these stacks were used to feed drought
stricken stock.

Present
Even today the skill of haystack building is one that is
usually passed down in families; usually this is from
father to son.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Years ago a haystack builder would use a scythe or
sickle and a pitchfork to build the haystack. Later the
hay was cut with horse-drawn then mechanical mowers.
Reaper-binder: - mechanically cuts the hay and binds
it into sheaves.
Dump rake: - An early rake was a horse drawn
dumprake. This had a row of long curved fingers
which would pick up the hay and dump it in rows
to form windrows.
Sweep rake: - This pushed the windrowed hay into
clumps that were then pushed into the haystack.

WHY IS HAYSTACK BUILDING A RARE


TRADE?
Haymaking saw rapid changes in the late 1930s. Loose and
sheaf haymaking methods were replaced in a few years by a
revolutionary new machine: the pick up baler. This automatic
self-feeding baler (press) was much quicker; the hay took up
less space for transportation and it was of a higher quality.
Baled hay quickly became the preferred method.

INTERESTING FACT
In 1806 students from a Christian college in America took
shelter under a haystack during a thunder storm. They
continued with their prayer meeting, praying for people in
foreign lands. These men formed America's first missionary
organisation, The American board of Commissioners for
Foreign Missions in 1810.

HOROLOIST
A horologist is a person who makes time pieces and
measures time. Horology comes from the word horologe
or old French orologe meaning an instrument for telling
the hour.

HISTORY
The clock was one of the most influential discoveries in
history. During the 14th century large mechanical clocks
that were weight driven began to appear. Between 1500
and 1510 Peter Henlein of Nuremberg invented the
spring powered clock which resulted in the construction
of smaller clocks and watches. In 1656 Christiaan
Huygens made the first pendulum clock and in 1675 he
developed the balance wheel and spring assembly still
found in some of today's clocks.

TRAINING
In the past
In 1544 a body of clockmakers established a guild in
Paris. An enactment by Francis 1 decreed that no one but
a master could make or cause to be made any clocks,
alarms, watches or other machines for measuring time.
There was also provision for the regulation of
apprentices. Apprenticeships lasted for eight years, after
which the apprentice could leave but only with the
approval of the master.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE


Watchmakers screwdrivers: many small specially
designed screwdrivers for removing backs from watches
etc.
Broaches: - Boring bits for enlarging and smoothing
holes.
Gear Cutter: - to cut a wheel with a number of teeth.
Oiler: - for applying small but precise quantities of oil.
Pliers: - Horologists use a variety of pliers
for cutting and gripping.
Depthing tool: - used
to align the gears.

OCULARIST
TECHNIQUE
The watch must first be designed. Each part of the time
piece is calculated, simulated and verified several times.
After each drawing has been completed, each part is
individually made. Very precise machines are used to
ensure the precision of each part.

SAFETY
The following safety equipment is used:

Ocularists make, fit, shape and paint ocular prothesis:


artificial eyes. The word comes from 'ocular' meaning of
or relating to the eye.

HISTORY
Egyptians made painted artificial eyeballs from clay.
Glass eyes can be traced to the late Renaissance when
Venetian glass makers started making them. The trade
flourished in France and Germany, where carefully
guarded fabrication secrets were handed down from one
generation to the next.

Heavy gloves which protect the hands from chemicals


and cuts.

Light disposable gloves which prevent fingermarks on


polished surfaces.

TRAINING

Masks to protect against fine toxic dust and fibres.

Past

Safety goggles for protection when using machinery


or dangerous fluids.

Ocularists often began as apprentice glassblowers


learning the art of shaping and moulding glass. After a
seven year apprenticeship, the glassblower could chose
to specialise in ocularistry.

PRODUCTS
Horologists produce a huge variety of timepieces from
large Grandfather clocks, mantle clocks through to pocket
and wrist watches.

WHY IS HOROLOGY A RARE TRADE?


With the advent of digital clocks and watches, jewellers
had little need to employ horologists. It is not hard to fit a
new battery, and more and more people are buying
disposable watches.

INTERESTING FACT
The Persians divided the day into 24 hours starting at
sunrise; the Athenians began the day at sunset.

TECHNIQUE
The ocularist starts by taking a photograph of the clients
other eye, to match the colour. He then blows a length of
glass tubing into a ball and adds a base colour for the
iris. The eyeball is melted at the high temperature to
incorporate the added colour. Colour is sealed in by
melting a clear crystal glass over the top. This 'cryolite'
glass is very hard and does not react with the human
body. Cooling the glass is a slow process because if it is
cooled too quickly it will become brittle and shatter.

SAFETY
Protective eyewear not only protects the eyes from flying
glass but also protects them from potentially damaging
ultraviolet and infrared rays which are emitted from the
furnace flame. Melting glass in a flame also produces
gases, so working in a well ventilated space is necessary.
Burns and cuts can happen if adequate care is not taken.

Present

PRODUCTS

Today the ocularist apprentice must study all aspects of


ocular prosthetics and spend five years in practical
training. They must also complete a related course of
study.
Tools of the Trade

'Stock' or ready made ocular prostheses (glass eyes) are


mass produced. A technician simply selects the eye which
is the best fit from a range kept in stock. For a custom
made eye the ocularist carefully studies the remaining eye
and designs the artificial eye to exactly match the
remaining eye. The eye fits one particular patient so that
it cannot be felt once it is fitted.

Like all glassblowers an ocularists most important tool is


the fire.

WHY IS OCULARISTRY A RARE TRADE?

Furnace: - An enclosed fireplace used to subject materials


to the continuous action of intense heat.
Crucible: - A vessel made to endure great heat. Materials
are placed into the crucible, which is then placed into the
furnace.
Stirrer: - Metal stirrers are used to combine the molten
glass mixture.

After World War II acrylic resins were developed and


plastic became the preferred material for artificial eyes.
Today, a high optical acrylic is the preferred material.
However a number of people still need or prefer glass.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

Skimmer: - used to skim off the sandiver, a whitish salty


substance that forms on the surface of molten glass.

Optometrists Association Australia


PO Box 185 Carlton South Victoria 3053
Ph: (03) 9663 6833

Blowing tube: - A long hollow tube by which the molten


glass is blown into shape.

INTERESTING FACT
Before WWII German ocularists would tour the United
States selling artificial eyes on a national circuit.