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Contents

Akhenaten

1.1

Early reign as Amenhotep IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

Name change to Akhenaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Religious policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Pharaoh and family depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.1

Family and relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

International relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6

Death, burial and succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7

Implementation of Atenism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8

Speculative theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.8.1

Akhenaten and Judeo-Christian-Islamic monotheism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.8.2

Possible illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.8.3

First individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.8.4

Smenkhkare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

In the arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.9.1

Plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.9.2

Novels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.9.3

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.9.4

Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.9.5

Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.10 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.12 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.12.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.12.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.12.3 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

Akhenaten Temple Project

19

2.1

Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.2

Akhenaten Temple Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.3

Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.9

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CONTENTS
2.5

20

Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth

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3.1

Plot summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

3.2

Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Akhenaten: Son of the Sun

23

4.1

Plot introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4.2

Plot summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

4.3

Characters in Akhenaten: Son of the Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

4.4

Release details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Amarna

24

5.1

Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.2

City of Akhetaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

5.2.1

Site and plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

Life in ancient Amarna/Akhetaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

5.3.1

Religious life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.4

Amarna art-style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.5

Rediscovery and excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.7

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.8

References

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5.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ankhesenamun

30

6.1

Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

6.2

Later life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.3

The Hittite Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

6.4

Mummy KV21A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.5

KV63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.6

In contemporary media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.7

Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6.9

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

33

7.1

Proposed parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

7.1.1

Ankhesenpaaten and Akhenaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.1.2

Kiya and Akhenaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.1.3

Meritaten and Smenkhare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.2

CONTENTS

iii

Colossal Statues of Akhenaten at East Karnak

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8.1

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8.2

Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8.3

Signicance to Egyptian art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8.4

Conicting theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8.6

References

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Egyptian

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9.1

Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10 The Egyptian (lm)

38

10.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.2 Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

11 Great Hymn to the Aten

41

11.1 Excerpts of the hymn-poem to Aten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

11.2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.3 Adaptations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12 The Greatest Pharaohs

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12.1 In education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.2 4-part series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.3 Video release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.5 Additional sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13 Kiya

46

13.1 Name and titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.2 Evidence for Kiyas Life

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13.4 The KV35 Younger Lady mummy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.3 Disgrace or death?

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CONTENTS
13.5 Gallery of images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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13.6 References

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13.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14 KV55

49

14.1 Discovery and excavations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.1.1 KVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2 The tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.1 Location and general appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.2 Entranceway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.3 Doorway and blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.4 Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.2.5 Burial chamber and niche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.3 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.3.1 The shrine and Tiyes burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.3.2 Con, canopic jars and magical bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.3.3 The identication of the mummy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.3.4 Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.4 Later use of KV55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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14.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15 Meketaten

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15.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15.3 Death and burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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16 Meritaten

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16.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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16.2 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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16.3 References

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16.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17 Neferneferuaten Tasherit

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17.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.3 Final years and death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18 Neferneferure
18.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

18.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.3 Death and burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.4 Other objects mentioning Neferneferure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19 Nefertiti

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19.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.3 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.3.1 Old Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.3.2 New Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.4 Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.4.1 Younger Lady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.5 Iconic status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.6 In the arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19.6.1 Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

19.6.2 Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

19.6.3 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

19.6.4 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

19.6.5 Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

19.7 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

19.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

19.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

20 Parennefer

71

20.1 Tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

20.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

21 La Reine Soleil

72

21.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

21.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

21.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

22 Royal Tomb of Akhenaten

73

22.1 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

22.2 Decoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

22.3 After burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

22.4 Excavation and preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

22.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

22.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

23 Setepenre (princess)
23.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75
75

vi

CONTENTS
23.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

23.3 Death and burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

23.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

24 Smenkhkare

76

24.1 Name Confusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

24.2 Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

24.3 Co-regent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

24.3.1 Neferneferuaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

24.3.2 Interpretations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

24.4 Temple of Ankhkheperure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

24.5 Nefertiti Year 16 Grato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

24.6 Dakhamunzu Hittite Aair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

24.6.1 Nefertiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

24.6.2 Meritaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

24.6.3 Ankhesenamun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

24.7 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

24.8 Death and Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

24.8.1 Early Examinations of the Mummy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

24.8.2 Genetic Tests from 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

24.8.3 Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

24.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

24.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

24.11Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

24.12Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

25 Stela of Akhenaten and his family

87

25.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

25.2 Allegations of forgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

25.3 Bibliography

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

25.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

25.5 References

87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 Temple of Amenhotep IV

89

26.1 Location and layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

26.1.1 Gempaaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

26.1.2 Hwt benben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

26.1.3 Teni-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

26.2 References & notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

26.2.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

26.2.2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

27 Thutmose (sculptor)

91

CONTENTS

vii

27.1 Recovered works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

27.2 Gallery of images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

27.3 Tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

27.4 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

27.4.1 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

27.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

28 TT188

93

28.1 Recent Discoveries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

28.2 Other Tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

28.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

29 3199 Nefertiti
29.1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 Nefertiti Bust

94
94
95

30.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

30.1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

30.1.2 Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

30.2 Description and examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

30.2.1 Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

30.2.2 Missing left eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

30.2.3 CT scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

30.3 Later history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

30.3.1 Locations in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

30.4 Controversies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

30.4.1 Requests for repatriation to Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

30.4.2 Allegations over authenticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

30.4.3 The Body of Nefertiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

30.5 Cultural signicance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

30.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

30.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


31 Aten

102

31.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


31.2 Royal Titulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
31.2.1 Variant translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
31.2.2 Variant vocalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
31.2.3 Names derived from Aten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
31.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
31.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
31.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

viii

CONTENTS

32 Atenism

105

32.1 History of the Aten before Akhenaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


32.2 Atenist revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
32.3 Contrast with traditional Egyptian religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
32.4 Amarna art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32.5 Decline of Atenism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32.6 Link to Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32.7 Atenism in ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32.8 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
32.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
32.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
33 Great Temple of the Aten

109

33.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109


33.2 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
33.3 Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
33.4 Excavation & Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
33.5 Image gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
33.5.1 Sculptural fragments from the temple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
33.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
34 Meryre

113

34.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


34.2 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
35 Neferneferuaten

114

35.1 General chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


35.1.1 Manetho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
35.2 Key evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
35.3 Female king . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
35.3.1 Cutting the knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
35.3.2 Sole reign? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
35.4 Identity of Neferneferuaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
35.4.1 Nefertiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
35.4.2 Meritaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
35.4.3 Neferneferuaten-tasherit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
35.5 Smenkhkare and the Amarna succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
35.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
35.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
35.7.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
35.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
36 Small Aten Temple

127

CONTENTS

ix

37 Tutankhamun

128

37.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128


37.1.1 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
37.1.2 Health and appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
37.1.3 Genealogy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

37.1.4 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


37.1.5 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
37.2 Signicance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
37.3 Tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
37.4 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
37.5 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
37.5.1 Film and television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
37.5.2 Other media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
37.6 Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
37.7 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
37.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
37.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
37.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
38 Amarna Period

140

38.1 Religious developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140


38.2 Royal women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
38.3 Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
38.4 Tutankhamun and the Amarna Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
38.5 Foreign relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
38.5.1 The Great Powers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

38.5.2 Amarna Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142


38.6 Gallery of images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
38.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
38.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
39 Abdi-Heba

145

39.1 Correspondence with Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


39.2 List of Abdi-Hebas 6 letters to Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
39.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
39.4 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
39.4.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
39.4.2 Other works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
40 Ahatmilku

147

40.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147


40.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

CONTENTS

41 Alashiya

148

41.1 The texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148


41.2 Identication

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

41.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149


41.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
41.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
42 Amarna art

150

42.1 Tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


42.2 Sculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
42.3 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
42.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
42.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
43 Amarna succession

153

43.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


43.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
44 Amarna Tomb 1

154

44.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


45 Amarna Tomb 3

156

45.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156


46 Amarna Tomb 5

157

46.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157


47 Amarna Tomb 7

158

47.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158


48 Amenhotep III

159

48.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159


48.2 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
48.2.1 Proposed co-regency by Akhenaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
48.2.2 Final years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
48.2.3 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
48.3 The Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
48.4 Monuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
48.5 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
48.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
48.7 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
48.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
49 Amurru kingdom

167

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xi

49.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


49.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
50 Archers (Egyptian ptati)

168

50.1 A letter example--no. 337 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


50.2 Archers and myrrh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
50.3 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
50.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
50.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
51 Ay

170

51.1 Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170


51.2 Amarna Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
51.3 Tutankhamun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
51.4 Rule As The Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
51.5 Royal succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
51.6 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
51.7 Family

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

51.8 In ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173


51.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
51.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
51.11Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
51.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
52 Aziru

175

52.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


52.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
53 Bek (sculptor)

177

53.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177


53.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
54 Beketaten

178

54.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178


54.2 Proposed alternative identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
54.3 In Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
54.3.1 Amarnan Kings series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
54.3.2 The Egyptian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
54.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
55 Biridawa

180

55.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180


55.2 Biridawa of EA letters 196, and EA 197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
55.2.1 Letter no. 197: title: Biryawazas plight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

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55.2.2 Letter no. 196: title: Unheard-of deeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
55.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
55.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

56 Burna-Buriash II

182

56.1 Correspondence with Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182


56.2 International Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
56.3 Domestic Aairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
56.4 Kara-arda, Nazi-Buga and the events at end of his reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
56.5 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
56.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
57 Coregency Stela

186

57.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186


58 Dakhamunzu

187

58.1 Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187


58.2 The Zannanza aair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
58.3 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
58.4 Identication of the Egyptian protagonists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
58.5 Notes & references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
58.5.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
58.5.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
58.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
59 Gath (city)

190

59.1 Archaeological site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190


59.2 Bronze Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
59.3 Iron Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
59.3.1 Goliath Shard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
59.4 Crusader Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
59.5 Other Gaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
59.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
59.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
59.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
60 Horemheb

194

60.1 Early career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194


60.2 Internal reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
60.3 Reign length: 26/27 years or 14 years? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
60.3.1 Horemhebs new reign length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
60.4 Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
60.5 Fictional representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

CONTENTS

xiii

60.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199


60.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
60.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
61 Huya (noble)

201

61.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201


61.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
62 Labaya

202

62.1 Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202


62.2 List of Labayas three letters to Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
62.3 Identications with Biblical gures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
62.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
62.5 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
62.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
63 Maya (Egyptian)

205

63.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206


63.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
64 Meritaten Tasherit

207

64.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207


65 Meryre II

208

65.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208


66 William L. Moran

209

66.1 Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209


66.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
67 Mutbaal

210

67.1 List of Mutbaals 2 letters to Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210


67.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
67.3 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
68 Mutnedjmet

211

68.1 Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211


68.2 Mutnedjmet as Nefertitis Sister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
68.3 Monuments and Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
68.4 Death and Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
68.5 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
68.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
69 Nakhtpaaten

213

69.1 Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

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CONTENTS
69.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

70 Neferkheperuhesekheper

214

70.1 Tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214


70.2 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
71 Panehesy

215

71.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215


72 Penthu

216

72.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216


72.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
73 Pihuri

217

73.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217


74 Ramose

218

74.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218


74.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
75 Ramose (TT55)

219

75.1 TT55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219


75.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
76 Rib-Hadda

220

76.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221


76.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
76.3 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
77 Suteans

222

77.1 Amarna letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222


77.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
78 Tadukhipa

223

78.1 Marriage to Amenhotep III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223


78.2 Marriage to Akhenaten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
78.3 Identied with Kiya or Nefertiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
78.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
79 Tiye

225

79.1 Family and early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225


79.2 Monuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
79.3 Inuence at court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
79.4 Burial and mummy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
79.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

CONTENTS

xv

79.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227


80 Tomb of Meryra

229

80.1 Tomb layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229


80.2 Meryra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
80.3 Tomb Decorations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
80.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
80.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
81 Tushratta

231

81.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231


81.2 A second campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
81.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
82 Zemar

232

82.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232


83 Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten

233

83.1 Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233


83.2 Work done on the stelae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
83.3 Stelae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
83.3.1 Damage
83.4 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

83.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234


84 Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh

235

84.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235


84.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
85 Kom el-Nana

236

85.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236


86 Maru-Aten

237

86.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237


87 Northern Palace (Amarna)

238

87.1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238


88 Workmens Village, Amarna

239

89 Mahu (noble)

240

89.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240


89.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
90 Royal Wadi and tombs

241

90.1 Royal Tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

xvi

CONTENTS
90.2 Tomb 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
90.3 Tomb 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
90.4 Tomb 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
90.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

91 Southern Tomb 11

242

91.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242


92 Southern Tomb 23

243

92.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243


92.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
93 Southern Tomb 25

244

94 Southern Tombs Cemetery

245

94.1 Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245


94.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
95 Tomb of Meryra II

246

95.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246


96 Tombs of the Nobles (Amarna)

247

96.1 Northern tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247


96.1.1 Desert altars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
96.2 Southern tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
96.3 Rediscovery and excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
96.4 Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
96.4.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
96.4.2 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
96.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Chapter 1

Akhenaten
1.1 Early reign as Amenhotep IV

Akhenaten (/kntn/;[1] also spelled Echnaton,[7]


Akhenaton,[8] Ikhnaton,[9] and Khuenaten;[10][11]
meaning Eective for Aten") known before the fth
year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given
its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is
Satised), was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of
Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336
BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning
traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship
centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as
monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens
the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later ocial
language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar
deity a status above mere gods.
Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from
traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice
was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later
rulers without clear rights of succession from the Eighteenth Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited
Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to
Akhenaten himself as the enemy in archival records.[12]

Relief representing Amenhotep IV before he changed his name to


Akhenaten, Neues Museum, Berlin

The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep


III and Chief Queen Tiye.The eldest son, Crown Prince
He was all but lost from history until the discovery, in Thutmose, was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III
the 19th century, of Amarna, the site of Akhetaten, but he died relatively young and the next in line for the
the city he built for the Aten. Early excavations at throne was a prince named Amenhotep.[19]
Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enig- There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep
matic pharaoh, whose tomb was unearthed in 1907 in a IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father,
dig led by Edward R. Ayrton. Interest in Akhenaten in- Amenhotep III, or whether there was a coregency (lastcreased with the discovery in the Valley of the Kings, at ing as long as 12 years according to some Egyptologists).
Luxor, of the tomb of King Tutankhamun, who has been Current literature by Eric Cline, Nicholas Reeves, Peter
proved to be Akhenatens son according to DNA test- Dorman and other scholars comes out strongly against the
ing in 2010.[13] A mummy found in KV55 in 1907 has establishment of a long coregency between the two rulers
been identied as that of Akhenaten. This man and Tu- and in favour of either no coregency or a brief one lasttankhamun are related without question,[14] but the iden- ing one to two years, at the most.[20] Other literature by
tication of the KV55 mummy as Akhenaten has been Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner and
questioned.[6][15][16][17][18]
more recently by Lawrence Berman in 1998 contests the
view of any coregency whatsoever between Akhenaten
and his father.[21]

Modern interest in Akhenaten and his queen, Nefertiti,


comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun,
partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest
in the religion he attempted to establish.

In February 2014, Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The
evidence came from the inscriptions found in the Luxor
tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy.[22][23] A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb.
1

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN
Memphis Apy (or Ipy) to the Pharaoh. The documents
were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third
month of the Growing Season, day 19.[25]

1.2 Name change to Akhenaten


On day 13, Month 8, in the fth year of his reign, the king
arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten (now known
as Amarna). A month before that Amenhotep IV had
ocially changed his name to Akhenaten.[19] Amenhotep
IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his
reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne
name.[26]

1.3 Religious policies

Bronze plate with the titulary of Amenhotep IV before he changed


his name to Akhenaten, British Museum.

Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he


started a building program. He decorated the southern
entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with
scenes of himself worshipping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a temple dedicated to the Aten
at the Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV
was called the Gempaaten (The Aten is found in the estate of the Aten). The Gempaaten consisted of a series
of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the
Hwt Benben (named after the Benben stone) which was
dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu
and the Teni-menu which may have been constructed near
the Ninth Pylon. During this time he did not repress the
worship of Amun, and the High Priest of Amun was still
active in the fourth year of his reign.[19] The king appears
as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in
Thebes: Kheruef (TT192), Ramose (TT55) and the tomb
of Parennefer (TT188).[24]
In the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the
west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with
Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of
the doorway Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in
the window of appearance with the Aten depicted as the
sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep
IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk
depicted over the king and queen.[24]
One of the last known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of

Pharaoh Akhenaten (center) and his family worshiping the Aten,


with characteristic rays seen emanating from the solar disk.

Some recent debate has focused on the extent to which


Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his people.
Certainly, as time drew on, he revised the names of the
Aten, and other religious language, to increasingly exclude references to other gods; at some point, also, he
embarked on the wide-scale erasure of traditional gods
names, especially those of Amun. Some of his court
changed their names to remove them from the patronage of other gods and place them under that of Aten (or
Ra, with whom Akhenaten equated the Aten). Yet, even
at Amarna itself, some courtiers kept such names as Ahmose (child of the moon god, the owner of tomb 3), and
the sculptors workshop where the famous Nefertiti bust,
and other works of royal portraiture, were found, is associated with an artist known to have been called Thutmose

1.4. PHARAOH AND FAMILY DEPICTIONS

3
mid-action (in traditional art, a pharaohs divine nature
was expressed by repose, even immobility). The depictions of action may correspond to the emphasis on the
active, creative nurturing of the Aten emphasized in the
Great Hymn to the Aten and elsewhere.

Talatat blocks from Akhenatens Aten temple in Karnak

(child of Thoth). An overwhelmingly large number of


faience amulets at Amarna also show that talismans of the
household-and-childbirth gods Bes and Taweret, the eye
of Horus, and amulets of other traditional deities, were
openly worn by its citizens. Indeed, a cache of royal jewelry found buried near the Amarna royal tombs (now in
the National Museum of Scotland) includes a nger ring
referring to Mut, the wife of Amun. Such evidence suggests that though Akhenaten shifted funding away from
traditional temples, his policies were fairly tolerant until
some point, perhaps a particular event as yet unknown,
toward the end of the reign.
Following Akhenatens death, change was gradual at rst.
Within a decade a comprehensive political, religious and
artistic reformation began promoting a return of Egyptian
life to the norms it had followed during his fathers reign.
Much of the art and building infrastructure created during Akhenatens reign was defaced or destroyed in the period following his death, particularly during the reigns of
Horemheb and the early Nineteenth Dynasty kings. Stone
building blocks from Akhenatens construction projects
were later used as foundation stones for subsequent rulers
temples and tombs.

1.4 Pharaoh and family depictions


Styles of art that ourished during this short period are
markedly dierent from other Egyptian art. In some
cases, representations are more naturalistic, especially in
depictions of animals and plants, of commoners, and in
a sense of action and movementfor both nonroyal and
royal people. However, depictions of members of the
court, especially members of the royal family, are extremely stylized, with elongated heads, protruding stomachs, heavy hips, thin arms and legs, and exaggerated
facial features. Signicantly, and for the only time in
the history of Egyptian royal art, Akhenatens family
are shown taking part in decidedly naturalistic activities,
showing aection for each other, and being caught in

Small statue of Akhenaten wearing the Egyptian Blue Crown of


War

Questions also remain whether the beauty of Nefertiti is


portraiture or idealism. Nefertiti also appears, both beside the king and alone (or with her daughters), in actions usually reserved for a Pharaoh, suggesting that she
enjoyed unusual status for a queen. Early artistic representations of her tend to be indistinguishable from her
husbands except by her regalia, but soon after the move
to the new capital, Nefertiti begins to be depicted with
features specic to her.
Why Akhenaten had himself represented in the bizarre,
strikingly androgynous way he did, remains a vigorously
debated question. Religious reasons have been suggested,
such as to emulate the creative nature of the Aten, who
is called in Amarna tomb texts, mother and father of
all that is. Or, it has been suggested, Akhenatens (and
his familys) portraiture exaggerates his distinctive physical traits. Until Akhenatens mummy is positively identied, such theories remain speculative. Some scholars do
identify Mummy 61074, found in KV55, an unnished
tomb in the Valley of the Kings, as Akhenatens.[27] If
soor if the KV 55 mummy is that of his close relative, Smenkhkareits measurements tend to support the
theory that Akhenatens depictions exaggerate his actual
appearance. Though the mummy consists only of disarticulated bones, the skull is long and has a prominent

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN

chin, and the limbs are light and long. In 2007, Zahi
Hawass and a team of researchers made CT Scan images of Mummy 61074. They have concluded that the
elongated skull, cheek bones, cleft palate, and impacted
wisdom tooth suggest that the mummy is the father of
Tutankhamun, and thus is Akhenaten.

gained her importance as the mother of Tutankhamen,


Smenkhkare, or both.
This is a list of Akhenatens children (known and theoretical) with suggested years of birth:
Smenkhkare? year 35 or 36 of Amenhotep IIIs
reign
Meritaten year 1.
Meketaten year 3, possibly earlier.
Ankhesenpaaten, later Queen of Tutankhamun
year 4.
Neferneferuaten Tasherit year 8.
Neferneferure year 9.
Setepenre year 9.

The Wilbour Plaque, ca. 1352-1336 B.C.E, Brooklyn Museum


This relief depicts Akhenaten and Nefertiti late in their reign.

Tutankhaten year 8 or 9 renamed Tutankhamun


later.[29]
His known consorts were:

1.4.1

Family and relations

See also: Family tree of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt


As Amenhotep IV, Akhenaten was married to Nefertiti

Nefertiti, his Great Royal Wife.


Kiya, a lesser Royal Wife.
A daughter of atiya, ruler of Eniasi[30]
A daughter of Burna-Buriash, King of Babylon[30]
It has been proposed that Akhenaten may have taken
some of his daughters as sexual consorts, to attempt to father a male heir by them, but this is very debatable. It does
seem certain that like his father, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten named at least one daughter as Great Royal Wife.
But this does not exclusively indicate she was his sexual
consort as the position was also an important ceremonial
position.[31]

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their children

at the very beginning of his reign, and six daughters were


identied from inscriptions. Recent DNA analysis has revealed that with one of his biological sisters, the Younger
Lady mummy, Akhenaten fathered Tutankhaten (later
Tutankhamen).[28] The parentage of Smenkhkare, his
successor, is unknown, and Akhenaten and an unknown
wife have been proposed to be his parents.
A secondary wife of Akhenaten named Kiya is known
from inscriptions.
Some have theorized that she

Meritaten is recorded as Great Royal Wife to


Smenkhkare in the tomb of Meryre II in AkhetAten. She is also listed alongside King Akhenaten
and King Neferneferuaten as Great Royal Wife on a
box from the tomb of Tutankhamen. Letters written
to Akhenaten from foreign rulers make reference to
Meritaten as 'mistress of the house'.
Meketaten, Akhenatens second daughter. Meketatens death in childbirth is recorded in the royal
tombs of Amarna about the year 13 or 14. Since no
husband is known for her, the assumption has been
that Akhenaten was the father. The inscription giving the liation of the child are damaged to prevent
resolving the issue.

1.5. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


Various monuments originally for Kiya, was
reinscribed for Akhenatens daughters Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten, the revised inscriptions list a Meritaten-tasherit (junior) and an
Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit. Some view this to indicate that Akhenaten fathered his own grandchildren.
Others hold that since these grandchildren are not
attested to elsewhere, that they are ctions invented
to ll the space originally lled by Kiyas child.[32]
Two other lovers have been suggested, but are not widely
accepted:
Smenkhkare, Akhenatens successor and/or co-ruler
for the last years of his reign. Rather than a lover,
however, Smenkhkare is likely to have been a halfbrother or a son to Akhenaten. Some have even
suggested that Smenkhkare was actually an alias of
Nefertiti or Kiya, and therefore one of Akhenatens
wives (see below).
Tiye, his mother. Twelve years after the death of
Amenhotep III, she is still mentioned in inscriptions
as Queen and beloved of the King, but kings mothers often were. The few supporters of this theory
(notably Immanuel Velikovsky) consider Akhenaten to be the historical model of legendary King Akhenaten in the typical Amarna period style.
Oedipus of Thebes, Greece and Tiye the model for
his mother/wife Jocasta.
and a second statue, a statue of Tadu-Heba
(Tadukhepa), my daughter, and your father
said, 'Don't talk of giving statues just of solid
1.5 International relations
cast gold. I will give you ones made also of
lapis lazuli. I will give you, too, along with the
The Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic corresponstatues, much additional gold and (other) goods
dence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna (the
beyond measure.' Every one of my messengers
modern designation of the site of Akhetaten) have prothat were staying in Egypt saw the gold for the
vided important evidence about Akhenatens reign and
statues with their own eyes. Your father himforeign policy. This correspondence comprises a priceself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my
less collection of incoming messages on clay tablets, sent
messengers, and he made them entirely of pure
to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egypgold....He showed much additional gold, which
tian military outposts, and from the foreign rulers (recwas beyond measure and which he was sending
ognized as Great Kings) of the kingdom of Mitanni,
to me. He said to my messengers, 'See with
of Babylon, of Assyria and of Hatti. The governors and
your own eyes, here the statues, there much
kings of Egypts subject domains also wrote frequently to
gold and goods beyond measure, which I am
plead for gold from Pharaoh, and also complained that he
sending to my brother.' And my messengers
had snubbed and cheated them.
did see with their own eyes! But my brother
Early in his reign, Akhenaten fell out with the king of
(i.e.: Akhenaten) has not sent the solid (gold)
Mitanni, Tushratta, who had courted favor with his father
statues that your father was going to send. You
against the Hittites. Tushratta complains in numerous
have sent plated ones of wood. Nor have you
letters that Akhenaten had sent him gold-plated statues
sent me the goods that your father was gorather than statues made of solid gold; the statues formed
ing to send me, but you have reduced (them)
part of the bride-price which Tushratta received for letgreatly. Yet there is nothing I know of in which
ting his daughter Tadukhepa marry rst Amenhotep III
I have failed my brother. Any day that I hear
and then Akhenaten. Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a
the greetings of my brother, that day I make
complaint by Tushratta to Akhenaten about the situation:
a festive occasion... May my brother send me
much gold. [At] the kim[ru fe]ast...[...with]
I...asked your father, Mimmureya, for
many goods [may my] brother honor me. In
statues of solid cast gold, one of myself
my brothers country gold is as plentiful as dust.

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN
May my brother cause me no distress. May he
send me much gold in order that my brother
[with the gold and m]any [good]s, may honor
me. (EA 27)[33]

one that writes to me more than all the (other) mayors" or


Egyptian vassals in EA 124.[34] What Rib-Hadda did not
comprehend was that the Egyptian king would not organize and dispatch an entire army north just to preserve
the political status quo of several minor city states on the
fringes of Egypts Asiatic Empire.[35] Rib-Hadda would
pay the ultimate price; his exile from Byblos due to a
coup led by his brother Ilirabih is mentioned in one letter.
When Rib-Hadda appealed in vain for aid from Akhenaten and then turned to Aziru, his sworn enemy, to place
him back on the throne of his city, Aziru promptly had
him dispatched to the king of Sidon, where Rib-Hadda
was almost certainly executed.[36]
William L. Moran[37] notes that the Amarna corpus of
380+ letters counters the conventional view that Akhenaten neglected Egypts foreign territories in favour of his
internal reforms. Several letters from Egyptian vassals
notify the Pharaoh that they have followed his instructions:

Plaster portrait study of a pharaoh, Ahkenaten or a co-regent or


successor. Discovered within the workshop of the royal sculptor Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the gyptisches Museum
collection in Berlin.

While Akhenaten was certainly not a close friend of


Tushratta, he was evidently concerned at the expanding power of the Hittite Empire under its powerful ruler
Suppiluliuma I. A successful Hittite attack on Mitanni
and its ruler Tushratta would have disrupted the entire international balance of power in the Ancient Middle East
at a time when Egypt had made peace with Mitanni; this
would cause some of Egypts vassals to switch their allegiances to the Hittites, as time would prove. A group
of Egypts allies who attempted to rebel against the Hittites were captured, and wrote letters begging Akhenaten
for troops, but he did not respond to most of their pleas.
Evidence suggests that the troubles on the northern frontier led to diculties in Canaan, particularly in a struggle
for power between Labaya of Shechem and Abdi-Heba of
Jerusalem, which required the Pharaoh to intervene in the
area by dispatching Medjay troops northwards. Akhenaten pointedly refused to save his vassal Rib-Hadda of
Byblos - whose kingdom was being besieged by the expanding state of Amurru under Abdi-Ashirta and later
Aziru, son of Abdi-Ashirta - despite Rib-Haddas numerous pleas for help from the pharaoh. Rib-Hadda wrote
a total of 60 letters to Akhenaten pleading for aid from
the pharaoh. Akhenaten wearied of Rib-Haddas constant
correspondences and once told Rib-Hadda: "You are the

To the king, my lord, my god, my Sun,


the Sun from the sky: Message of Yapahu, the
ruler of Gazru, your servant, the dirt at your
feet. I indeed prostrate myself at the feet of
the king, my lord, my god, my Sun...7 times
and 7 times, on the stomach and on the back. I
am indeed guarding the place of the king, my
lord, the Sun of the sky, where I am, and all
the things the king, my lord, has written me, I
am indeed carrying out--everything! Who am
I, a dog, and what is my house... and what is
anything I have, that the orders of the king,
my lord, the Sun from the sky, should not obey
constantly? (EA 378)[38]
When the loyal but unfortunate Rib-Hadda was killed at
the instigation of Aziru,[36] Akhenaten sent an angry letter
to Aziru containing a barely veiled accusation of outright
treachery on the latters part.[39] Akhenaten wrote:
Say to Aziru, ruler of Amurru: Thus the
king, your lord (ie: Akhenaten), saying: The
ruler of Gubla (i.e.: Byblos), whose brother
had cast him away at the gate, said to you,
Take me and get me into the city. There
is much silver, and I will give it to you. Indeed there is an abundance of everything, but
not with me [here]. Thus did the ruler (RibHadda) speak to you. Did you not write to the
king, my lord saying, I am your servant like all
the previous mayors (ie: vassals) in his city"?
Yet you acted delinquently by taking the mayor
whose brother had cast him away at the gate,
from his city.
He (Rib-Hadda) was residing in Sidon and,
following your own judgment, you gave him

1.6. DEATH, BURIAL AND SUCCESSION

7
ily, shall die by the axe of the king. So perform
your service for the king, your lord, and you
will live. You yourself know that the king does
not fail when he rages against all of Canaan.
And when you wrote saying, 'May the king, my
Lord, give me leave this year, and then I will go
next year to the king, my Lord. (ie: to Egypt)
If this is impossible, I will send my son in my
place' - the king, your Lord, let you o this
year in accordance with what you said. Come
yourself, or send your son [now], and you will
see the king at whose sight all lands live. (EA
162)[40]

Head of Akhenaten

to (some) mayors. Were you ignorant of the


treacherousness of the men? If you really are
the kings servant, why did you not denounce
him before the king, your lord, saying, This
mayor has written to me saying, 'Take me to
yourself and get me into my city'"? And if
you did act loyally, still all the things you wrote
were not true. In fact, the king has reected on
them as follows, Everything you have said is
not friendly.
Now the king has heard as follows, You
are at peace with the ruler of Qidsa. (Kadesh)
The two of you take food and strong drink together. And it is true. Why do you act so?
Why are you at peace with a ruler whom the
king is ghting? And even if you did act loyally, you considered your own judgment, and
his judgment did not count. You have paid
no attention to the things that you did earlier.
What happened to you among them that you
are not on the side of the king, your lord? Consider the people that are training you for their
own advantage. They want to throw you into
the re....If for any reason whatsoever you prefer to do evil, and if you plot evil, treacherous
things, then you, together with your entire fam-

This letter shows that Akhenaten paid close attention to


the aairs of his vassals in Canaan and Syria. Akhenaten
commanded Aziru to come to Egypt and proceeded to detain him there for at least one year. In the end, Akhenaten
was forced to release Aziru back to his homeland when
the Hittites advanced southwards into Amki, thereby
threatening Egypts series of Asiatic vassal states, including Amurru.[41] Sometime after his return to Amurru,
Aziru defected to the Hittite side with his kingdom.[42]
While it is known from an Amarna letter by Rib-Hadda
that the Hittites seized all the countries that were vassals
of the king of Mitanni (EA 75)[43] Akhenaten managed
to preserve Egypts control over the core of her Near Eastern Empire (which consisted of present-day Israel as well
as the Phoenician coast) while avoiding conict with the
increasingly powerful Hittite Empire of Suppiluliuma I.
Only the Egyptian border province of Amurru in Syria
around the Orontes river was permanently lost to the Hittites when its ruler Aziru defected to the Hittites. Finally, contrary to the conventional view of a ruler who
neglected Egypts international relations, Akhenaten is
known to have initiated at least one campaign into Nubia
in his regnal Year 12, where his campaign is mentioned
in Amada stela CG 41806 and on a separate companion
stela at Buhen.[44]

1.6 Death, burial and succession


Further information: Amarna succession
The last dated appearance of Akhenaten and the Amarna
family is in the tomb of Meryra II, and dates from second month, year 12 of his reign.[45] After this the historical record is unclear, and only with the succession of
Tutankhamun is somewhat claried.
However, recently, in December 2012, it was announced
that a Year 16 III Akhet day 15 inscription dated explicitly to Akhenatens reign which mentions, in the same
breath, the presence of a living Queen Nefertiti, has now
been found in a limestone quarry at Deir el-Bersha just
north of Amarna.[46][47] The text refers to a building
project in Amarna. It establishes that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still a royal couple just a year prior to Akhen-

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN

Akhenatens sarcophagus reconstituted from pieces discovered


in his original tomb in Amarna, now in the Egyptian Museum,
Cairo.

Prole view of the skull of Akhenaten recovered from KV55

disputed.[49] The tomb contained numerous Amarna era


objects including a royal funerary mask which had been
deliberately destroyed. His sarcophagus was destroyed
but has since been reconstructed and now sits outside in
the Cairo Museum.

Fragmentary ushabtis of Akhenaten from his original tomb in


Amarna, now in the Brooklyn Museum.

The desecrated royal con of Akhenaten found in Tomb KV55

atens death.
Akhenaten planned to relocate Egyptian burials on the
East side of the Nile (sunrise) rather than on the West side
(sunset), in the Royal Wadi in Akhetaten. His body was
removed after the court returned to Thebes, and recent
genetic tests have conrmed that the body found buried
in tomb KV55 was the father of Tutankhamun, and is
therefore most probably Akhenaten,[48] although this is

Similarly, although it is accepted that Akhenaten himself died in Year 17 of his reign, the question of whether
Smenkhkare became co-regent perhaps two or three
years earlier or enjoyed a brief independent reign is
unclear.[50] If Smenkhkare outlived Akhenaten, and became sole Pharaoh, he likely ruled Egypt for less than
a year. The next successor was Neferneferuaten, a female Pharaoh who reigned in Egypt for two years and one
month.[51] She was, in turn, probably succeeded by Tutankhaten (later, Tutankhamun), with the country being
administered by the chief vizier, and future Pharaoh, Ay.
Tutankhamun was believed to be a younger brother of
Smenkhkare and a son of Akhenaten, and possibly Kiya
although one scholar has suggested that Tutankhamun
may have been a son of Smenkhkare instead. DNA

1.7. IMPLEMENTATION OF ATENISM

tests in 2010 indicated Tutankhamun was indeed the son


of Akhenaten.[13] It has been suggested that after the
death of Akhenaten, Nefertiti reigned with the name of
Neferneferuaten[52] but other scholars believe this female
ruler was rather Meritaten. The so-called Coregency
Stela, found in a tomb in Amarna possibly shows his
queen Nefertiti as his coregent, ruling alongside him, but
this is not certain as the names have been removed and recarved to show Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten.[53]
With Akhenatens death, the Aten cult he had founded
gradually fell out of favor. Tutankhaten changed his
name to Tutankhamun in Year 2 of his reign (1332 BC)
and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which eventually
fell into ruin. His successors Ay and Horemheb disassembled temples Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using them as a source of easily available
building materials and decorations for their own temples.
Finally, Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay were excised from the ocial lists of
Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was
immediately succeeded by Horemheb. This is thought
to be part of an attempt by Horemheb to delete all trace
of Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the
historical record. Akhenatens name never appeared on
any of the king lists compiled by later Pharaohs and it
was not until the late 19th century that his identity was
re-discovered and the surviving traces of his reign were
unearthed by archaeologists.

1.7 Implementation of Atenism


Main article: Atenism
In the early years of his reign, Amenhotep IV lived at
Thebes with Nefertiti and his 6 daughters. Initially, he
permitted worship of Egypts traditional deities to continue but near the Temple of Karnak (Amun-Ras great
cult center), he erected several massive buildings including temples to the Aten. Aten was usually depicted as a
sun disc. These buildings at Thebes were later dismantled by his successors and used as inll for new constructions in the Temple of Karnak; when they were later dismantled by archaeologists, some 36,000 decorated blocks
from the original Aton building here were revealed which
preserve many elements of the original relief scenes and
inscriptions.[54]
The relationship between Amenhotep IV and the priests
of Amun-Re gradually deteriorated. In Year 5 of his
reign, Amenhotep IV took decisive steps to establish
the Aten as the exclusive, monotheistic god of Egypt:
the pharaoh disbanded the priesthoods of all the other
gods...and diverted the income from these [other] cults
to support the Aten. To emphasize his complete allegiance to the Aten, the king ocially changed his name
from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaten or 'Living Spirit of

Akhenaten depicted as a sphinx at Amarna.

Aten.'[54] Akhenatens fth year also marked the beginning of construction on his new capital, Akhetaten or
'Horizon of Aten', at the site known today as Amarna.
Very soon afterwards, he centralized Egyptian religious
practices in Akhetaten, though construction of the city
seems to have continued for several more years. In honor
of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of
some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient
Egypt. In these new temples, Aten was worshipped in
the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures,
as had been the previous custom. Akhenaten is also believed to have composed the Great Hymn to the Aten.
Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten as a variant of the
familiar supreme deity Amun-Re (itself the result of an
earlier rise to prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with the sun god Ra), in
an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign, Akhenaten declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god,
but the only god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only
intermediary between Aten and his people. He ordered
the defacing of Amuns temples throughout Egypt and,
in a number of instances, inscriptions of the plural 'gods
were also removed.
Atens name is also written dierently after Year 9, to
emphasize the radicalism of the new regime, which included a ban on images, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in
hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten, who
by then was evidently considered not merely a sun god,
but rather a universal deity. Representations of the Aten
were always accompanied with a sort of hieroglyphic
footnote, stating that the representation of the sun as
All-encompassing Creator was to be taken as just that:
a representation of something that, by its very nature as
something transcending creation, cannot be fully or adequately represented by any one part of that creation.

10

1.8 Speculative theories

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN
idea that Akhenaten is the real character for the mythical
Moses,[66] Ahmarna the place as a literary misinterpretation of God raining an unknown fruit called manna while
the Jews were wandering in the desert[66] and the concept
of a deity directing a group to a promised place which is
the main theme in both stories.[66]
Ahmed Osman has claimed that Akhenatens maternal
grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical
Joseph. Yuya held the title Overseer of the Cattle of
Min at Akhmin during his life.[67]

Sculptors trial piece of Akhenaten.

He likely belonged to the local nobility of Akhmim.


Egyptologists hold this view because Yuya had strong
connections to the city of Akhmim in Upper Egypt. This
makes it unlikely that he was a foreigner since most Asiatic settlers tended to cloister around the Nile Delta region
of Lower Egypt.[68][69] Some Egyptologists,[70] however,
give him a Mitannian origin. It is widely accepted that
there are strong similarities between Akhenatens Great
Hymn to the Aten and the Biblical Psalm 104, though
this form is found widespread in ancient Near Eastern
hymnology both before and after the period and whether
this implies a direct inuence or a common literary convention remains in dispute.

Akhenatens status as a religious revolutionary has led to


much speculation, ranging from bona de scholarly hypotheses to the non-academic fringe theories. Although
many believe that he introduced monotheism, others see
Akhenaten as a practitioner of an Aten monolatry,[55] as
he did not actively deny the existence of other gods; he Others have likened some aspects of Akhenatens relasimply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten while tionship with the Aten to the relationship, in Christian
expecting the people to worship not Aten but him.
tradition, of Jesus Christ with God - particularly in interpretations that emphasise a more monotheistic interpretation of Atenism than henotheistic. Donald B. Redford has
1.8.1 Akhenaten and Judeo-Christian- noted that some have viewed Akhenaten as a harbinger
Islamic monotheism
of Jesus. After all, Akhenaten did call himself the son
of the sole god: 'Thine only son that came forth from thy
The idea of Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheis- body'.[71] James Henry Breasted likened him to Jesus,[72]
tic religion that later became Judaism has been consid- Arthur Weigall saw him as a failed precursor of Christ
ered by various scholars.[56][57][58][59][60][61] One of the and Thomas Mann saw him as right on the way and yet
rst to mention this was Sigmund Freud, the founder of not the right one for the way.[73]
psychoanalysis, in his book Moses and Monotheism.[62]
Redford argued that while Akhenaten called himself the
Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest
son of the Sun-Disc and acted as the chief mediator beforced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenatens
tween god and creation, kings for thousands of years bedeath. Freud argued that Akhenaten was striving to profore Akhenatens time had claimed the same relationship
mote monotheism, something that the biblical Moses was
and priestly role. However Akhenatens case may be dif[56]
able to achieve.
Following his book, the concept enferent through the emphasis placed on the heavenly fa[63]
tered popular consciousness and serious research.
ther and son relationship. Akhenaten described himself
Other scholars and mainstream Egyptologists point out as thy son who came forth from thy limbs, thy child,
that there are direct connections between early Judaism the eternal son that came forth from the Sun-Disc, and
and other Semitic religious traditions.[64] They also state thine only son that came forth from thy body. The close
that two of the three principal Judaic terms for God, relationship between father and son is such that only the
Yahweh, Elohim (morphologically plural, lit. gods), king truly knows the heart of his father, and in return
and Adonai (lit. my lord ) have a connection to Aten. his father listens to his sons prayers. He is his fathers imFreud commented on the connection between Adonai, age on earth and as Akhenaten is king on earth his father
the Egyptian Aten and the Syrian divine name of Adonis is king in heaven. As high priest, prophet, king and dias a primeval unity of language between the factions;[56] vine he claimed the central position in the new religious
in this he was following the argument of Egyptologist system. Since only he knew his fathers mind and will,
Arthur Weigall. Jan Assmanns opinion is that 'Aten' Akhenaten alone could interpret that will for all mankind
and 'Adonai' are not linguistically related.[65] Although with true teaching coming only from him.[71]
there are similarities between Akhenaten monotheistic
Redford concluded:
experiment and the biblical story of Moses[66] that have
been explored in mainstream culture they include, the

1.8. SPECULATIVE THEORIES


Before much of the archaeological evidence from Thebes and from Tell el-Amarna
became available, wishful thinking sometimes
turned Akhenaten into a humane teacher of
the true God, a mentor of Moses, a Christlike gure, a philosopher before his time. But
these imaginary creatures are now fading away
one by one as the historical reality gradually
emerges. There is little or no evidence to support the notion that Akhenaten was a progenitor of the full-blown monotheism that we nd
in the Bible. The monotheism of the Hebrew
Bible and the New Testament had its own separate developmentone that began more than
half a millennium after the pharaohs death.[74]
However, Greenberg argues that Judaism shows signs that
in its early forms it had Henotheistic characteristics and
that it later was rened into a monotheism around the time
of King Josiah, relegating that which previously were considered gods, into gods that ought not be worshipped, i.e.
angels.[75]

1.8.2

Possible illness

The rather strange and eccentric portrayals of Akhenaten,


with a sagging stomach, thick thighs, larger breasts, and
long, thin face so dierent from the athletic norm
in the portrayal of Pharaohs has led certain Egyptologists to suppose that Akhenaten suered some kind
of genetic abnormality. Various illnesses have been put
forward. On the basis of his longer jaw and his feminine appearance, Cyril Aldred,[76] following up earlier
arguments of Grafton Elliot Smith[77] and James Strachey,[78] suggested he may have suered from Froelichs
Syndrome. However, this is unlikely because this disorder results in sterility and Akhenaten is known to have
fathered numerous children these children are repeatedly portrayed through years of archaeological and iconographic evidence at least six daughters by Queen Nefertiti, well known as the King and Queens six princesses
of Amarna, as well as his successor Tutankhamun by a
minor wife.
Another suggestion by Burridge[79] is that Akhenaten may
have suered from Marfans Syndrome. Marfans syndrome, unlike Froelichs, does not result in any lack of
intelligence or sterility. It is associated with a sunken
chest, long curved spider-like ngers (arachnodactyly),
occasional congenital heart diculties, a high curved or
slightly cleft palate, and a highly curved cornea or dislocated lens of the eye, with the requirement for bright
light to see well. Marfans suerers tend towards being
taller than average, with a long, thin face, and elongated
skull, overgrown ribs, a funnel or pigeon chest, and larger
pelvis, with enlarged thighs and spindly calves.[80] Marfans syndrome is a dominant characteristic, and suerers
have a 50% chance of passing it on to their children.[81]

11
All of these symptoms arguably sometimes appear in depictions of Akhenaten and of his children. Recent CT
scans of Tutankhamun report a cleft palate and a fairly
long head, as well as an abnormal curvature of the spine
and fusion of the upper vertebrae, a condition associated with scoliosis, all conditions associated with Marfans syndrome. However, DNA tests on Tutankhamun,
in 2010, proved negative for Marfan Syndrome.[82][83]
More recently, Homocystinuria was suggested as a possible diagnosis.[84] Patients suering from homocystinuria
have Marfan habitus, however, as an autosomal recessive
disease it seems to t better into Akhenatens family tree Akhenatens parents, Amenhotep III and Tiye, were most
probably healthy, and Marfan Syndrome was ruled out
following DNA tests on Tutankhamun in 2010.[82]
However, Dominic Montserrat in Akhenaten: History,
Fantasy and Ancient Egypt states that there is now a
broad consensus among Egyptologists that the exaggerated forms of Akhenatens physical portrayal... are not to
be read literally.[60] Montserrat and others[85] argue that
the body-shape relates to some form of religious symbolism. Because the god Aten was referred to as the
mother and father of all humankind it has been suggested that Akhenaten was made to look androgynous in
artwork as a symbol of the androgyny of the god. This
required a symbolic gathering of all the attributes of
the creator god into the physical body of the king himself, which will display on earth the Atens multiple
life-giving functions.[60] Akhenaten did refer to himself
as The Unique One of Re, and he may have used his
control of artistic expression to distance himself from the
common people, though such a radical departure from the
idealised traditional representation of the image of the
Pharaoh would be truly extraordinary.
Another unfounded claim was made by Immanuel Velikovsky, who hypothesized an incestuous relationship
with his mother, Tiye. Velikovsky also posited that
Akhenaten had swollen legs. Based on this, he identied Akhenaten as the history behind the Oedipus myth,
Oedipus being Greek for swollen feet, and moved the
setting from the Greek Thebes to the Egyptian Thebes.
As part of his argument, Velikovsky uses the fact that
Akhenaten viciously carried out a campaign to erase the
name of his father, which he argues could have developed into Oedipus killing his father.[86] This point was
disproved, in that Akhenaten mummied and buried his
father in the honorable traditional Egyptian fashion prior
to beginning his monotheistic revolution. Furthermore,
an autopsy and genetic evidence in 2014 proved that his
son Tutankhamun were the product of a brother-sister
marriage, not a parent-child pairing.[87][88]
Recently a surgeon at Imperial College London (Hutan
Ashraan) has analysed the early death of Akhenaten
and the premature deaths of other Eighteenth dynasty
Pharaohs (including Tutankhamun and Thutmose IV).
He identies that their early deaths were likely a result of a Familial Temporal Epilepsy. This would ac-

12

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN

count for the untimely death of Akhenaten, his abnor- Gabolde[96] has led to a a fair degree of consensus[97]
mal endocrine body shape on sculptures and can also ex- that Neferneferuaten was a female ruler apart from
plain Akhenatens religious conviction due to this type Smenkhkare.
of epilepsys association with intense spiritual visions and
religiosity.[89]

1.9 In the arts


1.8.3

First individual

Historian James Henry Breasted [90] considered Akhenaten to be the rst individual in history, as well as the
rst monotheist, romantic, and scientist.
In 1899, Flinders Petrie opined,
If this were a new religion, invented to satisfy
our modern scientic conceptions, we could not
nd a aw in the correctness of this view of the
energy of the solar system. How much Akhenaten understood, we cannot say, but he certainly
bounded forward in his views and symbolism
to a position which we cannot logically improve
upon at the present day. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this
new worship evolved out of the old Aton of Heliopolis, the sole Lord of the universe.[91]
Henry Hall contended that the pharaoh was the rst example of the scientic mind.[92]
In Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet, Nicholas Reeves
construes the pharaohs religious reformations as attempts at the centralization of his power and solidication
of his role as divine monarch.[93]

1.8.4

Smenkhkare

Drawing of Akhnaton Cairo Cast

Main article: Smenkhkare


Various uninscribed and damaged stelae depict Akhen- 1.9.1 Plays
aten with what appears to be a coregent wearing a kings
Agatha Christie: play, Akhnaton (written in 1937,
crown, in familiar if not intimate settings (even naked).
published by Dodd, Mead and Company [New
Since Smenkhkare was known to be a male, this led to
York],
1973, ISBN 0-396-06822-7; Collins [Lonthe speculation that Akhenaten was homosexual. These
don],
1973,
ISBN 0-00-211038-5)
notions were discarded once the coregent was identied
as a female, most likely his wife.
In the 1970s, John Harris identied the gure pictured
1.9.2 Novels
alongside Akhenaten as Nefertiti, arguing that she may
have actually been elevated to co-regent and perhaps even
Michael Asher: The Eye of Ra A mystery novel
succeeded temporarily as an independent ruler, changing
by the noted desert explorer, citing the legendary
her name to Smenkhkare.[60]
lost oasis of Zaerzura as the secret burying place of
Nicholas Reeves and other Egyptologists contend that
Akhenaten
Smenkhkare was the same person as Neferneferuaten,
Thomas Mann, in his ctional biblical tetralwho ruled together with Akhenaten as co-regent for the
ogy Joseph and His Brothers (19331943), makes
nal one or two years of Akhenatens reign. On several
Akhenaten the dreaming pharaoh of Josephs
monuments, the two are shown seated side by side.[94]
More recent research by James Allen[95] and Marc
story.

1.9. IN THE ARTS


Tom Holland: The Sleeper in the Sands (Little,
Brown & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-316-64480-3)
Mika Waltari: The Egyptian, rst published in
Finnish (Sinuhe egyptilinen) in 1945, translated by
Naomi Walford (G.P. Putnams Sons, 1949, ISBN
0-399-10234-5; Chicago Review Press, 2002, paperback, ISBN 1-55652-441-2)
David Stacton: On a Balcony, London House &
Maxwell, 1958
Gwendolyn MacEwen: King of Egypt, King of
Dreams (1971, ISBN 1-894663-60-8)
Allen Drury: A God Against the Gods (Doubleday,
1976) and Return to Thebes (Doubleday, 1976)
Philip K. Dick: VALIS (1981) under the name
Ikhnathon.
Naguib Mahfouz: Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
(( ) 1985)
Andree Chedid: Akhenaten and Nefertitis Dream
Wolfgang Hohlbein: Die Prophezeihung (The
Prophecy), in which Echnaton is killed by Ay and
curses him into eternal life until a prophecy is fullled.
Moyra Caldecott: Akhenaten: Son of the Sun (1989;
eBook, 2000, ISBN 1-899142-86-X; 2003, ISBN
1-899142-25-8)
P.B. Kerr: The Akhenaten Adventure Akhenaten is
said to be the holder of 70 lost Djinn
Pauline Gedge: The Twelfth Transforming (1984),
set in the reign of Akhenaten, details the construction of Akhetaten and ctionalized accounts of his
sexual relationships with Nefertiti, Tiye and successor Smenkhkare.
Dorothy Porter: verse novel, Akhenaten (1991)
Judith Tarr: Pillar of Fire (1995)
Lynda Robinson: mystery, Drinker of Blood (2001,
ISBN 0-446-67751-5)
Gilbert Sinoue: Akhenaton, Le Dieu Maudit (Akhenaten, the Cursed God) (2005, ISBN 2-07-030033-1)
Spelled 'Akenhaten', he appears as a major character
in the rst of a trilogy of historical novels by P. C.
Doherty, An Evil Spirit out of the West.
Michelle Moran: Nefertiti (2007)

13
Lucile Morrison: The Lost Queen of Egypt (Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1937), although this young
adult novel is about Akhenatens daughter, spelled
'Ankhsenpaaten', later 'Ankhsenamon', he appears
as a character until his death in chapter 16.

1.9.3 Music
Ikhnaton is referenced in the title of a section of the
epic progressive rock song "Suppers Ready" by the
English rock band Genesis on their album Foxtrot
(1972). The section is named Ikhnaton and Itsacon
and their band of Merry Men.
Philip Glass: opera, Akhnaten: An Opera in Three
Acts (1983; CBS Records, 1987)
Akhenaten, track on Julian Cope's 1992 album
Jehovahkill.
Akhnaton, name of one of the members of the
French rap group IAM; also records under this name
and produces other rappers under this name.
Akhenaten is mentioned in the song lyrics to Dream
of Amarna (Written in December 1998) on the
demo album compact disc, The Aten Shines Again
by Leo-Neferuaten Boyle (2002).
Son Of The Sun by Swedish Symphonic Metal
band Therion on the album Sirius B (2004).
Cast Down the Heretic by the death metal band
Nile on the album Annihilation of the Wicked
(2005).
Sadness of Echnaton Losing the World Child by
Tangerine Dream, appearing rst on the album One
Times One (2007).
Cursing Akhenaten by the metalcore band After
The Burial on the album Rareform (2008).
Roy Campbell, Jr., The Akhenaten Suite - A Modern
Jazz Epic[100]
Akhenaten is featured on the album cover of Those
Whom the Gods Detest by the band Nile (2009).
Night Enchanted by the Trans-Siberian Orchestra
on the 2009 album Night Castle.

Barbara Wood: Watch of Gods

Akhnaten, Dweller in Truth is a work for Piano,


Cello and Orchestra by Mohammed Fairouz (2011).

Kerry Greenwood: Out of the Black Land (2010,


ISBN 1-464-20038-6)

Akhenaton Symphony
(2014).[101]

by

Otaclio

Melgao

14

1.9.4

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN

Film

The Egyptian, motion picture (1954, directed by


Michael Curtiz, Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation), based on the novel by Mika Waltari.
Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile, motion picture (1961,
directed by Fernando Cherchio, starring Jeanne
Crain and Vincent Price). Akhenaten, played by
Amedeo Nazzari, is called Amonophis in the lm.
La Reine Soleil (2007 animated lm by Philippe
Leclerc), features Akhenaten, Tutankhaten (later
Tutankhamun), Akhesa (Ankhesenepaten, later
Ankhesenamun), Nefertiti, and Horemheb in a
complex struggle pitting the priests of Amun against
Akhenatens intolerant monotheism.
Donald Redfords excavation of one Akhenatens
temples was the subject of a one-hour 1980 National
Film Board of Canada documentary, The Lost
Pharaoh: The Search for Akhenaten.[99]
Ancient Aliens Season 1 Episode 2 The Visitors.
The episode proposes that Akhenaten past may not
be what we know. [99] [100]

1.9.5

Other

Edgar P. Jacobs: comic book, Blake et Mortimer:


Le Mystre de la Grande Pyramide vol. 1+2 (1950),
adventure story in which the mystery of Akhenaten
provides much of the background.
Joshua Norton: Die! Akhnaten Die! series of sequential woodcut prints and book recreates the story
of Akhenaten as a Wild West tale.

[3] Beckerath (1997) p.190


[4] Clayton (2006), p.120
[5] Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN
978-977-416-304-3, p 170
[6] News from the Valley of the Kings: DNA Shows that
KV55 Mummy Probably Not Akhenaten. Kv64.info.
2010-03-02. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
[7] Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and
Ancient Egypt, Psychology Press, 2003, pp 105, 111
[8] Akhenaton (king of Egypt) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
[9] Robert William Rogers, Cuneiform parallels to the Old
Testament, Eaton & Mains, 1912, p 252
[10] K.A Kitchen, On the reliability of the Old Testament,
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. p 486 Google Books
[11] Joyce A. Tyldesley, Egypt: how a lost civilization was rediscovered, University of California Press, 2005
[12] Trigger et al. (2001), pp.186-7
[13] A Frail King Tut Died From Malaria, Broken Leg - ABC
News. Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
[14] See the KV 55 Mummy & Tutankhamen.
bis4_2000.tripod.com. Retrieved 2012-08-25.

Anu-

[15] Nature 472, 404-406 (2011); Published online 27 April


2011; Original link
[16] NewScientist.com; January, 2011; Royal Rumpus over
King Tutankhamuns Ancestry
[17] JAMA; 2010;303(24):2471-2475. King Tutankhamuns
Family and Demise (subscription)

The Secret World, main antagonist of the Egypt sto[18] Bickerstae, D; The Long is dead. How Long Lived the
ryline mission (Black Sun, Red Sand).
King? in Kmt vol 22, n 2, Summer 2010

1.10 Ancestry

[19] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and


Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8 p 259268

1.11 See also

[20] Reeves (2000) p.77


[21] Berman (1998) p.23

Pharaoh of the Exodus


Osarseph

1.12 Notes and references


1.12.1

Notes

[1] Akhenaten. dictionary.com. Archived from the original


on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[2] Akhenaton. Encyclopaedia Britannica.

[22] Pharaoh power-sharing unearthed in Egypt Daily News


Egypt. February 6, 2014
[23] Proof found of Amenhotep III-Akhenaten co-regency thehistoryblog.com
[24] Charles F. Nims , The Transition from the Traditional to
the New Style of Wall Relief under Amenhotep IV, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Apr.,
1973), pp. 181-187
[25] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0 p 50-51

1.12. NOTES AND REFERENCES

[26] Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,


Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN
978-977-416-304-3 p 8, 170
[27] S. McAvoy, Mummy 61074: a Strange Case of Mistaken
Identity, Antiguo Oriente 5 (2007): 183-194.
[28] Schemm, Paul (2010-02-16). A Frail King Tut Died
From Malaria, Broken Leg. USA Today.
[29] The family of Akhenaton. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[30] Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic
Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London, 2005,
ISBN 978-0-9547218-9-3

15

[51] Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, pp.207 & 493
[52] Pocket Guides: Egypt History, p.37, Dorling Kindersley, London 1996.(the Neferneferuaten part is taken from
Wikipedia Nefertiti entry)
[53] Nicholas Reeves. Book Review: Rolf Krauss, Das Ende
der Amarnazeit (Hildesheimer gyptologische Beitrge,
1978)". Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[54] David (1998), p.125
[55] Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and
Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-18549-1,
pp.36.

[31] Robins, G.; Women in Ancient Egypt, Harvard University


Press (1993) p 21-27

[56] Freud, S. (1939). Moses and Monotheism: Three Essays.

[32] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004), p.154

[57] Gunther Siegmund Stent, Paradoxes of Free Will.


American Philosophical Society, DIANE, 2002. 284
pages. Pages 34 - 38. ISBN 0-87169-926-5

[33] Moran (1992), pp.87-89


[34] Moran (1992), p.203
[35] Ross, Barbara (NovemberDecember 1999). Akhenaten
and Rib Hadda from Byblos. Saudi Aramco World 50
(6): 3035.
[36] Bryce (1998), p.186
[37] Moran (1992), p.xxvi
[38] Moran (2003) pp.368-69
[39] Moran (1992), pp.248-250
[40] Moran (1992), pp.248-249
[41] Bryce (1998), p.188
[42] Bryce (1998), p.p.189
[43] Moran (1992), p.145
[44] Schulman (1982), pp.299-316
[45] Allen (2006), p.1
[46] Athena Van der Perre, Nofretetes (vorerst) letzte dokumentierte Erwhnung, in: Im Licht von Amarna - 100
Jahre Fund der Nofretete. [Katalog zur Ausstellung
Berlin, 07.12.2012 - 13.04.2013]. (December 7, 2012 April 13, 2013) Petersberg, pp.195-197
[47] Dayr al-Barsha Project featured in new exhibit 'Im Licht
von Amarna' at the gyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung in Berlin 12/06/2012
[48] Hawass, Zahi et al. Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family The Journal of the American Medical Association p.644
[49] DNA Shows that KV55 Mummy Probably Not Akhenaten.
[50] Allen (2006), p.5

[58] Jan Assmann, Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt


in Western Monotheism. Harvard University Press, 1997.
288 pages. ISBN 0-674-58739-1
[59] N. Shupak, The Monotheism of Moses and the Monotheism
of Akhenaten. Sevivot, 1995.
[60] Montserrat, (2000)
[61] William F. Albright, From the Patriarchs to Moses II.
Moses out of Egypt. The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 36,
No. 2 (May, 1973), pp. 48-76. doi 10.2307/3211050
[62] S. Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXIII (1937-1939),
Moses and monotheism. London: Hogarth Press, 1964.
[63] Edward Chaney,Freudian Egypt, The London Magazine,
April/May 2006, pp. 62-69 and idem,Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion,
Royalty and Revolution, in Sites of Exchange: European
Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado
(Amsterdam, Rodopi, 2006), pp. 39-69.
[64] Curtis, Samuel (2005), Primitive Semitic Religion Today (Kessinger Publications)
[65] Assmann, Jan. (1997). Moses the Egyptian. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; pp. 23-24, fn.
2.
[66] Ahmed Osman, Moses and Akhenaten: The Secret History
of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus
[67] Yuyas titles included Overseer of the Cattle of Amun
and Min (Lord of Akhmin)", Bearer of the Ring of the
King of Lower Egypt, Mouth of the King of Upper
Egypt, and The Holy Father of the Lord of the Two
Lands, among others. For more see: Osman, A. (1987).
Stranger in the Valley of the Kings: solving the mystery of
an ancient Egyptian mummy. San Francisco: Harper &
Row. pp.29-30
[68] Montet, Pierre (1964), Eternal Egypt (New American
Press)

16

[69] Redford, Donald B. (1993), Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in


Ancient Times, Princeton University Press
[70] Petri (19th century Egyptologist) Petri Museum in London, England named after him
[71] The Monotheism of the Heretic Pharaoh: Precursor of
Mosiac monotheism or Egyptian anomaly?", Donald B.
Redford, Biblical Archaeology Review, MayJune edition
1987
[72] Creation and the persistence of evil, Jon Douglas Levenson, p. 60, Princeton University Press, 1994, ISBN 0691-02950-4
[73] Akhenaten and the religion of light, Erik Hornung, David
Lorton, p. 14, Cornell University Press, 2001, ISBN 9780-8014-8725-5
[74] Aspects of Monotheism, Donald B. Redford, Biblical
Archeology Review, 1996
[75] Greenberg, Gary (2000). 101 Myths of the Bible: How
Ancient Scribes Invented Biblical History. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc. pp. xi.

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN

[88] Ledwith, Mario (19 October 2014). The REAL face of


King Tut: Pharaoh had girlish hips, a club foot and buck
teeth according to 'virtual autopsy' that also revealed his
parents were brother and sister. Daily Mail. Retrieved 21
October 2014. A virtual autopsy, composed of more
than 2,000 computer scans, was carried out in tandem
with a genetic analysis of Tutankhamuns family, which
supports evidence that his parents were brother and sister. The scientists believe that this left him with physical
impairments triggered by hormonal imbalances. And his
family history could also have led to his premature death
in his late teens.
[89] Ashraan, Hutan (September 2012).
Familial
epilepsy in the pharaohs of ancient Egypts eighteenth dynasty. Epilepsy & Behavior 25 (1): 2331.
doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.06.014. (subscription required
(help)).
[90] James Henry Breasted The Dawn of Conscience (edit
1933), p.301.
[91] Sir Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt (edit. 1899), Vol. II,
p. 214.

[76] Aldred, C. (1988). Akhenaten, King of Egypt. (Thames


and Hudson, Ltd.,)

[92] H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 599.

[77] Elliot Smith, Tutankhamen and the discovery of his tomb


by the late Earl of Canarvon and Mr Howard Carter (London: Routledge, 1923), pp. 8388

[93] Nicholas Reeves (25 April 2005). Akhenaten: Egypts


False Prophet. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-50028552-7. Retrieved 22 April 2011.

[78] Strachey, J. (1939). Preliminary Notes Upon the Problem


of Akhenaten. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 20:33-42

[94] Nicholas Reeves and Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete


Valley of the Kings. Thames & Hudson, 1996.

[79] Burridge, A., (1995) Did Akhenaten Suer From Marfans Syndrome?" (Akhenaten Temple Project Newsletter
No. 3, September 1995)

[95] J.P. Allen, Nefertiti and Smenkh-ka-re, GM 141


(1994), pp.7-17

[80] Megaera Lorenz. Lorenz, Maegara The Mystery of


Akhenaton: Genetics or Aesthetics"". Heptune.com.
Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved
2010-03-21.
[81] Marfan Syndrome UK National Health Service Did
Akhenaton Suer from Marfans Syndrome
[82] Schemm, Paul (2020-01-06). Frail boy-king Tut died
from malaria, broken leg. USA Today. Associated Press.
Retrieved 2011-04-10. Check date values in: |date=
(help)
[83] BBC.co.uk. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
[84] Cavka M, Kelava T (Mar 2010). Homocystinuria, a possible solution of the Akhenatens mystery. Coll Antropol.
34: 2558. PMID 20402329.
[85] Reeves, Nicholas (2005) Akhenaten: Egypts False
Prophet (Thames and Hudson)

[96] Gabolde, Marc. DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon, 1998;


pp 156-157
[97] Miller, J; Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of
Nibhururiya in Altoriental. Forsch. 34 (2007); p 272
[98] House Altar with Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Three Daughters (Amarna Period)". Smarthistory at Khan Academy.
Retrieved March 15, 2013.
[99] Kendall, Nicholas (1980). The Lost Pharaoh: The Search
for Akhenaten. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
[100] Roy Campbell - Akhnaten Suite (AUM Fidelity, 2008)".
13 March 2008. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
[101] Luks, Joel (15 March 2012). Beyond poems and prayers:
Mohammed Fairouzs Akhenaten celebrates young people
aecting change and paying the price for it. Culture Map
Houstan. Retrieved 2012-09-07.

[86] Immanuel Velikovsky, Oedipus and Akhnaton, Myth and


History, Doubleday, 1960.
[87] Gwennedd (pseudonym) (October 21, 2014). King Tut
Revealed: Scientists do Virtual Autopsy of the Famous
King and Find Shocking Surprises. DailyKos. Retrieved
October 21, 2014.

1.12.2 Bibliography
Jrgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen gypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997)

1.12. NOTES AND REFERENCES

17

Berman, Lawrence. 'Overview of Amenhotep III 1.12.3 Further reading


and His Reign,' and Raymond Johnson, 'Monu Aldred, Cyril (1991) [1988]. Akhenaten: King of
ments and Monumental Art under Amenhotep III' in
Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27621-8.
'Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his Reign' 1998, ed:
David O'Connor & Eric Cline, University of Michi Aldred, Cyril (1973). Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Longan Press, ISBN 0-472-10742-9
don: Thames & Hudson.
Rosalie David, Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt,
Aldred, Cyril (1984). The Egyptians. London:
Facts on File Inc., 1998
Thames & Hudson.
Edward Chaney, 'Freudian Egypt, The London
Bilolo, Mubabinge (2004) [1988]. Sect. I, vol.
Magazine, April/May 2006, pp. 6269.
2. Le Crateur et la Cration dans la pense
Edward Chaney,Egypt in England and America:
memphite et amarnienne. Approche synoptique du
The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and
Document Philosophique de Memphis et du Grand
Revolution, in Sites of Exchange: European CrossHymne Thologique d'Echnaton (in French) (new
roads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado
ed.). Munich-Paris: Academy of African Thought.
(Amsterdam, Rodopi, 2006), pp. 3969.
Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames
and Hudson, 2006
Trigger, B.G, Kemp, B.G, O'Conner, D and Lloyd,
A.B (2001). Ancient Egypt, A Social History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992
Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Clarendon Press, 1998.
A.R. Schulman, The Nubian War of Akhenaten in
L'Egyptologie en 1979: Axes prioritaires de recherchs II (Paris: 1982)
James H. Allen (2006). The Amarna Succession
(PDF). Archived from the original on May 28, 2008.
Retrieved 2008-06-23.
Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet,
Thames & Hudson, 2000
Montserrat, Dominic (2000). Akhenaten: History,
Fantasy and ancient Egypt. Routledge. OCLC 0415-30186-6.
Kozlo, Arielle (2006). Bubonic Plague in the
Reign of Amenhotep III?". KMT 17 (3).
Choi B, Pak A (2001). Lessons for surveillance in
the 21st century: a historical perspective from the
past ve millennia. Soz Praventivmed 46 (6): 361
8. doi:10.1007/BF01321662. PMID 11851070.
Shortridge K (1992). Pandemic inuenza: a
zoonosis?". Semin Respir Infect 7 (1): 1125.
PMID 1609163.
Webby R, Webster R (2001).
Emergence
Philos Trans R
of inuenza A viruses.
Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356 (1416): 181728.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0997.
PMC 1088557.
PMID 11779380.

El Mahdy, Christine (1999). Tutankhamen: The


Life and Death of a Boy King. Headline. ISBN 07472-6000-1.
Rita E. Freed, Yvonne J. Markowitz, and Sue H.
D'Auria (ed.) (1999). Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen. Bulnch Press.
ISBN 0-8212-2620-7.
Gestoso Singer, Graciela (2008) El Intercambio de
Bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior. Desde el reinado
de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton Free Access
(Spanish) Ancient Near East Monographs, Volume
2.Buenos Aires, Society of Biblical Literature - CEHAO. ISBN 978-987-20606-4-0
Holland, Tom, The Sleeper in the Sands (novel),
(Abacus, 1998, ISBN 0-349-11223-1), a ctionalised adventure story based closely on the mysteries
of Akhenatens reign
Hornung, Erik, Akhenaten and the Religion of
Light, translated by David Lorton, Cornell University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-3658-3
Najovits, Simson. Egypt, Trunk of the Tree, Volume I, The Contexts, Volume II, The Consequences,
Algora Publishing, New York, 2003 and 2004. On
Akhenaten: Vol. II, Chapter 11, pp. 117173 and
Chapter 12, pp. 205213
Redford, Donald B., Akhenaten: The Heretic King
(Princeton University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-69103567-9)
Reeves, Nicholas (2001). Akhenaten: Egypts False
Prophet. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-051062.
Stevens, Anna (2012). Akhenatens workers : the
Amarna Stone village survey, 2005-2009. Volume
I, The survey, excavations and architecture. Egypt
Exploration Society. ISBN 978-0-85698208-8.

18

1.13 External links

Akhenaten on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)


Akhenaten and the Hymn to the Aten
The City of Akhetaten
The Great Hymn to the Aten
M.A. Mansoor Amarna Collection
Grim secrets of Pharaohs city BBC
Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns
Family Hawass
Belief Of Akhenaten - The introduction of a New
Note into the Religious Thought of the World
The Long Coregency Revisited: the Tomb of
Kheruef by Peter Dorman, University of Chicago
Royal Relations, Tuts father is very likely Akhenaten. National Geographic 09. 2010

CHAPTER 1. AKHENATEN

Chapter 2

Akhenaten Temple Project


Donald Bruce Redford (born September 2, 1934) is a
Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, currently Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies at
Pennsylvania State University. He is married to Susan
Redford, who is also an Egyptologist currently teaching
classes at the university. Professor Redford has directed
a number of important excavations in Egypt, notably at
Karnak and Mendes.

2.2 Akhenaten Temple Project


The Akhenaten Temple Project is a project encompassing
four archaeological expeditions to Egypt and north-east
Africa. It has been in operation since 1972. The project
is directed by Donald and Susan Redford and is part of
Pennsylvania State University.
It has excavated at Mendes (in the Nile Delta), Karnak,
Tel Kedwa (in North Sinai) and in the Theban necropolis
(mainly investigating the tomb of Parennefer).
Along with his wife Susan Redford, he is the director of
the Akhenaten Temple Project.

2.1 Biography
Redford received his B.A., M.A. and Ph.D from McGill
University and the University of Toronto, and was an Assistant/Associate Professor (19621969) and full Professor (19691998) at the latter. He moved to Pennsylvania
State University in 1998.

2.3 Publications

Redford was the winner of the 1993 "Best Scholarly Book


in Archaeology" awarded by the Biblical Archaeology Society for his work Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Times.[1] In the book he argues that the experiences of the
Hyksos in Egypt became a central foundation of myths
in Canaanite culture, leading to the story of Moses. He
further argues that almost all the toponymic details in
the Exodus story reect conditions in Egypt not earlier
than the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, the Saite period, namely
the 7th century BC. Whoever, Redford argues, provided
the author of Exodus with these details had no access to
Egyptian material earlier than that date.[2] This view was
expounded upon in The Bible Unearthed by Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman.
Redfords work in editing The Oxford Encyclopedia of
Ancient Egypt, published in 2001, earned the American
Library Associations Dartmouth Medal for a reference
work of outstanding quality and signicance. Since 2006
he is also in the editorial board of RIHAO.
His work in uncovering the foundation of one Akhenatens temples was the subject of a one-hour 1980
National Film Board of Canada documentary, The Lost
Pharaoh: The Search for Akhenaten.[3]
19

History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty


of Egypt: Seven Studies. Toronto University Press,
1967.
Akhenaten: the Heretic King. Princeton University
Press, 1984. ISBN 0-691-03567-9
Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals, and Day-Books: a
Contribution to the Study of the Egyptian Sense of
History. (SSEA Publication IV) Mississauga, Ontario: Benben Publications, 1986. ISBN 0-92016808-6
Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-691-00086-7
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford
University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-510234-7
The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III.
(Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 16)
Leiden: Brill, 2003. ISBN 90-04-12989-8
Slave to Pharaoh: the Black Experience of Ancient
Egypt. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. ISBN
0-8018-7814-4
City of the Ram-Man: the Story of Ancient Mendes.
Princeton University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-69114226-5

20

2.4 References
[1] Princeton University Press Press Reviews, retrieved 6th
June 2009
[2] Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press 1992 pp.408-429,
pp.409-410.
[3] Nicholas Kendall (director). The Lost Pharaoh: The
Search for Akhenaten (requires Adobe Flash). Documentary lm. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved
13 September 2012.

2.5 External links


Professor Donald B. Redford - Penn State University
department page
Home page of the Akhenaten Temple Project

CHAPTER 2. AKHENATEN TEMPLE PROJECT

Chapter 3

Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth


Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning Egyptian author Naguib
Mahfouz in 1985. It was translated from Arabic into English in 1998 by Tagreid Abu-Hassabo. The form and
subject of the book is the basis for a cello concerto of the
same title by Mohammed Fairouz.

3.1 Plot summary

that the "heretic pharaoh" Akhenaten built for his One


and Only God. Seeking a balanced perspective on the
events of that time, which split Egypt politically and religiously, Meriamun gets a letter of introduction from his
father to many members of Akhenatens court, among
them the High Priest of Amun, his chief of security
Haremhab, and his queen Nefertiti. Each tale adds a
new dimension to the enigma that is Akhenaten and the
thoughts of those that were close to him allow Meriamun and the reader to judge for themselves whether
Akhenaten was a power politician or a true believer.

3.2 Characters
Akhenaten
Nefertiti
Ay
Tey
High Priest of Amun
Bento
Haremhab
Bek
Tadukhipa
Toto
Tey
Mutnedjmet
Meri-Ra
Mae
Pharaoh Akhenaten

On the way from Thebes with his father, the scribe


Amunhoben points out the ruins of Akhetaten, the city
21

Maho
Nakht

22

3.3 External links


Dannyreviews
LibraryThing

CHAPTER 3. AKHENATEN, DWELLER IN TRUTH

Chapter 4

Akhenaten: Son of the Sun


Nefertiti his queen

Akhenaten: Son of the Sun is a novel written by Moyra


Caldecott in 1986. It was rst published in 1986 as The
Son of the Sun in hardback by Alison & Busby, UK.

Djehuti-kheper-Ra the narrator

4.4 Release details

4.1 Plot introduction


Based on the remarkable reign of Akhenaten in
Eighteenth Dynasty Egypt, this story is told as if by a contemporary of his, Djehuti-kheper-Ra. It follows history
as closely as possible on the evidence we have, and describes the political machinations of the time. But it also
traces the spiritual journey of the protagonists, the journey on which we are all engaged whether we know it or
not.
Akhenaten: Son Of The Sun is part of Moyra Caldecotts Egyptian sequence, which also includes Hatshepsut:
Daughter of Amun and Tutankhamun and the Daughter
of Ra. Chronologically, Akhenaten: Son of the Sun takes
place between the other two books, but it was written rst.

1986, UK, Alison & Busby ISBN 0-85031-647-2,


Pub date 12 June 1986, Hardback (as The Son of
the Sun)
1987, USA, Knopf Publishing Group ?, Pub date ?
? 1987, Hardback (as The Son of the Sun)
1990, UK, Arrow Books Limited ISBN 0-09959860-4, Pub date 18 January 1990, 1st paperback
edition (with revisions)
1998, UK, Bladud Books ISBN 1-899142-25-8,
Pub date 1 June 1998, paperback as a print on demand
2001, UK, Mushroom Ebooks ISBN 1-899142-150, Pub date ? May 2001, ebook
2003, UK, Mushroom Ebooks ISBN 1-899142-86X, Pub date ? ? 2003, ebook

4.2 Plot summary


The story begins with the suering of a boy oracle, or
medium, about to be sealed alive into a pyramid chamber
for three days so that he may astral-travel to the realms
of the gods and plead for the waters of the Nile to rise,
bringing life-giving silt to the farmlands. The story follows him through his lonely despair until he becomes the
honoured companion of a king and an important gure in
an extraordinary revolution.
At this time the high priests of the god Amun, brought
to prominence by the female pharaoh Hatshepsut about a
century before, are rich and powerful enough to challenge
a king...

4.3 Characters in Akhenaten:


Son of the Sun
Akhenaten the main protagonist
23

Chapter 5

Amarna
5.2 City of Akhetaten

Not to be confused with Tell Amarna (Syria).


Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or as Tell
el-Amarna) (Arabic: al-amrnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by
the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty
(c. 1353 BC), and abandoned shortly afterwards.[1] The
name for the city employed by the ancient Egyptians is
written as Akhetaten (or Akhetatontransliterations
vary) in English transliteration.
Akhetaten means
"Horizon of the Aten".[2]
The area is located on the east bank of the Nile River
in the modern Egyptian province of Minya, some 58 km
(36 mi) south of the city of al-Minya, 312 km (194 mi)
south of the Egyptian capital Cairo and 402 km (250 mi)
north of Luxor.[3] The city of Deir Mawas lies directly
west across from the site of Amarna. Amarna, on the east
side, includes several modern villages, chief of which are
el-Till in the north and el-Hagg Qandil in the south.
The area was also occupied during later Roman and early
Christian times; excavations to the south of the city have
found several structures from this period.[4]

Royal Wadi
Workmens village
Tomb of Akhenaten
Northern tombs
Southern tombs
Stelae U
Desert altars
5.1 Name
Maru-Aten
Northern Palace
North City
Kom el-Nana
The name Amarna comes from the Beni Amran tribe that Stelae H
lived in the region and founded a few settlements. The Great Aten Temple
ancient Egyptian name was Akhetaten.
(This site should be distinguished from Tell Amarna in The area of the city was eectively a virgin site, and it was
in this city that the Akhetaten described as the Atens
Syria, a Halaf period archaeological tell.[5] )
24

5.2. CITY OF AKHETATEN

25

seat of the First Occasion, which he had


made for himself that he might rest in it.
It may be that the Royal Wadis resemblance to the
hieroglyph for horizon showed that this was the place to
found the city.
The city was built as the new capital of the Pharaoh
Akhenaten, dedicated to his new religion of worship to
the Aten. Construction started in or around Year 5 of his
reign (1346 BC) and was probably completed by Year 9
(1341 BC), although it became the capital city two years
earlier. To speed up construction of the city most of the
buildings were constructed out of mud-brick, and white
washed. The most important buildings were faced with
local stone.[6]
It is the only ancient Egyptian city which preserves great
details of its internal plan, in large part because the
city was abandoned after the death of Akhenaten, when
Akhenatens son, King Tutankhamen, decided to leave
the city and return to his birthplace in Thebes (modern
Luxor). The city seems to have remained active for a
decade or so after his death, and a shrine to Horemheb
indicates that it was at least partially occupied at the beginning of his reign,[7] if only as a source for building
material elsewhere. Once it was abandoned it remained
uninhabited until Roman settlement[4] began along the
edge of the Nile. However, due to the unique circumstances of its creation and abandonment, it is questionable how representative of ancient Egyptian cities it actually is. Akhetaten was hastily constructed and covered an
area of approximately 8 miles (13 km) of territory on the
east bank of the Nile River; on the west bank, land was set Akhenaten seal ring in blue faience. Walters Art Museum
aside to provide crops for the citys population.[2] The entire city was encircled with a total of 14 boundary stelae
His son Wa'enr [i.e. Akhenaten] who founded
detailing Akhenatens conditions for the establishment of
it for Him as His monument when His Father
this new capital city of Egypt.[2]
commanded him to make it. Heaven was joyThe earliest dated stelae from Akhenatens new city is
ful, the earth was glad every heart was lled
known to be Boundary stele K which is dated to Year 5,
with delight when they beheld him.[10]
[8]
IV Peret (or month 8), day 13 of Akhenatens reign.
(Most of the original 14 boundary stelae have been badly This text then goes on to state that Akhenaten made a
eroded.) It preserves an account of Akhenatens foun- great oblation to the god Aten and this is the theme [of
dation of this city. The document records the pharaohs the occasion] which is illustrated in the lunettes of the
wish to have several temples of the Aten to be erected stelae where he stands with his queen and eldest daughhere, for several royal tombs to be created in the eastern ter before an altar heaped with oerings under the Aten,
hills of Akhetaten for himself, his chief wife Nefertiti and while it shines upon him rejuvenating his body with its
his eldest daughter Meritaten as well as his explicit com- rays.[10]
mand that when he was dead, he would be brought back
to Akhetaten for burial.[9] Boundary stela K introduces
a description of the events that were being celebrated at 5.2.1 Site and plan
Akhetaten:
Located on the east bank of the Nile, the ruins of the city
His Majesty mounted a great chariot of
are laid out roughly north to south along a Royal Road,
electrum, like the Aten when He rises on the
now referred to as Sikhet es-Sultan.[11][12] The Royal
horizon and lls the land with His love, and
residences are generally to the north, in what is known as
took a goodly road to Akhetaten, the place of
the North City, with a central administration and religious
area and the south of the city is made up of residential
origin, which [the Aten] had created for Himsuburbs..
self that he might be happy therein. It was

26

CHAPTER 5. AMARNA
of Meritaten, his daughter.[17]
City outskirts
Surrounding the city and marking its extent, the
Boundary Stelae (each a rectangle of carved rock on the
clis on both sides of the Nile) describing the founding of
the city are a primary source of information about it.[18]

Statues to the left of Boundary stela U in el-Amarna

North City

Away from the city Akhenatens Royal necropolis was


started in a narrow valley to the east of the city, hidden in
the clis. Only one tomb was completed, and was used
by an unnamed Royal Wife, and Akhenatens tomb was
hastily used to hold him and likely Meketaten, his second
daughter.[19]
In the clis to the north and south of the Royal Wadi, the
nobles of the city constructed their Tombs.

Main article: North City, Amarna


See also Workmens Village, Amarna
Located within the North City area is the Northern
Palace, the main residence of the Royal Family. Between
this and the central city, the Northern Suburb was initially
a prosperous area with large houses, but the house size decreased and became poorer the further from the road they
were.[12]

5.3 Life
in
Amarna/Akhetaten

ancient

Central City
Most of the important ceremonial and administrative
buildings were located in the central city. Here the Great
Temple of the Aten and the Small Aten Temple were used
for religious functions and between these the Great Royal
Palace and Royal Residence were the ceremonial residence of the King and Royal Family, and were linked by a
bridge or ramp.[13] Located behind the Royal Residence
was the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh, where the
Amarna Letters were found.[14]
This area was probably the rst area to be completed, and
had at least two phases of construction.[11]
Southern suburbs
To the south of the city was the area now referred to as
the Southern Suburbs. It contained the estates of many of
the citys powerful nobles, including Nakhtpaaten (Chief
Minister), Ranefer (General), Panehesy (High Priest of
the Aten) and Ramose (Master of Horses). This area also
held the studio of the sculptor Thutmose, where the fa- Tutankamun Amarna portrait. Altes Museum, Berlin
mous bust of Nefertiti was found in 1912.[15]
Further to the south of the city was Kom el-Nana, an
enclosure, usually referred to as a sun-shade, and was
probably built as a sun-temple.,[16] and then the MaruAten, which was palace or sun-temple originally thought
to have been constructed for Akhenaten's queen Kiya, but
on her death her name and images were altered to those

Much of what is known about Amarnas founding is due


to the preservation of a series of ocial boundary stelae
(13 are known) ringing the perimeter of the city. These
are cut into the clis on both sides of the Nile (10 on the
east, 3 on the west) and record the events of Akhetaten
(Amarna) from founding to just before its fall.[20]

5.5. REDISCOVERY AND EXCAVATION

27

To make the move from Thebes to Amarna, Akhenaten


needed the support of the military. Ay, one of Akhenatens principal advisors, exercised great inuence in this
area because his father Yuya had been an important military leader. Additionally, everyone in the military had
grown up together, they had been a part of the richest and
most successful period in Egypts history under Akhenatens father, so loyalty among the ranks was strong and
unwavering. Perhaps most importantly, it was a military whose massed ranks the king took every opportunity
to celebrate in temple reliefs, rst at Thebes and later at
Amarna. [21]

Children with pens and papyrus scrolls. Relief from Amarna

5.3.1

Religious life

While the reforms of Akhenaten are generally believed


to have been oriented towards a sort of monotheism, this
may be rather oversimplied. Archaeological evidence
shows other deities were also worshipped, even at the centre of the Aten cult if not ocially, then at least by the
people who lived and worked there.

..at Akhetaten itself, recent excavation by


Kemp (2008: 41-46) has shown the presence
of objects that depict gods, goddesses and symbols that belong to the traditional eld of personal belief. So many examples of Bes, the
grotesque dwarf gure who warded o evil
spirits, have been found, as well as of the
goddess-monster, Taweret, part crocodile, part
hippopotamus, who was associated with childbirth. Also in the royal workmens village at
Akhetaten, stelae dedicated to Isis and Shed
have been discovered (Watterson 1984: 158
and 208).[22]

5.4 Amarna art-style


One of the Amarna letters

Main article: Amarna art


The Amarna art-style broke with long-established Egyptian conventions. Unlike the strict idealistic formalism of
previous Egyptian art, it depicted its subjects more realistically. These included informal scenes, such as intimate
portrayals of aection within the royal family or playing
with their children, and no longer portrayed women as
lighter coloured than men. The art also had a realism that
sometimes borders on caricature.

5.5 Rediscovery and excavation

The rst western mention of the city was made in 1714 by


Claude Sicard, a French Jesuit priest who was travelling
through the Nile Valley, and described the boundary stela
from Amarna. As with much of Egypt, it was visited by
Napoleons corps de savants in 17981799, who prepared
While the worship of Aten was later referred to as the the rst detailed map of Amarna, which was subsequently
Amarna heresy and suppressed, this art had a more lasting published in Description de l'gypte between 1821 and
legacy.
1830.[23]

28
After this European exploration continued in 1824 when
Sir John Gardiner Wilkinson explored and mapped the
city remains. The copyist Robert Hay and his surveyor
G. Laver visited the locality and uncovered several of the
Southern Tombs from sand drifts, recording the reliefs
in 1833. The copies made by Hay and Laver languish
largely unpublished in the British Library, where an ongoing project to identify their locations is underway.[24]
The Prussian expedition led by Richard Lepsius visited
the site in 1843 and 1845, and recorded the visible monuments and topography of Amarna in two separate visits over a total of twelve days, using drawings and paper squeezes. The results were ultimately published in
Denkmler aus gypten und thiopien between 1849 to
1913, including an improved map of the city.[23] Despite being somewhat limited in accuracy, the engraved
Denkmler plates formed the basis for scholastic knowledge and interpretation of many of the scenes and inscriptions in the private tombs and some of the Boundary Stelae for the rest of the century. The records made by these
early explorers teams are of immense importance since
many of these remains were later destroyed or otherwise
lost.

CHAPTER 5. AMARNA
and South suburbs of the city. The famous bust of
Nefertiti, now in Berlins gyptisches Museum, was discovered amongst other sculptural artefacts in the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose. The outbreak of the First
World War in August 1914 terminated the German excavations.
From 1921 to 1936 an Egypt Exploration Society expedition returned to excavation at Amarna under the direction of T.E. Peet, Sir Leonard Woolley, Henri Frankfort,
Stephen Glanville[28] and John Pendlebury. The renewed
investigations were focused on religious and royal structures.
During the 1960s the Egyptian Antiquities Organization
(now the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities) undertook a number of excavations at Amarna.

Exploration of the city continues to the present, currently


under the direction of Barry Kemp (Reader in Egyptology, University of Cambridge, England) under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Society.[7][29] In 1980 a
separate expedition led by Georey Martin described and
copied the reliefs from the Royal Tomb, later publishing
its ndings together with objects thought to have come
from the tomb. This work was published in 2 volumes by
In 1887 a local woman digging for sebakh uncovered
the EES.
a cache of over 300 cuneiform tablets (now commonly
known as the Amarna Letters).[25] These tablets recorded In 2007, the continuing EES exploration discovered a
select diplomatic correspondence of the Pharaoh and cemetery of private individuals, close to the southern
[30]
were predominantly written in Akkadian, the lingua tombs of the Nobles.
franca commonly used during the Late Bronze Age of the
Ancient Near East for such communication. This discovery led to the recognition of the importance of the site, 5.6 See also
and lead to a further increase in exploration.[26]
Between 1891 and 1892 Alessandro Barsanti 'discovered' and cleared the kings tomb (although it was probably known to the local population from about 1880).[27]
Around the same time Sir Flinders Petrie worked for
one season at Amarna, working independently of the
Egypt Exploration Fund. He excavated primarily in
the Central City, investigating the Great Temple of the
Aten, the Great Ocial Palace, the Kings House, the
Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh and several private houses. Although frequently amounting to little
more than a sondage, Petries excavations revealed additional cuneiform tablets, the remains of several glass
factories, and a great quantity of discarded faience, glass
and ceramic in sifting the palace rubbish heaps (including
Mycenaean sherds).[26] By publishing his results and reconstructions rapidly, Petrie was able to stimulate further
interest in the sites potential.
The copyist and artist Norman de Garis Davies published
drawn and photographic descriptions of private tombs
and boundary stelae from Amarna from 1903 to 1908.
These books were republished by the EES in 2006.
In the early years of the 20th century (1907 to 1914) the
Deutsche Orientgesellschaft expedition, led by Ludwig
Borchardt, excavated extensively throughout the North

Amarna Letters

5.7 Notes
[1] The Ocial Website of the Amarna Project. Archived
from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-1001.
[2] David (1998), p. 125
[3] Google Maps Satellite image. Google. Retrieved 200810-01.
[4] Middle Egypt Survey Project 2006. Amarna Project.
2006. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
[5] http://www.academia.edu/1032531/Tell_Amarna_in_
the_General_Framework_of_the_Halaf_Period
[6] Grundon (2007), p.89
[7] Excavating Amarna. Archaeology.org. 2006-09-27.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved
2007-06-06.
[8] Aldred (1988), p.47

5.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

[9] Aldred (1988), pp. 4750


[10] Aldred (1988), p.48
[11] Waterson (1999), p.81
[12] Grundon (2007), p.92
[13] Waterson (1999), p.82
[14] Moran (1992), p.xiv
[15] Waterson (1999), p.138
[16] Kom El-Nana. Archived from the original on 8 October
2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
[17] Eyma (2003), p.53
[18] Boundary Stelae. Archived from the original on 29 May
2007. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
[19] Royal Tomb. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
[20] Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, Revolution and Restoration, Silverman, David P; Wegner, Josef W; Wegner, Jennifer Houser; Copyright 2006 by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
[21] Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet, Reeves, Nicholas,
Thames & Hudson Ltd, London, copyright 2001
[22] Philip Turner, Seth - a misrepresented god in the Ancient
Egyptian pantheon? PhD Thesis, University of Manchester; 2012
[23] Mapping Amarna. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
[24] The Robert Hay Drawings in the British Library. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
[25] Wallis Budge describes the discovery of the Amarna
tablets. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
[26] Grundon (2007), pp. 9091
[27] Royal Tomb. The Amarna Project. Archived from the
original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
[28] Grundon(2007), p.71
[29] Fieldwork- Tell El-Armana. Archived from the original
on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
[30] John Hayes-Fisher (2008-01-25). Grim secrets of
Pharaohs city. BBC Timewatch. news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-10-01.

5.8 References
Aldred, Cyril (1988).
Akhenaten: King of
Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN
9780500050484. OCLC 17997212.
David, Rosalie (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient
Egypt. Facts on File.

29
de Garis Davies, Norman (19031908). The Rock
Tombs of El Amarna. Part 16. London: EES.
Eyma, Aayko (ed.) (2003). A Delta-Man in Yebu.
Universal-Publishers.
Grundon, Imogen (2007). The Rash Adventurer, A
Life of John Pendlebury. London: Libri.
Hess, Richard S. (1996). Amarna Personal Names.
Winona Lake, IN: Dissertations of the American
Schools of Oriental Research - DASOR, 9.
Kemp, Barry (2012). The City of Akhenaten and
Nefertiti. Amarna and its People. Thames and Hudson, London.
Martin, G. T. (1974, 1989). The Royal Tomb at el'Amarna. 2 vols. London: EES. Check date values
in: |date= (help)
Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN
0-8018-4251-4.
Redford, Donald (1984). Akhenaten: The Heretic
King. Princeton.
Waterson, Barbara (1999).
Egypts Age of Revolution.

Amarna:

Ancient

5.9 External links


The University of Cambridges Amarna Project
Amarna Art Gallery Shows just a few, but stunning,
examples of the art of the Amarna period.
M.A. Mansoor Amarna Collection

Chapter 6

Ankhesenamun
See also: Family tree of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt sun-god, characterised as the suns disc.
Ankhesenamun (n-s-n-imn, Her Life Is of Amun";
c. 1348 after 1322 BC) was a queen of the Eighteenth
Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she
was the third of six known daughters of the Egyptian
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti,
and became the Great Royal Wife of her half-brother
Tutankhamun.[1] The change in her name reects the
changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime
after her fathers death. Her youth is well documented in
the ancient reliefs and paintings of the reign of her parents. Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun shared the same
father but Tuts mother has recently been established by
genetic evidence as one of Akhenatens sisters, a daughter
(so far unidentied) of Amenhotep III.

She is believed to have been born in Waset (present-day


Thebes), but probably grew up in her fathers new capital city of Akhetaten (present-day Amarna). The three
eldest daughters Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten became the Senior Princesses and participated
in many functions of the government and religion. Her
birthdate is not known.

6.2 Later life

She was probably born in year 4 of Akhenatens reign and


by year 12 of her fathers reign she was joined by her three
younger sisters. He possibly made his wife his co-regent
and had his family portrayed in a realistic style in all ofcial artwork.
Ankhesenamun was denitely married to one king; she
was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
It is also possible that she was briey married to Tutankhamuns successor, Ay, believed by some to be
her maternal grandfather.[2] It has also been posited
that she may have been the Great Royal Wife of
her father, Akhenaten, after the possible death of her
mother, and co-regent of Akhenatens immediate successor, Smenkhkare.
Recent DNA tests released in February 2010 have also
speculated that one of two late 18th dynasty queens
buried in KV21 could be her mummy. Both mummies
are thought, because of DNA, to be members of the ruling house.
Tutankhamun receives owers from Ankhesenpaaten as a sign
of love.

6.1 Early life


Ankhesenpaaten was born in a time when Egypt was in
the midst of an unprecedented religious revolution (c.
1348 BC). Her father had abandoned the old deities of
Egypt in favor of the Aten, hitherto a minor aspect of the

She is believed to have been married rst to her own


father,[3] which was not unusual for Egyptian royal families and is thought to have been the mother of the
princess Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (possibly by her father
or by Smenkhkare) when she was twelve, although the
parentage is unclear.[1]

30

6.4. MUMMY KV21A


After her fathers death and the short reigns of
Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten, she became the wife
of Tutankhamun.[4] Following their marriage, the couple
honored the deities of the restored religion by changing
their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun.[5] The
couple appear to have had two stillborn daughters.[5] As
Tutankhamuns only known wife was Ankhesenamun, it
is highly likely the fetuses found in Tutankhamuns tomb
are her daughters. Some time in the ninth year of his
reign, at about the age of eighteen, Tutankhamun died
suddenly, leaving Ankhesenamun alone without an heir
at about age twenty-one.[5]

31
subjects (translated by some as 'servants) is most likely
a reference to the Grand Vizier Ay[10] who was pressuring
the young widow to marry him and legitimise his claim to
the throne of Egypt (which she eventually did). This also
might explain why she describes herself as 'afraid', especially considering the popular (but not widely accepted)
theory that Ay had a hand in her husbands death.[11] A
CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his
leg shortly before his death, and that the leg had become
infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the
presence of malaria in his system. It is believed that these
two conditions, malaria and leiomyomata, combined, led
to his death.[12]

A ring discovered is thought to show that Ankhesenamun


married Ay shortly before she disappeared from history,
although no monuments show her as a royal consort.[6]
On the walls of Ays tomb it is Tey (Ays senior wife),
6.4 Mummy KV21A
not Ankhesenamun, who appears as queen. She probably
died during or shortly after his reign and no burial has
DNA testing announced in February 2010 has specbeen found for her yet.
ulated that her mummy is one of two 18th Dynasty
queens recovered from KV21 in the Valley of the Kings.
The two fetuses found buried with Tutankhamun have
6.3 The Hittite Letters
been proven to be his children, and the current theory
is Ankhesenamun is their mother. Not enough DNA
A document was found in the ancient Hittite capital was able to be retrieved from the mummies in KV21 to
of Hattusa which dates to the Amarna period; the so- make positive identities of the queens. Enough DNA
called Deeds of Suppiluliuma I. The king receives a was pulled to show that the mummy known as KV21a
letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on ts as the mother of the two fetuses in Tutankhamuns
Karkemish. The letter reads:
tomb. The assumption that she is Ankhesenamun ts
with her being the only known wife of Tutankhamun in
the historical record. There is however one problem with
My husband has died and I have no son.
this identication: if KV21a is Ankhesenamun, then the
They say about you that you have many sons.
KV55 mummy cannot be Akhenaten, known to be her
You might give me one of your sons to become
father from historical records. The DNA retrieved of
my husband. I would not wish to take one of my
the KV21a mummy ts with her being the mother of
subjects as a husband... I am afraid. [4]
the fetuses, but not the daughter of KV55. Therefore:
This document is considered extraordinary, as Egyptians A) this mummy is not Ankhesenamun, but another, untraditionally considered foreigners to be inferior. Sup- known wife of Tutankhamun, or B) the KV55 mummy
piluliuma I was surprised and exclaimed to his courtiers: is not Akhenaten, but another brother of his, possibly
the ephemeral Smenkhare. The KV21a mummy though,
does have DNA consistent with the 18th dynasty royal
Nothing like this has happened to me in my
line,
therefore ts as a member of the Thutmosid ruling
entire life!"[7]
house.
Understandably, he was wary, and had an envoy investigate, but by so doing, he missed his chance to bring
Egypt into his empire. He eventually did send one of his 6.5 KV63
sons, Zannanza, but the prince died, perhaps murdered,
en route.[8]
After excavating the tomb KV63 it is speculated that it
The identity of the queen who wrote the letter is uncer- was designed for Ankhesenamen due to its proximity to
tain. She is called Dakhamunzu in the Hittite annuals, the tomb of Tutankhamun's KV62. Also found in the
a possible translation of the Egyptian title Tahemetnesu tomb were cons (one with an imprint of a woman on
(The Kings Wife).[9] Possible candidates are Nefertiti, it), womens clothing, jewelry and natron. Fragments of
Meritaten,[2] and Ankhesenamun. Ankhesenamun seems pottery bearing the partial name Paaten were also in the
more likely since there were no candidates for the throne tomb. The only royal person known to bear this name
on the death of her husband, Tutankhamun, whereas was Ankhesenamen, whose name was originally AnkheAkhenaten had at least two legitimate successors.[4] Fur- senpaaten. However there were no mummies found in
thermore, the phrase regarding marriage to 'one of my KV63, so it remains just speculation.

32

CHAPTER 6. ANKHESENAMUN

6.6 In contemporary media

[2] Grajetzki, Wolfram (2000). Ancient Egyptian Queens; a


hieroglyphic dictionary. London: Golden House. p. 64.

Ankhesenpaaten/Ankhesenamum appears as a ctionalized character in these works:

[3] Reeves, Nicholas (2001). Akhenaten: Egypts False


Prophet. Thames and Hudson.

as the narrator in The Last Heiress: A Novel of Tutankhamuns Queen by Stephanie Liaci.

[4] Manley, Suzie.


Ankhesenamun - Queen of Tutankhamun and Daughter of Akhenaten. Egypt * Pyramids * History.

in the Belgian series, Het Huis Anubis, as The Vengeful Wife of Tutankhamun.

[5] Queen Ankhesenamun. Saint Louis University.

as the main character in Christian Jacq's novel La


reine soleil, and in the animated lm adaptation of
the same name.
as the main character in The Lost Queen of Egypt by
Lucile Morrison.
as a main character in The Twelfth Transforming by
Pauline Gedge.
in the manga series Red River by Chie Shinohara.
This appearance is in relation to the Hittite Letters
event.

[6] Dodson, Aidan; Dyan Hilton (2004). The Complete Royal


Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 153.
[7] The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as Told by His Son, Mursili
II. Journal of Cuneiform Studies 10 (2). 1956. Retrieved
2012-09-08.
[8] Amelie Kuhrt (1997). The Ancient Middle East c. 3000
330 BC 1. London: Routledge. p. 254.
[9] William McMurray. Towards an Absolute Chronology
for Ancient Egypt (pdf). p. 5.
[10] Christine El Mahdy (2001), Tutankhamun (St Grins
Press)

a character in Nefertiti by Michelle Moran, as the


third of her six daughters.

[11] Brier, Bob (1999) The Murder of Tutankhamen (Berkeley Trade)

the main character in the novel Tutankhamun and


the Daughter of Ra by Moyra Caldecott.

[12] Roberts, Michelle (2010-02-16). "'Malaria' killed King


Tutankhamun. BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-12.

Her name is used as the love of Imhotep, the titular mummy in the original 1932 lm The Mummy,
which was made after the publicity surrounding the
discovery of Tutankhamuns tomb. She is portrayed
by Zita Johann. In the 1999 remake The Mummy
and its sequel The Mummy Returns she is played by
Patricia Velasquez. In the 1932 lm, her name is
spelled Ankh-es-en-amon. In the 1999 lm, it is
spelled Anck-su-namun.
The novel Pillar of Fire by Judith Tarr deals in large
part with the life of Ankhesenamun.
in P.C. Doherty's Akhenaten trilogy where she is implicated in Tutankhamuns death and is to marry a
Hittite Prince.
as a major character in The Murder of King Tut, a
murder mystery based on speculation about her husbands death by James Patterson and Martin Dugard.
as a major character in Tutankhamun: the Book of
Shadows, by Nick Drake.

6.7 Ancestry
6.8 References
[1] Dodson, Aidan; Dyan Hilton (2004). The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 148.

6.9 Further reading


Akhenaten, King of Egypt by Cyril Aldred (1988),
Thames & Hudson.

Chapter 7

Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (or Ankhesenpaaten-ta- Kiyas daughter, who might have been Beketaten, more
sherit, Ankhesenpaaten the Younger) was an ancient commonly thought to be Tiye's child.[4] [5] [6]
Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty.
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit and another princess,
Meritaten Tasherit are two small princesses who
appear in scenes dating to the later part of the reign of
Akhenaten. The titles of at least one of the princess
is of the form "[...-ta]sherit, born of [...], born of the
Kings Great Wife [...]. The inscription is damaged
and the name of the mother and grandmother of the
princesses has not been preserved.[1] [2] Ankhesenpaaten
Tasherit has been known to archaeologists since 1938,
when a talatat with her picture and name was found in
Hermopolis.

7.1.3 Meritaten and Smenkhare


Dodoson proposed Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit was a
daughter of the young royal couple Meritaten and
Smenkhare. The young princess would have been named
after Meritatens sister.[1]

7.2 References

7.1 Proposed parents


Several dierent sets of parents have been proposed for
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (as well as Meritaten Tasherit).

[1] Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,


Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN
978-977-416-304-3
[2] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8, pp 168, 173
[3] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8 p 234

7.1.1

Ankhesenpaaten and Akhenaten

She is most commonly held to have been the daughter


of Ankhesenpaaten (a daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten)
and Akhenaten himself.[3] [1] The title of the princess
is thought to have been Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit, born
of Ankehenpaaten, born of the Kings Great Wife
Nefertiti".[2] If we assume that Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit
was the daughter of Ankhesenpaaten and Akhenaten, she
must have been born towards the very end of Akhenatens
reign. Since Ankhesenpaaten was born around the 5th
year of her fathers reign, the earliest year she could have
had a child was around Year 16 of his reign.[2]

7.1.2

Kiya and Akhenaten

Since both Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit and another


princess, Meritaten Tasherit appear only in texts that
once mentioned Akhenatens second wife Kiya, it is
also possible that they were children of Akhenaten and
Kiya, or that they were ctional, replacing the name of
33

[4] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN
0-500-05128-3, p.148
[5] Dr. Marc Gabolde: The End of the Amarna Period
[6] Kramer, Enigmatic Kiya in A. K. Eyma ed., A Deltaman in Yebu, uPublish.com 2003, ISBN 1-58112-564-X,
p.54

Chapter 8

Colossal Statues of Akhenaten at East


Karnak
The Colossal Statues of Akhenaten at East Karnak
depict the 18th dynasty pharaoh, Akhenaten (also known
as Amenophis IV or Amenhotep IV), in a distorted representation of the human form. The statues are believed
to be from early in his reign, which lasted arguably from
either 1353 to 1336 BCE or 1351 to 1334 BCE. The excavation, begun by Henri Chevrier in 1925, uncovered
twenty-ve fragments of the broken colossi in Eastern
Karnak in Thebes, which are now located in the Cairo
Museum in Egypt.

8.1 Description
The statues were divided into three categories based on
size, the largest of which were 12.75 metres (over 41 feet)
tall and the smallest, 8.55 metres (about 28 feet).[1] The
pharaoh is depicted with a distorted physique not present
elsewhere in the artwork of Ancient Egypt. He is portrayed with a protruding stomach, thin arms, and exaggerated facial features, such as a long nose, hanging chin
and thick lips.[2] One statue in particular has been the subject of much debate as it represents the king apparently
nude and lacking genitals.[3] There are various theories
about the destruction of the statues, one of which suggest that his elder coregent, Amenophis III, had the statues dismantled and covered up.[4] A second theory suggests that Akhenaten himself had the statues torn down
with a change of planning in the construction of the Aten
temple.[4]

covering more.[2] Unfortunately, the only things discovered there by Chevrier were the foundations of a wall angled southwest and twenty-eight stone bases, which he assumed were the pedestals of the fallen statues.[2]

8.3 Signicance to Egyptian art


Traditionally, pharaohs are depicted idealistically in
Egyptian art heroic and robust. The departure from
cultural norms that occur with the colossi of Akhenaten,
therefore, has sparked numerous debates among scholars. What is certain is that no artist would have voluntarily produced such an unattering image of the king without it being commissioned by the pharaoh himself. Some
scholars characterize the style of art during the reign of
Akhenaten as expressionistic and nd relation between
distorted representations such as the colossi and the religious revolution of the time, which were supported by
Akhenaten.[2] However, it is important to note that although the pharaoh, and in some instances other members of the Royal Family, are depicted in such unorthodox ways, such distortions were not seen throughout the
period. In other words, Akhenaten did not altar standard
practices of Egyptian art outside of depictions of the human body, and only to the Royal Family.

8.4 Conicting theories

The mystery behind the colossal statues of Akhenaten at


East Karnak has led to numerous interpretations of the
material. One theory regarding the purpose of the statues
The colossi of Akhenaten were discovered accidentally in suggests that the pharaoh wished to separate himself from
associate him solely with divinity and
1925 while a drainage ditch was being dug east of the en- ordinary people and
[4]
the
Royal
Family.
[2]
closure wall of the Great Temple of Amun. The sandstone statues were inscribed with the name Amenophis Another theory suggests that Akhenaten was depicted
IV, and were found fallen prostrate on the ground. Henri in his true form, claiming that he suered from a disChevrier, the chief inspector of antiquities at Karnak, ease that caused the disgurations. Several pathologists
became interested in the site and spent the next twenty- have studied the abnormalities of the statues physical atve years periodically excavating the site in hopes of un- tributes. One resulting diagnosis is that Akhenaten suf-

8.2 Discovery

34

8.6. REFERENCES

35

fered from a disorder of the endocrine system called


Froehlichs syndrome.[2] However, this theory has been
debunked due to the facts that most who suer from this
disease are mentally retarded and unable to sire children,
both of which are side eects Akhenaten did not appear to have.[2] Another related theory is that Akhenaten
may have suered from a rare genetic disorder known
as Marfans Syndrome.[2] This hypothesis will rely on the
results of DNA testing of the KV 55 tomb, in which it is
theorized lies Akhenatens mummy. Until then, however,
it remains inconclusive.
Numerous theories exist about one particular statue in
the collection, which represents the king naked without
genitalia. One such theory concludes that these physical oddities symbolize the manifestations of the bisexual
nature of the sun-god who impregnated himself to create
the universe.[2] In contrast, historian K.R. Harris explains
that at least some of the colossi, this one in particular,
represents not Akhenaten, but Nefertiti wearing a closeclinging garment, which is undetectable because the feet
of the statue are missing.[2] Other queens in Egyptian history have been depicted with masculine features, such as
Hatshepsut, therefore this argument may not be far o.[2]
Harris alternatively suggests that the colossi statues may
be the personications of deities, such as Aten, Shu, or
Atum.[2]
Lastly, a related debate surrounds the actual site where
the statues were discovered. Some scholars maintain that
the statues and colonnades discovered were the remains
of a temple built by the pharaoh. References exist that
support this theory (i.e. in the tomb of the vizier Ramose
at Western Thebes).[2] Others argue that the site consists
of the ruins of a palace Akhenaten built. The Akhenaten
Temple Project in 1975, however, concluded that the remains were indeed that of the Atem Temple.[1]

8.5 See also


Temple of Amenhotep IV

8.6 References
[1] Wineld Smith, Ray and Donald B. Redford. The Akhenaten Temple Project, Vol. 1: Initial Discoveries. Warminster Aris & Phillipps, 1976
[2] Aldred, Cyril. Akhenaten: King of Egypt.
Thames and Hudson, 1988

London:

[3] Aldred, Cyril. Akhenaten Pharaoh of Egypt: A New Study.


London: Thames and Hudson, 1968
[4] Reeves, C.N. Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet. New
York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 2001

Chapter 9

The Egyptian
This article is about a historical novel. For the lm based three historical gures: herself, rst wife of Horemheb
on the novel, see The Egyptian (lm). For other uses, and, by him, mother of Ramesses I. Historical Horemheb
see Egyptian (disambiguation).
died childless.
The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptilinen, Sinuhe the Egyptian)
is a historical novel by Mika Waltari. It was rst published
in Finnish in 1945, and in an abridged English translation by Naomi Walford in 1949, apparently from Swedish
rather than Finnish.[1] So far, it is the only Finnish novel to
be adapted into a Hollywood lm, which it was, in 1954.
The Egyptian is the rst and the most successful, of Waltaris great historical novels. It is set in Ancient Egypt,
mostly during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten of the
18th Dynasty, whom some have claimed to be the rst
monotheistic ruler in the world.[2]

Although Waltari employed some poetic license in combining the biographies of Sinuhe and Akhenaten, he was
otherwise much concerned about the historical accuracy
of his detailed description of ancient Egyptian life and
carried out considerable research into the subject. The
result has been praised not only by readers but also by
Egyptologists.
Waltari had long been interested in Akhenaten and wrote
a play about him which was staged in Helsinki in 1938.
World War II provided the nal impulse for exploring the
subject in a novel which, although depicting events that
took place over 3,300 years ago, in fact reects the contemporary feelings of disillusionment and war-weariness
and carries a pessimistic message of the essential sameness of human nature throughout the ages. The threatening King Suppiluliuma has many of the overtones of
Hitler.[3]

The protagonist of the novel is the ctional character Sinuhe, the royal physician, who tells the story in exile after Akhenatens fall and death. Apart from incidents in
Egypt, the novel charts Sinuhes travels in then Egyptiandominated Syria (Levant), in Mitanni, Babylon, Minoan
Crete, and among the Hittites.
Such a message evoked a wide response in readers in the
The main character of the novel is named after a character aftermath of the World War, and the book became an
in an ancient Egyptian text commonly known as The Story international bestseller, topping the bestseller lists in the
of Sinuhe. The original story dates to a time long before USA in 1949. It remained the most sold foreign novel in
that of Akhenaten: texts are known from as early as the the US before its place was taken over by The Name of the
Rose, by Umberto Eco. The Egyptian has been translated
12th dynasty.
into 40 languages.
Supporting historical characters include the old Pharaoh
Amenhotep III and his conniving favorite wife, Tiy;
the wife of Akhenaten, Nefertiti; the listless young 9.1 Editions
Tutankhamun (King Tut), who succeeded as Pharaoh
after Akhenatens downfall; and the two common-born
ISBN 1-55652-441-2, English translation by Naomi
successors who were, according to this author, integral
Walford, Independent Pub Group 2002
parts of the rise and fall of the Amarna heresy of Akhenaten: the priest and later Pharaoh Ay and the warrior ISBN 80-85637-00-6, Czech translation by Marta
general and then nally Pharaoh, Horemheb. Though
Hellmuthov, imon & imon 1993 (7th ed.)
never appearing onstage, throughout the book the Hittite
ISBN 87-00-19188-4, Danish translation by Inger
King Suppiluliuma I appears as a brooding threatening
Husted Kvan, Gyldendal 2007
gure of a completely ruthless conqueror and tyrannical ruler. Other historical gures, the protagonist has
ISBN 964-407-174-3, Persian translation by Zabidirect dealings with, are: Aziru (ruler of Amurru kinghollah Mansuri, Zarrin 1985[=1364 H.sh]
dom), Thutmose (sculptor), Burna-Buriash II (Babylonian king), and, under a dierent name, Zannanza, son of
ISBN 83-07-01108-6, Polish translation by ZygSuppiluliuma I. Zannanzas bride is a collage of at least
munt anowski, Czytelnik 1962 (ISBN is for the
36

9.2. REFERENCES

37

1987 edition)
ISBN 85-319-0057-3, Portuguese translation by
Jos Geraldo Vieira, Belo Horizonte 2002
ISBN 91-46-16279-8, Swedish translation by Ole
Torvalds, Wahlstrm & Widstrand 1993
OCLC 492858623, Estonian translation
Johannes Aavik, Orto Publishing House 1954

by

ISBN 5-450-01801-0 Estonian translation by


Johannes Aavik, Eesti Raamat 1991 (2nd ed.)
ISBN 978-9985-3-1983-3, Estonian translation by
Piret Saluri, Varrak 2009
ISBN 963-07-1301-2, Hungarian translation by Endre Gombr, Eurpa Knyvkiad, Budapest 1978
ISBN 978-86-6157-008-7, Serbian translation by
Veljko Nikitovi and Kosta Lozani, NNK Internacional, Belgrade, 2011
ISBN 978-84-9759-665-7, Spanish translation by
Manuel Bosch Barret. Plaza & Jans y MondadoriGrijalbo.

9.2 References
[1] Swedish Book Review
[2] Wilson, Colin (2000). The Mammoth Encyclopedia
of the Unsolved. Carroll & Graf. p. 98. ISBN
0786707933.
[3] Abe Brown,"Hitlers ctional avatars, p. 53

Chapter 10

The Egyptian (lm)


The Egyptian is an American 1954 DeLuxe Color epic
lm made in CinemaScope by 20th Century Fox, directed
by Michael Curtiz and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck. It
is based on Mika Waltari's novel of the same name and
the screenplay was adapted by Philip Dunne and Casey
Robinson. Leading roles were played by Edmund Purdom, Jean Simmons, Peter Ustinov and Michael Wilding. Cinematographer Leon Shamroy was nominated for
an Academy Award in 1955.

10.1 Plot
The Egyptian tells the story of Sinuhe (Edmund Purdom),
a struggling physician in 18th dynasty Egypt (14th Century BC.) who is thrown by chance into contact with the
pharaoh Akhnaton (Michael Wilding). He rises to and
falls from great prosperity, wanders the world, and becomes increasingly drawn towards a new religion spreading throughout Egypt. His companions throughout are his
lover, a shy tavern maid named Merit (Jean Simmons),
and his corrupt but likable servant, Kaptah (Peter Ustinov).

tesan named Nefer (Bella Darvi). He squanders all of his


and his parents property in order to buy her gifts, only
to have her reject him nonetheless. Returning dejectedly
home, Sinuhe learns that his parents have committed suicide over his shameful behavior. He has their bodies embalmed so that they can pass on to the afterlife, and, having no way to pay for the service, works o his debts in
the embalming house.
Lacking a tomb in which to put his parents mummies,
Sinuhe buries them in the sand amid the lavish funerary complexes of the Valley of the Kings. Merit nds
him there and warns him that Akhnaton has condemned
him to death; one of the pharaohs daughters fell ill and
died while Sinuhe was working as an embalmer, and the
tragedy is being blamed on his desertion of the court.
Merit urges Sinuhe to ee Egypt and rebuild his career
elsewhere, and the two of them share one night of passion before he takes ship out of the country.

For the next ten years Sinuhe and Kaptah wander the
known world, where Sinuhes superior Egyptian medical training gives him an excellent reputation as healer.
Sinuhe nally saves enough money from his fees to return home; he buys his way back into the favor of the
court with a precious piece of military intelligence he
While out lion hunting with his sturdy friend Horemheb learned abroad, informing Horemheb (now commander
(Victor Mature), Sinuhe discovers Egypts newly ascen- of the Egyptian army) that the barbarian Hittites plan to
dant pharaoh Akhnaton, who has sought the solitude of attack the country with superior iron weapons.
the desert in the midst of a religious epiphany. While Akhnaton is in any case ready to forgive Sinuhe, acpraying, the ruler is stricken with an epileptic seizure, cording to his religions doctrine of mercy and pacism.
with which Sinuhe is able to help him. The grateful These qualities have made Aten-worship extremely popuAkhnaton makes his savior court physician and gives lar amid the common people, including Merit, with whom
Horemheb a post in the Royal Guard, a career previously Sinuhe is reunited. He nds that she bore him a son
denied to him by low birth. His new eminence gives Sin- named Thoth (Tommy Rettig) (a result of their night touhe an inside look at Akhnatons reign, which is made gether many years ago), who shares his fathers interest in
extraordinary by the rulers devotion to a new religion medicine.
that he feels has been divinely revealed to him. This faith
rejects Egypts traditional gods in favor of monotheistic Meanwhile the priests of the old gods have been fomentworship of the sun, referred to as Aten. Akhnaton intends ing hate crimes against the Atens devotees, and now urge
to promote Atenism throughout Egypt, which earns him Sinuhe to help them kill Akhnaton and put Horemheb on
the hatred of the countrys corrupt and politically active the throne instead. The physician is privately given extra inducement by the princess Baketamun (Gene Tiertraditional priesthood.
ney); she reveals that he is actually the son of the previLife in court does not prove to be good for Sinuhe; it drags ous pharaoh by a concubine, discarded at birth because of
him away from his previous ambition of helping the poor the jealousy of the old queen and raised by foster parents.
while falling obsessively in love with a Babylonian cour38

10.3. PRODUCTION

39

The princess now suggests that Sinuhe could poison both 10.3 Production
Akhnaton and Horemheb and rule Egypt himself (with
her at his side).
The script was based on the Waltari novel of the same
Sinuhe is still reluctant to perform this evil deed until the name. It is elaborated in the book, but not the lm,
Egyptian army mounts a full attack on worshipers of the that Sinuhe was named by his mother from The Story
Aten. Kaptah manages to smuggle Thoth out the country, of Sinuhe, which does include references to Aten but
but Merit is killed while seeking refuge at the new gods was written many centuries before the 18th dynasty. The
altar. In his grief Sinuhe blames Akhnaton for the whole use of the Cross of Life ankh to represent Akhnatons
mess and administers poison to him at their next meeting. new religion reects a popular and esoteric belief in
The pharaoh realizes what has been done, but accepts his the 1950s that monotheistic Atenism was a sort of protofate. He still believes his faith was true, but that he has Christianity. While the ankh has no known connection
understood it imperfectly; future generations will be able to the modern cross,[4] the principal symbol of Aten was
not an ankh but a solar disk emitting rays, though the
to spread the same faith better than he.
rays usually ended with a hand holding out an ankh to
Enlightened by Akhnatons dying words, Sinuhe allows
the worshipers. The sun-disk is seen only twice; when we
Horemheb to become pharaoh as he is still indignant that
rst meet Akhnaton in the desert, he has painted it on a
his old friend had considered murdering him and has berock, and Sinuhe says Look! He worships the face of the
gun to preaching the same ideals Akhnaton believed in his
sun. It appears again as part of the wall painting above
nal moments. Banished to the shores of Red Sea, Sinuhe
Akhnatons throne. With that said, the ankh was used in
spends his remaining days inspired by the glimpse of anthe original novel. Likewise, Akhnatons dying revelation
other world he has been aorded through Akhnaton and
that God is much more than the face of the sun is actually
died of old age after writing down his life story in hopes
found among Waltaris best-known writings.[5]
that it may be found by Thoth or his descendants. The
lm concludes with a caption reading, These things hap- Some of the sets, costumes, and props from this lm were
pened thirteen centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ. bought and re-used by Cecil B. DeMille for The Ten Commandments. As the events in that story take place seventy years after those in The Egyptian, this re-use creates an unintended sense of continuity. The commentary
10.2 Cast
track on the Ten Commandments DVD points out many of
these re-uses. Only three actors, Mimi Gibson, Michael
Ansara and John Carradine, and a handful of extras, ap Edmund Purdom as Sinuhe
peared in both pictures. The Prince Aly Khan was a consultant during lming, he was engaged to Gene Tierney.
Victor Mature as Horemheb
Marlon Brando was to star as Sinuhe, but did not like the
script and dropped out at the last minute. Farley Granger
Jean Simmons as Merit
was the next choice and considered the role, but then decided he was not interested after having just moved to
Bella Darvi as Nefer
New York. Dirk Bogarde was then oered the role but
also turned it down. Finally it was handed to young up Gene Tierney as Baketamon
and-coming contract actor Edmund Purdom.
Michael Wilding as Akhenaten
Peter Ustinov as Kaptah
Judith Evelyn as Taia
Henry Daniell as Mekere

Marilyn Monroe coveted the role of Nefer, only to discover that it was earmarked for the protegee (mistress) of
producer Darryl F. Zanuck, Bella Darvi. This would be
the second of only three American lms featuring Darvi,
who returned to Europe and later committed suicide.

10.4 Music

John Carradine as Grave robber


Carl Benton Reid as Senmut
Tommy Rettig as Thoth
Anitra Stevens as Queen Nefertiti
Peter Reynolds as Sinuhe, age 10

Owing to the short time available in post-production,


the composing duties on the lm score were divided between two of 20th Century-Foxs best-known composers:
Alfred Newman and Bernard Herrmann.
Newman would later conduct the score in a re-recording
for release on Decca Records. Musician John Morgan
undertook a restoration and reconstruction of the score
for a recording conducted by William T. Stromberg in

40

CHAPTER 10. THE EGYPTIAN (FILM)


The Egyptian at the American Film Institute Catalog
Complete listing of recordings of the lm score

The Egyptian soundtrack cover.

1998, on Marco Polo Records. The performance of the


score recorded for the lm was released by Film Score
Monthly in 2001.

10.5 See also


List of historical drama lms
List of American lms of 1954
List of epic lms

10.6 References
[1] Aubrey Solomon, Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate
and Financial History, Scarecrow Press, 1989 p248
[2] Aubrey Solomon, Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate
and Financial History, Scarecrow Press, 1989 p225
[3] 'The Top Box-Oce Hits of 1954', Variety Weekly, January 5, 1955
[4] Taylor Ellison, The Ancient Ankh, part of the Tour Egypt
background material, website found 2009-01-03.
[5] The Worship of Aten, part of the Tour Egypt background
material, webpage found 2009-01-03.

10.7 External links


The Egyptian at the Internet Movie Database
The Egyptian at AllMovie
The Egyptian at the TCM Movie Database

Chapter 11

Great Hymn to the Aten

Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten.

The Great Hymn to the Aten is the longest form of


one of a number of hymn-poems written to the creator
god Aten and attributed to King Akhenaten who radically changed traditional forms of Egyptian religion replacing them with Atenism. The hymn-poem provides
a glimpse of the religious artistry of the Amarna period
expressed in multiple forms encompassing literature, new
temples, and in the building of a whole new city at the site
of present day Amarna as the capital of Egypt. Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson said that It has been called 'one of Drawing of the inscription of the hymn text (1908 publication).
the most signicant and splendid pieces of poetry to survive from the pre-Homeric world.'" [1] Egyptologist John
departure from the centuries of Egyptian religious pracDarnell asserts that the hymn was sung.[2]
tice. Finally, Akhenaten issued a royal decree that the
Various courtiers rock tombs at Amarna (ancient Akhet- name Aten was no longer to be depicted by the hieroAten, the city Akhenaten founded) have similar prayers or glyph of a solar disc emanating rays but instead had to be
hymns to the Aten or to the Aten and Akhenaten jointly. spelled out phonetically. Thus Akhenaten extended even
One of these, found in almost identical form in ve tombs, further the heretical belief that Aten was not the disc or
is known as The Short Hymn to the Aten. The long ver- orb of the sun (the Egyptian sun god Ra) but a universal
sion discussed in this article was found in the tomb of the spiritual presence (see Akhenaten and Atenism). Akhencourtier (and later Pharaoh) Ay.[3]
atons religious reforms (later regarded heretical and reAkhenaten forbade the worship of other gods, a radical verted under his successor Tutankhamun) have been de41

42

CHAPTER 11. GREAT HYMN TO THE ATEN

scribed by some scholars as the earliest known example


of monotheistic thought while others consider it to have
been an example of henotheism.[4]

When you have dawned they live.


When you set they die;
You yourself are lifetime, one lives by you.
All eyes are on <your> beauty until you set.

11.1 Excerpts of the hymn-poem to


Aten
From the middle of the text:
How manifold it is, pakker!
They are hidden from the face (of man).
O sole god, like whom there is no other!
Thou didst create the world according to thy desire,
Whilst thou wert alone: All men, cattle, and
wild beasts,
Whatever is on earth, going upon (its) feet,
And what is on high, ying with its wings.

All labor ceases when you rest in the west;


When you rise you stir [everyone] for the King,
Every leg is on the move since you founded the
earth.
You rouse them for your son who came from
your body.
The King who lives by Maat, the Lord of the
Two Lands,
Neferkheprure, Sole-one-of-Re,
The Son of Re who lives by Maat. the Lord of
crowns,
Akhenatrn, great in his lifetime;
(And) the great Queen whom he loves, the Lady
of the Two Lands,
Nefer-nefru-Aten Nefertiti, living forever.[6]

The countries of Syria and Nubia, the land of


Egypt,
Thou settest every man in his place,

11.2 Analysis

Thou suppliest their necessities:


Everyone has his food, and his time of life is
reckoned.
Their tongues are separate in speech,
And their natures as well;
Their skins are distinguished,

Analyses of the poem are divided between those considering it as a work of literature, and those considering its
political and socio-religious intentions.
James Henry Breasted considered Akhenaten to be the
rst monotheist and scientist in history. In 1899, Flinders
Petrie wrote:

As thou distinguishest the foreign peoples.


Thou makest a Nile in the underworld,
Thou bringest forth as thou desirest
To maintain the people (of Egypt)
According as thou madest them for thyself,
The lord of all of them, wearying (himself) with
them,
The lord of every land, rising for them,
The Aton of the day, great of majesty.[5]

If this were a new religion, invented to satisfy


our modern scientic conceptions, we could not
nd a aw in the correctness of this view of the
energy of the solar system. How much Akhenaten understood, we cannot say, but he certainly
bounded forward in his views and symbolism
to a position which we cannot logically improve
upon at the present day. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this
new worship evolved out of the old Aton of Heliopolis, the sole Lord of the universe.[7]

From the last part of the text, translated by Miriam


Miriam Lichtheim describes the hymn as a beautiful
Lichtheim:
statement of the doctrine of the One God..[8]
You are in my heart,
There is no other who knows you,
Only your son, Neferkheprure, Sole-one-of-Re,
Whom you have taught your ways and your
might.
<Those on> earth come from your hand as you
made them.

In 1913 Henry Hall contended that the pharaoh was the


rst example of the scientic mind.[9]
Egyptologist Dominic Montserrat discusses the terminology used to describe these texts, describing them as formal poems or royal eulogies. He views the word 'hymn'
as suggesting outpourings of emotion while he sees
them as eulogies, formal and rhetorical statements of
praise honoring Aten and the royal couple. He credits

11.6. EXTERNAL LINKS


James Henry Breasted with the popularisation of them as
hymns saying that Breasted (erroneously) saw them as a
gospel of the beauty and benecence of the natural order, a recognition of the message of nature to the soul of
man"(quote from Breasted).[10]
Monsterrat argues that all the versions of the hymns focus on the king and suggests that the real innovation is
to redene the relationship of god and king in a way that
beneted Akhenaten, quoting the statement of Egyptologist John Baines that Amarna religion was a religion of
god and king, or even of king rst and then god.[11][12]

43

[5] Pritchard, James B., ed., The Ancient Near East - Volume
1: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Princeton, New
Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1958, pp. 227-230.
[6] Lichtheim, Miriam (2nd Ref. Ed. 2006). Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume II: The New Kingdom. University of California Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0520248434.
Check date values in: |date= (help)
[7] Sir Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt (edit. 1899), Vol. II,
p. 214.
[8] Lichtheim, Miriam (2nd Ref. Ed. 2006). Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume II: The New Kingdom. University
of California Press. ISBN 978-0520248434. Check date
values in: |date= (help)

In his book Reections on the Psalms, C.S. Lewis compared the Hymn to the Psalms of the Judaeo-Christian
canon, as did Breasted (who broke them up into stanzas
to resemble Western poems).[13] Miriam Lichtheim com- [9] H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East (1913), p.
599.
mented about an alleged resemblance with Psalm 104
saying that The resemblances are, however, more likely [10] Montserrat, Dominic (2002). Akhenaten: History, Fanto be the result of the generic similarity between Egyptasy and Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978tian hymns and biblical psalms. A specic literary inter0415301862.
dependence is not probable.[14]

11.3 Adaptations
The Hymn to the Aten was set to music by Philip Glass
in his opera Akhnaten.

11.4 See also


Citation for comparison to Psalm 104, see Pritchard,
James B. The Ancient Near East, An anthology of Texts
and Pictures, Princeton University Press, 1958, page
227.
Moses and Monotheism

11.5 References
[1] Wilkinson, Toby (2011). The Rise and Fall of Ancient
Egypt. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 289290. ISBN 9781408810026.
[2] Darnell>, John. Tutankhamuns Armies: Battle and Conquest During Ancient Egypts Late Eighteenth Dynasty. p.
41. ISBN 978-0471743583.
[3] Lichtheim, Miriam (2006). Ancient Egyptian Literature:
Volume II: The New Kingdom. University of California
Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0520248434.
[4] Brewer, Douglas j.; Emily Teeter (2 edition (22 Feb
2007)). Egypt and the Egyptians. Cambridge University
Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-521-85150-3. Check date
values in: |date= (help)

[11] Montserrat, Dominic (2002). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 9780415301862.
[12] John Baines (1998). The Dawn of the Amarna Age. In
David O'Connor, Eric Cline. Amenhotep III: Perspectives
on His Reign. University of Michigan Press. p. 281.
[13] Montserrat, Dominic (2002). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 101. ISBN 9780415301862.
[14] Lichtheim, Miriam (2006). Ancient Egyptian Literature:
Volume II: The New Kingdom. University of California
Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0520248434.

11.6 External links


Great Hymn to the Aten, transcribed and scanned
by Georey Graham
Comparison between the Egyptian Hymn of Aten
and modern scientic conceptions

Chapter 12

The Greatest Pharaohs


The Greatest Pharaohs is a 1997 American educational
documentary lm about Ancient Egypt distributed by
A&E and narrated by Frank Langella with commentary
by experts in the eld.[1][2] It is 200 minutes long and split
into four parts, with each part explaining the lives of four
Egyptian pharaohs.[2]

12.1 In education
The lm uses interviews of historians, re-creations
through computer CGI, location footage, and
archaeological and scientic evidence to tell the story of
these Egyptian monarchs.[2] It has been made available
for instructional use by A&E,[3] and is now being used
in anthropology and archaeology courses at colleges
and universities, such as the University of Vermont,[2]
San Francisco State University,[4] Oriental Institute of
Chicago,[5] University of Pennsylvania,[6] and University
of California, Berkeley,[7] as well as smaller colleges
such as Blue Ridge Community College.[8] It is available
in public libraries across the United States,[1][9][10][11]
and in archives such as La Bibliographie nationale
franaise.[12]

12.2 4-part series


The documentary series The Greatest Pharaohs chronicles the lives of the men and women who built and
maintained the Egyptian dynasties and the resources and
power of ancient Egypt. Footage is included of the recently opened pyramid complex of the Pharaoh Sneferu
and the rarely seen ancient burial ground of Abydos.[13]
Part 1

By 2180 BCE, almost 1,000 years after the rst pharaoh,


the Egyptians had made advances in science, art, and
technology and had built what was arguably the most advanced culture at that time in civilized history. However,
the Old Kingdom started to decay when a child became
Pharaoh. There were centuries of chaos before Egypt was
reborn under a series of militarily inclined pharaohs who
established the New Kingdom. Covers Menkaura, Pepi
II, Mentuhotep I, and Ahmose I.[15]
Part 3
By 1353 BCE, Egypt was again stable, with much of
the prosperity of the Old Kingdom. However, the ascension of Akhenaten brought a new crisis. Akhenaten
was branded a heretic by history because of his attempts
to transform Egypts religion, but he was also considered
remarkable by the way he shared power with Nefertiti.
Covers Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), Tutankhamun, Ay,
and Seti I.[16]
Part 4
Considered by historians to be the greatest era of the
New Kingdom began in 1279 BCE, when Ramses II assumed the throne. Ramses II is remembered by history
as Ramses the Great. The Great Pharaohs of Egypt series concludes with an in-depth look at his 67-year reign .
He led foreign conquests and embarked on what is considered the most ambitious building program since the Great
Pyramids, restoring old monuments and erecting countless new ones. The program concludes with the life and
death of Cleopatra as the last pharaoh. Covers Ramses
II, Ramses III, and Cleopatra VII.[17]

12.3 Video release

Follows the birth of Egyptian civilization and the origins


and distributed in
of the pharaohs and their legacy of the pyramids. It be- It was released by A&E Home Video [2]
the
U.S.
by
New
Video
Group
(1997).
gins with the story of how the rst pharaoh, the warrior
Narmer, united Upper and Lower Egypt and began the
rst dynasty. Covers Narmer, Hor-Aha, Sneferu, and
12.4 See also
Khafra.[14]
Ancient Egypt

Part 2
44

12.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

12.5 Additional sources


The Advocate (July 6, 1997), Tidbits in A&Es
Pharaohs worth the eort[18]

12.6 References
[1] Marmot Library Network, video listings, accessed 01-182009
[2]

University of Vermont, CAMPUS USE INSTRUCTIONAL: The Greatest Pharaohs, accessed 01-18-2009

[3] A&E Classroom, accessed 01-18-2009


[4] San Francisco State University video library catalog, accessed 01-18-2009
[5] Oriental Institute of Chicago, discussion of syllabus for
January 4 class, accessed 01-18-2009
[6] University of Pennsylvania, videos for Anthropology and
Archaeology, accessed 01-18-2009
[7]

University of California, Berkeley, Area Studies


Videos in the Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley Library, accessed 01-18-2009

[8] BRCC Video Listing course video listings. Retrieved


2009-01-19.
[9] Corvalis-Benton County Public Library, video listings,
accesses 01-18-2009
[10] Wright Public Library, accessed 01-18-2009
[11] Nid-Hudson Library System, accessed 01-19-2009
[12] La Bibliographie nationale franaise (France) (Google
translation, accessed 01-19-2009
[13] aetv.com, overview of The Greatest Pharaohs, accessed
01-18-2009
[14] aetv.com, Part 1 of The Greatest Pharaohs, accessed 0118-2009
[15] aetv.com, Part 2 of The Greatest Pharaohs, accessed 0118-2009
[16] aetv.com, Part 3 of The Greatest Pharaohs, accessed 0118-2009
[17] aetv.com, Part 4 of The Greatest Pharaohs, accessed 0118-2009
[18]

The Advocate (July 6, 1997), Tidbits in A&Es


Pharaohs worth the eort

12.7 External links


The Greatest Pharohs at Internet Movie Database

45

Chapter 13

Kiya
Kiya was one of the wives of the Egyptian Pharaoh
Akhenaten. Little is known about her, and her actions
and roles are poorly documented in the historical record,
in contrast to those of Akhenatens rst (and chief) royal
wife, Nefertiti. Her unusual name suggests that she
may originally have been a Mitanni princess.[1] Surviving evidence demonstrates that Kiya was an important
gure at Akhenatens court during the middle years of
his reign, when she bore him a daughter.[2][3] She disappears from history a few years before her royal husbands
death. In previous years, she was thought to be mother of
Tutankhamun, but recent DNA evidence suggests this is
unlikely.

She is not attested during the reign of any other pharaoh.

13.2 Evidence for Kiyas Life


Kiyas existence was unknown until 1959, when her name
and titles were noted on a small cosmetic container in
the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It
had been bought almost thirty years previously, without
provenance, from Egyptologist Howard Carter.[7]
The British Egyptologists Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton
wrote:
Kiya is named and depicted on various blocks
originating at Amarna, on vases in London
and New York, four fragmentary kohl-tubes
in Berlin and London, and a wine-jar docket.
She may also be depicted by three uninscribed
sculptors studies. Her con and canopic jars
were taken over for the burial of a king (probably Smenkhkare), which was ultimately discovered in tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings.
Almost all of Kiyas monuments were usurped
for daughters of Akhenaten, making it fairly
certain that she was disgraced some time after
Year 11 [of Akhenaten]. [8]

13.1 Name and titles

The name Kiya itself is cause for debate. It has been suggested that it is a pet form, rather than a full name, and
as such could be a contraction of a foreign name, such as
the Mitanni name "Tadukhipa, referring to the daughter of King Tushratta. Tadukhipa married Amenhotep
III at the very end of his reign, and the Amarna Letters indicate that she was a nubile young woman at that
time.[4] In particular, Amarna Letters 27 through 29 conrm that Tadukhipa became one of Akhenatens wives.
Thus some Egyptologists have proposed that Tadukhipa
and Kiya might be the same person.[2]
Akhenaten and his family were based in Thebes for the
rst four years of his reign, establishing the new capital
However there is no conrming evidence that Kiya was
[5]
anything but a native Egyptian. In fact, Cyril Aldred city at Amarna in Year 5. Kiya is not attested during this
proposed that her unusual name is actually a variant of early period. Only after the move to Amarna does she
the Ancient Egyptian word for monkey, making it un- emerge through inscriptional evidence as one of Akhenatens wives.
necessary to assume a foreign origin for her.[6]
In inscriptions, Kiya is given the titles of The Favorite
and The Greatly Beloved, but never of Heiress or
"Great Royal Wife", which suggests that she was not of
royal Egyptian blood. Her full titles read, The wife and
greatly beloved of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Living in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, Neferkheperure
Waenre, the Goodly Child of the Living Aten, who shall
be living for ever and ever, Kiya. All artifacts relating to
Kiya derive from Amarna, Akhenatens short-lived capital city, or from Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings.

Kiyas name appeared prominently in the temple installation known as the Maru-Aten, at the southern edge of the
city, according to epigraphic studies.[2] The inscriptions
in the Maru-Aten were eventually recarved to replace the
name and titles of Kiya with those of Akhenatens eldest
daughter, Meritaten.[2]
One or more sunshades or side-chapels in the citys
largest temple to the Aten, the Per-Aten, also originally
bore the name of Kiya. These sunshades were later
reinscribed for Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten, the third

46

13.4. THE KV35 YOUNGER LADY MUMMY


daughter of Akhenaten.[2] Some of the recarved inscriptions indicate that Kiya had a daughter, whose name is
not preserved.[2][3] Marc Gabolde proposes that Kiyas
daughter was Beketaten, who is more often identied as
a daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye.[9]

47
equipment that was prepared against her death. If her
disappearance resulted from disgrace or exile, the answer
would be no. On the other hand, if she died in good
standing with Akhenaten, she probably would have received a lavish burial appropriate to her station. In the
latter case, a likely site for her interment would be the
Amarna Royal Tomb, which includes a suite of three
chambers evidently used to house female members of
Akhenatens family.[16] At least two and possibly as many
as three dierent individuals were interred in this suite,
including Akhenatens daughter Meketaten, the only one
whose name survives.[16] Two of the chambers originally
included painted plaster reliefs depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti, certain of their daughters, and other mourners
lamenting the deceased.[16] Some Egyptologists have suggested that one of these scenes of mourning refers to Kiya,
although no specic evidence supports this claim.[17]

The most spectacular of Kiyas monuments is a gilded


wooden con of costly and intricate workmanship that
was discovered in Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings.
The cons footboard contains an Atenist prayer that was
originally intended for a woman, but was later revised to a
refer to a man with enough grammatical errors to betray
the gender of the original speaker.[10] The style of the cofn and the language of its surviving inscriptions place its
manufacture in the reign of Akhenaten. Scholarly opinion now makes Kiya its original owner.[11] The richness
of this con, which is comparable in style to the middle
con of Tutankhamun,[12] provides further evidence of
Kiyas exalted status at Amarna.
Further, the conventional interpretation of the mournrepresent the death in childMany Egyptologists have tried to produce an explana- ing scenes is that they
[18]
birth
of
the
deceased
(although this view has retion for her prominence. Numerous scholarly discus[16][19]
cently
been
challenged).
The conventional intersions of Tutankhamuns parentage during the late twentipretation
has
encouraged
speculation
that Kiya died beareth century, and the early years of the twenty-rst, have
ing
Akhenaten
a
child,
but
again,
no
clear-cut
evidence is
mentioned the hypothesis that Kiya was Tutankhamuns
[17][19]
available.
mother. If she had indeed borne a male heir to Akhenaten, this distinction might well merit unique honors.
However, genetic studies of the Egyptian royal mummies, led by Zahi Hawass and Carsten Pusch, have now
established that Tutankhamuns biological mother was
KV35YL, the "Younger Lady" discovered in the mummy
cache in the tomb of Amenhotep II.[13]

13.4 The KV35 Younger Lady


mummy

Some have speculated that the mummy known as The


Younger Lady, discovered in KV35, might be that of
Kiya. According to Joann Fletcher (who controversially
13.3 Disgrace or death?
identied the mummy as Nefertiti) a Nubian-style wig
was found near the mummy. This style was also assoKiya disappears from history during the last third of ciated with Kiya.[20]
Akhenatens reign. Her name and images were erased
from monuments and replaced by those of Akhenatens DNA test results published in February 2010 have shown
daughters. The exact year of her disappearance is un- conclusively that the Younger Lady mummy was the
Tutankhamun, and by extension a wife of
known, with recent authorities suggesting dates that range mother of [13]
Akhenaten.
The results also show that she was a full
[5][8][14]
[9]
from Year 11 or 12
to Year 16 of Akhenaten.
sister
to
her
husband,
and that they were both the chilOne of the last datable instances of her name is a wine
dren
of
Amenhotep
III
and Queen Tiye.[13] This famdocket from Amarna that mentions Akhenatens Year
11,[5] indicating that Kiyas estate produced a vintage in ily relationship rules out the possibility that the Younger
that year. Whether she died, was exiled, or suered some Lady was Kiya, because no known artifact accords Kiya
other misfortune, Egyptologists have often interpreted the title or attribute gods[21]daughter. For similar reasons
Nefertiti is also ruled out. The report concludes that eithe erasure of her name as a sign of disgrace.[5][8][14]
ther Nebetah or Beketaten, younger daughters of AmenVarious scenarios have been advanced to explain Kiyas hotep III who are not known to have married their fadisappearance. Having suggested that Kiya was the ther, are the most likely candidates for the identity of the
mother of Tutankhamun, Nicholas Reeves writes that it Younger Lady mummy.[21]
is not beyond the realm of possibility that she fell from
grace in a coup engineered by the jealous Nefertiti herself. [15] Having argued that Kiya was Tadukhipa, daughter of the King of Mitanni, Marc Gabolde suggests that 13.5 Gallery of images
she paid the price for a deterioration in the alliance between Egypt and Mitanni and was sent back home.[9]
Unguent jar depicting the name of Kiya - on display
It is uncertain whether Kiya ever used the rich funerary

at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

48

CHAPTER 13. KIYA

Talatat with the picture of Kiya and a child, a ray of [13] Hawass Z, Gad YZ, Ismail S, Khairat R, Fathalla D,
Hasan N, Ahmed A, Elleithy H, Ball M, Gaballah F,
Aten extends toward them
Close-up of an Egyptian alabaster canopic jar
thought to depict a likeness of Kiya, from tomb
KV55 - on display at the Metropolitan Museum of
Art
An Amarna relief depicting a woman undergoing
a purication ritual, while the gure has been partially re-carved, the large earrings and style of wig
are thought to be representative of Queen Kiya - on
display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

13.6 References
[1] Reeves, C. Nicholas. New Light on Kiya from Texts in the
British Museum, p.100 The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 74 (1988)
[2] William J. Murnane. Texts from the Amarna Period in
Egypt. Edited by E.S. Meltzer. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 1995. (ISBN 1-55540-966-0) Page 9, pp
9093, pp 210211.
[3] Aidan Dodson. Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press, 2009. (ISBN
978-977-416-304-3) Page 17.
[4] The Amarna Letters. Edited and translated by William L.
Moran. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press,
1992. (ISBN 0-8018-4251-4) Two Mitanni princesses,
Gilukhipa and Tadukhipa, are referenced in a series of
letters, EA 19-29.
[5] Jacobus Van Dijk, The Noble Lady of Mitanni and Other
Royal Favourites of the Eighteenth Dynasty in Essays on
Ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman te Velde, Groningen,
1997, pp. 3537.
[6] Cyril Aldred. Akhenaten, King of Egypt. Thames &
Hudson, 1991. (ISBN 0-500-27621-8) Page 286.
[7] Dennis Forbes, The Lady Wearing Large Earings: Royal
Wife Kiya, Nefertitis Rival, KMT. volume 17, number 3
(Fall 2006), p. 28.
[8] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004, p. 155.
[9] Marc Gabolde. The End of the Amarna Period. Last
updated 2009-11-05. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/
ancient/egyptians/amarna_01.shtml)
[10] William J. Murnane. Texts from the Amarna Period in
Egypt. Edited by E.S. Meltzer. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 1995. (ISBN 1-55540-966-0) Page 243.
[11] Cyril Aldred. Akhenaten, King of Egypt. Thames &
Hudson, 1991. (ISBN 0-500-27621-8) Page 205.
[12] Bell, M.R. An Armchair Excavation of KV 55. JARCE
27 (1990) Pages 9899.

Wasef S, Fateen M, Amer H, Gostner P, Selim A, Zink


A, Pusch CM (February 2010). Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 63847.
doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872.
[14] Nicholas Reeves. Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet.
Thames & Hudson, 2001. (ISBN) Pages 159160.
[15] Nicholas Reeves. The Royal Family. In Pharaohs of the
Sun, ed. RE Freed, YJ Markowitz, SH D'Auria. Museum
of Fine Arts Boston, 1999. (ISBN 0-8212-2620-7) Pages
9192.
[16] Aidan Dodson. Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press, 2009. (ISBN
978-977-416-304-3) Pages 1824.
[17] Nicholas Reeves. The Complete Tutankhamun. Thames
& Hudson, 2000. (ISBN 0-500-27810-5) Page 24.
[18] Cyril Aldred. Akhenaten, King of Egypt. Thames &
Hudson, 1991. (ISBN 0-500-27621-8) Page 30-32
[19] Jacobus van Dijk. The Death of Meketaten, in Causing His Name To Live. Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy
and History in Memory of William J. Murnane. Edited
by Peter J. Brand and Louise Cooper. - Culture & History of the Ancient Near East, Vol. 37 (Leiden/Boston,
Brill, 2009), 8388. Electronic version cached at http:
//www.jacobusvandijk.nl/docs/Meketaten.pdf
[20] Rob Goldberg, Nefertiti and the Lost Dynasty, National
Geographic Channel, 2007.
[21] Hawass Z, et al. Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamuns family. JAMA. 2010;303(7):eAppendix
p.3.

Aldred, Cyril Akhenaten, King of Egypt (1991)


ISBN 0-500-27621-8

13.7 External links


Egypt, 20001000 B.C. - Canopic Jar Lid, New
Kingdom, Dynasty 18, late reign of Akhenaten,
ca. 13401336 B.C. Egyptian; From KV55, Valley of the Kings, western Thebes. Egyptian alabaster with glass and stone inlays; H. 20 in. (52.1
cm); Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of
Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.8.54) | Object P.
Kiya The Favorite - Includes a few photos of reliefs
which may depict her.

Chapter 14

KV55
Coordinates: 2544N 3236E / 25.733N 32.600E
KV55 is a tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It
was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton in 1907 while he
was working in the Valley for Theodore M. Davis. It has
long been speculated, as well as much-disputed, that the
body found in this tomb was that of the famous Pharaoh
Akhenaten, who moved the capital to Akhetaten (modern
day Amarna). The results of genetic and other scientic
tests published in February 2010 have conrmed that the
person buried there was both the son of Amenhotep III
as well as the father of Tutankhamun. Furthermore, the
study established that the age of this person at the time of
his death was consistent with that of Akhenatens; thereby
making it almost certain that it is Akhenatens body.[1]

began clearance of the tomb. On 25 January 1907, the


con and mummy were investigated in situ.[3]
According to a letter from Davis to Gaston Maspero,
some of the objects found in KV55 were still in place
in January 1908, and their study and attempts at conservation were still ongoing at this later date.[3][4]
In 1921, while excavating south of the tomb, Howard
Carter discovered several items that seem to have originated in KV55. These include a jasper burnisher and
some fragments of copper rosettes from a funerary pall.[5]

After its excavation, the tombs entrance was tted with


a steel door, which however was later removed and replaced by stone blocking. By 1944, this blocking had
collapsed and lled the tombs entrance with debris. In
Both the tombs history and the identication of its sin- 1993, the tomb was cleared again by Lyla Pinch Brock
gle occupant have been problematic. It is assumed to
for the Theban Mapping Project. In 1996, she undertook
be a royal cache and reburial dating from the late 18th conservational work on the stairs and the plastering inside
Dynasty, prepared after the abandonment of Amarna
the burial chamber.[6]
and the dismantling of the royal necropolis there. The
mummy found in the tomb has been identied by DNA
testing as the biological father of Tutankhamun. On the 14.1.1 KVC
basis of the recovered artifacts, it is also suggested that
the burial once contained more than a single occupant, Three days before the discovery of KV55, Ayrton uncoveither interred on one occasion or over a period of time. ered a recess in the rock (now designated as KVC) located
Queen Tiye is most often named in this context.
immediately above the entrance to KV55 and containing
[7]
It is also clear that the tomb was re-entered at a later time, jars of 20th dynasty type. This recess may have been
almost certainly during the 20th Dynasty. At this time, an unnished tomb commencement, and its content may
any additional, hypothetical occupants of the tomb would be analogous to the embalming cache found in KV54, but
have been removed and (possibly) relocated to KV35, because the nd was never properly published, the precise
while the remaining mummy and some of the other arte- nature of its contents, the date of the jars, and its relation
(if any) to KV55 are now unclear.[7][8][9]
facts were desecrated and abandoned.
The tomb is often referred to as the Amarna cache, given
the mixed nature of its contents.

14.2 The tomb


14.2.1 Location and general appearance

14.1 Discovery and excavations


The entrance to KV55 was uncovered by Ayrton on 6 January 1907. Its discovery was brought to Daviss attention
on the following day. The tomb was rst entered on 9 January by Ayrton, Davis, Joseph Lindon Smith, and (as the
representative of the antiquities service) Arthur Weigall.
On the 11th, the nds were photographed.[2] Ayrton then

KV55 is a relatively small, undecorated, single-chamber


tomb, its total length measuring only 27.61 meters.[6] It
is located in the central area of the Valley, immediately
adjacent to and below KV 6 (Ramesses IX) and across
the valley oor from KV7 (Ramesses II) and the nearcontemporary tomb KV62 (Tutankhamun). Orientated
almost due east, its entranceway consists of a set of stairs

49

50

CHAPTER 14. KV55


N

Ja

Tomb layout of KV55


A - Entrance
B - Corridor
J - Burial chamber
Ja - (unnished) Ante-chamber

and the tomb was closed again by a second wall made of


loose limestone fragments, erected in front of the remains
of the rst wall. Because Weigall described these consecutive blockings in ambiguous terms, it is unclear whether
the secondary wall was found intact or had already been
partially dismantled, like the primary wall.[2][16]

14.2.4 Corridor

The sloping corridor beyond the entrance was partially


lled with rubble. Since the secondary wall was built on
top of material originating from this rubble, the ll seems
to date from the time of the original interment. By 1907
cut into the Valleys bedrock which lead to a gently slop- this rubble had spread down into the burial chamber.[12]
ing corridor and then to the tombs single chamber.
Stains on the ceiling and walls of the corridor indicate that
The tomb appears to be unnished: in the south wall of water had inltrated the tomb in the past.[6]
the burial chamber is a small niche, the commencement On top of the rubble ll were found a panel and door of a
of an unnished antechamber, while red masonry marks large gilded shrine, although the exact position of these
within the burial chamber indicate plans for yet another items is unclear.[17][18] Additional pieces of the same
room. When nished these would have made the tombs shrine were recovered from the burial chamber.
layout roughly similar to that of Tutankhamuns. Such a
plan seems to indicate that KV55, like KV62, was initially
intended as a private burial site and only later taken over
14.2.5 Burial chamber and niche
for a royal interment.[10]

14.2.2

Entranceway

The walls of the burial chamber were plastered but otherwise undecorated. This plastering seems to have been
done some years after the cutting of the tomb, and repairs
are evident.[6] Rubble ll from the corridor had spread
down into the chamber, partially covering its oor with
debris. Elsewhere in the burial chamber, the oor and
numerous objects were covered with fragments of plaster
fallen from the walls and stones fallen from the ceiling.[19]

The tomb is accessed by a ight of 20 steps, cut into


the bedrock and covered by an overhanging rock. An
ostracon found by Pinch Brock in 1993 has been interpreted as a plan of the tomb, and possibly indicates a
widening of the entrance after its initial cutting. This possibility is also suggested by masons marks found on the Items found in the burial chamber can be grouped into
walls by the tombs entrance. It appears that the stairwell several categories:[20][21]
has been enlarged, its ceiling raised, and the number of
steps increased.[6]
Parts of a dismantled, gilded shrine: Related to the
When the tomb was discovered in 1907, the stairwell was
panel and door found in the corridor. A door was
covered with debris, probably originating from the cutfound lying on the rubble inow near the entrance
ting of KV 6 directly above.[6] The upper layer of this
to the chamber; large panels were lying on the oor
lling consisted of chips cemented together by water; unor stacked against the eastern wall; and smaller elderneath, the chips were dry and clean.[11]
ements (such as doorjambs, a lintel, and possibly
parts of the cornice) were lying on the oor.

14.2.3

Doorway and blocking

When it was discovered, the tombs outer door was


blocked by two consecutive walls. The primary blocking
consisted of a wall of cemented limestone blocks, plastered and stamped with the seal of the Royal Necropolis (with the jackal and nine captives motif).[12] Weigall
later stated that a fragment of Tutankhamuns seal had
been recovered from this original blocking.[13] However,
his statement is not corroborated by any of the other reports dating from the initial discovery, leaving Weigalls
claim open to question.[14][15]
The rst wall had been partially pulled down in antiquity,

Con, mummy, and related items: Lying against


the southern wall and resting on the decayed remains
of a lion-headed bier was a badly damaged con.
Its lid was ajar, and the con box had rotted. The
mummy contained in this con was badly preserved
but its linen wrappings appear to have been intact.
The damaged skull had been separated from the
body and was found with a vulture pectoral wrapped
around it. The left arm of the body was crossed
over the chest, the right arm extended. In the niche
above this con was found a set of four canopic jars.
Also related to this group of items were four magical
bricks.

14.3. INTERPRETATION

51
of furniture, a silver head of a goose, pall-discs of
gilded copper, and a statue plinth.
Some wooden objects in the burial chamber seem to have
suered water damage, most notably the con, bier, and
boxes; however, the elements of the gilded shrine appear to have been reasonably solid.[22] Moisture is also
the likely cause of the discoloration visible on some of
the faience objects, although other, similar objects appear unaected.[22]

Isometric, plan and elevation images of KV55 taken from a 3d


model

14.3 Interpretation
One of the four Egyptian alabaster canopic jars found in KV55,
depicting what is thought to be the likeness of Queen Kiya.

Remains of boxes and their contents: At least two


badly preserved boxes were found in the southeastern corner of the room, their contents spread on
the oor. These included faience objects and appear
to have been related to the Opening of the Mouth
ceremony.

The problems surrounding the interpretation of KV55 are


due in large part to the shortcomings of Daviss original
publication of the excavation. Its mix of fact, assumption,
error, and omission has obscured a full understanding of
the deposit ever since.[23] The blame for these shortcomings usually falls on Davis (as editor of the publication)
and Ayrton (as supervising archaeologist).[23][24] Recent
careful re-examinations[25][26] of the original publication,
of eyewitness reports, and of the photographs taken before the tomb was cleared have brought some clarity to
the situation.

Seal impressions: Several small seal impressions


were found underneath the panels of the gilded
shrine. These carry Tutankhamuns prenomen and
are identical to seal type N found in Tutankhamuns Although the tomb was clearly disturbed in antiquity (see
below), and although its contents have been described as
own tomb.
disorded and chaotic,[27] Martha Bell argued that this dis Other items: Their exact location in the chamber is array was more apparent than real. Her reconstruction of
not always clear. Included are a vase stand, fragment the layout of the tomb indicates an orderly and deliberate

52

CHAPTER 14. KV55

arrangement of artefacts, and she suggests that the im- together with the queens mummy at some later point.[33]
pression of chaos might be due to the collapse of wooden
objects caused by falling plaster and stone.[19] The cemented chips and stains in the corridor indicate that wa- 14.3.2 Con, canopic jars and magical
ter entered the tomb along the corridor ceiling, but the
bricks
amount of water might not have been great, and most
damage could have been caused by increased humidity
rather than direct contact with water. Bell also suggested
that the moisture under the mummy might have resulted
from rainfall shortly after the tombs opening in 1907.
Other damage to wooden objects might result from an
insect attack.[22]

14.3.1

The shrine and Tiyes burial

A recent reconstruction of the shrine,[28] based on photographic evidence, drawings, eyewitness descriptions,
and two surviving planks on display in Cairo, indicate
that it resembled Tutankhamuns second and third shrines
in general appearance and size. The presence of copper rosettes indicate that a funeral pall was draped on
a frame associated with the shrine, also comparable to
Tutankhamuns shrines.[29] However, the decoration and
inscriptions on the shrine are markedly dierent from
those of Tutankhamun: the decoration was dominated by
large oering scenes rather than a multitude of smaller
mythological scenes; the text was far more brief, and
seems primarily concerned with titles, names, and the
shrines dedication, rather than with excerpts from funerary books; and the interior of the shrine was uninscribed
and undecorated.[30]
The text on the shrine states that it was made by Akhenaten for his mother Tiye. With one exception, the names
of Akhenaten were erased and in some places were replaced by those of Amenhotep III in ink.[29] The text also
refers to the House of the Aten in Akhetaten, perhaps
indicating that the shrine was made and originally used in
Amarna.[22] The decoration, which appears to have been
very similar on all sides of the shrine, features Akhenaten and Tiye making oerings to the Aten, with a focus
on the king rather than his mother. As with his names,
Akhenatens gure was erased from the scenes, with one
exception.[31]
The orderly arrangement of the shrine parts inside the
tomb seems to indicate that it once stood up, fully assembled, with its doors facing south, and that it was later
dismantled inside the tomb.[32] It appears that only a single shrine was used in KV55, rather than a suite of four
nested shrines as in the tomb of Tutankhamun.[29]
The presence of a shrine dedicated to Tiye is usually
seen as evidence that Tiyes mummy once reposed inside the shrine in KV55. Other objects inscribed with
her name (such as the piece of furniture) and with those
of Amenhotep III are also seen as belonging to her funerary equipment. The seal impressions found near the
east wall might indicate further items that were removed

The desecrated royal con found in Tomb KV55

When KV55 was initially opened, Theodore Davis believed that he had found the tomb of Queen Tiye. However, it was quickly recognized that the human remains
interred there were male. Georges Daressy further deduced that the gilded con found in the tomb was originally made for a woman and only later adapted to accommodate a king, through alterations to its inscriptions
and the addition of a false beard, a uraeus, and the royal
scepters (crook and ail).[34] The identity of the cons
original owner has been a matter of much discussion over
the years, with Tiye, Nefertiti, Meketaten, and Meritaten
all proposed as candidates.[35] It is now widely accepted
that the con was originally intended for Akhenaten's
secondary wife Kiya.[36] It is also recognized that the four
canopic jars discovered near the con belonged to Kiya,
and that the female heads on the jars stoppers portray
her. Like the con, the canopic jars were altered for the

14.3. INTERPRETATION

53

burial of a king through the erasure of Kiyas titulary and male, with wide hips, a pendent chin and distorted crathe addition of a royal uraeus to each portrait head.[36]
nium brought on by chronic hydrocephalus.[3] The age
[3]
All personal names inscribed on the con and the of death he estimated as being around 25 years alcanopic jars were excised in antiquity, rendering the iden- though he later suggested the possibility that the body had
syndrome which delayed normal
tity of the human remains inside the con a matter of suered from Frlichs
[5]
skeletal
maturation.
These
results were seen to support
long debate. Over the past century, the chief candidates
the
initial
claims
by
Weigall,
Maspero and Smith, based
for this individual have been either Akhenaten himself or
on
other
evidence
found
in
the
tomb (see above) that the
Smenkhkare, another male member of the Amarna royal
body was that of Akhenaten.[5]
[37][38][39]
family.
Evidence that the occupant of the con was Akhenaten Later re-examinations of the remains conrmed Smiths
to
is provided by the four magical bricks found inside the original identication of the mummy as belonging
[44]
a
young
male
(although
with
feminine
trends)
but
tomb. Two were inscribed in hieratic, but they are poorly
preserved and the name of their owner is lost. The other pushed[45]the estimated age of death back to around 20
These re-examinations also indicated that the
two, however, are of better quality, with hieroglyphic in- years.
body
showed
no signs of delayed maturation[46] and
scriptions naming the Osiris Neferkheprure Waenre, a refof unusual shape, it cererence to Akhenatens nomen.[40] The fact that all four that, while the skull was
[44]
tainly
wasn't
abnormal,
and
showed no indication
bricks were orientated correctly and that three of them
[5]
of
hydrocephalus.
Reconstruction
of the facial feawere positioned in close association with the con sugtures
of
the
skull
also
indicated
that
there was no
gests that they were intended as a set and were made for
resemblance
with
Akhenatens
representation
on his
[41]
the cons nal occupant,
who would therefore be
[44][46]
monuments.
It
must
be
remembered
though,
that
Akhenaten.
Akhenatens representations are highly stylised. After
the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun a close resemblance was noted between his mummy and the body
14.3.3 The identication of the mummy
found in KV55 and later tests showed both shared the
same blood-group (A2) and serum antigen (MN), all of
which suggests Tutankhamun and the individual found
in KV55 were closely related to each other,[45] either as
father and son, or brothers. Based on these results it
was concluded that the KV55 body was too young to be
Akhenaten and they were seen to support the claim that
the mummy was that of Smenkhkare, an idea rst proposed by Rex Engelbach in 1931.[5]
Before February 2010, it was pointed out that the reliability of methods to assess the age of death for mummies
in general was uncertain.[47] For these reasons the correctness of the age estimates was repeatedly called into
question.[48][49][33][50] This opinion found support in the
analysis of the skeletal remains which had indicated an
age of death around 35 years (based on dentition) or even
later (based on anthropological standards and new X-rays
of the long bones).[51][52] Some examinations placed the
mummy at 2025 years at death, while others assessed
the mummy as 35 years. The archaeological, inscripProle view of the skull recovered from KV55
tional and now genetic evidence indicate that the ancient
Egyptians who buried (and later desecrated) the body in
The mummy found in the tomb was however at rst iden- KV55 believed this to be Akhenatens.[33][53][1]
tied as belonging to a woman by two visiting physicians who examined the remains in situ. This led Davis
to conclude he had found the mummy of queen Tiye 14.3.4 Reconstruction
and he therefore published his account of the discovery as The Tomb of Queen Tiyi.[3] As possible reasons The deposit as it was found in KV55 presents a mixture
for this initial identication the (typical female) posi- of chronological and religious anomalies.[41] Objects intion of the mummys arms,[42] post-mortem damage to scribed with Amenhotep IIIs nomen and prenomen might
the pelvic bones[43] and the absence of male genitalia[16] be contemporary with that kings reign and could be inhave been suggested. But when anatomist Grafton El- terpreted as possessions of Queen Tiye. Other items inliot Smith examined the skull and bones in Cairo a few scribed with Tiyes name (such as the shrine and furnimonths later he concluded that they were those of a young ture elements) also clearly belonged to her. Akhenatens

54

CHAPTER 14. KV55


ing presence, except for its surrounding gilded wooden
shrine which would have had to be dismantled for removal. Akhenatens likeness was chiseled o of the
shrines carved relief. Moreover, the gold face mask was
ripped from Akhenatens sarcophagus and his identifying
cartouche was removed from its hieroglyphic inscription,
thus consigning its occupant to oblivion. As a nal insult, a large rock was thrown at the con.[55] However, a
nely made vulture pectorala symbol of royalty in Ancient Egyptwas still found placed around this mummys
head.[56]

14.4 Later use of KV55


In 1923, Harry Burton used KV55 as a darkroom to develop his photographs documenting Howard Carter's excavation of Tutankhamuns tomb.
The Ancient Egyptian vulture pectoral found on the head of the
mysterious Pharaoh in tomb KV55

presence is indicated by items originally inscribed for him


(such as the magical bricks) and items that were adapted
for his use (such as the con and canopic jars). It is
nevertheless highly unlikely that either of these two burials within KV55 was original. In the case of Tiye, evidence found in tomb WV22 suggests that Amenhotep III
prepared her burial in his own tomb. However, the fact
that Tiye outlived her husband by possibly as much as
twelve years seems to have disrupted such plans.[27] From
inscriptional evidence on the KV55 shrine on the other
hand, it seems likely that Tiye was buried at Amarna by
her son Akhenaten. In the case of Akhenaten it seems
almost certain that he was originally buried in the tomb
he prepared for himself in the Amarna royal wadi.[27] Although it is unclear whether or not the original blocking
of the tomb was stamped with Tutankhamuns seal, the
several small seal impressions carrying his prenomen are
most likely related to the reburial(s) in KV55 since he
was probably not involved in the original burial preparations of either Tiye (who died several years before Tutankhamun came to the throne) or Akhenaten (who presumably was buried by his co-regent and probable immediate successor Smenkhkare).[54]
One scenario, suggested by Nicholas Reeves, is as follows: Akhenaten and his mother, Queen Tiye, were originally entombed at Akhenatens new capital Akhetaten
(modern Amarna) but their mummies were moved to
KV55 following the total abandonment of Akhetaten during the reign of Tutankhamun, who was Akhenatens son.
The door to KV55 was sealed with Tutankhamuns name.
There the mummies remained for about 200 years, until
the tomb was rediscovered by workmen excavating the
tomb of Ramesses IX nearby. By this time, Akhenaten
was reviled as the heretic king"; consequently, Queen
Tiyes sarcophagus was hastily removed from his del-

14.5 See also


Royal Tomb of Akhenaten

14.6 References
[1] Hawass, Zahi et al. Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family The Journal of the American Medical Association p.644
[2] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications. 1990), p.v
[3] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications. 1990), p.vii.
[4] Reeves, C.N., Valley of the Kings, (Keegan Paul, 1990), p
. 335-336
[5] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications. 1990), p.ix.
[6] KV 55 Tiye(?) or Akhenaten(?)". The Theban Mapping
Project. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
[7] Davis (1990), p.v.
[8] Reeves (1990), p.172
[9] Bell (1990) p. 137
[10] Reeves, N., Wilkinson, R.H., The Complete Valley of the
Kings, (Thames & Hudson. 1997), p.121
[11] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p.7.
[12] Reeves, C.N., Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990) p.
42
[13] Weigall, A.E.P.B., The Treasury of Ancient Egypt (Rand
McNally and Company, 1912) p.208

14.7. FURTHER READING

55

[14] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p.vi.

[38] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 205

[15] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE


27 (1990) p. 136

[39] Gabolde, M., Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky, Causing


His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane gs. 2-6

[16] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE


27 (1990) p. 133
[17] Reeves, C.N., Valley of the Kings, (Keegan Paul, 1990),
p. 45, g 17
[18] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 110, p. 116 and g. 5
[19] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 116
[20] Reeves, C.N., Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990)
p.46-47
[21] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 110-119
[22] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p.132
[23] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi (KMT Communications. 1990), p. iv
[24] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 97
[25] Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990)
p. 42-49
[26] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990)
[27] Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990)
p. 43
[28] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 127 and following
[29] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 129

[40] Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990),
p. 58
[41] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990), p. 134
[42] Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990)
p.44-49
[43] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 199
[44] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 201
[45] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 201-202
[46] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. xi
[47] Gabolde, M., Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky p. 14 and
following
[48] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 202
[49] Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990)
p. 49
[50] Gabolde, M., Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky p.16
[51] Reeves, C.N, Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet (Thames
and Hudson, 2001) p. 84
[52] Fletcher, Joann, The Search for Nefertiti (William Morrow, 2004) p.180
[53] Gabolde, M., Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky

[30] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE


27 (1990) p. 120, 129

[54] Reeves, C.N., Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul, 1990) p.


44

[31] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE


27 (1990) p. 120-129

[55] Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet.


p.83. Thames & Hudson. 2005. ISBN 0-500-28552-7

[32] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE


27 (1990) p. 120

[56] KV55. Touregypt.net. 1907-01-06. Retrieved 201106-11.

[33] Bell, M.R., An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE


27 (1990) p. 135
[34] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. viii
[35] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. viii-x

14.7 Further reading


Aldred, C. (1988). Akhenaten, King of Egypt.
Thames and Hudson.

[36] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. xii

Bell, M.R. (1990). An Armchair Excavation of KV


55. JARCE 27.

[37] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. viii, p. xiv

Davis, T.M. (1990). The Tomb of Queen Tiyi. KMT


Communications.

56
Filer, Joyce M. (2002). Anatomy of a Mummy.
Archaeology (March/April): 2629.
Gabolde, M. Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky.
Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian
Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J.
Murnane.
Reeves, C.N. (1990). Valley of the Kings. Keegan
Paul.
Reeves, C.N. (2005). Akhenaten: Egypts False
Prophet. Thames & Hudson.
Reeves, C.N.; Wilkinson, R.H. (1997). The Complete Valley of the Kings. Thames & Hudson.
Romer, J. (1981). Valley of the Kings. Henry Holt.
Rose, Mark (2002). Whos Buried in Tomb 55.
Archaeology (March/April): 2226.
Weigall, A.E.P.B. (1912). The Treasury of Ancient
Egypt. Rand McNally and Company.

CHAPTER 14. KV55

Chapter 15

Meketaten
Although little is known about her, she is frequently depicted with her sisters accompanying her royal parents in
the rst two thirds of Akhenatens seventeen-year reign.

15.1 Family
Meketaten was the second daughter born to Akhenaten
and Nefertiti. She had an older sister named Meritaten
and four younger sisters named Ankhesenpaaten,
Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure and Setepenre.
Tutankhaten was a half-brother.[1]

15.2 Life
Meketatens approximate year of birth is in or before year
4 of Akhenaten.[2] Meketaten is rst depicted on the walls
of the Hut-benben temple dedicated to her mother Nefertiti in Thebes. Meketaten appears behind her older sister Meritaten in some of the later inscriptions, thought
to date to year 4 or later.[3] Further arguments to suggest
Meketaten was born in or before year 4 come from the
fact that her gure was added to one of the boundary stela
recording events in year 4 and carved in year 5.[4]

Fragmentary quartzite statue of the Amarna princess Meketaten,


from the reign of Akhenaten, circa 1352-1336 B.C. On display
at the Brooklyn Museum. The broken hand over the gures right
breast was common to images depicting young girls, and likely
once held a ower or rattle.

Meketaten (Behold the Aten or Protected by Aten)


was the second daughter of six born to the Egyptian
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti.
She was probably born in year 4 of Akhenatens reign.

Meketaten moved to the new capital city Akhetaten with


her family when she was still a small child. She is depicted in several of the tombs of the nobles in Amarna.
Meketaten is depicted in the tomb of Ay holding a tray
of gifts while wrapping one arm around her mothers
neck.[2] Other monuments mentioning Meketaten include
a stela from Heliopolis, a statue base from the Fayoum,
and the tombs of Panehesy and Parennefer.[5] Meketaten
was depicted with her parents and sisters at the reception of foreign tributes a ceremony dating to year 12 that can be seen on several scenes in the private tombs in
Amarna of high-ranking ocials named Huya and High
Priest Meryre II.[2][3]

57

58

15.3 Death and burial


Meketaten died in approximately year 14 of
Akhenaten.[3] It is very likely that a plague swept
across Egypt between Akhenatens 12th and 15th regnal
years, for many members of the royal family cease
to be mentioned again; among them Queen Mother
Tiye, Queen Nefertiti, Akhenatens secondary wife
Kiya, Meketaten and the two youngest princesses,
Neferneferure and Setepenre.[2] Meketatens death could
have resulted either from a plague, or from childbirth.
The presence of a royal baby causes many to believe
the young princess died in childbirth (in this case the
father is most likely to had been Akhenaten himself,
marrying his daughter), but it cannot be proven.[2] An
alternative interpretation suggested by van Dijk is that
the child depicted in the scenes is the soul (the ka) of
Meketaten.[4]

Meketaten under the canopy, on the wall paintings of the Chamber . In front of her: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit.

Three chambers, denoted as Chambers , and of


the Royal Tomb are believed to be used for the burials.
Chambers and depict very similar scenes: Akhenaten
and Nefertiti bend over the inert body of a woman, weeping and gripping each others arms for support. Nearby
a nurse stands with a baby in her arms, accompanied by
a fan-bearer, which indicates the babys royal status. The
names in the scene in chamber have been hacked out.
In the chamber however the hieroglyphs identify the
dead young woman as Meketaten. In the same chamber
another scene shows Meketaten standing under a canopy
which is usually associated with childbirth but can also
interpreted as representing the rebirth of the princess. In
front of her, amongst courtiers, stand Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their three remaining daughters, Meritaten,
Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit.[4]
It is possible that chamber was the burial place of someone other than Meketaten. There may even have been
two burials which may have been those of Neferneferure
and Setepenre, but this is not certain.[4] Another theory
is that one of the scenes depicts Kiya and that the baby is
Tutankhamun.[2]
Fragments of Meketatens sarcophagus were found in the
royal tomb. Inscriptions mention her parents Akhenaten
and Nefertiti, her sister Ankhesenpaaten as well as her
grandparents Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye.[5]

CHAPTER 15. MEKETATEN

15.4 References
[1] Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
ISBN 0-500-05128-3
[2] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[3] Redford, Donald B. Akhenaten: The Heretic King.
Princeton University Press. 1987. ISBN 978-0-69100217-0
[4] Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN
978-977-416-304-3
[5] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0

Chapter 16

Meritaten
Meritaten also spelled Merytaten or Meryetaten (14th
century BC) was an ancient Egyptian queen of the
eighteenth dynasty, who held the position of Great Royal
Wife to Pharaoh Smenkhkare, who may have been a
brother or son of Akhenaten. Her name means She
who is beloved of Aten"; Aten being the sun-god her
father worshipped; Meritaten also may have served as
pharaoh in her own right under the name, Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten.[1]

16.1 Family

Pharaoh Akhenaten (center) and his family adoring the Aten solar disk. The next gure leftmost is Meritaten, the daughter of
Akhenaten, adorned in a double-feather crown.

Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their children

Meritaten was the rst of six daughters born to Pharaoh


Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife, Nefertiti. Her
sisters are Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten
Tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre.[2] She is known
to have later married Pharaoh Smenkhare. There are no
known children, but the young girls named Meritatentasherit and Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit are sometimes
conjectured to be the daughters of Meritaten and
Smenkhare.[1]

Akhetaten. She was shown beside her mother in reliefs


carved into the Hut-Benben, a temple devoted exclusively
to Nefertiti. She also appearsalong with her parents
and younger sister Meketaten;on the boundary stelae designating the boundaries of the new capital.[1]
During Akhenatens reign she was the most frequently depicted and mentioned of the six daughters. Her gure appears on paintings in temples, tombs, and private chapels.
She is shown not only on the pictures showing the family life of the pharaoh, which were typical of the Amarna
Period, but on ocial ceremonies too. She also is mentioned in diplomatic letters, by the name Mayati.[1]

Meritatens titles include Great Royal Wife, which can


indicate either marriage to her father or to Akhenatens
co-ruler Smenkhkare, whom some believe was her (half)uncle or half-brother, although a simpler explanation
16.2 Biography
for the title may be that Meritaten simply assumed her
She was born early in her fathers reign, before the royal mothers duties and oce of Great Royal Wife.
family moved to the new capital established by her father, Meritatens name seems to replace that of another royal
59

60
lady in several places, among them in the Northern Palace
and in the Maru-Aten. This had been misinterpreted
as evidence of Nefertitis disgrace and banishment from
the royal court, but more recently the erased inscriptions
turned out to be the name of Kiya, one of Akhenatens
secondary wives, disproving that interpretation.[1]
According to some scholars such as J.P. Allen,
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare ruled together with
Meritaten, but in the year following Akhenatens death
Smenkhkare himself died. These Egyptologists suggest
that Meritaten was the 'kings daughter' Akenkeres who
is recorded in Manethos Epitome to have assumed the
throne for herself as the female king Neferneferuaten.
Neferneferuaten is assigned a reign of 2 years and
1 month and is placed in Manethos account as the
immediate predecessor of Rathothis, who is believed to
be Tutankhamun.

16.3 References
[1] J. Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, 2006,
Thames & Hudson, pg 136-137
[2] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, 2004, ISBN
0-500-05128-3, p.142-157

Joyce Tyldesley: Nefertiti Egypts Sun Queen

16.4 External links


Head Case, King Tut Photo Gallery, National Geographic Magazine online

CHAPTER 16. MERITATEN

Chapter 17

Neferneferuaten Tasherit
For other individuals named Neferneferuaten, see
Neferneferuaten (disambiguation).
Neferneferuaten Tasherit or Neferneferuaten junior
(14th century BCE) was an Ancient Egyptian princess
of the 18th dynasty and the fourth daughter of Pharaoh
Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti.

17.1 Family
Neferneferuaten was born between ca. year 8[1] and
9[2] of her fathers reign. She was the fourth of six
known daughters of the royal couple. It is likely that she
was born in Akhetaten, the capital founded by her father. Her name Neferneferuaten (Beauty of the Beauties of Aten or Most Beautiful One of Aten) is the
exact copy of the name Nefertiti took in the 5th regnal
year. (Ta-sherit simply means the younger one).[1]
From left to right: Setepenre, Neferneferure, and Neferneferuaten
She had three older sisters named Meritaten, Meketaten,
Tasherit at the Durbar in year 12.
and Ankhesenpaaten and two younger sisters named
Neferneferure and Setepenre.[3]
are shown.[4][5] In the reward scene in the tomb of Meryre
II, Neferneferuaten Tasherit is shown with four of her sisters (only Setepenre in absent).[5]

17.2 Life
One of the earliest depictions of Neferneferuaten Tasherit
is in a fresco from the Kings House in Amarna. She is
depicted sitting on a pillow with her sister Neferneferure.
The fresco is dated to ca. year 9 of Akhenaten, and the
entire family is depicted, including the baby Setepenre.[1]

She is depicted at the Durbar in year 12 in the tomb of


the Overseer of the royal quarters Meryre II in Amarna.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown seated in a kiosk, receiving tribute from foreign lands. The daughters of the
royal couple are shown standing behind their parents. Neferneferuaten is the rst daughter in the lower register.
She is holding an object which is too damaged to identify. Her sisters Neferneferure and Setepenre are standing
behind her. Neferneferure is shown holding a pet gazelle
and Setepenre is shown reaching over to pet the animal.[4]

Neferneferuaten Tasherit is depicted in several tombs in


Amarna and appears on monuments. A statue base originally from Amarna, but later moved to Heliopolis, mentions the Aten and Akhenaten, while in texts in a lower
register the royal daughters Ankhesenpaaten and Nefer- Neferneferuaten also appears in the award scene of Paneneferuaten Tasherit are mentioned.[4]
hesy. She is shown standing in the building near the
In the tomb of Huya, the chief Steward of Neferne- window of appearance as her parents, Akhenaten and
feruatens grandmother Queen Tiye, Neferneferuaten is Nefertiti, bestow honors upon the rst servant of the Aten
shown in a family scene on a lintel on the north wall. The named Panehesy. In another scene in this tomb Neferneextended scene shows Akhenaten and Nefertiti on the left feruaten and her three older sisters all accompany their
with their four eldest daughters, while on the right hand parents who are shown oering owers to the Aten. The
side Amenhotep III, Queen Tiye and princess Baketaten four royal daughters are all shown holding bouquets of
61

62
owers.[4]
Neferneferuaten Tasherit is shown with her sisters
Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten mourning the death of
Meketaten in ca. year 14 in the Royal Tomb in Amarna.
Her younger sisters Neferneferure and Setepenre are not
present in this scene.[1][5]

Meketaten under the canopy, on the wall paintings of the Chamber . In front of her: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit.

17.3 Final years and death


It is unknown what became of Neferneferuaten Tasherit,
but it has been suggested she died before Tutankhamun
and Ankhesenpaaten came to the throne.[1] It is possible
she was one of the persons buried in chamber in the
Royal Tomb in Amarna.[3]
It has been suggested that she might be identied as
Akhenatens co-regent,[5][6] whose exact identity is still
disputed, but who could have been a woman. Other
women who have been suggested as candidates for the
identity of this female ruler are Queen Nefertiti (her
mother) and her older sister Meritaten.[5]

17.4 References
[1] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[2] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8
[3] Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
ISBN 0-500-05128-3
[4] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0
[5] Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN
978-977-416-304-3
[6] J.P. Allen, The Amarna Succession, p. 14.

CHAPTER 17. NEFERNEFERUATEN TASHERIT

Chapter 18

Neferneferure
Neferneferure (14th century BCE) was an Ancient
Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. She was the fth
of six known daughters of Pharaoh Akhenaten and Great
Royal Wife Nefertiti.

18.1 Family
Neferneferure (her name means Beauty of the Beauties of Re or Most Beautiful One of Re) was born in
or before the 8th regnal year of her father Akhenaten
in the city of Akhetaten.[1] She had four older sisters named Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and
Neferneferuaten Tasherit, as well as a younger sister
named Setepenre.[2]

Tasherit. The fresco is dated to ca. year 9 of Akhenaten,


and the entire family is depicted, including the baby
Setepenre.[1]
Neferneferure is depicted at the Durbar in year 12 in the
tomb of the Overseer of the royal quarters Meryre II in
Amarna. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown seated in a
kiosk, receiving tribute from foreign lands. The daughters of the royal couple are shown standing behind their
parents. Neferure is the middle daughter in the lower register. She is holding a gazelle in her right arm and a lotus ower in her left. She is standing right behind her
sister Neferneferuaten Tasherit. Her sister Setepenre is
standing behind her and is shown reaching over to pet the
gazelle.[3]

18.2 Life
18.3 Death and burial
Neferneferure probably died in the 13th or 14th regnal
year, possibly in the plague that swept across Egypt during this time. She is absent from one scene and her
name was plastered over in another scene in the Royal
Tomb in Amarna. To be specic, on Wall C of the
chamber of the Royal Tomb her name was mentioned
among the ve princesses (the list excluded the youngest,
Setepenre, who was possibly dead by this time), but was
later covered by plaster. On Wall B of the chamber
she is missing from the scene which shows her parents
and three elder sisters Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and
Neferneferuaten Tasherit mourning the dead second
princess, Meketaten. This suggests that she is likely to
have died shortly before the decoration of these chambers was nished.[1] It is possible that Neferneferure was
actually buried in chamber of the royal tomb.[2]
Alternatively she may have been buried in Tomb 29 in
Amarna.[4] This theory is based on an amphora handle bearing an inscription mentioning the inner (burial)
chamber of Neferneferure.[3] If Neferneferure was buried
One of the earliest depictions of Neferneferure is in a in tomb 29, then this may mean the Royal Tomb was alfresco from the Kings House in Amarna. She is de- ready sealed at the time of her burial and that she may
picted sitting on a pillow with her sister Neferneferuaten have died after the death her father Akhenaten.[5]
From left to right: Setepenre, Neferneferure, and Neferneferuaten
Tasherit at the Durbar in year 12.

63

64

18.4 Other objects mentioning Neferneferure


A small box (JdE 61498) bearing her picture on its lid was
found among the treasures of Tutankhamun. It shows the
princess crouching, with a nger pressed to her mouth,
as children were often depicted.[6] Interestingly, on this
box lid Res name in her name was written phonetically
instead of the usual circled dot.

18.5 References
[1] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[2] Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
ISBN 0-500-05128-3
[3] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0
[4] Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet.
Thames & Hudson. 2005. ISBN 0-500-28552-7
[5] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8
[6] T.G.H. James, Tutankhamun, White Star, 2000 (Barnes
and Noble Books 2002), ISBN 1-58663-742-8

Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt: Tutankhamen


Life and Death of a Pharaoh

CHAPTER 18. NEFERNEFERURE

Chapter 19

Nefertiti
This article is about the Ancient Egyptian Queen Nefertiti. For other uses, see Nefertiti (disambiguation).
For other individuals named Neferneferuaten, see
Neferneferuaten (disambiguation).
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (/nftit/[1] ) (ca. 1370 BC
ca. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and
her husband were known for a religious revolution, in
which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation
of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at
what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history.[2] Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled
briey as Neferneferuaten after her husbands death and
before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identication is a matter of ongoing debate.[3]
Nefertiti had many titles including Hereditary Princess
(iryt-p`t); Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt); Lady of Grace
(nbt-im3t), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt); Lady of The Two
Lands (nbt-t3wy); Main Kings Wife, his beloved (hmtniswt-3t meryt.f); Great Kings Wife, his beloved (hmtniswt-wrt meryt.f), Lady of all Women (hnwt-hmwtnbwt); and Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwtShmw-mhw).[4]

A house altar depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their


Daughters; limestone; New Kingdom, Amarna period, 18th dynasty; c. 1350 BC - Collection: gyptisches Museum Berlin, Inv.
14145

be pharaoh. Scenes in the tombs of the nobles in Amarna


mention the queens sister who is named Mutbenret (previously read as Mutnodjemet).[5][6]
Another theory that gained some support identied Nefertiti with the Mitanni princess Tadukhipa.[7]

The exact dates of when Nefertiti was married to Akhenaten and later promoted to queenship are uncertain.
She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlins Neues Their six known daughters (and estimated years of birth)
Museum, shown to the right. The bust is one of the most were:[6][7]
copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the
sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop.
Meritaten: No later than year 1, possibly later beThe bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding
came Pharaoh Nefernferuaten.
Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.
Meketaten: Year 4.
Ankhesenpaaten, also known as Ankhesenamen,
later queen of Tutankhamun

19.1 Family
See also : Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family
Tree

Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year, possibly later became Pharaoh Nefernferuaten.

Nefertiti, Egyptian Nfr.t-jy.tj, original pronunciation approximately Nafteta, for (the beauty has come). Nefertitis parentage is not known with certainty, but one often
cited theory is that she was the daughter of Ay, later to
65

Neferneferure: Year 9.
Setepenre: Year 11.

66

CHAPTER 19. NEFERTITI


of Nefertiti. The king and queen are shown worshiping
the Aten. In the tomb of the vizier Ramose, Nefertiti is
shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the Window of
Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier.[7]

Close-up of a limestone relief depicting Nefertiti smiting a female


captive on a royal barge. On display at the Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston.

During the early years in Thebes, Akhenaten (still known


as Amenhotep IV) had several temples erected at Karnak.
One of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben (hwtben-ben), was dedicated to Nefertiti. She is depicted with
her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess
Meketaten participates in the scenes as well. In scenes
found on the talatat, Nefertiti appears almost twice as often as her husband. She is shown appearing behind her
husband the Pharaoh in oering scenes in the role of the
queen supporting her husband, but she is also depicted in
scenes that would have normally been the prerogative of
the king. She is shown smiting the enemy, and captive
enemies decorate her throne.[8]
In the fourth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV decided
to move the capital to Akhetaten (modern Amarna). In
his fth year, Amenhotep IV ocially changed his name
to Akhenaten, and Nefertiti was henceforth known as
Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti. The name change was a sign
A standing/striding gure of Nefertiti made of limestone. Origi- of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten.
nally from Amarna, part of the gyptisches Museum Berlin col- It changed Egypts religion from a polytheistic religion
lection.
to a religion which may have been better described as
a monolatry (the depiction of a single god as an object
for worship) or henotheism (one god, who is not the only
19.2 Life
god).[9]
Nefertiti rst appears in scenes in Thebes. In the damaged tomb (TT188) of the royal butler Parennefer, the
new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal
woman, and this lady is thought to be an early depiction

The boundary stelae of years 4 and 5 mark the boundaries


of the new city and suggest that the move to the new city
of Akhetaten occurred around that time. The new city
contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the
Aten. Nefertiti and her family would have resided in the

19.3. DEATH

67

Great Royal Palace in the center of the city and possibly Further information: Amarna succession
at the Northern Palace as well. Nefertiti and the rest of
the royal family feature prominently in the scenes at the
palaces and in the tombs of the nobles. Nefertitis steward during this time was an ocial named Meryre II. He
would have been in charge of running her household.[3][7] 19.3.1 Old Theories
Inscriptions in the tombs of Huya and Meryre II dated to
Year 12, 2nd month of Peret, Day 8 show a large foreign
tribute. The people of Kharu (the north) and Kush (the
south) are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items
to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. In the tomb of Meryre II,
Nefertitis steward, the royal couple is shown seated in a
kiosk with their six daughters in attendance.[3][7] This is
one of the last times princess Meketaten is shown alive.
Two representations of Nefertiti that were excavated by
Flinders Petrie appear to show Nefertiti in the middle to
later part of Akhenatens reign 'after the exaggerated style
of the early years had relaxed somewhat'.[10] One is a
small piece on limestone and is a preliminary sketch of
Nefertiti wearing her distinctive tall crown with carving
began around the mouth, chin, ear and tab of the crown.
Another is a small inlay head (Petrie Museum Number
UC103) modeled from reddish-brown quartzite that was
clearly intended to t into a larger composition.
Meketaten may have died in year 13 or 14. Nefertiti,
Akhenaten, and three princesses are shown mourning
her.[11] Nefertiti disappears from the scene soon after
that.[7]

19.3 Death

Pre-2012 Egyptological theories thought that Nefertiti


vanished from the historical record around Year 14 of
Akhenatens reign, with no word of her thereafter. Explanations included a sudden death, by a plague that was
sweeping through the city, or some other natural death.
This theory was based on the discovery of several shabti
fragments inscribed for Nefertiti (now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums).
A previous theory, that she fell into disgrace, was discredited when deliberate erasures of monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten were shown to refer to Kiya
instead.[6]
During Akhenatens reign (and perhaps after), Nefertiti
enjoyed unprecedented power. By the twelfth year of his
reign, there is evidence she may have been elevated to the
status of co-regent:[12] equal in status to the pharaoh
as may be depicted on the Coregency Stela.
It is possible Nefertiti is the ruler named Neferneferuaten.
Some theories believe that Nefertiti was still alive and
held inuence on the younger royals. If this is the
case, that inuence and presumably Nefertitis own life
would have ended by year 3 of Tutankhatens reign (1331
BC). In that year, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun. This is evidence of his return to the ocial
worship of Amun, and abandonment of Amarna to return
the capital to Thebes.[3]

19.3.2 New Theories


Discovered in 2012, a Regnal Year 16, month 3 of
Akhet, day 15 inscription, dated explicitly to Akhenatens reign, mentions the presence of the Great Royal
Wife, His Beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti.[13][14] The badly legible ve line text
mentions a building project in Amarna (Egypts political capital under Akhenaten).[15][16] (The inscription was
found in a limestone quarry at Dayr Ab innis, just
north of Dayr al-Barsh, north of Amarna.[17] )
This means that Nefertiti was alive in the second to last
year of Akhenatens reign, and demonstrates that Akhenaten still ruled alone, with his wife by his side. Therefore, the rule of the female Amarna pharaoh known as
Neferneferuaten must be placed between the death of
Akhenaten and the accession of Tutankhamun. This female pharaoh used the epithet 'Eective for her husband'
in one of her cartouches,[18] which means she was either
Nefertiti worshipping the Aten. She is given the title of Lordess of Nefertiti or her daughter Meritaten (who was married to
the Two Lands. On display at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. king Smenkhkare).

68

CHAPTER 19. NEFERTITI

19.4 Burial
There are many theories regarding her death and burial
but, to date, the mummy of this famous queen, her parents or her children has not been found or formally identied. In 1898, archeologist Victor Loret found two female
mummies inside the tomb of Amenhotep II in KV35 in
the Valley of the Kings. These two mummies, named
'The Elder Lady' and 'The Younger Lady', were likely
candidates of her remains.
The KMT suggested in 2001 that the Elder Lady may be
Nefertitis body.[19] It was argued that the evidence suggests that the mummy is around her mid-thirties or early
forties, Nefertitis guessed age of death. More evidence
to support this identication was that the mummys teeth
look like that of a 29-38 year old, Nefertitis most likely
age of death. Also, unnished busts of Nefertiti appear
to resemble the mummys face, though other suggestions
included Ankhesenamun.
Due to recent age tests on the mummys teeth, it eventually became apparent that the 'Elder Lady' is in fact
Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaten and that the DNA of
the mummy is a close, if not direct, match to the lock of
hair found in Tutankhamuns tomb. The lock of hair was
found in a conette bearing an inscription naming Queen
Tiye.[20] Results have discovered that she was the daughter of Yuya and Thuya, who were the parents of Queen
Tiye, thus ruling her out as Nefertiti.[20]

19.4.1

Younger Lady

Main article: The Younger Lady (mummy)


On June 9, 2003, archaeologist Joann Fletcher, a specialist in ancient hair from the University of York in England, announced that Nefertitis mummy may have been
the Younger Lady. Fletcher suggested that Nefertiti was
the Pharaoh Smenkhkare. Some Egyptologists hold to
this view though the majority believe Smenkhkare to have
been a separate person. Fletcher led an expedition funded
by the Discovery Channel to examine what they believed
to have been Nefertitis mummy.
The team claimed that the mummy they examined was
damaged in a way suggesting the body had been deliberately desecrated in antiquity. Mummication techniques,
such as the use of embalming uid and the presence
of an intact brain, suggested an eighteenth-dynasty royal
mummy. Other elements which the team used to support their theory were the age of the body, the presence
of embedded nefer beads, and a wig of a rare style worn
by Nefertiti. They further claimed that the mummys arm
was originally bent in the position reserved for pharaohs,
but was later snapped o and replaced with another arm
in a normal position.

Locavara, generally dismiss Fletchers claims as unsubstantiated. They say that ancient mummies are almost impossible to identify as a particular person without DNA.
As bodies of Nefertitis parents or children have never
been identied, her conclusive identication is impossible. Any circumstantial evidence, such as hairstyle and
arm position, is not reliable enough to pinpoint a single,
specic historical person. The cause of damage to the
mummy can only be speculated upon, and the alleged revenge is an unsubstantiated theory. Bent arms, contrary
to Fletchers claims, were not reserved to pharaohs; this
was also used for other members of the royal family. The
wig found near the mummy is of unknown origin, and
cannot be conclusively linked to that specic body. Finally, the 18th dynasty was one of the largest and most
prosperous dynasties of ancient Egypt. A female royal
mummy could be any of a hundred royal wives or daughters from the 18th dynastys more than 200 years on the
throne.
In addition, there was controversy about both the age and
sex of the mummy. On June 12, 2003, Egyptian archaeologist Dr. Zahi Hawass, head of Egypts Supreme
Council for Antiquities, also dismissed the claim, citing
insucient evidence. On August 30, 2003, Reuters further quoted Hawass: I'm sure that this mummy is not
a female, and Dr Fletcher has broken the rules and
therefore, at least until we have reviewed the situation
with her university, she must be banned from working in
Egypt.[21] On dierent occasions, Hawass has claimed
that the mummy is female and male.[22]
In a more recent research eort led by Hawass, the
mummy was put through CT scan analysis. Researchers
concluded that she may be Tutankhamuns biological
mother, an unnamed daughter of Amenhotep III and
Queen Tiye, not Nefertiti. Fragments of shattered bone
were found in the sinus, and blood clots were found. The
theory that the damage was inicted post-mummication
was rejected, and a murder scenario was deemed more
likely. The broken-o bent forearm found near the
mummy, which had been proposed to have belonged to
mummy, was conclusively shown not to actually belong
to it. Scholars think that, after Tutankhamun returned
Egypt to the traditional religion, he moved his closest relatives: father, grandmother, and biological mother, to the
Valley of the Kings to be buried with him (according to
the list of gurines and drawings in his tomb).

19.5 Iconic status


Further information: Nefertiti bust

Nefertitis place as an icon in popular culture is secure as


she has become something of a celebrity. After Cleopatra
she is the second most famous Queen of Ancient Egypt
Most Egyptologists, among them Kent Weeks and Peter in the Western imagination.

19.7. GALLERY

69
myths, theology, and facts to nd the Doomsday Key
and Saint Malachy's original and complete book of
Doomsday Prophecies. They ultimately nd the key
in a canopic jar, held by a preserved body in a glass
casket bearing the inscription: Here lies Meritaten,
daughter of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti.
She who crossed the seas and brought the sun god
Ra to these cold lands.[23]
The Egyptian (1945) is an historical novel by Mika
Waltari

19.6.4 Music
Nefertiti (1967) is a studio album by American jazz
musician Miles Davis
Nefertiti (2014), a classical ballet by American composer John Craton
Portrait study of Nefertiti

19.6 In the arts


19.6.1

Film

Nefertiti, Sun Goddess (1998), with lyrics by


Leo-Neferuaten Boyle and music by Sovra WilsonDickson, appears on the demo album compact disc,
The Aten Shines Again (2002) by Leo-Neferuaten
Boyle. A subsequent YouTube video was created
for the track in November 2012.

In The Egyptian (1954), Nefertiti is played by Anitra 19.6.5 Television


Stevens
In Doctor Who, "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" (2012),
In Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile (1961), Nefertiti is
Nefertiti is played by Riann Steele
played by Jeanne Crain
In The Loretta Young Show, "Queen Nefertiti" (6
In Nefertiti, glia del sole (1994), Nefertiti is played
Jan. 1957, alternate title "Letter to Loretta"), Neby Michela Rocco di Torrepadula
fertiti is played by Loretta Young

19.6.2

Games

In the Halo video game series, Nefertiti is cited as


inspiration for the character Cortana

19.6.3

Literature

(Alphabetical by authors last name)


God Against the Gods (1978) is the story of Akhenaten and Nefertiti by Allen Drury

In Highlander: The Series, Nefertiti appears in


season 2 episode 20 (Pharaohs Daughter, 1994),
played by Nia Peeples

19.7 Gallery
Granite head statue of Nefertiti. The securing post
at head apex, allows for dierent hairstyles to adorn
the head, Altes Museum, Berlin.
Head statue of Nefertiti, Altes Museum, Berlin.

In Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth (1985) by Naguib


Mahfouz, Nefertiti is one of the characters who reects on Akhenaten and the Amarna period

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their daughters before the


Aten, Stela of Akhenaten and his family, Egyptian
Museum, Cairo.

Nefertiti: A Novel (2007), by Michelle Moran

Nefertiti oering oil to the Aten, Brooklyn Museum.

The fourth section of James Rollins' sixth Sigma


Force novel, The Doomsday Key (2009), is titled The
Dark Madonna, and throughout the book the characters piece together Egyptian, pagan, and Christian

Talatat showing Nefertiti worshipping the Aten,


Altes Museum.
Relief fragment with Nefertiti, Brooklyn Museum .

70
Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Louvre Museum, Paris.
Nefertiti presenting an image of the goddess Maat
to the Aten, Brooklyn Museum.
Talatat representing Nefertiti worshipping the Aten,
Royal Ontario Museum.

CHAPTER 19. NEFERTITI

[14] Van de Perre, Athena. 2014. The Year 16 grato of


Akhenaten in Dayr Ab innis: A contribution to the
study of the later years of Nefertiti. Journal of Egyptian
History 7:67-108.
[15] Dayr al-Barsha Project featured in new exhibit 'Im Licht
von Amarna' at the gyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung in Berlin 12/06/2012 (deciphered and interpreted by Athena Van der Perre)

Boundary stele of Amarna with Nefertiti and her


daughter, princess Meketaten, Nelson-Atkins Mu[16] A. Van der Perre, 'Nefertitis last documented reference
seum of Art.
Limestone relief of Nefertiti kissing one of her
daughters, Brooklyn Museum.
Talatat with an aged Nefertiti, Brooklyn Museum.

19.8 References
[1] Nefertit or Nofretete. Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
[2] RE Freed, S D'Auria, YJ Markowitz, (1999) Pharaohs of
the Sun: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamen (Museum
of Fine Arts, Leiden)
[3] Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN
978-977-416-304-3
[4] Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic
Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London, 2005,
ISBN 978-0-9547218-9-3

for now' F. Seyfried (ed.), In the Light of Amarna. 100


Years of the Nefertiti Discovery, (Berlin, 2012), pp.195197 (academia.edu)
[17] Christian Bayer, Ein Gott fr Aegypten - Nofretete, Echnaton und der Sonnenkult von Amarna Epoc, 04-2012. pp.12-19
[18] Marc Gabolde, Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky, in P.
Brand (ed.), Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane, pp. 17-21
[19] Susan E. James, Who is the mummy The Elder Lady?"
KMT, v.12 no.2 (Summer, 2001)
[20] Hawass, Zahi et al. Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family The Journal of the American Medical Association p.640-641
[21] Hawass comments - No Discrimination
[22] Times Online - King Tut tut tut
[23] Rollins, James (2009). The Doomsday Prophecy. p.
Chapter 31.

[5] Egypt State Information Service - Famous women


[6] Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
ISBN 0-500-05128-3
[7] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[8] Redford, Donald B. Akhenaten: The Heretic King.
Princeton University Press. 1987. ISBN 978-0-69100217-0
[9] Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and
Ancient Egypt, Psychology Press, 2003
[10] Trope, B., Quirke, S., Lacovara, P., Excavating Egypt.
Great Discoveries from the Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Archaeology, 2005 ISBN 1-928917-06-2
[11] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0
[12] Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet.
p.172 Thames & Hudson. 2005. ISBN 0-500-28552-7
[13] Athena Van der Perre, Nefertitis last documented reference (for now), in: In the light of Amarna: One hundred years of the Nefertiti discovery, edited by Frederike
Seyfried. Berlin: gyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, pp.195-197

19.9 External links


Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Egyptian Museum and
Papyrus Collection

Chapter 20

Parennefer
The Ancient Egyptian noble Parennefer was
Akhenaten's close advisor before he came to the
throne, and in later times served as his Royal Butler,
an oce which brought him into intimate contact with
the king. His titles include The Kings Cup Bearer,
Washer of the Kings Hands, Chief Craftsman, and
Overseer of All the Works in the Mansion of Aten.
He was instrumental in imposing the "Amarna style in
architecture.[1]

20.1 Tombs
Parennefer had two tombs constructed for him, an unnished one in Thebes, (TT188), which was a precursor
of the Amarna rock tombs[2] An inscription in this tomb
stresses that one had to pay ones due to all the gods, although the Aten was to be treated preferentially.[3] The
tomb also witnesses some of the changes in the world
view occurring under Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, e.g.
the royal ka, which had been anthropomorphic became
more abstract, a development culminating in the complete abandonment of anthropomorphic depictions of the
ka at Akhetaten.[4]
He built a second tomb at Akhetaten, in the Southern
group of tombs, where he is shown being rewarded by
Akhenaten with many gold collars.[5]

20.2 References
[1] Michael Rice, Whos Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge
2001, ISBN 0-415-15448-0, p.146
[2] Dieter Arnold, The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I.B.Tauris 2003, ISBN 1-86064-465-1, p.171
[3] Erik Hornung, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, Cornell University Press 1999, ISBN 0-8014-8725-0, p.48
[4] David P. Silverman, David O'Connor, Ancient Egyptian
Kingship, Brill 1995, ISBN 90-04-05402-2, p.72
[5] Brian Molyneaux, The Cultural Life of Images: Visual
Representation in Archaeology, Routledge 1997, ISBN 0415-10675-3, p.118

71

Chapter 21

La Reine Soleil
La Reine Soleil (The Sun Queen) is a French animated
feature lm (French/Hungarian/Belgian co-production)
made by Philippe Leclerc. It was released in France on
4 April 2007. The animation was created by the Hungarian company Cinemon studios and special eects were
created by Greykid Pictures, which was also responsible
for compositing and some of the animation. The story is
based on the novel La Reine Soleil by Christian Jacq.[1]

21.1 Plot
In Ancient Egypt, during the monotheistic regime of
Akhenaten, Akhesa is a beautiful princess, 14 years of
age. An impetuous young girl, Akhesa rebels against her
fathers dictats. She refuses to live conned in the royal
palace and wants to discover why her mother, Queen
Nefertiti, has been exiled on the island of Elephantine.
Assisted by her half-brother prince Tutankhaten, or
Tut, Akhesa ees the court in hopes of nding her
mother. In deance of danger the two teenagers travel
down the Nile to the burning-hot desert dunes, courageously facing the mercenary Zannanza and priests of
Amun Ra, who are conspiring to overthrow the pharaoh
because of his rejection of their god. With innocence
their only weapon, Akhesa and Tut overcome many hardships, and encounter an extraordinary destiny.

21.2 References
[1] La Reine soleil, uniFrance

21.3 External links


La Reine Soleil at the Internet Movie Database

72

Chapter 22

Royal Tomb of Akhenaten


The Royal Tomb of Akhenaten is the burial place of the Meketaten. In the same chamber another scene shows
Pharaoh Akhenaten, in the Royal Wadi in Amarna.[1]
Meketaten standing under a canopy which is usually associated with childbirth but can also interpreted as representing the rebirth of the princess. In front of her,
amongst courtiers, stand Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their
22.1 Layout
three remaining daughters, Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten
and Neferneferuaten Tasherit. The presence of a royal
A ight of twenty steps, with a central inclined plane
baby causes many to believe the young princess died in
leads to the door and a long straight descending corridor.
childbirth (in this case the father is most likely to had
Halfway down this corridor a suite of unnished rooms
been Akhenaten himself, marrying his daughter), but it
(perhaps intended for Nefertiti). The main corridor concannot be proven.
tinues to descend, and to the right again a second suite of
Large amounts of the decoration have been destroyed by
rooms branches o.
ooding.
The corridor then descends via steps into an ante-room,
and then to the pilared burial chamber where his granite
sarcophagus sat in a slight dip in the oor. It was decorated by carvings of Nefertiti acting as a protective god- 22.3 After burial
dess, and by the ever present sun-disks of the Aten.

22.2 Decoration

Scene from the tomb

Reconstructed sarcophagus

The second suite of three chambers (referred to as Alpha,


Beta and Gamma) are believed to be used for the burial
of Meketaten, Akhenaten's second daughter. Two of the
chambers (Alpha and Gamma) are decorated and depict
very similar scenes: in the Alpha chamber Akhenaten
and Nefertiti bend over the inert body of a woman, weeping and gripping each others arms for support. Nearby
a nurse stands with a baby in her arms, accompanied
by a fan-bearer, which indicates the babys royal status. The names in the scene have been hacked out.
In the Gamma chamber a very similar scene is shown;
here the hieroglyphs identify the dead young woman as

His body was probably removed after the court returned


to Thebes, and reburied somewhere in the Valley of the
Kings. His sarcophagus was destroyed, but has since
been reconstructed and now sits in the garden of the
Egyptian Museum.

22.4 Excavation and preservation


The tomb was excavated by Alessandro Barsanti, in
1893/1894.

73

74

22.5 See also


KV55

22.6 References
[1] Amarna Royal Tomb. UCL. Retrieved 2006-12-19.

CHAPTER 22. ROYAL TOMB OF AKHENATEN

Chapter 23

Setepenre (princess)
Setepenre (Sotepenre) was an ancient Egyptian princess her sixth birthday. Since she is not shown on Wall B in
of the 18th dynasty; sixth and last daughter of Pharaoh Room , where the royal family mourns the death of
Akhenaten and his chief queen Nefertiti.[1]
the second princess Meketaten, it is likely that she predeceased Meketaten as well, perhaps before he construction
of the royal tomb was advanced enough to allow burial.
She was possibly the rst of the princesses to die.[2] It is
23.1 Family
possible that her body was later moved to Room of the
Royal Tomb.[4]
Setepenre (her name means (Chosen of Re)) was born
around the 9th[2] to 11th year of her father Akhenaten in
the city of Akhetaten.[3] She had ve older sisters named
Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten 23.4 References
Tasherit, and Neferneferure.[4]
[1] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN
0-500-05128-3, p.156

23.2 Life
One of the earliest depictions of Setepenre is in a fresco
from the Kings House in Amarna. She is depicted sitting on her mother Nefertiti's lap. The fresco is much
damaged and only a small hand of Setepenre remains The
fresco is dated to ca. year 9 of Akhenaten, and the entire
family is depicted.[2][3]
The next time the six princesses appeared together was in
Year 12, on the eighth day of the second month of winter, during the so-called reception of foreign tributes.
This event was depicted in the Amarna tombs of Meryre
II and Huya. In the tomb of Meryre II, Akhenaten and
Nefertiti are shown seated in a kiosk, receiving tribute
from foreign lands. The daughters of the royal couple are
shown standing behind their parents. Setepenre is the last
daughter in the lower register. She is standing right behind her sister Neferneferure, who is holding a gazelle.
Setepenre is shown reaching over to pet the gazelle.[5]

23.3 Death and burial


On Wall C in Room of the Royal Tomb of Akhenaten the names of ve princesses are listed, that of
Neferneferure is plastered over and only four of the
princesses are depicted. This probably means that Setepenre predeceased Neferneferure, and it is likely that
Setepenre died around Year 13 or 14, before she reached
75

[2] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.


1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[3] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8
[4] Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
ISBN 0-500-05128-3
[5] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0

Chapter 24

Smenkhkare
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeser Kheperu (sometimes spelled Smenkhare, Smenkare or Smenkhkara) was
a short lived Pharaoh in the late Eighteenth Dynasty. His
names translate as 'Living are the Forms of Re' and 'Vigorous is the Soul of Re - Holy of Forms.[1] His reign
was during the Amarna Period, a time when Akhenaten
sought to impose new religious views. He is to be distinguished from the king who was female and used the name
Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten but included epithets in
both cartouche.

Smenkhkare was known as far back as 1845 from the


tomb of Meryre II. There he and Meritaten, bearing the
title Great Royal Wife, are shown rewarding the tombs
owner. The names of the king have since been cut out but
had been recorded by Lepsius ca 1850.[2]
Later, a dierent set of names emerged using the same
prenomen or throne name: "Ankhkheperure mery Neferkheperure [Akhenaten] Neferneferuaten mery Wa en Re
[Akhenaten]". This led to a great deal of confusion since
throne names tended to be unique.[3] For the better part
of a century, the repetition of throne names was taken to
mean that Smenkhare changed his name to Neferneferuaten at some point, probably upon the start of his sole
reign. Indeed, Petrie makes exactly that distinction in his
excavation notes of 1894.

Very little is known of Smenkhkare for certain because he


left very little evidence and because later kings sought to
erase the entire Amarna Period. First Horemheb sought
to suppress the age by erasing the kings from Akhenaten
to Ay and incorporating their regnal years into his own.
Later in the 19th Dynasty, even more vigorous eorts to By the 1970s, feminine traces in some versions of the
expunge the Amarna Period were undertaken resulting in name and more often in the epithets led to various thethe dismantling of Akhenatens city.
ories. Among them, that Nefertiti was masquerading as
Smenkhkare before changing her name again to Neferneferuaten. When considered with various stela depicting
Akhenaten with another king in familiar, if not intimate
24.1 Name Confusion
poses, the theory that Akhenaten and Smenkhkare were
homosexual arose.
For the complete historiograIn 1978 it was proposed that there were 2 individuals
phy regarding the names, see
using the same name: a male king Smenkhkare and a
Neferneferuaten
female Neferneferuaten.[4] Ten years later, James Allen
pointed out the name 'Ankhkheperure' nearly always included an epithet referring to Akhenaten such as 'desired of Wa en Re' when coupled with 'Neferneferuaten'. There were no occasions where the long versions of the prenomen occurred alongside the nomen
'Smenkhkare', nor was the short version ever found associated with the nomen 'Neferneferuaten'.[5] The issue of a
female Neferneferuaten was nally settled for the remaining holdouts when James Allen conrmed Marc Goboldes ndings that objects from Tutankhamuns tomb
originally inscribed for Neferneferuaten which had been
read using the epithet "...desired of Akhenaten were
originally inscribed as Akhet-en-hyes or eective for her
husband.[6][7] Smenkhkare, as son in law, might be 'desired of Akhenaten', but only a female could t the new
reading.
Line drawing from Meryre II. The lost names had been recorded
previously (inset) as Smenkhkare and Meritaten.

76

24.2. EVIDENCE
By the start of the 21st Century, a a fair degree of
consensus[8] emerged that Neferneferuaten was a female
king and Smenkhkare a separate male king, particularly
among specialists of the period[9] (the public and the internet still often commingle the two unwittingly and otherwise). Almost as important, when presented with just
the name Ankhkheperure, it is now widely accepted that
the use of epithets indicates Neferneferuaten while no epithets indicates Smenkhkare.[10]

24.2 Evidence
Aside from the Meryre tomb depiction already mentioned there are several pieces of evidence which establish
Smenkhkare as king.
A calcite globular vase from the tomb of
Tutankhamun bears the full double cartouche of
Akhenaten alongside the full double cartouche of
Smenkhkare. This is the only object to carry both
names side by side.[11]
A single wine docket, 'Year 1, wine of the house
of Smenkhkare', indicates he probably had a short
reign.[12] Another dated to Year 1 from 'The House
of Smenkhkare (deceased)'[13] was originally taken
to indicate that he died during the harvest of his rst
year; more recently it has been proposed to mean his
estate was still producing wine in the rst year of his
successor.

77
Line drawings of a block depicting the nearly complete names of King Smenkhkare and Meritaten as
Great Royal Wife were recorded before the block
was lost.
Flinders Petrie documented 5 rings bearing
the name 'Ankhkheperure' and 3 more bearing
'Smenkhkare' in excavations of the palace.[14]
One example is Item UC23800 in the Petrie
Museum which clearly shows the djeser and
kherperu elements of and a portion of the 'ka'
glyph. Pendlebury found more when the town was
cleared.[15]
A ring bearing his name is found at Malqata in
Thebes.
Perhaps the most magnicent was a vast hall more
than 125 metres square and including over 500 pillars. This late addition to the central palace has
been known as the Hall of Rejoicing, Coronation
Hall or simply Smenkhkare Hall because a number
of bricks stamped Ankhkheperure in the House of
Rejoicing in the Aten were found at the site.[16]
Indisputable images for Smenkhkare are rare. Aside
from the tomb of Meryre II, the image to the right
showing an Amarna king and queen in a garden
is often attributed to him. It is completely without inscription, but since they do not look like Tutankhaten or his queen, they are often assumed to
be Smenkhkare and Meritaten, but Akhenaten and
Nefertiti are sometimes put forth as well.
An inscription in the tomb of Pairi, TT139, by the
other Ankhkheperure (Neferneferuaten), mentions
a functioning Amen 'temple of Ankhkheperure'.[17]
Several items from the tomb of Tutankhamun bear the
name of Smenkhkare:
A linen garment decorated with 39 gold daisies
along with 47 other sequins bearing the prenomen
of Smenkhkare alongside Meritatens name.
Carter number 101s is a linen shawl with the name
Ankhkheperure
A compound bow (Carter 48h) and the mummy
bands (Carter 256b) were both reworked for Tut.[18]

This image is commonly taken to be Smenkhkare and Meritaten,


though it may be Tutankhaten and Ankhesenpaaten.

Less certain, but much more impressive is the


second anthropoid con containing the mummy of
Tutankhamun. The face depicted is much more
square than that of the other cons and quite
unlike the gold mask or other depictions of Tutankhamun. The con is Rishi style and inlaid
with coloured glass, a feature only found on this

78

CHAPTER 24. SMENKHKARE


con and one from KV55, the speculated resting
place for the mummy of Smenkhkare. Since both
cartouche show signs of being reworked, Dodson
and Harrison conclude this was most likely originally made for Smenkhkare and reinscribed for
Tutankhamun.[18][19]

There are also a series of stelae clearly showing what is


accepted as Akhenaten along with a female gure wearing
a crown. Most of these are uninscribed and damaged so
while they pictorially attest to an association of Akhenaten with a female coregent, they fail to identify her by
name.

One such stele (Berlin #17813 or a higher resolution image) depicts 2 royal gures in a familiar, if not intimate,
pose. One gure wears the double crown, while the other,
slightly more feminine one, wears the Khepresh or blue
crown. However, the set of 3 empty cartouche can only
account for the names of a king and queen. This has been
interpreted to mean that Nefertiti may have at one point
been something like a coregent as indicated by the crown,
Since his reign was brief, and that he may never have but not entitled to full pharoanic honors such as the doubeen more than co-regent, the evidence for Smenkhkare ble cartouche.[24]
is not plentiful. But nor is it quite as insubstantial as it is Another stella, Berlin 25574 clearly depicts Akhenaten
sometimes made out to be. It certainly amounts to more and Nefertiti in her familiar at top crown. Above them
than just 'a few rings and a wine docket' or that he 'ap- are 4 empty cartouches - enough for 2 kings - one of
pears only at the very end of Ahkenatons reign in a few which seems to have been squeezed in. Nicholas Reeves
monuments[20] as is too often portrayed.
sees this as an important item in the case for Nefertiti
As the evidence came to light in bits and pieces at a
time when Smenkhkare was assumed to have also used
the name Neferneferuaten perhaps at the start of his sole
reign, it sometimes deed logic. For instance, when
the mortuary wine docket surfaced from the 'House of
Smenkhkare (deceased)', it seemed to appear that he
changed his name back before he died.

24.3 Co-regent

as female coregent. When the stele was started, she was


queen and portrayed with the at top headpiece. She was
elevated to coregent shortly afterwards and a fourth cartouche was squeezed in to accommodate 2 kings.[25]

The Meryre depiction of Smenkhkare both as king and


as son in law to Akhenaten along with the jar inscription seems to indicate that Akhenaten and Smenkhkare
were coregents, and it was initially taken to mean just
that. However, the scene in the tomb of Meryre is not
dated and Akhenaten is neither depicted nor mentioned
in it. The jar may simply be a case of one king associating himself with a predecessor. The simple association of
names, particularly on everyday objects, is not conclusive
of a coregency.[21][22]

Perhaps the most important stela has the opposite condition and could tell us much more if it was not so badly
damaged. In 1891, a private stela was found which is now
in the Petrie Museum, U.C.410, sometimes called the
Coregency Stela. On this stela, most of the scene is missing but the inscriptions can be read. It depicts the double
cartouche of Akhenaten alongside that of Ankhkheperure
mery-Waenre Neferneferuaten Akhet-en-hyes ('eective
for her husband'). The inscription originally bore the single cartouche of Nefertiti, which was erased along with a
To make matters more confusing, he has competition as reference to Meritaten to make room for the double car[26]
the prime candidate as Akhenatens coregent and succes- touche of King Neferneferuaten.
sor, the female Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten.
The identity of King Neferneferuaten is a matter of de-

24.3.1

Neferneferuaten

bate. Initially, Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten were assumed to be the same person, primarily on the basis of the
repeated throne name. Today the leading candidates are
Nefertiti or Meritaten.

The evidence for Neferneferuatens association with


Akhenaten is more substantial.[22] As detailed above, all
but a very few of her cartouche associate her with Akhenaten in the form if "...desired of Neferkheperure [Akhen- 24.3.2 Interpretations
atens throne name]" and "...desired of Wa en Re [epithet
There is an impression that there is substantial evidence
of Akhenatens throne name]".[23]
Many things from Tutankhamuns tomb either bear her for Smenkhkare as coregent and successor. This began
Neferneferuname, or were originally made for her and reinscribed over 100 years ago when Smenkhkare and [27]
aten
were
assumed
to
be
the
same
person.
If all the
with his name. These include a stunning gold pectoral deevidence
for
both
Smenkhkare
and
Neferneferuaten
are
picting the goddess Nut, his stone sarcophagus, mummy
seen
to
represent
a
single
person,
it
would
be
a
natural,
wrappings, royal gurines various bracelets and canopic
items. Of particular interest is a box (Carter 001k) in- logical and obvious conclusion that he/she was coregent
scribed with the names of Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten and successor.
and Meritaten as Great Royal Wife. A hieratic inscrip- As son-in-law to Akhenaten and wearing the blue crown
tion on lid repeats the inscription from the rail.
in Meryres tomb, Smenkhkare as coregent is a con-

24.4. TEMPLE OF ANKHKHEPERURE

79

clusion embraced by some Egyptologists. However,


the name Smenkhkare appears only during the reign of
Akhenaten[28] with nothing to attest to a sole reign with
any certainty.

have succeeded Neferneferuaten means that aside from a


lone wine docket, he left not a single trace over the course
of 56 years (years 14-17 of Akhenaten, 2-3 year reign
for Neferneferuaten).

The name Neferneferuaten is a much more recent addition to the picture. Much of the evidence for her has had
to be resurrected from erased inscriptions and she has
become accepted as an individual by most Egyptologists
only within the last 20 years. As a newcomer, many synoptic references such as encyclopedia, museum chronologies, atlases and king lists don't even mention her. In her
case, the Pairi inscription oers a clear indication of a
sole reign with a coregency being more a matter of interpretation.

Gaboldes Meritaten theory has the problem of the various private stelae depicting the female coregent with
Akhenaten who would be dead by the time of her rule.
He suggests these are retrospective, but since they are private cult stela, this would require a number of people to
get the same idea to commission a retrospective, commemorative stela at the same time. Allen notes that the
everyday interaction portrayed in them more likely indicates two living people.[22]

As a result Egyptologists divide on the identity of Akhenatens coregent and his successor.

24.4 Temple of Ankhkheperure

Aidan Dodson uses the Meryre depiction to conclude


Smenkhkare served only as coregent starting about Year One intriguing piece of evidence seems to involve both
13 of Akhenaten with the wine docket simply indicating kings named Ankhkheperure. In Theban Tomb 139
that his estate was still in operation several years later. (TT139) a hieratic inscription begins:
Nefertiti becomes his next coregent as King NeferneferRegnal year 3, third month of Inundation,
uaten (perhaps with abbreviated honors) and succeeds
day
10.
him.[29] The main argument against this until very recently (see below) has been the assumption that Nefertiti
The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord
died once she disappeared from the record after Year 13.
of the Two Lands Ankhkheperure Beloved of
James Allen on the other hand, sees Neferneferuaten as
Aten, the Son of Re Neferneferuaten Beloved
the coregent who succeeds Akhenaten largely on the baof Waenre.
sis of the epithets and stela. He assumes that Nefertiti
Giving worship to Amun, kissing the ground
has died, and has oered her daughter, Neferneferuatento Wenennefer by the lay priest, scribe of the
tasherit (the lesser, or junior) as King Neferneferudivine oerings of Amun in the Mansion [tematen on the basis of her name.[30] She is followed by
ple] of Ankhkheperure in Thebes, Pawah, born
Smenkhkare after her 2-3 year reign.[30] He has also specto Yotefseneb. He says:...[35]
ulated that 'both' succeeded Akhenaten: Neferneferuaten
as Akhenatens chosen successor and Smenkhkare as a The inscription does not indicate the presence of
rival king using the same prenomen, perhaps to eclipse Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, only that an oering is
Akhenatens unacceptable choice.[31]
being made to Amen in her third regnal year in the temple
Others have advocated for Meritaten as Neferneferuaten of Ankhkheperure. It seems clear that by her third regnal
in dierent forms, perhaps succeeding Akhenaten dur- year, 35 years after Akhenatens death, the proscription
ing an interregnum. Marc Gabolde has long advocated if Amen was lifted and some sort of accommodation was
that she continued to rule as Neferneferuaten after the under way between Amarna and the Amen cult.
death of Smenkhkare. The main argument against this But whose temple was it? By the Allen Rule since
is the box from Tutankhamuns tomb listing Akhenaten, the name bears no epithets, it should be assumed to
Neferneferuaten and Meritaten as 3 individuals.[32]
be Smenkhkares. Dodson takes this approach linking
[Smenkhkare] very much with
It should be noted that few succession theories account Akhenatens rst coregent
[36]
If
this is indeed the case, then
the
cult
of
Amun.
for all the evidence and only rarely do they oer an explaSmenkhkare
must
have
preceded
Neferneferuaten on the
nation for the consecutive use of the same throne name.
throne
since
the
temple
is
already
established and bears
Dodson, for instance places Smenkhkares brief corehis
throne
name
in
her
third
regnal
year.
gency in Year 13/14, whereas Smenkhkare Hall is believed to be built about Year 15. The hall, grand as it must Allen, on the other hand, seems to ignore his own rule
have been, was surely built for some signicant event re- when he refers to this temple as perhaps her mortuary
lated to Ankhkheperure.
temple"(emphasis added).[37] This may be a unique case
Allens placement of Smenkhkare fares no better. Work where her epithets were omitted. Including a reference
is believed to have halted on the Amarna tombs shortly to Akhenaten in an Amen temple would surely be oenafter year 13,[33][34] so the depiction of Smenkhkare as sive and impolitic if amends are being sought. This is
king in Meryre II must date to about Year 13. For him to probably the simplest answer, since opening or commissioning an Amen temple or mortuary in your own name

80
would be one of the best ways to make amends with the
cult of Amen. If seen as her temple it is no help xing the
succession order, but also eliminates the sole reference to
Smenkhkare after the reign of Akhenaten.

24.5 Nefertiti Year 16 Grato


In December, 2012 the Leuven Archaeological Mission
announced the nd of a hieratic inscription in a limestone
quarry which mentions a building project in Amarna. The
text is said to be badly damaged, but doctoral student
Athena Van der Perre has read the text to indicate a date
from regnal year sixteen of Akhenaten and mentions Nefertiti as Akhenatens chief wife. The inscription has not
been ocially published or studied and the only information available is from a press release.[38]
The inscription, if veried, seems to make clear Nefertiti was very much alive in Year 16, but also still queen
consort. At a minimum, it invalidates the view that she
died about year 13/14. Year 17 would be Akhenatens nal year and as the changes to the Coregency Stela (UC
410) seem to indicate, by the time the female coregent
was added to it she was also already acting on behalf of
Akhenaten.

CHAPTER 24. SMENKHKARE


Ankhesenamun since she had no sons and did eventually marry a servant, Ay. The dead king, Nibhururiya,
then refers to Tuts throne name, Nebkheperure. Some
have argued that Nibhururiya might be a reference to Neferkheperure (Akhenaten), certainly the X-kheper-u-Re
variations in 18th Dynasty throne names makes it possible. Of the male kings in the period, Smenkhkare can be
ruled out as his throne name would be transliterated as
something like Anahuriya.[39]
Writing on the Dakhamunzu episode, Jared Miller points
out that "servant is likely used in a disparaging manner,
rather than literally, and probably with reference to real
person(s) who indeed were being put forth as candidates."
If the reference to a 'servant' no longer exclusively indicates Ay, then Meritaten and Nefertiti become candidates
as well.[40] For the plot to succeed, the queen would have
to either wield an extraordinary amount of power in order
to prevent or delay the marriage to the servant or enjoy
the backing of some powerful supporter(s) while the correspondence and travels take place.[41] Miller also oers
the prominence of sun deities with the Hittite king as a
motivating factor in the queen preferring a Hittite prince
over a Babylonian.[42]

24.6.1 Nefertiti

What Egyptologists will make of it remains to be seen.


Since the King and Queen are mentioned but not a coreReeves identies Dakhamunzu as Nefertiti. After 17
gent, whatever coregency was yet to come, would be limyears on the throne alongside her husband, she can cerited to a year or less.
tainly be seen having sucient power and backing.[43]
Though she may also be King Neferneferuaten, she is
writing as queen, perhaps to secure a male gurehead or
24.6 Dakhamunzu Hittite Aair
maybe she envisions a coregency like the one she had with
Akhenaten.
See also Dakhamunzu article
The argument against Nefertiti is that she would have had
to conceal the presence of at least one male of royal linThe Deeds of Suppiluliuma written by his son Mursili II
eage from the spies and envoy of Suppiluliuma. Alternaare sometimes used to provide a resolution for the succestively, if he knew of Tutankhaten or Smenkhkare, rather
sion order of Egypt. Several succession theories incorpothan merely shrewd, it must be assumed that Suppilulirate the episode.
uma was ruthless in the extreme and willing to risk the
The story tells of an Egyptian queen named Dakhamunzu, life of his son on a precarious endeavor where he suswho writes to Suppiluliuma. She tells him her husband pected trickery.[44] On the other hand, it portrays Neferthe king, Nibhururiya, has died and asks him to send a son titi as fully informed of Hittite minutiae such as Suppilulifor her to marry 'for she has no sons and he has many', in umas aliation with the Hittite sun god.[42]
marrying her, his son 'will become King of Egypt'. The
Hittite king is wary and sends an envoy to verify the lack
of a male heir. The queen writes back rebuking Suppiluli- 24.6.2 Meritaten
uma for suggesting she lied about a son and indicates she
is loathe to marry a servant. Suppiluliuma sends one As shown on the box from Tutankhamuns tomb, Merof his sons, Zannanza o to Egypt, but he dies sometime itaten came to take Nefertitis place as royal wife late
after departing. It has been supposed that he was mur- in Akhenatens reign. Marc Gabolde has proposed that
dered at the border of Egypt (Brier) to thwart the plot, Meritaten is Dakhamunzu and the dead king is Akhenbut there is no evidence as to when or where he died nor aten, in a number of articles. He supposes that Zanthat he was murdered as opposed to death from a lethal nanza completed the trip and died only after ascendinjury, accident or illness en route.
ing the throne as Smenkhkare. It is after the death of
Dahkamunzu (probably the Hittite transliteration of ta Smenkhkare/Zannanza that Meritaten assumes power as
hemet nesu or kings wife) has traditionally been seen as Neferneferuaten.

24.8. DEATH AND BURIAL

81

Meritaten seems the least likely on the basis that at the


time of Akhenatens death she would only been about 20
years old. By contrast, Ankhesenamun would have been
about 25 and been queen consort for some 10 years. It
seems unlikely that the young Meritaten would have the
wiles to deceive Suppiluliuma, maintain her interregnum
in the face of pressure to marry a 'servant' and conceal the
presence of a male heir in the personage of Tutankhaten.

24.6.3

Ankhesenamun

In support of Ankhesenamun, is the idea that Tutankhamun 'lie in state' for some time. The Hittite sources
indicate he died in the fall, but a cornower pectoral indicates he was not buried until April or May.[45] As such,
there may have been time for the letter writing and travel.
Ankhesenamun is made more plausible if she had the
backing of Ay or Horemheb, or both. Against her, is the
simpler explanation that the delay in burial was the result
of his unexpected death and unnished tomb.
Details for the Dakhamunzu/Zannanza aair are entirely
from Hittite sources written many years after the events.
There is the possibility that Mursili is revising history to
some extent, placing full responsibility for the asco on
the Egyptians[46] leaving the details unreliable.

24.7 Reign
The sole regnal date (year 1) attested for Smenkhkare
comes from a wine docket from the house of
Smenkhkare. This date might however refer either to the
reign of Smenkhkare or his successor, but it is doubtful
he ruled for more than year.[47] As already noted, Dodson views Smenkhkare as Akhenatens coregent for about
a year beginning about Year 13 who did not have a sole
reign,[48] while Allen depicts Smenkhkare as successor to
Neferneferuaten.[30]

The desecrated royal con found in Tomb KV55

Tiye by Akhenaten, and a mummy. This caused Davis to


refer to it as The Tomb of Queen Tiye, its more common
designation is KV55. The tomb is sometimes called a
cache because items from several people are found there.
For example, there is the shrine for Tiye, 'magic bricks
There are those who see the possibility of a 2 or 3 bearing Akhenatens name and alabaster canopic jars deyear reign for Smenkhkare. A number of wine dock- picting what is thought to be the likeness of Kiya.
ets from Amarna bear dates for regnal years 2 and 3,
but lack a kings name. A few Egyptologists[49] have ar- Of particular interest is the mummy found there. The
gued these should be attributed to Smenkhkare. How- con had been desecrated and the name of the owner
ever, these are open to interpretation and cannot be con- removed, but was in the Rishi style of the 18th Dynasty.
It is generally accepted that the con was originally insidered decisive.[50]
tended for a female, possibly Akhenatens wife Kiya, and
Clear evidence for a sole reign for Smenkhkare has not later reworked to accommodate a male.[51] Over the past
yet been found.
century, the chief candidates for this individual have been
either Akhenaten or Smenkhkare.[52][53][54]

24.8 Death and Burial


In 1907, a tomb was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton
while working in the Valley of the Kings for Theodore M.
Davis. Within it was found a number of funerary objects
for various people, in particular a shrine built for Queen

The case for Akhenaten rests largely on the 'magic bricks


and the reworking of some of the inscriptions on the cofn. The case for Smenkhkare comes mostly from the presumed age of the mummy (see below) which, at 18-26
would not t Akhenaten who reigned for 17 years and
had fathered a child near by his rst regnal year. There
is nothing in the tomb positively identied as belonging

82

CHAPTER 24. SMENKHKARE

to Smenkhkare, nor is his name found there. The tomb the same rare blood type.[58] Taken together, the KV55
is certainly not betting any king, but even less so for mummy was assumed to be the father or brother of TuAkhenaten.
tankhamun. Brother seemed more likely since the age
would only be old enough to plausibly father a child at
the upper extremes.

24.8.1

Early Examinations of the Mummy

24.8.2 Genetic Tests from 2010


In 2010, genetic tests and CT scans were performed with
some of the results published in JAMA and reported in
National Geographic including a TV special.[59] Chief
among the genetic results, "The statistical analysis revealed that the mummy KV55 is most probably the father of Tutankhamun (probability of 99.99999981%),
and KV35 Younger Lady could be identied as his mother
(99.99999997%)."[60] The report goes on to show that
both KV55 and KV35 Younger Lady were siblings and
children of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye.[61]
CT scans were also performed on the mummy and the
results concluded the mummy was much older than all
previous estimates.

The skull of the KV55 mummy, believed to be Smenkhkare.

New CT scans of the KV55 mummy also


revealed an age-related degeneration in the
spine and osteoarthritis in the knees and legs.
It appeared that he had died closer to the age of
40 than 25, as originally thought. With the age
discrepancy thus resolved, we could conclude
that the KV55 mummy, the son of Amenhotep
III and Tiye and the father of Tutankhamun, is
almost certainly Akhenaten. (Since we know
so little about Smenkhkare, he cannot be completely ruled out.)[62]

The skeletonized mummy has been examined on a


number of occasions over the years including by
Smith (1912), Derry (1931), Harrison (1966), Strouhal
(1998/2010) and Filer (2001). Wente used cranofacial
analysis in 1995 (as well as examining past X-Rays) to
examine a cache of mummies, mostly from the 18th
Dynasty, in order to sort out the relationships and true
identities of each. Seriological tests on the KV55 and
Tut mummies were performed and published in Nature
(1974). The KV55 mummy was also examined by Harris Evidence to support the much older claim was not proin 1988 but only an abstract of the results published, and vided beyond the single point of spinal degeneration. A
growing body of work soon began to appear to dispute
most recently by Hawass, Gad et al. in 2010.
the assessment of the age of the mummy and the identiFilers conclusions were largely representative of the pre- cation of KV55 as Akhenaten.[56][63][64][65][66][67][68][69]
2010 examinations, noting "...this man was not quite a Where Filer and Strouhal (below) relied on multiple indifully mature adult, between 18 and 21 years when he cators to determine the younger age, the new study cited
died. She concluded:
one point to indicate a much older age. One letter to the
JAMA editors came from Arizona State University bioarchaeologist Brenda J. Baker. The content was retold on
The human remains from Tomb 55, as prethe Archaeology News Network website and is represensented to me, are those of a young man who
tative of a portion of the dissent:
had no apparent abnormalities and was no older
than his early twenties at death and probably a
few years younger.[55]
A specialist in human osteology and paleThese were largely in keeping with the previous results
(1826 years) allowing for the technologies available.
For instance, Derry concluded an age of about 23 and
Strouhal gave an age range of 19 to 22.[56] Wentes study
found a close cranial similarities between the mummies
of Tutankhamun, KV55 and Thutmose IV.[57] The seriological tests indicated KV55 and Tutankhamun shared

opathology, Baker takes issue with the identication of the skeletonized mummy KV55 as
Tutankhamuns father, Akhenaten. The authors [Hawass et al in JAMA] place this individuals age at the time of death at 35-45,
despite producing no evidence that repudiates
well-known prior examinations citing the age
in the 18-26 range.

24.9. SUMMARY
These earlier analyses documented with
written descriptions, photographs and radiographs show a pattern of fused and unfused epiphyses (caps on ends of growing
bones) throughout the skeleton, indicating a
man much younger than Akhenaten is believed
to have been at the time of his death. Baker
also uses a photograph of the pubic symphysis
of the pelvis to narrow the age of KV55 to 1823 based on recent techniques used in osteology and forensic anthropology.[70]

83
greeting gift of copper, explaining that a plague had killed
o many of his copper miners.[72] Something similar may
well have struck Amarna, if not Egypt.
After the capital moved from Amarna, Akhenatens successor could have been faced with a severe shortage of
tombs for royal reburials.[73] Smenkhkare would be in
a particularly bad situation. Since he died young and
reigned so briey he would not have had time to make
and accumulate the grave goods betting a king. In the
end, the tomb seems to have been simply sealed up with
the mummy and whatever was available.[73]

The tomb had been re-entered once and sealed twice.[74]


An examination of the KV55 mummy was conducted in
The seals date to the late 18th Dynasty indicating the
1998 by Czech anthropologist Eugene Strouhal. He pubtomb was entered and resealed probably under the reign
lished his conclusions in 2010 where he 'utterly excluded
of Tutankhamen. The nature of the debris, rubble ll and
the possibility of Akhenaten':
cement retaining wall suggest the desecration and attempt
to remove the shrine of Tiye did not happen until later.[75]
[T]he unambiguous male skeleton from
The tomb was once again entered some time later, in the
Tomb 55 proved decisively by a long list of bio19th, 20th or 21st Dynasty (opinions vary). Bell suglogical developmental features his age at death
gests that this entry may be related to the reburial of royal
to be in the range of 19-22 years which fully
mummies and resulted in Tiye being moved to KV35. It
agrees with the results of the previous determiwas during this entry that Akhenatens name and likeness
nation by Harrison (1966)...He did not possess
were attacked where it could be found.[75] The mummy itthe slightest dental pathology and not even the
self was relatively unmolested: the wrappings were undisonset of degenerative changes in the spine and
turbed but royal insignia were removed and various gold
joints[71]
items were left behind including the gold vulture collar
on the head of the mummy. Bell suggests feelings toward
Other criticisms surround what the project didn't do. Akhenaten had softened by this time resulting in a nameWente had noted that the mummies of both Tut and less king but still a consecrated pharaoh.[76] Others sugKV55 bore a very strong cranofacial similarity to the gest that after desecrating Akhenatens burial, including
mummy of Thutmose IV, yet this mummy was not tested. perhaps the destruction of his mummy, Smenkhkare was
Dylan Bickerstae calls it almost perverse that the mys- placed in Akhenatens con.[77]
terious boy on a boat found in KV35 was not tested
while the Elder Lady and Younger Lady found there
were. The boy could very well be Akhenatens older
brother Prince Thutmose or even Smenkhkare given that 24.9 Summary
KV35 ladies are now known to be related to Tut.[67]
While it now seems likely that the KV55 mummy is the Perhaps no one from the Amarna Interlude has been the
[78]
father of Tutankhamen, for many his identication as subject of so much speculation as Smenkhkare. There
is just enough evidence to say with some certainty that he
Akhenaten seems as doubtful as before.
is an individual apart from Neferneferuaten. But there is
not enough evidence to be convincive of a coregency or
a sole reign. As a result, Egyptologists move him about
24.8.3 Burial
like a pawn as their larger hypothesis requires. He can be
Left alone in a tomb without few of the trappings of the proposed as Zannanza (Gabolde) or Nefertiti in disguise
typical Ancient Egyptian burial, the KV55 mummy, ap- (Reeves, Samson). He can reign for weeks or years. He is
pears to be not so much buried as disposed of. Since the a short lived coregent with no independent reign (Dodson)
KV55 mummy is conclusively a close relative of Tut, if or he is Akhenatens successor (Allen).
not his father, why such a shoddy burial? It may simply
be that they ran out of tombs or time.
The royal family had been preparing tombs in Amarna
rather than Thebes. As evidenced by the tomb of Meryre,
work appears to have abruptly halted on the Amarna
tombs after year 13. About that time, a signicant number of people depart the scene including 3 of Akhenatens
daughters, his mother and Kiya. In Amarna Letter 35,
the king of Alashia apologizes to Akhenaten for his small

24.10 References
[1] Clayton,P., Chronicle of the Pharaohs (Thames and Hudson, 2006) p.120
[2] de Garies Davies, N. 1905. The Rock Tombs of El
Amarna, Part II: The Tombs of Panehesy and Meryra II.

84

CHAPTER 24. SMENKHKARE

Archaeological Survey of Egypt. F. L. Grith. London:


Egypt Exploration Fund.
[3] Dodson, A; (2009) p 34

[29] Dodson, A. (2006) p 27-29


[30] Allen, J; 2006, p 15-17

[4] Krauss, R; (1978) p 43-47

[31] Allen, James P. (1994). Nefertiti and Smenkh-ka-re. Gttinger Miszellen 141. pp. 7-17

[5] Allen, J; (1988)

[32] Allen, J; 2006, p 14, also n 61

[6] Gabolde, M; (1998) pp 14762, 213219

[33] Giles, F; 2001; also Aldred 1988

[7] Dodson A. and Hilton D.; (2004) p.285

[34] Dodson, A; 2006, p 29

[8] Miller, J.; (2007) p 272

[35] Murnane, W; (1995); Note: Gardiner (1928), Reeves


(2001) and Murnane (1995) all give the date as 10th Day,
Month 3, Akhet. Dodson (2009) p 45 reports the date as
unequivocally 3rd day, Month 4, Akhet. Dodson also
claims the epithets are not clearly readable.

[9] Miller, J.; (2007) p 272; To wit: Allen (1994);


Gabolde (1998); Eaton-Krauss and Krauss(2001); Hornung (2006); von Beckerath (1997); Allen (2006); Krauss
(2007); Murnane (2001)
They otherwise hold very dierent views on the succession, chronology and identity of Neferneferuaten.
[10] e.g. Murnane, J.; The End of the Amarna Period Once
Again (2001); Allen, J,; 1998, 2006; Gabolde, M.;
Das Ende der Amarnazeit, (2001); Hornung, E.; (2006);
Miller, J.; (2007) p 274 n 96, 97, 98; Dodson A.; (2009)
p 36.

[36] Dodson, A.; (2009) p 44-46


[37] Allen, J; (2006) p 5
[38] Dayr al-Barsha Project Press Release, Dec 2012
[39] Miller, J.; (2007)
[40] Miller, J.; (2007) p 261

[11] Allen, J; 2006 p 2

[41] Miller, J.;(2007) p 275

[12] Pendlebury, J. D. S. ; The City of Akhenaten (1951), Part


III, vol II, pl 86

[42] Miller, J; (2007) p 273 n92

[13] Pendlebury, J. D. S. ; The City of Akhenaten (1951), Part


III, pl lxxxvi and xcvii
[14] Petrie; 1894 pl xv
[15] Pendlebury; 1951
[16] Dodson A; (2006) p 31-32; also Pendlebury, 1951 PIs.
XIII C; XLIV. 1, 2
[17] A.H. Gardiner, The Grato from the Tomb of Pere; JEA
14 (1928), pp. 1011 and pls. 56.
[18] Reeves, C; 1990b
[19] Dodson, A.; 1992 and 2009 p 41
[20] Britannica entry for Smenkhkare; retrieved Dec 2012
[21] Murnane, W; (1977) pp. 21315

[43] Reeves, C.N.; (2001) pp. 176-177


[44] Miller, J.; (2007) p 260-261; Miller believes Suppiluliuma
was indeed that brutal [and] unscrupulous
[45] Miller, J.; (2007) p 271
[46] Miller, J.; (2007) p 262
[47] Allen, J.; 2006 p 5
[48] Dodson, A.; (2009) p 39
[49] Miller, J; (2007) p 275, to wit: Krauss, R; 1997:247; 2007
and Hornung, E; 2006:207
[50] Miller, J; (2007) p 275
[51] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. xii

[22] Allen, J; (2006) p 3

[52] Davis, T.M., The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, (KMT Communications, 1990) p. viii, p. xiv

[23] Allen, A; (2006) p 1-2

[53] Aldred, C.; (1988) p. 205

[24] Dodson, A; (2009); p 42

[54] Giles, F. J.; (2001)

[25] Reeves, C; (2001) p 167-168

[55] Filer, J; 2001 p 4

[26] Dodson, A; (2009); p 43

[56] Strouhal, E.; Biological age of skeletonized mummy from


Tomb KV 55 at Thebes in Anthropologie: International
Journal of the Science of Man; 2010; Vol 48 Issue 2, pp
97-112. Dr. Strouhal examined KV55 in 1998, but the
results were apparently delayed and perhaps eclipsed by
Filers examination in 2000. Strouhals ndings were published in 2010 to dispute the Hawass et al conclusions.

[27] Petrie, W; (1894) pp 42-44


[28] Duhig, Corinne; The remains of Pharaoh Akhenaten are
not yet identied: comments on Biological age of the skeletonized mummy from Tomb KV55 at Thebes (Egypt)" by
Eugen Strouhal in Anthropologie: International Journal of
the Science of Man; (2010) Vol 48 Issue 2, pp 113-115.

[57] Wente, E; 1995

24.11. GALLERY

[58] Nature 224 (1974), 325f.


[59] Hawass, Z., Y. Z. Gad, et al.; Ancestry and Pathology in
King Tutankhamuns Family; 2010. Journal of the American Medical Association Ancestry and Pathology in King
Tutankhamuns Family
[60] Hawass, Gad, 2010; eAppendix; Details of Methods, Results, and Comment
[61] Hawass, Z., Y. Z. Gad, et al. in JAMA, g 2
[62] Zahi Hawass. King Tuts Family Secrets. National Geographic. p. 6. Archived from the original on December
2012.

85

24.11 Gallery
A royal vulture pectoral which was found placed on
the head of the KV55 mummy.
A feminine gure assumed to be Nefertiti, wearing
the Kheperesh or Blue Crown of a king pours a
libation for Akhenaten.

24.12 Bibliography
Aldred, Cyril; Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames &
Hudson, 1988)

[63] News from the Valley of the Kings: DNA Shows that
KV55 Mummy Probably Not Akhenaten. Kv64.info.
2010-03-02. Retrieved 2012-08-25.

Aldred, Cyril; Akhenaten, Pharoah of Light


(Thames & Hudson, 1968)

[64] Nature 472, 404-406 (2011); Published online 27 April


2011; Original link

Allen, James P; Two Altered Inscriptions of the Late


Amarna Period, Journal of the American Research
Center in Egypt 25 (1988)

[65] NewScientist.com; January, 2011; Royal Rumpus over


King Tutankhamuns Ancestry
[66] JAMA; 2010;303(24):2471-2475. King Tutankhamuns
Family and Demise (subscription)
[67] Bickerstae, D; The King is dead. How Long Lived the
King? in Kmt vol 22, n 2, Summer 2010
[68] Duhig, Corinne; The remains of Pharaoh Akhenaten are
not yet identied: comments on Biological age of the
skeletonised mummy from Tomb KV55 at Thebes (Egypt)"
by Eugen Strouhal in Anthropologie: International Journal of the Science of Man; (2010) Vol 48 Issue 2, pp
113-115. (subscription) It is essential that, whether the
KV55 skeleton is that of Smenkhkare or some previouslyunknown prince...the assumption that the KV55 bones are
those of Akhenaten be rejected before it becomes received wisdom.

Allen, James (2006). The Amarna Succession


(PDF). Archived from the original on May 28, 2008.
Retrieved 2008-06-23.
Allen, James P.; Nefertiti and Smenkh-ka-re. Gttinger Miszellen 141; (1994)
Dodson, Aidan. Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian
Counter-Reformation. The American University in
Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3
Dodson, A., Hilton, D. The Complete Royal Families
of Ancient Egypt: A Genealogical Sourcebook of the
Pharaohs (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
Filer, J; Anatomy of a Mummy, (2001) Archaeology;
Mar/Apr2002, Vol. 55 Issue 2

[69] Whos the Real Tut? retrieved Nov, 2012

Giles, Frederick. J.; Ikhnaton Legend and History


(1970, Associated University Press, 1972 US)

[70] Brenda J. Baker (June 24, 2010). KV55 mummy not


Akhenaten. Archeology News Network. Retrieved December 2012.

Giles, Frederick. J.; The Amarna Age: Egypt (Australian Centre for Egyptology, 2001)

[71] Strouhal KV55 1998/2010 p111 Conclusions


[72] Moran, (1992) 107-119
[73] Giles, F. J.; (1970) p 101-105
[74] Bell, M.R.; An Armchair Excavation of KV 55, JARCE
27 (1990) p. 133
[75] Bell, M. R.; (1990) p 133-135
[76] Bell, M.R., (1990) p. 137
[77] Perepelkin, Y; The Secret of the Gold Con; (1978) p163164
[78] Dodson, A; (2009); p 30

Habicht, Michael E.: Semenchkare - PhantomKnig(in) von Achet-Aton (epubli, Berlin 2014).
ISBN 978-3844281699
O'Connor, D and Cline, E, (eds); Amenhotep III:
perspectives on his reign (1998) University of Michigan Press
Dayr al-Barsha Project; Press Release, Dec 2012;
Online English Press Release
Gabolde, Marc. DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon
(1998) Paris
Hawass, Z., Y. Gad, et al. Ancestry and Pathology
in King Tutankhamuns Family (2010) in Journal of
the American medical Association 303/7.

86
Hornung, E., 1999, Akhenaten and the Religion of
Light, Cornell University
Hornung, E. 2006: The New Kingdom, in E. Hornung, R. Krauss and D.A. Warburton, eds., Ancient
Egyptian Chronology (HdO I/83), Leiden Boston.
Krauss, Rolf; Das Ende der Amarnazeit (The End
of the Amarna Period); 1978, Hildesheim
Petrie, W M Flinders; Tell el Amarna (1894)
Pendlebury J., Samson, J. et al.; City of Akhenaten,
Part III (1951)
Murnane, W.; Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, (1977)
Murnane, W.; Texts from the Amarna Period,
(1995)
Miller, J; Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity
of Nibhururiya in Altoriental. Forsch. 34 (2007)
Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts false Prophet
(Thames and Hudson; 2001)
Reeves, C.N., The Valley of the Kings (Kegan Paul,
1990)
Reeves, C.N., The Complete Tutankhamun: The
King - The Tomb - The Royal Treasure. London:
Thames and Hudson; 1990.
Wente, E; Who Was Who Among the Royal Mummies?; (1995), Oriental Institute, Chicago

CHAPTER 24. SMENKHKARE

Chapter 25

Stela of Akhenaten and his family


The Stela of Akhenaten and his family is the name for
an altar image in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo which
depicts the Pharaoh Akhenaten, his queen Nefertiti, and
their three children. The limestone stela with the inventory number JE 44865 is 43.5 39 cm in size and
was discovered by Ludwig Borchardt in Haoue Q 47
at Tell-el Amarna in 1912.[1] When the archaeological
nds from Tell-el Amarna were divided on 20 January
1913, Gustave Lefebvre chose this object on behalf of
the Egyptian Superintendency for Antiquities (the modern Supreme Council of Antiquities) instead of the Bust
of Nefertiti.

25.1 Description

25.2 Allegations of forgery


In an interview for Der Spiegel in 2009 in connection with
his claim that the Bust of Nefertiti is a forgery, the Egyptologist Rolf Krauss maintained that the Stela of Akhenaten is also a forgery. As a basis for his view, Krauss
claimed, among other things, that the word Maat (truth,
justice) is written incorrectly in four places. He further criticised the depiction of Akhenaten as left handed,
which in his view is contrary to ancient Egyptian iconography. The yellow weathering on the stone was claimed
to be fake, not a patina, with the support of colour analysis. Another Egyptologist, Christian Loeben commented
favourably, The relief is a pastiche, a fraudulently manufactured stylistic mishmash[2]

25.3 Bibliography

On the left side Akhenaten sits on a stool, handing a jewel


to his eldest daughter, Meritaten, who stands in front of
him. Nefertiti sits opposite him, on the right hand side,
playing with two of their daughters on her lap. These
are Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten. In the upper part,
in the middle of the stela is the disk of the Aten, whose
rays end in hands holding the symbol of life (Ankh) and
are thereby depicted as life-bringing. In the background
there are various inscriptions with the names and titles of
the people depicted. The stela is bordered on three sides
by a band of further hieroglyphs, marked with blue paint,
which still partially survives. At the base of the stela are
small holes on both sides which indicate that the stela was
tted with wings on each side.

Das gyptische Museum von Kairo. von Zabern,


Mainz 1986, ISBN 3-8053-0640-7, No. 167.
Wilfried Seipel in Exhibition catalogue Nofretete Echnaton. von Zabern, Mainz 1976, Nr. 47.
Cyril Aldred. Akhenaten and Nefertiti - Exhibition
catalogue for the 150th anniversary of the Brooklyn
Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn Museum/
Viking Press, New York 1973, ISBN 0670111392,
p. 11, Fig. 2 (Illustration is reversed).

25.4 External links

The so-called Doctrinal name of the Aten used here is


still in its rst form. The stelas dating to the end of the
rst half of Akhenatens reign follows from this, as well as
the depiction of the daughters and stylistic features typical
of the Amarna period.[1]
Such stelae are typical of the Amarna period in Ancient
Egypt and are found particularly in the graves at Amarna,
which was the capital of Egypt under Akhenaten, with the
name Akhetaten. These stelae were altars, which were
placed in private chapels or houses for the worship of the
royal family and the sun-god Aten.

Description of the altar with picture on globalegyptianmuseum


Krimi um die Knigin, Der Spiegel

25.5 References

87

[1] Wilfried Seipel im Ausstellungskatalog Nofretete - Echnaton, Nr. 47

88

CHAPTER 25. STELA OF AKHENATEN AND HIS FAMILY

[2] Krimi um die Knigin"; Matthias Schulz, in Der Spiegel,


Issue No.22 of 25 May 2009, pages 134-135

Chapter 26

Temple of Amenhotep IV
The structures within the Temple of Amenhotep IV at
Karnak in Luxor, Egypt, were used during the rst four
years of the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten,
when he still referred to himself as Amenhotep IV, although they may have been constructed at the end of the
reign of Amenhotep III, and completed by his son, the
future Akhenaten. [1]

26.1 Location and layout


Constructed outside the boundaries of the Precinct of
Amon-Re, to the east, the main temple in the complex was named Gmp3itn (Gempaaten), which means
The Sun Disc is Found in the Estate of the God Aten".
The others were named Hwtbnbn (Hwt benben / The
Mansion of the Benben stone"), Rwdmnwnitnrn
(Rud-menu / Sturdy are the Monuments of the Sun
Disc Forever), and Tnimnwnitnrn (Tenimenu
/ Exalted are the Monuments of the Sun Disc Forever).

tables were exposed to direct sunlight. In this building (or


associated with it) were red granite and sandstone statues
of Akhenaten, red granite oering tables and other statues, including a sphinx inscribed with the name of the
Aten. It was of a considerable size (130m x 216m), but
it was so completely destroyed that its foundations have
been nearly obliterated.[2] It stood within a mud-brick enclosure, and was orientated to the east, with possibly an
entrance to west, leading to an open court surrounded
by square pillars and colossal statues of Akhenaten and
Nefertiti.[3]

26.1.2 Hwt benben


Erected in east Karnak, the Hwt benben or Mansion of
the Benben was devoted to a solar cult, and was closely
associated with the Gempaaten.[4]

26.1.3 Teni-menu

Very little of these buildings remains, they were built


quickly, using Talatat blocks, and could therefore easily The Tenimenu seemed to contain domestic and storage
rooms, and may have been a royal residence, although not
be demolished and reused as core for later structures.
enough of the structure remains to clarify the use.[1]

26.1.1

The walls of the Teni-menu were reused in the Ninth Pylon of the main Karnak temple. They have since been
identied and reassembled like a giant puzzle and are
partly exhibited in the Luxor museum. The scenes show
residential, administrative and royal temples and solar Jubilee scenes of the rst Sed-festival, Akhenaten was probably celebrating at the same time as his father, and when
the Queen Tiye attended.

Gempaaten

26.2 References & notes


26.2.1 References
[1] Thomas, Susanna. Akhenaten and Tutankhamen: the religious revolution. pp. p.41.
Reconstructed Talatats from the Gempaaten

[2] Blyth, 2006, p.121

The Gempaaten appears to have no roof and its oering

[3] Blyth, 2006, pp.121-122

89

90

CHAPTER 26. TEMPLE OF AMENHOTEP IV

[4] Blyth, 2006, p.123

26.2.2

Further reading

Blyth, Elizabeth (2006). Karnak: Evolution of a


Temple. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-404878.
Donald Redford, Akhenaten : The Heretic King,
Princeton, 1984
Coordinates:
32.6582E

254306N 323930E / 25.7182N

Chapter 27

Thutmose (sculptor)
The Kings Favourite and Master of Works, the Sculptor
Thutmose" (also spelled Djhutmose and Thutmosis),
ourished 1350 BC, is thought to have been the ocial
court sculptor of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten in the
latter part of his reign. A German archaeological expedition digging in Akhenatens deserted city of Akhetaton,
at Amarna, found a ruined house and studio complex (labeled P47.1-3)[1] in early December 1912;[2] the building
was identied as that of Thutmose based on an ivory horse
blinker found in a rubbish pit in the courtyard inscribed
with his name and job title.[3] Since it gave his occupation as sculptor and the building was clearly a sculpture
workshop, it seemed a logical connection.

children, perhaps to project an image of fertility.[6]


Examples of his work recovered from his abandoned studio can be viewed at the gyptisches Museum Berlin, the
Cairo Museum, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York City.

27.2 Gallery of images

27.1 Recovered works


Among many other sculptural items recovered at the
same time was the polychrome bust of Nefertiti, apparently a master study for others to copy, which was found
on the oor of a storeroom. In addition to this nowfamous bust twenty-two plaster casts of facessome of
which are full heads, others just the facewere found
in Rooms 18/19 of the studio, with an additional one
found in Room 14.[2] Eight of these have been identied
as various members of the royal family including Akhenaten, his other wife Kiya, his late father Amenhotep III,
and his eventual successor Ay. The rest represent unknown individuals, presumably contemporary residents
of Amarna.[2]
A couple of the pieces found in the workshop depict images of older noblewomen which is rare in Ancient Egyptian art, which more often portrayed women in an idealized manner as always young, slender and beautiful.[4]
One of the plaster faces depicts an older woman, with
wrinkles at the corner of her eyes and bags under them,
and a deeply lined forehead. This piece has been described as showing a greater variety of wrinkles than any
other depiction of an elite woman from ancient Egypt[5]
It is thought to represent the image of a wise, older
woman.[5] A small statue of an aging Nefertiti was also
found in the workshop, depicting her with a rounded,
drooping belly and thick thighs and a curved line at the
base of her abdomen showing that she had borne several
91

Plaster face of an older Amarna-era woman, from


late in Akhenatens reign, years 14-17, from the
workshop of the sculptor Thutmose. On display at
the gyptisches Museum.
Plaster face of a young Amarna-era woman,
(thought by many to represent Kiya, one of Akhenatens wives), from late in Akhenatens reign, years
14-17, from the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose.
On display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York City.
Portrait study thought to represent Kiya, a secondary
wife to the pharaoh Akhenaten. Originally discovered within the workshop of the royal sculptor Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the gyptisches Museum collection in Berlin.
Portrait study thought to represent Amenhotep III,
the father of the pharaoh Akhenaten. Originally discovered within the workshop of the royal sculptor
Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the gyptisches
Museum collection in Berlin.
Plaster portrait study thought to represent the later
successor pharaoh Ay, part of the gyptisches Museum collection in Berlin.
Statuette of Queen Nefertiti rendered in limestone
from the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose. On
display at the gyptisches Museum in Berlin .
Plaster portrait study thought to represent Queen
Nefertiti, primary wife of the pharaoh Akhenaten.
Originally discovered within the workshop of the
royal sculptor Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the
gyptisches Museum collection in Berlin.

92

CHAPTER 27. THUTMOSE (SCULPTOR)

Granite statue of the head of Queen Nefertiti, from


the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose. On display
at the gyptisches Museum.

27.3 Tomb
In 1996 the French Egyptologist Alain Zivie discovered at
Saqqara the decorated rock cut tomb of the head of the
painters in the place of truth, Thutmose. The tomb dates
to the time shortly after the Amarna Period. Although
the title of the Thutmose in Saqqara is slightly dierent
from the title of the Thutmose known from Amarna, it
seems likely that they refer to the same person and that the
dierent titles represent dierent stages in his career.[7]

27.4 Footnotes
[1] Located at 273811N 305347E / 27.63639N
30.89639E
[2] Krauss. (2008) p. 47.
[3] Reeves. (2005) p. 157.
[4] Sweeney. (2004) p. 67.
[5] Sweeney. (2004) p. 79.
[6] Tyldesley (2006). p. 126-127.
[7] Alain Zivie: La tombe de Thoutmes, directeur des peintres
dans la Place de Mat, 2013

27.4.1

Bibliography

Dodson, Aidan (2009). Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian
Counter-Reformation. The American University in
Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-416-304-3.
Krauss, Rolf (2008). Why Nefertiti Went to
Berlin. KMT 19 (3): 4453.
Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of
Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
Sweeney, Deborah (2004). Forever Young? The
Representation of Older and Ageing Women in Ancient Egyptian Art. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (American Research Center
in Egypt) 41: 6784. doi:10.2307/20297188.
Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten: King of Egypt (Thames
and Hudson, 1988), pp. 59.
Rita E. Freed, Yvonne J. Markowitz, Sue H.
D'Auria, Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen (Museum of Fine Arts, 1999),
pp. 123126.

27.5 External links


Sculptor Thutmoses Complex image comparisons, Rifkinds World

Chapter 28

TT188
Tomb TT188, located in the necropolis of El-Khokha in 28.2 Other Tomb
Thebes in Egypt, is the tomb of the Steward and Kings
Cupbearer Parennefer.[1][2] It has been excavated by the Parennefer also had a tomb (no 7) constructed at
Akhenaten Temple Project.
Amarna.[7]
It is one of the few tombs in the Theban necropolis that
was carved and decorated solely during the early years
of the rule of Akhenaten.[3] The tomb is decorated with 28.3 References
sculpted scenes, some of which were painted. The scenes
were all badly damaged and the name of Parennefer [1] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
was carefully removed. The decoration includes harvest
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), pp 91-92, ISBN 0-500scenes, the presentation of temple-staves at the inaugura27621-8
tion of Akhenaten, and an award scene showing Parennefer before the royal couple. In the tomb Akhenaten [2] Porter, Bertha and Moss, Rosalind, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues,
goes by his initial name Amenhotep (IV).[1][4]
The scenes in the tomb may be the rst to show
Queen Nefertiti. An unnamed royal woman accompanies Akhenaten as he worships the Aten and sits besides
the king in a scene showiwing Parennefer before his king
and queen. The queen is thought to be Nefertiti.[5]
The scenes in the tomb of Parennefer show some of the
earliest examples of Amarna style depictions. The gures show the rounded form that will become typical in
Amarna art, and courtiers are shown bending from the
waist with their arms hanging down.[6]
Mummies, cons and other remains show that the tomb
was later reused during the 21st and 22nd dynasties, and
robber tunnels have led the way to new and unrecorded
tombs, whose entrances cannot be located from outside.

Reliefs and Paintings Volume I: The Theban Necropolis,


Part I. Private Tombs, Grith Institute. 1970, pp 293295 ASIN: B002WL4ON4

[3] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period in


Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 pp 64-66,
ISBN 1-55540-966-0
[4] N. de G. Davies, Akhenaten at Thebes, The Journal of
Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 9, No. 3/4 (Oct., 1923), pp.
132-152, Egypt Exploration Society, JSTOR
[5] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. p 50 ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[6] Charles F. Nims, The Transition from the Traditional to
the New Style of Wall Relief under Amenhotep IV, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Apr.,
1973), pp. 181-187, The University of Chicago Press,
JSTOR
[7] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts V
and VI, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-161-3

28.1 Recent Discoveries


By tracing the multiple robber tunnels that enter the
tomb, other previously unknown tombs have been located close by. These include a small painted tomb from
the Ramesside period, one from the 18th Dynasty, and a
tomb of the 25th Dynasty. This last tomb entrance way
is constructed of mud-brick, has a large open court, and
a long corridor with a series of chambers and deep shafts
excavated in the bedrock.
93

Chapter 29

3199 Nefertiti
3199 Nefertiti (1982 RA) is a near-Earth Amor asteroid
discovered on September 13, 1982 by husband and wife
team Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker at Palomar. It was
named after the Egyptian queen Nefertiti, mother-in-law
of Tutankhamun.

29.1 External links


JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 3199 Nefertiti

94

Chapter 30

Nefertiti Bust
The Nefertiti Bust is a 3,300-year-old painted limestone
bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian
Pharaoh Akhenaten, and one of the most copied works of
ancient Egypt. Owing to the work, Nefertiti has become
one of the most famous women of the ancient world, and
an icon of feminine beauty. The work is believed to have
been crafted in 1345 BC by the sculptor Thutmose.
A German archaeological team led by Ludwig Borchardt
discovered the Nefertiti bust in 1912 in Thutmoses workshop in Amarna, Egypt. It has been kept at several locations in Germany since its discovery, including a salt
mine in Merkers-Kieselbach, the Dahlem museum (then
in West Berlin), the Egyptian Museum in Charlottenburg
and the Altes Museum. It is currently on display at the restored and recently re-opened Neues Museum in Berlin, A house altar (c. 1350 BC) depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti and
three of their daughters. Note Nefertiti wears a crown similar to
where it was displayed before World War II.
that depicted on the bust.

The Nefertiti bust has become a cultural symbol of Berlin,


Germany, as well as of ancient Egypt. Nefertiti herself
has become quite an Icon. Nefertiti is widely known for
her beauty and versatility. It has also been the subject of
an intense argument between Egypt and Germany over
Egyptian demands for its repatriation. It was dragged into
controversies over the Body of Nefertiti art exhibition and
also by allegations regarding its authenticity.[2]

The bust of Nefertiti is believed to have been crafted


about 1345 BC by the sculptor Thutmose.[3][5] The bust
does not have any inscriptions, but can be certainly identied as Nefertiti by the characteristic crown, which she
wears in other surviving (and clearly labelled) depictions
(see for instance the 'house altar', right).[6]

30.1 History
30.1.1

fertitis stepson. Nefertiti disappears from history in the


twelfth year of Akhenatens reign, though whether this is
due to her death or because she took a new name is not
known. She may also have later become a pharaoh in her
own right, ruling alone for a short time after her husbands
death.[3][4]

Background

Nefertiti (literally the beautiful one has come) was the


14th-century BC Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of
the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Akhenaten initiated a new monotheistic form of worship called Atenism dedicated to the
Sun disc Aten.[3] Little is known about Nefertiti. Theories suggest she could have been an Egyptian royal by
birth, a foreign princess or the daughter of a high government ocial named Ay, who became pharaoh after
Tutankhamun. She may have been the co-regent of Egypt
with Akhenaten, who ruled from 1352 BC to 1336 BC.[3]
Nefertiti bore six daughters to Akhenaten, one of whom,
Ankhesenpaaten (renamed Ankhesenamun after the suppression of the Aten cult), married Tutankhamun, Ne-

30.1.2 Discovery
The Nefertiti bust was found on 6 December 1912 at
Amarna by the German Oriental Company (Deutsche
Orient-Gesellschaft DOG), led by German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt. It was found in what had been
the sculptor Thutmoses workshop, along with other unnished busts of Nefertiti.[7][8] Borchardts diary provides
the main written account of the nd; he remarks, Suddenly we had in our hands the most alive Egyptian artwork. You cannot describe it with words. You must see
it.[9]

95

96

CHAPTER 30. NEFERTITI BUST


left eye lacks the inlay present in the right.[16][17] The
pupil of the right eye is of inserted quartz with black paint
and is xed with beeswax. The background of the eyesocket is unadorned limestone. Nefertiti wears her characteristic blue crown known as Nefertiti cap crown with
a golden diadem band, that is looped around like horizontal ribbons and joining at the back, and an Uraeus (cobra)
over her brow which is now broken. She also wears a
broad collar with a oral pattern on it.[18] The ears also
have suered some damage.[17] Gardners Art Through
the Ages suggests that With this elegant bust, Thutmose
may have been alluding to a heavy ower on its slender
sleek stalk by exaggerating the weight of the crowned
head and the length of the almost serpentine neck.[19]
According to David Silverman, the Nefertiti bust reects
the classical Egyptian art style, deviating from the eccentricities of the Amarna art style, which was developed
in Akhenatens reign. The exact function of the bust is
unknown, though it is theorized that the bust may be a
sculptors modello to be used as a basis for other ocial
portraits, kept in the artists workshop.[20] Surviving royal
portraits are normally wholly in stone, though originally
painted on a thin plaster layer, but not largely made up of
stucco plaster as this piece is.

Nefertiti bust

30.2.1 Colors
A 1924 document found in the archives of the German
Oriental Company recalls the 20 January 1913 meeting
between Ludwig Borchardt and a senior Egyptian ocial
to discuss the division of the archeological nds of 1912
between Germany and Egypt. According to the secretary
of the German Oriental Company (who was the author of
the document and who was present at the meeting), Borchardt wanted to save the bust for us.[1][10] Borchardt
is suspected of having concealed the busts real value,[11]
although he denied doing so.[12]

Ludwig Borchardt commissioned a chemical analysis of


the colored pigments of the head. The result of the examination was published in the book Portrait of Queen
Nofretete in 1923:[21]
Blue: powdered frit, colored with copper oxide
Skin color (light red): ne powdered lime spar colored with red chalk (iron oxide)

While Philipp Vandenberg describes the coup as adven Yellow: orpiment (arsenic sulde)
turous and beyond comparison,[13] Time magazine lists
Green: powdered frit, colored with copper and iron
it among the Top 10 Plundered Artifacts.[14] Borchardt
oxide
showed the Egyptian ocial a photograph of the bust
that didn't show Nefertiti in her best light. The bust
Black: coal with wax as a binding medium
was wrapped up in a box when Egypts chief antiques inspector Gustave Lefebvre came for inspection. The doc White: chalk (calcium carbonate)
ument reveals that Borchardt claimed the bust was made
of gypsum to mislead the inspector. The German Oriental Company blames the negligence of the inspector and 30.2.2 Missing left eye
points out that the bust was at the top of the exchange list
When the bust was rst discovered, no inserted piece of
and says the deal was done fairly.[10][15]
quartz to represent the iris of the left eyeball was present,
as in the other eye, and none was found despite an intensive search and a reward of 5 being put up.[22] Borchardt
30.2 Description and examinations assumed that the quartz iris of the left eye had fallen out
when the sculptor Thutmoses workshop fell into ruin.[23]
The bust of Nefertiti is 47 centimetres (19 in) tall and The missing eye led to speculation that Nefertiti may have
weighs about 20 kilograms (44 lb). It is made of a suered from an ophthalmic infection, and actually lost
limestone core covered with painted stucco layers. The her left eye, though the presence of an iris in other statues
face is completely symmetrical and almost intact, but the contradicted this possibility.[24]

30.3. LATER HISTORY

97

Dietrich Wildung proposed that the bust in Berlin was 30.3.1


a model for ocial portraits and was used by the master sculptor for teaching his pupils how to carve the internal structure of the eye, and thus the left iris was not
added.[25] Gardners Art Through the Ages and Silverman
presents a similar view that the bust was deliberately kept
unnished.[17][19] Hawass suggested that Thutmose had
created the left eye, but it was later destroyed.[26]

30.2.3

Locations in Germany

CT scans

The bust was rst CT scanned in 1992, with the scan


producing cross sections of the bust every 5 millimetres
(0.20 in).[27][28] In 2006, Dietrich Wildung, the director of Berlins Egyptian Museum, while trying a dierent lighting at Altes Museum where the bust was then
displayed observed wrinkles on Nefertitis neck and
bags under her eyes, suggesting the sculptor had tried to
depict signs of aging. A CT scan conrmed Wildungs
ndings; Thutmose had added gypsum under the cheeks
and eyes in an attempt to perfect his sculpture, Wildung
explained.[25]
The CT scan in 2006 led by Alexander Huppertz, the director of the Imaging Science Institute in Berlin, revealed
a wrinkled face of Nefertiti carved in the inner core of
the bust.[28] The results were published in the April 2009
Radiology journal.[29] The scan revealed that Thutmose
has placed layers of varying thickness on top of the limestone core. The inner face has creases around her mouth
and cheeks and a swelling on the nose. The creases and
the bump on the nose are leveled by the outermost stucco
layer. According to Huppertz, this may reect aesthetic
ideals of the era.[5][30] The 2006 scan provided greater
detail than the 1992 one revealing subtle details just 12
mm under the stucco.[27]

30.3 Later history


The bust of Nefertiti has become one of the most admired, and most copied, images from ancient Egypt,
and the star exhibit used to market Berlins museums.[31]
It is seen as an icon of international beauty.[11][25][32]
Showing a woman with a long neck, elegantly arched
brows, high cheekbones, a slender nose and an enigmatic
smile played about red lips, the bust has established Nefertiti as one of the most beautiful faces of antiquity.[25]
It is described as the most famous bust of ancient art,
comparable only to the mask of Tutankhamun.[18]
Nefertiti has become an icon of Berlins culture.[7] Some
500,000 visitors see Nefertiti every year.[10] The bust
is described as the best-known work of art from ancient Egypt, arguably from all antiquity.[33] Her face
is on postcards of Berlin and 1989 German postage
stamps.[32][34]

Neues Museum, Berlin is the present location of the Nefertiti bust

The Nefertiti bust has been in Germany since 1913,[1]


when it was shipped to Berlin and presented to James
Simon, a wholesale merchant and the sponsor of the
Amarna excavation.[8] It was displayed at Simons residence until 1913, when Simon loaned the bust and other
artifacts from the Amarna dig to the Berlin Museum.[35]
Although the rest of the Amarna collection was displayed
in 191314, Nefertiti was kept secret at Borchardts
request.[13] In 1918, the Museum discussed the public
display of the bust, but again kept it secret on the request of Borchardt.[35] It was permanently donated to the
Berlin Museum in 1920. Finally, in 1923, the bust was
rst unveiled to the public in Borchardts writing and later
in 1924, displayed to the public as part of the Egyptian
Museum of Berlin.[13][35] The bust created a sensation,
swiftly becoming a world-renowned icon of feminine
beauty, and one of the most universally-recognised artefacts to survive from Ancient Egypt. The Nefertiti bust
was displayed in Berlins Neues Museum on Museum Island until the museum was closed in 1939; with the onset
of World War II, the Berlin museums were emptied and
the artifacts moved to secure shelters for safekeeping.[8]
Nefertiti was initially stored in the cellar of the Prussian
Governmental Bank and then, in the autumn of 1941,
moved to the tower of a ak bunker in Berlin.[35] The
Neues Museum suered bombings in 1943 by the Royal
Air Force.[36] On 6 March 1945, the bust was moved to a
German salt mine at Merkers-Kieselbach in Thuringia.[8]
In March 1945, the bust was found by the American
Army and given over to its Monuments, Fine Arts and
Archives branch. It was moved to the Reichsbank in
Frankfurt and then, in August, shipped to the U.S. Central Collecting Point in Wiesbaden where it was displayed
to the public in 1946.[8][35] In 1956, the bust was returned to West Berlin.[8] There it was displayed at the
Dahlem Museum. As early as 1946, East Germany (German Democratic Republic) insisted on the return of Nefertiti to Museum Island in East Berlin, where the bust
had been displayed before the war.[8][35] In 1967, Nefertiti was moved in the Egyptian Museum in Charlottenburg
and remained there until 2005, when it was moved to the
Altes Museum.[35] The bust returned to the Neues Museum as its centerpiece when the museum reopened in

98

CHAPTER 30. NEFERTITI BUST

October 2009.[11][36][37]

30.4 Controversies
30.4.1

Requests for repatriation to Egypt

Ever since the ocial unveiling of the bust in Berlin in


1924, the Egyptian authorities have been demanding its
return to Egypt.[7][35][39] In 1925, Egypt threatened to
ban German excavations in Egypt unless Nefertiti was
returned. In 1929, Egypt oered to exchange other artifacts for Nefertiti, but Germany declined. In the 1950s,
Egypt again tried to initiate negotiations but there was
no response from Germany.[35][39] Although Germany
had previously strongly opposed the repatriation, in 1933
Hermann Gring considered returning the bust to King
Farouk Fouad of Egypt as a political gesture. Hitler opposed the idea, and told the Egyptian government that
he would build a new Egyptian museum for Nefertiti:
In the middle, this wonder, Nefertiti, will be enthroned,
... I will never relinquish the head of the Queen.[11][39]
While the bust was under American control, Egypt requested the United States to hand it over; the USA refused
and advised Egypt to take up the matter with the new
German authorities.[35] In 1989, the Egyptian President
Hosni Mubarak viewed the bust and announced that Nefertiti was the best ambassador for Egypt in Berlin.[35]
Dr. Zahi Hawass, the former Secretary General of the
Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, believes that
Nefertiti belongs to Egypt and that the bust was taken
out of Egypt illegally and should therefore be returned.
Dr. Hawass has maintained the stance that Egyptian authorities were misled over the acquisition of Nefertiti in
1913. He has demanded that Germany prove that it was
exported legally.[1][40] According to Kurt G. Siehr, another argument in support of repatriation is that Archeological nds have their 'home' in the country of origin
and should be preserved in that country.[41] The Nefertiti
repatriation issue sprang up again in 2003 over the Body
of Nefertiti sculpture (See Controversy). In 2005, Hawass
requested UNESCO to intervene to return the bust.[42]
In 2007, Hawass threatened to ban exhibitions of Egyptian artifacts in Germany if Nefertiti was not lent to
Egypt, but to no avail. Hawass also requested a worldwide boycott of loans to German museums to initiate
what he calls a scientic war. Hawass wanted Germany
to at least loan the bust to Egypt in 2012 for the opening of the new Grand Egyptian Museum near the Great
Pyramids of Giza.[31] Simultaneously, a campaign called
Nefertiti Travels was launched by cultural association
CulturCooperation, based in Hamburg, Germany. They
distributed postcards depicting the bust of Nefertiti with
the words Return to Sender and wrote an open letter
to the German Culture Minister, Bernd Neumann, supporting the view that Egypt should be given the bust on
loan.[32][43] In 2009, when Nefertiti moved back to the

Neues Museum her old home, the appropriateness of


Berlin as the busts location was questioned.
Several German art experts have attempted to refute
all the claims made by Hawass, pointing to the 1924
document discussing the pact between Borchardt and
the Egyptian authorities,[1][10] though, as discussed earlier, Borchardt has been accused of foul play in the
deal. The German authorities have also argued the bust
is too fragile to transport and that the legal arguments
for the repatriation were insubstantial. According to
The Times, Germany may be concerned that lending the
bust to Egypt would mean its permanent departure from
Germany.[11][31]
In December 2009 Friederike Seyfried, the director of
Berlins Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, presented to the Egyptians documents held by the museum
regarding the discovery of the bust which include a protocol signed by the German excavator of the bust and
the Egyptian Antiquities Service. In the documents, the
object was listed as a painted plaster bust of a princess.
But in the diary of Ludwig Borchardt he clearly referred
to it as the head of Nefertiti. This proves that Borchardt wrote this description so that his country can get
the statue, Hawass commented These materials conrm
Egypts contention that (he) did act unethically with intent
to deceive. However, Hawass said Egypt didn't consider
the Nefertiti bust to be a looted antiquity. Still, it is one
of a handful of truly singular Egyptian antiquities still in
foreign hands. I really want it back, he said.[31] Hawass
statement quoted the director of the museum as saying
the authority to approve the return of the bust to Egypt
lies with the Prussian Cultural Heritage and the German
culture minister.[44]

30.4.2 Allegations over authenticity


The French book, Le Buste de Nefertiti une Imposture de
l'Egyptologie? (The Bust of Nefertiti a Fraud in Egyptology?) by Swiss art historian Henri Stierlin and the book
Missing Link in Archaeology by Berlin author and historian Edrogan Ercivan both claimed that the Nefertiti bust
was a modern fake. Stierlin claims that Borchardt may
have created the bust to test ancient pigments and that
when the bust was admired by the Prussian prince, Johann
Georg, Borchardt pretended it was genuine to avoid offending the prince. Stierlin argues that the missing left
eye of the bust would have been a sign of disrespect in
ancient Egypt, that no scientic records of the bust appear until 11 years after its supposed discovery, and while
the paint pigments are ancient, the inner limestone core
has never been dated. Ercivan suggests Borchardts wife
was the model for the bust, and both authors argue that it
was not revealed to the public until 1924 because it was a
fake.[9] Another theory suggested that the existing Nefertiti bust was crafted in the 1930s on Hitlers orders, and
that the original was lost in World War II.[15]

30.5. CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE

99
ploration in Egypt.[31][45][46] The Egyptian Minister for
Culture, Farouk Hosny, declared that Nefertiti was not
in safe hands, and although Egypt had not renewed their
claims for restitution due to the good relations with Germany, this recent behaviour was unacceptable.[35]

30.5 Cultural signicance


In 1930, the German press described the Nefertiti bust as
their new monarch, personifying it as a queen. As the
"'most precious ... stone in the setting of the diadem'
from the art treasures of 'Prussia Germany'", Nefertiti
would re-establish the imperial German national identity
after 1918.[47] Hitler described the bust as a unique masterpiece, an ornament, a true treasure, and pledged to
build a museum to house it.[9] By the 1970s, the bust
had become an issue of national identity to both the German states East Germany and West Germany which
were created after World War II.[47] In 1999, Nefertiti appeared on an election poster for the green political party
In 1989, a 70 pfennig stamp which featured the bust of Nefertiti Bndis 90/Die Grnen as a promise for cosmopolitan
was on issue in Germany.
and multi-cultural environment with the slogan Strong
Women for Berlin!"[34] According to Claudia Breger, anDietrich Wildung dismissed the claims as a publicity other reason that the Nefertiti bust became associated
stunt, as radiological tests, detailed computer tomogra- with a German national identity was its place as a rival
Tutankhamun nd by the British, who then ruled
phy, and material analysis have proved its authenticity.[9] to the [34]
Egypt.
The pigments used on the bust have been matched to
those used by ancient Egyptian artisans. The 2006 CT The bust became an inuence on popular culture with
scan that discovered the hidden face of Nefertiti proved Jack Pierce's make-up work on Elsa Lanchester's iconic
without doubt according to Science News that the bust hair style in the lm Bride of Frankenstein being inspired
was genuine.[15]
by it.[48] In the Italian lm Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile
Egyptian authorities also dismissed Stierlins theory. Dr (1961) Nefertiti is in love with the young sculptor TuZahi Hawass said Stierlin is not a historian. He is mos (Thutmose), played by Edmund Purdom, who is a
delirious. Although Stierlin had argued Egyptians cut friend of prince Amenophis (Akhenaten). Tumos loses
shoulders horizontally and Nefertiti had vertical shoul- Nefeterti to Akhenaten, but preserves his love for her in
ders, Hawass said that the new style seen in the Nefer- the famous sculpture.
titi bust is part of the changes introduced by Akhenaten,
the husband of Nefertiti. Hawass also claimed that the
sculptor Thutmose had created the eye, but it was later
destroyed.[26]

30.6 References
Notes

30.4.3

The Body of Nefertiti

In 2003, the Egyptian Museum in Berlin allowed the


Hungarian artist duo Little Warsaw, Andras Galik and
Balint Havas, to place the bust atop a nearly nude female
bronze for a video installation to be shown at the Venice
Biennale modern art festival. The project called the Body
of Nefertiti was an attempt according to the artists to
pay homage to the bust. According to Wildung, it showed
the continued relevance of the ancient world to todays
art.[45] However, Egyptian cultural ocials took oense
and proclaimed it to be a disgrace to one of the great
symbols of their countrys history. As a consequence,
they also banned Wildung and his wife from further ex-

[1] Dempsy, Judy (18 October 2009). A 3,500-Year-Old


Queen Causes a Rift Between Germany and Egypt. The
New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
[2] Nefertiti Bust May Be 100 Years Old, Not 3,000: Martin
Gayford. Bloomberg.
[3] Maryalice Yakutchik. Who Was Nefertiti?". Discovery
Channel. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
[4] Silverman, Wegner, Wegner pp.130-33
[5] Christine Dell'Amore (30 March 2009). Nefertitis Real,
Wrinkled Face Found in Famous Bust?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 16 November 2009.

100

[6] Charlotte Booth (2007-07-30). The Ancient Egyptians for


Dummies. for Dummies. ISBN 978-0-470-06544-0.
[7] Breger p. 285
[8] Siehr p.115
[9] Connolly, Kate (7 May 2009). Is this Nefertiti or a
100-year-old fake?". The Guardian (London). Retrieved
21 November 2009.
[10] Archaeological Controversy: Did Germany Cheat to Get
Bust of Nefertiti?". Der Spiegel. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
[11] Roger Boyes (20 October 2009). Neues Museum refuses to return the bust of Queen Nefertiti to Egyptian
museum. The Times (London). Retrieved 15 November
2009.
[12] Berger p. 288
[13] Breger p. 286
[14] Top 10 Plundered Artifacts. TIME. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2009.
[15] Nefertitis 'hidden face' proves Berlin bust is not Hitlers
fake. Science News. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 23
November 2009. For pictures, Nefertitis 'Hidden Face'
Proves Famous Berlin Bust is not Hitlers Fake. 3 April
2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
[16] Horst Woldemar Janson, Anthony F. Janson (2003).
History of art: the Western tradition. Prentice Hall PTR.
ISBN 978-0-13-182895-7.
[17] Silverman, Wegner, Wegner pp. 21, 113
[18] Schultz. Egypt the World of Pharaohs: The World of the
Pharaohs. American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 203. ISBN
978-977-424-661-6.
[19] Helen Gardner (2006).
Art of Ancient Egypt.
Gardners Art Through the Ages: the western perspective.
Cengage Learning. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-495-00478-3.
[20] Silverman, David P. (1997). Ancient Egypt. USA: Oxford
University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-19-521952-X.
[21] Rudolf Anthes (1961). Nofretete The Head of Queen
Nofretete. Mann, Berlin: Verlag Gebr. p. 6.
[22] Matthias Schulz (2012). Die entfhrte Knigin (German)". Der Spiegel 49 (3.12.2012): 128.
[23] Joyce A. Tyldesley, Nefertiti: Egypts sun queen, Viking,
1999, p.196.
[24] Fred Gladstone Bratton, A history of Egyptian archaeology, Hale, 1968, p.223
[25] Lorenzi, R (5 September 2006). Scholar: Nefertiti Was
an Aging Beauty. Discovery News (Discovery Channel).
pp. 12. Retrieved 18 December 2009.
[26] Szabo, Christopher (12 May 2009). Egypts Rubbishes
Claims that Nefertiti Bust is 'Fake'". DigitalJournal.com.

CHAPTER 30. NEFERTITI BUST

[27] Patrick McGroarty (31 March 2009). Nefertiti Bust Has


Two Faces. Discovery News (Discovery Channel). pp.
12. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
[28] For comparative analysis between 1992 and 2006 CT
scans: Bernhard Illerhaus, Andreas Staude, Dietmar
Meinel (2009). Nondestructive Insights into Composition of the Sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with
CT and the dependence of object surface from image processing. NDT Database & e-Journal of Nondestructive
Testing.
[29] Alexander Huppertz ,, A; Dietrich Wildung, Barry
J. Kemp, Tanja Nentwig, Patrick Asbach; Franz
Maximilian Rosche, Bernd Hamm (April 2009).
Nondestructive Insights into Composition of the Sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with CT. Radiology
(Radiological Society of North America) 251 (1):
233240.
doi:10.1148/radiol.2511081175.
OCLC
10.1148/radiol.2511081175. PMID 19332855.
[30] Hidden Face In Nefertiti Bust Examined With CT Scan.
Science Daily. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 23 November
2009.
[31] Dan Morrison (18 April 2007). Egypt Vows Scientic
War If Germany Doesn't Loan Nefertiti. National Geographic News (National Geographic Society). Retrieved
15 November 2009.
[32] Moore, Tristana (7 May 2007). Row over Nefertiti bust
continues. BBC News. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
[33] Siehr p.114
[34] Breger p. 292
[35] The Bust of Nefertiti: A Chronology. Nefertiti travels
campaign website. CulturCooperation. 2007. Retrieved
22 November 2009.
[36] Tony Paterson (17 October 2009). Queen Nefertiti rules
again in Berlins reborn museum. The Independent (London). Retrieved 15 November 2009.
[37] Isabelle de Pommereau (2 November 2009). Germany:
Time for Egypts Nefertiti bust to go home?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
[38] Thutmoses Bust of Nefertiti (Amarna Period)".
Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved 15 March
2013.
[39] Sieher p. 116
[40] Kimmelman, Michael (23 October 2009). When Ancient Artifacts Become Political Pawns. New York Times.
Retrieved 15 November 2009.
[41] Siehr pp. 1334
[42] El-Aref, Nevine (1420 July 2005). Antiquities wish
list. Al-Ahram Weekly (751).
[43] ""Nefertiti
travels
CulturCooperation. 2007.
2009.

campaign
website.
Retrieved 22 November

30.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

[44] The Associated Press:Egypt antiquities chief to demand


Nefertiti bust
[45] HUGH EAKIN (21 June 2003). Nefertitis Bust Gets a
Body, Oending Egyptians. The New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
[46] For a picture of The Body of Nefertiti see Nefertitis
Bust Gets a Body, Oending Egyptians: A Problematic
Juxtaposition. The New York Times. 21 June 2003. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
[47] Breger p. 291
[48] Elizabeth Young, Here Comes the Bride: Wedding Gender and Race in Bride of Frankenstein"; Feminist Studies,
Vol. 17, 1991. 35 pgs.

Books
Anthes, Rudolph (1961). Nofretete The Head of
Queen Nofretete. Gebr. Mann.
Breger, Claudia (2006). The 'Berlin' Nefertiti
Bust. In Regina Schulte. The body of the queen:
gender and rule in the courtly world, 15002000.
Berghahn Book. ISBN 1-84545-159-7.
Siehr, Kurt G (August 2006). The Beautiful One
has come to Return. In John Henry Merryman.
Imperialism, art and restitution. CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS. ISBN 0-521-85929-8.
Silverman, David P.; Wegner, Josef William; Wegner, Jennifer Houser (2006). Akhenaten and Tutankhamun: revolution and restoration. University
of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archaeology. ISBN
978-1-931707-90-9.

30.7 External links


Media related to Nefertiti bust (Berlin) at Wikimedia Commons
Neues Museum Berlin

101

Chapter 31

Aten
For other uses, see Aten (disambiguation).
ened to Ra-Horus-Aten or just Aten in many texts, but the
Aten (also Aton, Egyptian jtn) is the disk of the sun in god of Akhenaten raised to supremacy is considered a
synthesis of very ancient gods viewed in a new and dierent way. The god is also considered to be both masculine
and feminine simultaneously. All creation was thought to
emanate from the god and to exist within the god. In particular, the god was not depicted in anthropomorphic (human) form, but as rays of light extending from the suns
disk.

Aten

ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of


Ra. The deied Aten is the focus of the monolatristic,
henotheistic, or monotheistic religion of Atenism established by Amenhotep IV, who later took the name
Akhenaten in worship and recognition of Aten. In his
poem "Great Hymn to the Aten", Akhenaten praises Aten
as the creator, and giver of life. The worship of Aten was
eradicated by Horemheb.

31.1 Overview
The Aten, the sun-disk, is rst referred to as a deity in The
Story of Sinuhe from the 12th dynasty,[1] in which the
deceased king is described as rising as god to the heavens and uniting with the sun-disk, the divine body merging with its maker.[2] By analogy, the term silver aten
was sometimes used to refer to the moon.[3] The solar
Aten was extensively worshipped as a god in the reign of
Amenhotep III, when it was depicted as a falcon-headed
man much like Ra. In the reign of Amenhotep IIIs successor, Amenhotep IV, the Aten became the central god
of Egyptian state religion, and Amenhotep IV changed
his name to Akhenaten to reect his close link with the
new supreme deity.[1]
The full title of Akhenatens god was "Ra-Horakhty who
rejoices in the horizon, in his Name as the Light which
is in the sun disc. (This is the title of the god as it appears on the numerous stelae which were placed to mark
the boundaries of Akhenatens new capital at Akhetaten,
modern Amarna.) This lengthy name was often short-

Furthermore, the gods name came to be written within


a cartouche, along with the titles normally given to a
Pharaoh, another break with ancient tradition. Ra-Horus,
more usually referred to as Ra-Horakhty (Ra, who is Horus of the two horizons), is a synthesis of two other gods,
both of which are attested from very early on. During the
Amarna period, this synthesis was seen as the invisible
source of energy of the sun god, of which the visible manifestation was the Aten, the solar disk. Thus Ra-HorusAten was a development of old ideas which came gradually. The real change, as some see it, was the apparent
abandonment of all other gods, especially Amun, and the
debatable introduction of monotheism by Akhenaten.[4]
The syncretism is readily apparent in the Great Hymn to
the Aten in which Re-Herakhty, Shu and Aten are merged
into the creator god.[5] Others see Akhenaten as a practitioner of an Aten monolatry,[6] as he did not actively deny
the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten.

31.2 Royal Titulary


During the Amarna Period, the Aten was given a Royal
Titulary (as he was considered to be king of all), with his
names drawn in a cartouche. There were two forms of
this title, the rst had the names of other gods, and the
second later one which was more 'singular' and referred
only to the Aten himself. The early form has Re-Horakhti
who rejoices in the Horizon, in his name Shu which is the
Aten. The later form has Re, ruler of the two horizons
who rejoices in the Horizon, in his name of light which is
the Aten.

102

31.3. SEE ALSO

103

31.2.2 Variant vocalizations


Egyptologists have vocalized the word variously as Aten,
Aton, Atonu, and Itn.

31.2.3 Names derived from Aten


Akhenaten: Eective spirit of the Aten.
Akhetaten: Horizon of the Aten, Akhenatens
capital.
The archaeological site is known as
Amarna.
Ankhesenpaaten: Her life is of the Aten.
Beketaten: Handmaid of the Aten.
Meritaten: She who is beloved of the Aten.
Meketaten: Behold the Aten or Protected by
Aten.
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten, second
from the left is Meritaten who was the daughter of Akhenaten.

Neferneferuaten: The most beautiful one of Aten.


Paatenemheb: The Aten on jubilee.
Tutankhaten: Living image of the Aten. Original
name of Tutankhamun.

31.3 See also


Amun
Atenism
The Egyptian
Great Hymn to the Aten
Small Temple of the Aten at Akhetaten

31.2.1

Variant translations

Inti
Moses
Pharaoh of the Exodus

High relief and low relief illustrations of the Aten


show it with a curved surface (see for example the
photograph illustrating this article), therefore, the
late scholar Hugh Nibley insisted that a more correct translation would be globe, orb or sphere, rather
than disk. The three-dimensional spherical shape of
the Aten is even more evident when such reliefs are
viewed in person, rather than merely in photographs.
There is a possibility that Atens three-dimensional
spherical shape depicts an eye of Horus/Ra. In the
other early monotheistic religion Zoroastrianism the
sun is called Ahura Mazda's eye.
These two theories are compatible with each other,
since an eye is an orb.

The spatial symbolism of the Voortrekker Monument

31.4 References
[1] Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and
Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. pp. 236
240
[2] M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol.1, 1980,
p.223
[3] Fleming, Fergus, and Alan Lothian (1997). The Way to
Eternity: Egyptian Myth. Duncan Baird Publishers. p. 52
[4] Jan Assmann, Religion and Cultural Memory: Ten Studies,
Stanford University Press 2005, p.59

104

[5] M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol. 2, 1980,


p. 96
[6] Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and
Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-18549-1, pp.
36.
[7] see Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: 2nd Edition. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1998, p. 29

31.5 External links


Works related to Great Hymn to Aten at Wikisource
Media related to Aten at Wikimedia Commons

CHAPTER 31. ATEN

Chapter 32

Atenism

Aten

Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty
Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted
name, Akhenaten. In the 14th century BC Atenism
was Egypt's state religion for around 20 years, before
subsequent rulers returned to the traditional gods and
the Pharaohs associated with Atenism were erased from
Egyptian records.

32.1 History of the Aten before


Akhenaten

Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten

other gods or attempted to promote the Aten as an excluThe Atenthe god of Atenismrst appears in texts sive deity.
dating to the 12th dynasty, in the Story of Sinuhe.
Here during the Middle Kingdom, the Aten as the sun
disk...was merely one aspect of the sun god Re.[1] The 32.2 Atenist revolution
Aten, hence, was a relatively obscure sun god; without the Atenist period, it would barely have gured in
Egyptian history. Although there are indications that the Amenhotep IV initially introduced Atenism in Year 5 of
Aten was becoming slightly more important in the eigh- his reign (1348/1346 BC), raising the Aten to the status of
the continued worteenth dynasty periodnotably Amenhotep III's naming supreme god, after initially permitting
[3]
To
emphasise
the change,
ship
of
the
traditional
gods.
of his royal barge as Spirit of the Atenit was Amenhotep
cartouche
form
normally
Atens
name
was
written
in
the
IV who introduced the Atenist revolution, in a series of
reserved
for
Pharaohs,
an
innovation
of
Atenism.
This
steps culminating in the ocial installment of the Aten as
religious
reformation
appears
to
coincide
with
the
proclaEgypts sole god. Although each line of kings prior to the
reign of Akhenaten[2] had previously adopted one deity as mation of a Sed festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to
the royal patron and supreme state god, there had never reinforce the Pharaohs divine powers of kingship. Trabeen an attempt to exclude other deities, and the mul- ditionally held in the thirtieth year of the Pharaohs reign,
titude of gods had been tolerated and worshipped at all this possibly was a festival in honour of Amenhotep III,
times. During the reign of Thutmosis IV it was identied whom some Egyptologists think had a coregency with his
as a distinct solar god, and his son Amenhotep III estab- son Amenhotep IV of two to twelve years.
lished and promoted a separate cult for the Aten. There Year 5 is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep
is no evidence however that Amenhotep III neglected the IVs construction of a new capital, Akhetaten (Horizon of
105

106
the Aten), at the site known today as Amarna. Evidence
of this appears on three of the boundary stelae used to
mark the boundaries of this new capital. At this time,
Amenhotep IV ocially changed his name to Akhenaten
(Spirit of the Aten) as evidence of his new worship. The
date given for the event has been estimated to fall around
January 2 of that year. In Year 7 of his reign (1346/1344
BC ) the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten
(near modern Amarna), though construction of the city
seems to have continued for two more years. In shifting
his court from the traditional ceremonial centres Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus
of religious and political power.
The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the
inuence of the priesthood and from the traditional centres of worship, but his decree had deeper religious significance tootaken in conjunction with his name change,
it is possible that the move to Amarna was also meant as
a signal of Akhenatens symbolic death and rebirth. It
may also have coincided with the death of his father and
the end of the coregency. In addition to constructing a
new capital in honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the
construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak and one
at Thebes, close to the old temple of Amun.

CHAPTER 32. ATENISM


tian state religion, and deposed its religious hierarchy,
headed by the powerful priesthood of Amun at Thebes.
For fteen centuries the Egyptians had worshiped an extended family of gods and goddesses, each of which had
its own elaborate system of priests, temples, shrines and
rituals. A key feature of these cults was the veneration of
images and statues of the gods, which were worshipped
in the dark connes of the temples.
The pinnacle of this religious hierarchy was the Pharaoh,
who was both king and living god, and the administration
of the Egyptian kingdom was thus inextricably bound up
with, and largely controlled by, the power and inuence
of the priests and scribes. Akhenatens reforms cut away
both the philosophical and economic bases of priestly
power, abolishing the cults of all other deities, and with
them the large and lucrative industry of sacrices and
tributes that the priests controlled.

At the same time, this strengthened the role of the


Pharaoh. Dominic Montserrat, analysing the various versions of the hymns to the Aten, argues that all the versions
of the hymns focus on the king and suggests that the real
innovation is to redene the relationship of god and king
in a way that beneted Akhenaten, quoting the statement
of Egyptologist John Baines that Amarna religion was a
religion of god and king, or even of king rst and then
In Year 9 ( 1344/1342 BC ), Akhenaten strengthened the god.[5][6]
Atenist regime, declaring the Aten to be not merely the Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten to the Egyptian peosupreme god, but the only god, a universal deity, and forple as a variant of the familiar supreme deity Amun-Ra
bidding worship of all others, including the veneration (itself the result of an earlier rise to prominence of the
of idols, even privately in peoples homesan arena the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with
Egyptian state had previously not touched in religious the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar
terms. Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, religious context. Aten is the name given to the solar disc,
such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: O Sole God beside whereas the full title of Akhenatens god was Ra-Horus,
whom there is none. Dominic Montserrat wrote that the who rejoices in the horizon in his name of the light which
Egyptian people were to worship Akhenaten while only is in the sun disc. (This is the title of the god as it appears
Akhenaten and Nefertiti could worship Aten.[4]
on the numerous stelae which were placed to mark the
Akhenaten staged the ritual regicide of the old supreme
god Amun, and ordered the defacing of Amuns temples
throughout Egypt, and of all the old gods. The word
for `gods (plural) was proscribed, and inscriptions have
been found in which even the hieroglyph of the word for
mother has been excised and re-written in alphabetic
signs, because it had the same sound in ancient Egyptian
as the sound of name of the Theban goddess Mut. Atens
name is also written dierently after Year 9, to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime. No longer is the
Aten written using the symbol of a rayed solar disc, but
instead it is spelled phonetically.

32.3 Contrast with traditional


Egyptian religion

boundaries of Akhenatens new capital at Akhetaten.)


However in the ninth year of his reign Akhenaten declared a more radical version of his new religion by
declaring Aten not merely the supreme god, but the only
god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary between the Aten and his people. He even staged
the ritual regicide of Amun, and ordered the defacing
of Amuns temples throughout Egypt. Key features of
Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the
Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which
the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to
represent the unseen spirit of Aten. New temples were
constructed, in which the Aten was worshipped in the
open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as
the old gods had been.

Although idols were bannedeven in peoples homes


these were typically replaced by functionally equivalent
representations of Akhenaten and his family venerating
Akhenaten carried out a radical program of religious rethe Aten, and receiving the ankh (breath of life) from him.
form which, for a period of about twenty years, largely
The radicalisation of Year 9 (including spelling Aten phosupplanted the age-old beliefs and practices of the Egyp-

32.5. DECLINE OF ATENISM

107

netically instead of using the rayed solar disc) may be due


to a determination on the part of Akhenaten to dispel a
probable misconception among the common people that
Aten was really a type of sun god like Ra. Instead, the
idea was reinforced that such representations were representations above all of conceptsof Atens universal
presencenot of physical beings or things.

32.5 Decline of Atenism

Artistic representations of Akhenaten usually give him a


strikingly feminine appearance, with slender limbs, a protruding belly and wide hips. Other leading gures of the
Amarna period, both royal and otherwise, are also shown
with some of these features, suggesting a possible religious connotation, especially as some sources suggest that
private representations of Akhenaten, as opposed to ofcial art, show him as quite normal. However, according
to some controversial theories, the strikingly unusual representations may have been due to non-religious factors Akhenaten may actually been a woman masquerading as
a man, which had been known to happen in Egyptian politics at least once before, or he may have had some intersex
condition. It is also suggested by Bob Brier, in his book
The Murder of Tutankhamen, that the family suered
from Marfans syndrome, which is known to cause elongated features, and that this may explain Akhenatens appearance.

Because of the possible monotheistic character of


Atenism, a link to Judaism (and subsequently the
monotheistic religions springing from it) has been suggested by various writers. For example, psychoanalyst
Sigmund Freud assumed Akhenaten to be the pioneer of
monotheistic religion and Moses as Akhenatens follower
in his book Moses and Monotheism (see also Osarseph).

Crucial evidence about the latter stages of Akhenatens


reign was furnished by discovery of the so-called Amarna
Letters. Believed to have been thrown away by scribes
after being transferred to papyrus, the letters comprise
a priceless cache of incoming clay message tablets sent
The early stage of Atenism appears a kind of henotheism from imperial outposts and foreign allies. The letters sugfamiliar in Egyptian religion, but the later form suggests gest that Akhenaten was obsessed with his new religion,
a proto-monotheism.
and that his neglect of matters of state was causing disorder across the massive Egyptian empire. The governors
and kings of subject domains wrote to beg for gold, and
also complained of being snubbed and cheated. Also discovered were reports that a major plague pandemic was
spreading across the ancient Near East. This pandemic
appears to have claimed the life of Akhenatens main
32.4 Amarna art
wife (Nefertiti) and several of his six daughters, which
may have contributed to a declining interest on the part
of Akhenaten in governing eectively.
Main article: Amarna art
With Akhenatens death, the Aten cult he had founded almost immediately fell out of favor due to pressures from
Styles of art that ourished during this short period are the Priesthood of Amun. Tutankhaten, who succeeded
markedly dierent from other Egyptian art, bearing a va- him at age 8 (with Akhenatens old vizier, Ay, as regent)
riety of aectations, from elongated heads to protruding changed his name to Tutankhamun in year 3 of his reign
stomachs, exaggerated ugliness and the beauty of Nefer- (1348 BC or 1331 BC) and abandoned Akhetaten, the
titi. Signicantly, and for the only time in the history of city falling into ruin. Temples Akhenaten had built, inEgyptian royal art, Akhenatens family was depicted in a cluding the temple at Thebes, were disassembled, reused
decidedly naturalistic manner, and they are clearly shown as a source of building materials and decorations for their
displaying aection for each other. Greek inuence may own temples, and inscriptions to Aten defaced. Finally,
have resulted in some of the Amarna artistic characteris- Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay were retics.
moved from the ocial lists of Pharaohs, which instead
Images of Akhenaten and Nefertiti usually depict the reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded
Aten prominently above that pair, with the hands of the by Horemheb.
Aten closest to each oering Ankhs. Unusually for newkingdom art the Pharaoh and his Great Royal Wife are
depicted as approximately equal in size, which together
with Nefertitis image used to decorate the lesser Aten
temple at Amarna may suggest she also had a prominent 32.6 Link to Judaism
ocial role in Aten worship.

32.7 Atenism in ction


Finnish author Mika Waltari used the idea of Aten and
Atenism in his famous historical novel The Egyptian, as
did New Zealand-Canadian author Pauline Gedge's 1984
historical novel The Twelfth Transforming.

108

32.8 Literature
Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten, King of Egypt ISBN 0500-05048-1
Mahfouz, Naguib, Akhenaten: Dweller in Truth
ISBN 0-385-49909-4
Redford, Donald B., Akhenaten: The Heretic King
ISBN 0-691-00217-7
Reeves, Nicholas, Akhenaton: Egypts False Prophet
ISBN 0-500-28552-7

32.9 See also


Judaism and ancient Egyptian religion

32.10 References
[1] Rosalie David, Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt, Facts
on File Inc., 1998. p.124
[2] Rosalie David, op. cit., p.124
[3] Rosalie David, op. cit., p.125
[4] Hart, George (2005). The Routledge dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 39.
ISBN 978-0-415-34495-1.
[5] Montserrat, Dominic (2002). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egyp. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 9780415301862.
[6] John Baines (1998). The Dawn of the Amarna Age. In
David O'Connor, Eric Cline. Amenhotep III: Perspectives
on His Reign. University of Michigan Press. p. 281.

CHAPTER 32. ATENISM

Chapter 33

Great Temple of the Aten


The Great Temple of the Aten (or the pr-Jtn, House of
the Aten[1] ) was located in the city of el-Amarna, Egypt,
and was the main temple for the worship of the god Aten
during the reign of Akhenaten (c. 1353-1336 BCE[2] ).[3]
Akhenaten ushered in a unique period of ancient Egyptian history by establishing the new religious cult dedicated to the sun-disk Aten. Akhenaten shut down traditional worship of other deities like Amun-Ra and brought
in a new era, though short-lived, of seeming monotheism where the Aten was worshipped as a sun god and
Akhenaten and his wife, Nefertiti, represented the divinely royal couple that connected the people with the
god.[3] Although he began construction at Karnak during his rule, the association the city had with other gods
drove Akhenaten to establish a new city and capital at
Amarna (then called Akhetaten) for the Aten. Akhenaten built the city along the east bank of the Nile River,
setting up workshops, palaces, suburbs and temples. The
Great Temple of the Aten was located just north of the
Central City and, as the largest temple dedicated to the
Aten, was where Akhenaten fully established the proper
cult and worship of the sun-disk.[3]

33.1 Construction

Surviving stela from the Great Temple of Aten at Akhetaten.

The city of Akhetaten was built rather hastily and was


constructed mostly of mud-brick. Mud-bricks were made
by drying in the sun and they measured 33-37 cm x 1516 cm x 9-10 cm, although bricks for temple enclosure
walls were slightly larger, at 38 cm x 16 cm x 16 cm.[4]
During construction, bricks were laid down with a small
amount of mortar between the rows and no mortar between adjacent bricks. There was no rain to deteriorate
the bricks but they would wear down from wind-swept
sand, so for protection walls were plastered with a layer
of mud that could be reapplied. As the bricks dried, they
often shrank leading to warping and structural problems,
so a technique was developed of arranging the rows of
bricks so that every other row was nearly hollow, allowing for air to circulate. While this helped walls keep their
form, it also acted to weaken the walls so particularly
high constructions meant to hold a lot of weight had to
be made dierently.[4] For pylon towers and large sur-

rounding walls like those at the Great Temple of the Aten,


timber was used for structural support and the public
buildings within the Temple had stone columns and were
built of other stones for more support. Stone columns
conformed to the usual style found elsewhere in Egypt,
representing either palm-frond or papyrus.[4] To lay out
structural elements like oering tables and pits on a plaster oor, string was used. The string was rst dipped in
black paint and stretched tightly and was allowed to touch
the ground, leaving a mark. In some instances the string
was even pushed into the plaster oor, leaving a shallow
groove. A similar technique was used to divide up wall
surfaces before they were decorated with relief.[4]
The actual construction of the temple was accomplished
in a series of steps. Before anything was built, there was
already some kind of dedication ceremony at the site.[4]
A ceremonial gateway with receptacles for liquid oer-

109

110
ings stood at the beginning of a paved avenue. The avenue extended eastward and was lined with sphinxes, but
they were later replaced by trees (tree pits, some still containing tree roots, have been excavated). The avenue led
up to a small mud-brick shrine which was later built into
the main design scheme of the Temple.[4] The rst main
construction undertaken by Akhenaten was the building
of the temenos wall, enclosing a huge area of 229m x
730m.[5] As the wall was being completed, the stone
Sanctuary at the east end of the enclosure was built. This
Sanctuary seemed to function on its own for some time
until a few years later when Akhenaten added the GemAten on the west side of the enclosure. With this addition,
the original ceremonial gate had to be taken down and a
raised causeway was built over it. The Gem-Aten was
originally constructed in stone, but it seems that as time
went on Akhenaten ran low on materials and the latter
part of the Gem-Aten was nished with mud-brick.[4] It
is unknown exactly how the Temple walls were decorated
because the entire area was destroyed later on, but fragments that have been found show that there were many
statues of Akhenaten and his family placed all around the
Temple.[4]

33.2 Layout
The Great Temple of the Aten lay to the north of the Central City part of Akhetaten and was separated from the
Palace by many storehouses.[6] The Temple was oriented
on an east-west axis[6] and the western entrance to the
Great Temple was along the Royal Road, a road that ran
through the city and parallel to the Nile River.[3] Soon
after the death of Akhenaten, Atenism was rejected as
a religion and the city was destroyed. The temple was
dismantled, covered in new sand, and paved over, but
ironically this has preserved the site better than it might
normally have been for archaeologists today.[4] In 1890,
Flinders Petrie, with permission from the Egyptian Antiquities Service, began excavating the area.[7] Based on
the remaining foundations he found[5] as well as on multiple scenes of the Great Temple found in private tomb
decoration in Amarna, a comprehensive reconstruction
of the temple has been possible.[7]

CHAPTER 33. GREAT TEMPLE OF THE ATEN


amongst all of the Aten temples; they were all arranged to
direct worship towards the sky (such as in the wt Aten
(Mansion of Aten), the smaller temple of Aten located
500m south of the Great Temple in Akhetaten).[1]
In the Great Temple there were two main structures, the
Gem-Aten and the Sanctuary, which were separated by
about 300m.[8] Upon entering the enclosure wall, one
faced the rst of these structures, the Gem-Aten, which
was a very long building preceded by a court called the
Per-Hai (House of Rejoicing).[8] On the left of the main
entrance to the Temple was a columned pavilion and on
both the left and the right were small chapels.[9] These
chapels, originally built for Queen Kiya, were later taken
over by the elder princesses.[7] The rst great pylon directly ahead was the entrance into the Per-Hai and it had
swinging doors and ve pairs of tall masts with crimson
pennants anking the doorway.[9] The inside of the PerHai had two rows of four columns on each side. Within
these colonnades were altars made of limestone carved
with images of the King and Queen giving oerings.[4]
Through the Per-Hai and the next great pylon was the
Gem-Aten, the [The Place of] He Who Found the Aten,[1]
and this was a series of six courtyards separated by pylons,
all leading to a main sanctuary and altar.[8] This Temple
diered from temples of other gods because as one progressed through the courts, they became more open to the
air and light, as opposed to temples like those of AmunRa where the halls would get darker and more shrouded
in mystery.[1] The rst court had a high altar with small
chapels and chambers on either side. Each successive
court had altars and magazines where oering supplies
could be stored.[7] The fourth court was columned and
had many furnished chambers where people could rest in
the shade.[9] The nal court had a main High Altar intended for the Royal pair, and it was surrounded by 365
mud-brick altars on either side, one for each day of the
year, divided to represent Upper and Lower Egypt.[7] The
oerings given here were dedicated to the Aten but were
then used to feed the ociating priests, the temple sta,
and even some of the local populace.[7] Beyond this High
Altar the Gem-Aten abruptly ended in a blank wall, which
shows no sign of having had a door in it.[4] On the outside of the Gem-Aten there was enough room to have a
large ambulatory[9] and there were 40 rows of 20 oering
tables set up on each side.[4]

The temple as pictured in Panehsys tomb


The temple as pictured in Meryres tomb

One of the most distinctive aspects of the Temple was


that there was no cult image of the god. Instead, the
Temple was open-aired and had no roof, so that people
worshipped the actual sun directly overhead as it traveled
from east to west.[5] In fact this was a common theme

Between the Gem-Aten and the Sanctuary, the main


building at the east end of the enclosure, was a smaller,
more sacred pillared portico with statues of Akhenaten
and his family standing in front of each column.[9] Inside

33.4. EXCAVATION & EXPLORATION


the portico was a great quartzite stela next to a colossal
seated statue of Akhenaten.[7] This stela was carved with
images of Akhenaten and Nefertiti and was a variation
of a benben stone, a sacred solar symbol of Heliopolis.[5]
Traditionally, the benben stone was a representation of
the island created by the sun-god Atum at the beginning
of the world.[1] This marked one of the holiest areas in the
Temple and it was heaped in owers and oerings.[9] Today only a fragment of this stone has been found (discovered by Carter in 1892),[7] but it was identied as a benben stone based on scenes of the Temple found in nearby
tombs.[5]
Also between the Gem-Aten and the Sanctuary in the
Great Temple was a large square building where meat offerings were slaughtered and prepared, but further excavation of the area is dicult because of the presence of
the modern-day cemetery of Et-Till.[4]

111
burning incense and pouring libations.[1] To consecrate
oerings, a special baton called a hrp was used to touch
the oerings, marking it as meant for the Aten.[1]
On each day, the Royal Family approached the temple on
chariots after riding up and down the Royal Road,[4] and
entered the temple precinct and presented oerings in
front of the Gem-Aten.[1] The King and Queen then consecrated their oerings with the hrp while their daughters rattled instruments called sistra.[1] The family then
passed through the pylons of the Gem-Aten and mounted
the steps of the High Altar where there were oerings
of meat, poultry, vegetables, and owers already laid out
and surmounted by three pans of burning incense.[1] As
the King and Queen ociated, priests then placed offerings on many of the other altars for the public people while music was played. The Princesses continued to
rattle the sistra while four male chanters sang hymns to
the Aten within the Gem-Aten court.[1] Outside the GemAten were female musicians who performed along with
the temple choir which was made up of blind singers and
a blind harpist. These musicians performed at intervals
throughout the day and were never allowed beyond the
outer court.[1]

The second main structure of the Great Temple was the


Sanctuary at its east end, which may have been inspired
by the Fifth Dynasty Sun Temples at Abu Ghuroub (c.
2400 BCE).[1] The Sanctuary started with a pylon that led
into an open court, on the south side of which were three
houses probably intended for the priests on duty.[4] A second pylon led to a causeway that went through two large
colonnades with colossal statues of Akhenaten on either
side wearing the Red Crown and the White Crown.[4] The
causeway continued into a nal court that had a high altar surrounded by oering tables. This main altar was
probably intended just for the Royal Family, especially 33.4 Excavation & Exploration
after the Gem-Aten was built and put into regular use.[4]
Behind the Sanctuary there were other rooms including a
Flinders Petrie was the rst person to work in the temple,
large room which housed the original shrine of the dedand his assistant, Howard Carter excavated in the sanctuication ceremony, but these rooms were only accessible
ary area. However, it was John Pendlebury who actually
[4]
from outside the Sanctuary.
fully mapped this area during his excavations in 1935.
Against the northeastern end of the enclosure wall was The EES Amarna Survey project returned to redig the
one nal altar called the Hall of Foreign Tribute. This site and corrected some mistakes in the mapping.
was a large set-in altar and was most likely where oerings
Project leader Sarah Parcak of the University of Alfrom foreign lands were made.[1]
abama at Birmingham, Based on the coins and pottery
we found, it appears to be a massive regional center that
traded with Greece, Turkey and Libya.

33.3 Worship

This is part of a larger project aiming to map as much


of ancient Egypts archaeological sites, or tells, as posare destroyed or covered by modern
The cult of the Aten was celebrated daily and was very sible before they
[11]
development.
[8]
simple. Although there were other priests, Akhenaten
acted as his own High Priest and special roles were given Although Akhenaten had several temples dedicated to the
to the royal women.[1] Since there was no cult statue, the Aten, the Great Temple of the Aten was the largest and
traditional acts of raising and washing the god played most signicant. During Akhenatens reign, the new city
no role in the Great Temple and worship rather con- of Akhetaten was completely built up and the regular worsisted solely of singing hymns and giving oerings to the ship of the Aten was established. Shortly after AkhenAten.[1] Some hymns told stories, such as one that at- atens death though, this all fell apart as successive kings
tributed the Aten with the creation of the human race and destroyed the Temple and the city in an eort to return
recognized that people were created dierently, to speak to the traditional religion of Egypt. Nonetheless, enough
dierent languages and have dierent colored skins,[10] remains preserved of the Great Temple of the Aten to be
while other hymns simply expressed adoration and grat- able to get a sense of what it looked like and how worship
itude to the Aten.[8] Oerings consisted of food, drink, of the Aten must have played out for inhabitants of the
owers, and perfume and were often accompanied by city of Akhetaten.

112

CHAPTER 33. GREAT TEMPLE OF THE ATEN

33.5 Image gallery


33.5.1

Sculptural fragments from the temple

John Baines and Jaromir Malek, Cultural Atlas of


Ancient Egypt, ed. Graham Speake (Oxfordshire:
Andromeda, 1980), 36.

A fragmentary face.

Kathryn A. Bard, An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2008), 221-225.

A fragmentary statue of the pharaoh wearing the


white crown.

J.D.S. Pendlebury, Tell el-Amarna (London: Lovat


Dickson & Thomson Ltd., 1935), 65-100.

A fragmentary statue of the pharaoh Akhenaten.

Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt (Cambridge,


MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 153.

A fragmentary torso of Nefertiti.


Torso fragment of a prostrate statue, thought to
come from the Great Temple of the Aten.

33.6 References
[1] Barbara Watterson, Amarna: Ancient Egypts Age of
Revolution (Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing, 1999),
69-72.
[2] John Baines and Jaromir Malek, Cultural Atlas of Ancient
Egypt, ed. Graham Speake (Oxfordshire: Andromeda,
1980), 36.
[3] Kathryn A. Bard, An Introduction to the Archaeology
of Ancient Egypt (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing,
2008), 221-225.
[4] J.D.S. Pendlebury, Tell el-Amarna (London: Lovat Dickson & Thomson Ltd., 1935), 65-100.
[5] Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 1997), 153.
[6] Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the Pharaohs
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1987), 108-109.
[7] Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten: King of Egypt (New York:
Thames and Hudson, 1988), 25-26, 52, 67, 273-275.
[8] Robert Hari, New Kingdom Amarna Period (The Netherlands: Leiden E. J. Brill, 1985), 10.
[9] Arthur Weigall, The Life and Times of Akhnaton (New
York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1923), 172-175.
[10] Siegfried Morenz, Egyptian Religion (Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press, 1973), 51.
[11] Ancient Egyptian City Spotted From Space

George Hart, A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and


Goddesses, Routledge, 1986
Barry Kemp, Amarna Reports IV, Egypt Exploration Society, 1987
Barbara Watterson, Amarna: Ancient Egypts Age
of Revolution (Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing,
1999), 69-72.

Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the


Pharaohs (London: Thames and Hudson, 1987),
108-109.
Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten: King of Egypt (New
York: Thames and Hudson, 1988), 25-26, 52, 67,
273-275.
Robert Hari, New Kingdom Amarna Period (The
Netherlands: Leiden E. J. Brill, 1985), 10.
Arthur Weigall, The Life and Times of Akhnaton
(New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1923), 172-175.
Siegfried Morenz, Egyptian Religion (Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press, 1973), 51.
Coordinates:
30.901E

273900N 305404E / 27.650N

Chapter 34

Meryre
For the given name, see Meryre (given name).
The Egyptian noble Meryre (also Merire) was the only
certain High Priest of the Aten. Amongst his other titles were Hereditary Noble and High Ocial and Fanbearer on the Right Side of the King[1] which emphasise
his closeness to the king.[2]
He had a tomb constructed at Amarna, Tomb 4, although
his remains have never been identied. (See Tombs of
the Nobles.)

34.1 References
[1] Breasted (1906) 988
[2] TOMB N4, Amarna. Retrieved 2008-01-29.

34.2 Literature
J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Chicago
1906, Part Two, .982-988

113

Chapter 35

Neferneferuaten
For other individuals named Neferneferuaten, see Neferneferuaten.

Amarna period pharaohs from Akhenaten to Ay were


expunged from history as these kings total regnal years
were assigned to Horemheb. The result is that 3300 years
Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/
-mery- later, scholars would have to piece together events and
Waenre/ -mery-Aten Neferneferuaten was a woman even resurrect the players bit by bit with the evidence
who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna sometimes limited to palimpsest - erased - text.
Period during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her gender is With the evidence so murky and equivocal, at one time
conrmed by feminine traces occasionally found in the or another, the name, gender, identity and even the exname and by the epithet Akhet-en-hyes (Eective for istence of Neferneferuaten has been a matter of debate
her husband), incorporated into one version of her among Egyptologists. The lack of unique names continsecond cartouche.[1][2][3]
ues to cause problems in books and papers written beShe is to be distinguished from the king who used the fore the early 1980s: an object might be characterized
name Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare-Djeser Kheperu but as bearing the name of Smenkhkare, when if in fact the
name was Ankhkheperure it could be related to one of
without epithets appearing in either cartouche.
two people.

35.1 General chronology

35.1.1 Manetho

As illustrated in a 2011 Metropolitan Museum of Art[4] Manetho was a priest in the time of the Ptolemies in the
symposium on Horemheb, the general chronology of the Third Century B.C.E. His Egyptian History divided the
late 18th Dynasty is:
rulers into dynasties which forms the basis of the modern
There is no broad consensus as to the succession order system of dating Ancient Egypt. His work has been lost
of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten. With little dated and is known only in fragmentary form from later writers
evidence to x their reigns with any certainty, the order quoting his work. As a result of the suppression of the
depends on how the evidence is interpreted. Many ency- Amarna kings, Manetho is the sole ancient record availclopedic sources and atlases will show Smenkhkare suc- able.
ceeding Akhenaten on the basis of tradition dating back
Manethos Epitome, a summary of his work, describes the
to 1845, and some still conate Smenkhkare with Nefer- late 18th Dynasty succession as "Amenophis for 30 years
neferuaten.
10 months",[5] who seems likely to be Amenhotep III.
The period from the 13th year of Akhenaten's reign to Then "his son Orus for 36 years 5 months", this is often
the ascension of Tutankhaten is very murky. The reigns seen as a corruption of the name Horemheb with the enof Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten were very brief and tire Amarna period attributed to him, but others see Orus
left little monumental or inscriptional evidence to draw as Akhenaten.
a clear picture of political events. Adding to this, Ne- Next comes "his daughter Acencheres for 12 years 1
ferneferuaten shares her prenomen, or throne name, with month then her brother Rathotis for 9 years". Acencheres
Smenkhkare, and her nomen (or birth name) with Queen is Ankhkheperure according to Gabolde,[6] with a tranNefertiti-Neferneferuaten making identication very dif- scription error assumed which converted 2 years, 1 month
cult at times.
into the 12 years, 1 month reported (Africanus and EuThe Egyptians themselves tried to hide the evidence of
the Amarna kings reigns from us. Neferneferuatens successor seems to have denied her a kings burial and, later,
in the reign of Horemheb, the entire Amarna period began to be regarded as anathema and the reigns of the

sebius cite 32 and 16 years for this person). Most agree


that Rathotis refers to Tut, so the succession order also
supports Acencheres as Ankhkheperure. Rathotis is followed by "his son Acencheres for 12 years 5 months, his
son Acencheres II for 12 years 3 months"[5] which are in-

114

35.2. KEY EVIDENCE

115

explicable and demonstrate the limits to which Manetho a new king. The jar also seems to indicate a coregency,
can be relied upon.
but may be a case of one king associating himself with a
predecessor. The simple association of names is not always indicative of a coregency.[9] As with many things of
this period, the evidence is suggestive, but not conclusive.
35.2 Key evidence

Image commonly taken to be Smenkhkare and Meritaten, but may


not be them.

There are several items central to the slow unveiling regarding the existence, gender and identity of Neferneferuaten. These continue to be key elements to various theories today.
The name of King Ankheprure SmenkhkareDjeserkheperu was known as far back as 1845 from
the tomb of Meryre II. There, he and Meritaten,
bearing the title Great Royal Wife, are shown rewarding the tombs owner. The names of the king
have since been cut out but had been recorded by
Lepsius ca 1850.[7] A dierent scene on a dierent
wall depicts the famous Durbar scene which is dated
to regnal year 12.
A calcite globular vase from the tomb of
Tutankhamun bears the full double cartouche of
Akhenaten alongside the full double cartouche of
Smenkhkare. It is the only object to carry both
names side by side.[8]
Inscription from Carter 001k, a box from Tutankhamuns tomb.

These can be taken to represent that the two were coregents, as was the case initially. However, the scene in the
tomb of Meryre is not dated and Akhenaten is neither depicted nor mentioned in it. It is not known with certainty
when the tomb owner died or if he may lived on to serve

Indisputable images for Smenkhkare are rare. Aside


from the tomb of Meryre II, the image to the right
showing an Amarna king and queen in a garden

116

CHAPTER 35. NEFERNEFERUATEN


is often attributed to him. It is completely without inscription, but since they do not look like
Tut or his queen, they are often assumed to be
Smenkhkare and Meriaten, but Akhenaten and Nefertiti are sometimes put forth as well.

A single wine docket, 'Year 1, wine of the house


of Smenkhkare', indicates he probably had a short
reign.[10] Another dated to Year 1 from 'The House
of Smenkhkare (deceased)'[11] was originally interpreted to indicate that he died during the harvest of
his rst year; more recently it has been proposed to
mean his estate was still producing wine in the rst
year of his successor.

The most denitive inscription attesting to Neferneferuaten is a hieratic inscription in the tomb of Pairi
(TT139):
Regnal year 3, third month of Inundation, day 10. The King of Upper and Lower
Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands Ankhkheperure
Beloved of Aten, the Son of Re Neferneferuaten
Beloved of Waenre. Giving worship to Amun,
kissing the ground to Wenennefer by the lay
priest, scribe of the divine oerings of Amun
in the Mansion [temple] of Ankhkheperure in
Thebes, Pawah, born to Yotefseneb. He says:
...[13]

There are several rings with most of his name


intact.[12] One example is Item UC23800 in the 35.3 Female king
Petrie Museum. The ring clearly shows the djeser
and kherperu elements of and a portion of the 'ka' For some time the accepted interpretation of the evidence
was that Smenkhkare served as coregent with Akhenglyph.
aten beginning about year 15 using the throne name
Line drawings of a block depicting the nearly com- Ankhkheperure. At some point, perhaps to start his sole
plete names of King Smenkhkare and Meritaten as reign, he changed his name to Ankhkheperure NeferneGreat Royal Wife were recorded before the block feruaten. An alternate view held that Nefertiti was King
Neferneferuaten, in some versions she is also masqueradwas lost.
ing as a male using the name Smenkhkare.
Things remained in this state until the early 1970s when
English Egyptologist John Harris noted in a series of
papers[14] the existence of versions of the rst cartouche
that seemed to include feminine indicators. These were
linked with a few items including a statuette found in Tutankhamuns tomb[15] depicting a king whose appearance
was particularly feminine, even for Amarna art which
seems to favor androgyny. There are several stele depicting a king along with someone elseoften wearing a kings crownin various familiar, almost intimate
scenes. All of them are unnished or uninscribed and
Where named depictions of Smenkhkare are rare, some are defaced. These include:
there are no known depictions for Neferneferuaten.

A number of items in Tutankhamun's tomb were originally intended for Neferneferuaten. Among them Carter
261p(1), a stunning gold pectoral depicting the goddess Nut. Other items include the stone sarcophagus,
mummy wrappings, royal gurines; canopic items (chest,
conettes and jar stoppers), various bracelets and even
shabti gures. Some items are believed to have been at
least originally intended for a female based on the style
even when a name cannot be restored.

Of particular interest is a box (Carter 001k) (right,


originally one long piece) inscribed with the following:
King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Living in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands,
Neferkheperure-Waenre
Son of Re, Living in Truth, Lord of
Crowns, Akhenaten, Great in his duration
King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord
of the Two Lands, Ankhkheperure MeryNeferkheperre
Son of Re, Lord of Crowns, Neferneferuaten
Mery-Waenre
Great Royal Spouse, Meritaten, May she Live
Forever.

An unnished stele (#17813, Berlin) depicts two


royal gures in a familiar, if not intimate, pose. One
gure wears the double crown, while the other wears
a headpiece which is similar to that from the familiar Nefertiti bust, but is actually a Khepresh or blue
crown worn by a king.
Aidan Dodson cites this stele to
support the idea that Nefertiti may
have at one point been something
like a coregent as indicated by
the crown, but not entitled to full
pharoanic honors such as the double cartouche.
Berlin 25574 depicts what clearly seems to be
Akhenaten and Nefertiti wearing her at top headpiece. They are accompanied by four empty

35.3. FEMALE KING

117

cartouchesenough for two kingsone of which


seems to have been squeezed in.
Reeves sees this as an important
item in the case for Nefertiti. When
the stele was started, she was queen
and thus portrayed with the at top
headpiece. She was elevated to
coregent shortly afterwards and a
fourth cartouche was squeezed in to
accommodate two kings.[16]
Flinders Petrie discovered seven limestone fragments of a private stele in 1891, now in the Petrie
Museum, U.C.410 sometimes called the Coregency
Stela.[17] One side bears the double cartouche of
Akhenaten alongside that of Ankhkheperure meryWaenre Neferneferuaten Akhet-en-hyes (eective
for her husband) which had been carved over the
single cartouche of Nefertiti.[18]
Today it seems obvious the clues point to a female coregent, but the unique situation of succeeding kings using
identical throne names resulted in a great deal of confusion. The intimate depictions in so many stelae led to
speculation about homosexuality which has come to be
accepted as fact with later evidence and interpretations
being ignored.
A paper by Rolf Krauss of the Egyptian Museum,
Berlin proposed a middle way by suggesting that while
Smenkhkare/Neferneferuaten was a man, his wife Meritaten might have ruled with the feminine prenomen
Ankh-et-kheperure after Akhenatens death and before
Smenkhkares accession.[1] Smenkhkare then takes the
masculine form of her prenomen upon gaining the throne
through marriage to her.[19] While this was a step forward
in establishing a feminine king, it also sparked a new debate regarding which evidence related to Meritaten and
which to Smenkhkare.

35.3.1

Cutting the knot

In 1988, James P. Allen proposed it was possible


to cut the Gordian Knot and separate Smenkhkare
from Neferneferuaten.[18] He pointed out the name
'Ankhkheperure' was rendered dierently depending on
whether it was associated with Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten. When coupled with Neferneferuaten, the
prenomen included an epithet referring to Akhenaten
such as 'desired of Wa en Re'. There were no occasions
where the long versions of the prenomen occurred alongside the nomen 'Smenkhkare', nor was the short version
ever found associated with the nomen 'Neferneferuaten'.

Ankhkheperure with feminine indicators (93, 94) and without


(95). These read:
(93) Ankhkheperure desired (f) of Neferkheperure (Akhenaten).
(94) Ankh-et-kheprure (f) desired (f) of Wa-en-Re (using indicators in the name and epithet).
(95) Ankhkheeprure desired of Wa-en-Re.
From Tell el Amarna, Flinders Petrie; 1894

which can be lost over time or simply misread especially


on smaller items. Following Allen, without regard to the
feminine indicators, all three of these names would refer to King Neferneferuaten since they include epithets
and associate her with Akhenaten ('desired of Wa-en re /
Neferkheperure').
In a 1994 paper,[2] Allen suggested that the dierent rendering of the names may well indicate two individuals
not a single person: ...the evidence itself does not demand
an identication of Smenkh-ka-re with Nefer-neferu-aton,
and in fact the insistence that the two sets of names must
belong to a single individual only weakens each case.[2]
Allen noted another nuance in the names: the reed (jtn)
glyph in 'Neferneferuaten' is always reversed to face the
seated-woman determinative at the end of the name when
associated with the Nefertiti form. Except for a unique
case, the reed is not reversed when used with Ankhkheperure. This can be taken to indicate Neferneferuaten is
also an individual apart from Nefertiti based on the general dierence, or to indicate they are the same person on
the basis of the unique rendering in the presence of the
seated-person determinative (see below).
Later, the French Egyptologist Marc Gabolde noted that
several items from the tomb of Tutankhamun which had
been originally inscribed for Neferneferuaten and read
as "...desired of Ahkenaten were originally inscribed as
Akhet-en-hyes or eective for her husband.[20] His reading was conrmed later by James Allen.

The use of epithets (or lack of them) to identify the king


referenced in an inscription eventually became widely
accepted among scholars and regularly cited in their
work[21] though a case for exempting a particular inscription or instance will occasionally be argued to support a
As the image to the right shows, the dierences in the larger hypothesis. As the Smenkhkare versus Nefernefeminine and standard forms are minimal: an extra 't' feruaten debate subsided, the door was opening for new
glyph either in the name or epithet (or both as in #94) interpretations for the evidence.

118

35.3.2

CHAPTER 35. NEFERNEFERUATEN

Sole reign?

Allen later showed that Neferneferuatens epithets were


of three types or sets. They were usually in the form of
desired of ..., but were occasionally replaced by effective for her husband. In a few cases, the names can
be followed by 'justied' using feminine attributes.[2] The
term 'justied' (maet kheru) is a common indicator that
the person referenced is dead. A similar reference associated with Hatshepsut in the tomb of Penyati is taken
to indicate she had recently died.[22] Finally, a few of
her cartouches bear unique epithets not associated with
Akhenaten at all. These include desired of the Aten
and The Ruler.[2]
Dr. Allen concluded[2] that the strong aliation with
Akhenaten in the epithets and the number of them made
it likely that Neferneferuaten had been his coregent and
therefore preceded Smenkhkare. The eective... epithets, then represent a period during which Akhenaten was incapacitated but may also date from a time
after Akhenatens death.[23] Finally, the less common
'Akhenaten-less versions represented a period of sole
reign for Neferneferuaten.

The prenomen (left column) and nomen


(right column) forms for Ankhkheperure
Neferneferuaten[2][24][25] [26]
Note that aside from rings, the feminine
form Ankh-et-kheperure, as yet, is never
found in a royal cartouche. At one point, one
or more mery Akhet-en-hyes (eective for
her husband) had been read as desired of
Akhenaten probably on the basis of the bird
glyph. The fourth set are from the hieratic
inscription from the tomb of Pairi (TT139)
which seems to have a feminine marker in the
nomens epithet. In the last nomen, the leading
reed is reversed as it always is in the cartouche
of Nefertiti-Neferneferuaten.

James Allen also oered a possible explanation for the


use of the same throne name by 2 successive kings.[2] He
suggested that the almost constant references to Akhenaten, in particular the 'desired of Akhenaten' versions,
may be proclamations of legitimacy on the part of Neferneferuaten. That is, the epithets are being used to announce or proclaim her as Akhenatens chosen successor/coregent. One implication then, is there may have
been resistance to the choice of Neferneferuaten or was 35.4 Identity of Neferneferuaten
anticipated. This appears to be supported by her funeral
items being usurped to deny her a kings burial.
By the late 20th Century, there was a "'a fair degree
Allen suggested that adopting the name Ankhkheperure of consensus"[27] that Neferneferuaten was a female
was "to emphasize the legitimacy of Smenkh-ka-res claim king and Smenkhkare a separate male king, particularly
against that of Akhenatons chosen (/mr/) coregent".[2] among specialists of the period.[28] (the public and the
That is, a division in the royal house put Smenkhkare on internet still often commingle the two). Many Egyptolthe throne as a rival king to Neferneferuaten. This was ogists believe she also served as coregent on the basis of
oered as a simple and logical reading of the evidence the stela and epithets, with advocates for Meritaten being
to explain the nature of the epithets, the use of identical notable exceptions. A sole reign seems very likely, given
prenomens by successive kings and that she was denied a that the Pairi inscription is dated using her regnal years.
royal burial. With no dated evidence of rival or contem- Opinion is more divided on the placement and nature of
poraneous kings though, it remains conjecture.
the reign of Smenkhkare.

35.4. IDENTITY OF NEFERNEFERUATEN

119

The focus now shifts to the identity of Neferneferuaten, was added to her image, it would argue quite strongly that
with each candidate having its own advocate(s), a debate Nefertiti adopted a new name and title.[36] As it is, the
which may never be settled to the satisfaction of all.
scene seems to be another of the royal family including
at least Meritaten. Replacing the name Nefertiti with the
name King Neferneferuaten in a depiction of the royal
35.4.1 Nefertiti
family, still seems to favor Nefertiti as the new king.
The primary argument against Nefertiti has been that she
likely died sometime after year 12, the last dated depiction of her. Typically, when someone disappears from inscriptions and depictions, the simplest explanation is that
they died. Evidence suggesting this includes:
Pieces of a shabtia funerary guremay indicate her title at death was Great Royal Wife. The
shabti is in two pieces with a piece tting between
them assumed. One piece bears her name, NefertitiNeferneferuaten, the other the title Great Royal
Wife.

Nefertiti depicted in familiar scene of a pharaoh smiting Egypts


enemy

Nefertiti was an early candidate for King Neferneferuaten, rst proposed in 1973 by J.R. Harris.[29] One theory from the 1970s held that Nefertiti was masquerading as the male King Smenkhkare,[30] a view still held
by a few as late as 2001 by Reeves[16] and until 2004 by
Dodson.[31]
The apparent use of her name made her an obvious candidate even before Neferneferuatens gender was rmly established. Remains of painted plaster bearing the kingly
names of Neferneferuaten found in the Northern Palace,
long believed to be the residence of Nefertiti, supports
the association of Nefertiti as the king.[32]
Nefertiti was well in the forefront during her husbands
reign and even depicted engaging in kingly activities such
as smiting the enemies of Egypt (see image, right).[33]
The core premise is that her prominence and attendant
power in the Amarna period was almost unprecedented
for a queen which makes her the most likely and most
able female to succeed Akhenaten.[16][34][35]
The Coregency Stela (UC 410) mentioned earlier might
resolve the question if it were not so badly damaged. The
name Neferneferuaten replaced Nefertitis name on it.
How the image of Nefertiti was changed to match the new
inscription could settle matters if her image was not missing. If her entire image was replaced it would mean Nefertiti was replaced by someone else called King Neferneferuaten and perhaps that she died. If just a new crown

With about 200 shabti for


Akhenaten,[37] a single one for
Nefertiti seems scant evidence for
her death. A 1999 article speculates that the two pieces instead
belonged to two separate shabtis,
one of Nefertiti and the other of
Meritaten.[38]
Wine dockets from her estate decline and cease after
year 13.[39] Dockets from later years mention only a
Queen.
The oor of the royal tomb intended for her, though
apparently not used, shows signs of cuts being
started for the nal placement of her con.[34]
Meritatens title as chief queen alongside Akhenatens name in Tutankhamuns tomb indicates she
replaced Nefertiti as in that role. This also seems indicated by her designation as mistress of the royal
house in Amarna Letter EA 11.
Nefertiti in regnal year 16
In December 2012, the Leuven Archaeological Mission
announced the nd of a hieratic inscription in a limestone
quarry which mentions a building project in Amarna. The
text is said to be badly damaged, but doctoral student
Athena Van der Perre has read the text to indicate a date
from regnal year sixteen of Akhenaten and mentions Nefertiti as Akhenatens chief wife.[40] The full inscription
has not been ocially published or studied yetbut parts
of it have been published by Athena Van der Perre and
they clearly show that Nefertiti, Akhenatens chief queen
was still alive late in Year 16 of Akhenatens reign. The
inscription is dated explicitly to Year 16 III Akhet day

120

CHAPTER 35. NEFERNEFERUATEN

15 of Akhenatens own reign and mentions, in the same


breath, the presence of Queen Nefertitior the "Great
Royal Wife, His Beloved, Lady of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti"in its third line.[41] The badly
legible ve line text, found in a limestone quarry at Deir
el-Bersha, was deciphered and interpreted by Athena Van
der Perre.[42]

The regnal years attested for Neferneferuatentwo plus


a fractionare not enough to allow for a short coregency
with Akhenaten plus an independent reign or another
coregency with Tutankhaten. Dodson accounts for this
by suggesting that Nefertiti counted her years only after
Akhenatens death which is a generally held view put forth
by Murnane to account for the lack of double dates in
[46]
even when a coregency is known
When the inscription is published in full and if Nefer- the New Kingdom
to exist. Dodson then speculates that she may later have
titis existence late in Akhenatens reign is veried, her
in eect deferring
name, gender and location in time would all argue quite shared Tutankhamuns regnal dating, [47]
senior status at least nominally to him.
strongly for Nefertiti to be the female ruler known as Neferneferuaten. This would also impact various details of Several interesting ideas worthy of consideration are
the Amarna succession theories proposed. For instance, oered but the central assumption, that Nefertiti was
some such as Dodson propose that Neferneferuaten was mother to Tutankhaten, has since been proven false.
a coregent for some three years followed by another three DNA evidence published a year after the book conyears as sole ruler.[43] The inscription would argue against cluded that Tutankhatens parents were sibling children
a coregency of more than about a yearif any at all of Amenhotep III, which Nefertiti was not.[48]
since the inscription attests to her as Queen just before Marc Gabolde contends that Tutankhaten never reigned
the start of Akhenatens nal year.
for more than a few months at Amarna. He notes that
Unless and until the inscription is conrmed, the evidence while Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten and even Smenkhkare
fails to tilt the scales decisively either way on her candi- are attested as kings in Amarna, evidence for Tudacy.
tankhaten is limited to some bezel rings. That is, evidence typically associated with a royal residence is lacking: there are no stamped bricks, reliefs or paintings; he is
Sunset theory
not mentioned or depicted in any private tombs, cult stela,
royal depictions or documents; the result is that there is
Even among Egyptologists who advocate Nefertiti as Ne- no evidence of King Tutankhaten in Amarna at all. Ring
ferneferuaten, the exact nature of her reign can vary. bezels and scarabs bearing his name found only shows
Reeves sees Nefertiti ruling independently for some the city was still inhabited during his reign.[49] With Netime before Tutankhamun and has identied her as ferneferuaten scarcely attested outside Amarna and TuDahamunzu of the Hittite letter writing episode. In sup- tankaten scarcely attested at Amarna, a coregency or report, Reeves makes clear that Nefertiti did not disappear gency seems unlikely.
and is seen in the last years of Akhenaten in the form
Regarding the jar sealings, excavators working the Tell
of the various stelae. The shabti is explained as a votive
el-Borg site note that the two amphorae bearing the carplaced in the tomb of someone close to Nefertiti such as
touche of Neferneferuaten were found in a garbage pit
Meketaten at a time before she was elevated.[16]
200 meters away from the location where the two carAmarna Sunset, by Aidan Dodson, is the most recent touches of Nebkheperure (Tutankhaten) were found. Adtheory to date and proposes several new ideas regard- ditionally, sealings and small objects like bezel rings
ing the chronology and ow of events. Based on the from many 18th Dynasty characters including Akhengrounds of its location and state of completion, Dodson aten, Aye, Queen Tiye, and Horemheb are all present at
thinks that the depiction of Smenkhkare in the tomb of the site.[50] Egyptologists excavating the site conclude:
Meryre cannot date to later than Year 13/14 of Akhen- "Consequently, linking Tutankhamun and Neferneferuaten. If accepted, Smenkhkare cannot have had an inde- aten politically, based on the discovery of their names on
pendent reign and thus Neferneferuaten must have come amphorae at Tell el-Borg, is unwarranted.[51]
after him.[44] The result being that Smenkhkares reign is
entirely that of a coregent ending about a year later.
Nefertiti follows as coregent for a time, using the
name Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. He concludes
that Nefertiti was the mother of Tutankhaten, so after
Akhenaten dies she continues as regent/coregent to Tutankhaten. Dodson proposes that in that role, Neferneferuaten helped guide the reformation in the early years of
Tutankhaten and conjectures that her turn around is the
result of her 'rapid adjustment to political reality'. To support the Nefertiti-Tutankhamun coregency, he cites jar
handles found bearing her cartouche and others bearing
those of Tutankhaten found in Northern Sinai.[45]

35.4.2 Meritaten
Meritaten as a candidate for Neferneferuaten seems to
be the most uid, taking many forms depending on the
views of the Egyptologist. She had been put forth by
Rolf Krauss in 1973 to explain the feminine traces in the
prenomen and epithets of Ankhkheprure and to conform
to Manethos description of a Akenkheres as a daughter
of Oros.[1] Though few Egyptologists endorsed the whole
hypothesis, many did accept her at times as the probable
or possible candidate for a female Ankhkheprure ruling

35.4. IDENTITY OF NEFERNEFERUATEN

121

for a time after Smenkhkares death and perhaps as regent The traditional view has long been that the plot took place
to Tutankhaten.[52]
after the death of Tutankhamun and that Ankhesenamun
The primary argument against Meritaten either as is the queen, largely based on the fact that she did eventuKrausss pro tempore Ankh-et-kheprure before marriage ally married a servant Ay. Miller points out that "serto Smenkhkare or as Akhenatens coregent King Nefer- vant is likely used in a disparaging manner, rather than
neferuaten is that she is well attested as wife and queen literally, and probably with reference to real persons who
to Smenkhkare. For her to have later ruled as king indeed were being put forth as candidates." If the refermeans necessarily, and perhaps incredibly for her sub- ence to a 'servant' no longer exclusively indicates Ay, then
Meritaten and Nefertiti become candidates as well, since
jects, that she stepped down from King to the role of
[57]
[25]
Kings Wife. This view places Smenkhkare after Ne- neither has sons known to us.
ferneferuaten which requires the Meryre depiction to be The Smenkhkare/Zannanza version garners little supdrawn 56 years after the 'Durbar' depiction it is along- port among Egyptologists. With the presence of Tuside and several years after work on tombs had stopped. tankhamun, Miller points out Meritaten "would presumThe counter to this view comes from Marc Galbolde, ably have needed the backing of some powerful supwho oers political necessity as the reason for Meritatens porter(s) to carry out such a scheme as the tahamunzu
demotion.[53] He sees the box (Carter 001k tomb naming episode, one is left with the question of why this supporter
to throw his weight behind such a darher alongside Akhenaten and Nefernferuaten) as depict- would have chosen
[58]
ing
scheme".
For
the plot to succeed, it assumes the
ing Meritaten in simultaneous roles using the name Neyoung
Meritaten
with
her co-conspirators successfully deferneferuaten as coregent and using her birth name in the
ceived
Suppiluliuma
and
his envoys (for there was a royal
[54]
role of royal wife to Akhenaten. He has also proposed
male
Tut
though
not
actually
her son) and that the plot
that the Meryre drawing was executed in advance of an
remained
secret
during
the
period
of letter writing and
anticipated coronation, which ended up not taking place
Zannanzas
travel
to
Egypt.
It
assumes
the other elements
[49]
due to his death.
of Egyptian society remained idle with a female interregMost Egyptologists see two names indicating two indi- num on the throne and a royal male standing by while
vidual people as the simplest and more likely view.[8][55] this played out. On the Hittite side, it assumes that SupMost name changes in the Amarna period involved peo- piluliuma was not only willing to risk the consequences if
ple incorporating -Aten into their name or removing the plot were uncovered, but rather than merely shrewd,
an increasingly oensive -Amun element. Merit-Aten Suppiluliuma was ruthless in the extreme and willing to
would have had no such need, nor would she need to adopt risk the life of his son on a precarious endeavor where he
pharaonic aires such as a double cartouche simply to act suspected trickery.[59]
on behalf of her husband.
Details for the Dakhamunzu/Zannanza aair are entirely
If Nefertiti should be veried as alive as late as Year 16 from Hittite sources written many years after the events.
of Akhenatens reign, the Meritaten theory becomes less As Miller states, they were "written in full knowledge of
likely because she would no longer be the most likely liv- the schemes dismal failure, and one cannot dismiss the
ing person to be using either the name nor Eective for possibility that Mursili is revising history to some extent,
her husband as an epithet.
placing full responsibility for the asco on the Egyptians,
absolving his father of any blame for his failed gamble,
giving the impression that he had done everything in his
Meritaten as Dakhamunzu theory
power to ensure that the way was free for Zannanza to
take the Egyptian throne."[60]
See also Dakhamunzu
Marc Gabolde is perhaps the most outspoken and steadfast advocate of Meritaten as King Neferneferuaten; as
such, his theory deserves a closer look. Most recently,
he has proposed that Meritaten was raised to coregent
of Akhenaten in his nal years. She succeeds him
as interregnum regent using the name Ankhkheprure,
and is the queen of the Dakhamunzu aair with the
Hittites.[Note 1] Her ploy succeeds and the Hittite prince
Zannanza travels to Egypt and marries her to claim the
throne. He adopts the name Smenkhkare[Note 2] and her
throne name. After his death, she adopts full pharoanic
prerogatives to continue to rule as King Ankhkheperure
Neferneferuaten. Since Tut was alive and of royal lineage, Meritatens actions almost certainly must be taken
as intending to prevent his ascension.[56]

35.4.3 Neferneferuaten-tasherit
In 2006, James Allen proposed a new reading of
events.[25] Citing the evidence above, he nds it likely
Nefertiti died after year 13. About that time, Akhenaten began attempting to father his own grandchildren. Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten appear with their
daughters in reliefs from Amarna which originally depicted Kiya with her daughter.[61] Meritaten-tasherit and
Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit bear the titles 'Kings daughter
of his body, his desired...' and 'born of Kings daughter
of his body, his desired...'. It is a matter of some debate
whether this means Akhenaten actually fathered his own
grandchildren, but Allen accepts the titles at face value
as a simpler explanation than 'phantom' children being

122
invented to ll space.[62]

CHAPTER 35. NEFERNEFERUATEN


his own grandchildren.[66] If the grandchildren are not his
or are indeed ctitious, with no progression through his
daughters to arrive at Neferneferuaten-tasherit, his choice
of her as coregent at least remains a mystery, if not less
likely. Without grandchildren, there is less to support the
older age estimates. Her age alone need not disqualify her
since is the same age at which Tutankhaten ascended the
throne, but a 10 year old girl seems unlikely to many.

When Meritaten gave birth to a girl, he may have then


tried with Meketaten whose death in childbirth is depicted in the royal tombs. Though the titles are missing
for the infant, it seems certain it was also a girl.[63] Still
without a male heir, Akhenaten next tried with Ankhesenpaaten who also bears him a girl (also with titles attesting to Akhenaten as father). His next youngest daughter,
Neferneferuaten-tasherit was almost certainly too young, The strong point of the theory rests with her name: it
so:
does not rely on someone changing their name in some
awkward fashion to assume the role of Neferneferuaten.
Insofar as can be determined, the primary
She is made a less attractive candidate should the Year 16
element in the nomen of a pharaoh always corgrato for Queen Nefertiti be veried.
responds to the name he (or she) bore before coming to the throne; from the Eighteenth Dynasty onward, epithets were usually
35.5 Smenkhkare and the Amarna
added to this name in the pharaohs cartouche,
succession
but Akhenaten provides the only example of a
complete and consistent change of the nomens
Further information:
Amarna
primary element, and even he used his birth
succession
name, Amenhotep, at his accession. The evidence of this tradition argues that the coregent bore the name Neferneferuaten before
The evidence clearly indicates that Smenkhkare existed
her coronation, and since it now seems clear
and that he was invested with some degree of pharoanic
that the coregent was not Nefertiti, she must
power at some point and died shortly afterwards. Beyond
have been the only other woman known by that
that little else can be said with any certainty at all. As a
name: Akhenatens fourth daughter, Neferneresult, proponents of one theory can assign him a place
feruaten Jr.[64]
in time and role with little to argue against it while others
Allen explains the 'tasherit' portion of her name may have can take a wholly dierent perspective.
been dropped, either because it would be unseemly to For instance, Dodson cites the Meryre depiction to relhave a King using 'the lesser' in their name, or it may egate him to a short lived coregent ca Year 15, with
have already been dropped when Nefertiti died.[64]
little rm evidence to argue against it. Gabolde cites
Neferneferuaten-tasherits age is the rst objection often
raised. She is thought to have been about 10 at the time
of Akhenatens death [65] but Allen suggests that some
daughters may have been older than generally calculated
based on their rst depicted appearance. Meketaten is
believed to have been born about year 4 when is she rst
depicted. But if that is the case, she would only have been
10 or 11 when she died in childbirth around year 14[65]
which is several years shy of the age when girls became
marriageable at age 13.

the Smenkhkare wine docket to support the idea that


Smenkhkare must have succeeded Akhenaten. Finally,
Allen has used the wine docket and strong association of
Neferneferuaten with Akhenaten in her epithets and on
stelae to speculate that both may have succeeded Akhenaten, with one as a rival king. An Allen-Dodson hybrid could see Tut succeeding Akhenaten directly as rival
to Neferneferuaten. There are almost as many theories
and putative chronologies as there are Egyptologists interested in the period.

Allen suggests that perhaps Meketatens rst


appearanceand perhaps that of the other daughters
was on the occasion of being weaned at age 3 in which
case her age at death would be the more likely 13 or
14, an argument Dodson also adopts in Amarna Sunset.
Likewise, since Ankhesenpaaten bore a child late in
Akhenatens reign, if Neferneferuaten-tasherit was born
a year or so after her sister, then Neferneferuaten-tasherit
may have been as old as 13 by the end of Akhenatens
reign.[66] The later use of the eective... epithets may
indicate that she too was eventually old enough to act as
wife to her father supporting the older age.

The recently discovered inscription for Nefertiti as queen


in Regnal Year 16, if veried, seems to make clear she
was still alive and still queen. What Egyptologists will
make of it remains to be seen, but with proof of her alive
in Year 16, it could be seen as supporting her candidacy
as Neferneferuaten. On the other hand, advocates for
Smenkhkare may make the case that since she attested
as queen just before the start of Akhenatens nal regnal
year, then Smenkhkare is more likely to be Akhenatens
successor.

The exact succession cannot be resolved without evidence


to more clearly x Smenkhkares place in time and role
Central to the theory is that Akhenaten was being driven (coregent only or king). If, as the evidence suggests, he
to produce a male heir which results in attempts to father was very short lived such clarication is not likely to be

35.7. REFERENCES
forthcoming. The result is that the Amarna Succession is
dictated by the underlying theory on the identity of King
Ankhkheperure-mery Neferkheperure Neferneferuatenmery Wa en Re.

123

[4] A Syposium of Horemhab: General and King of Egypt


See the rst 8 minutes of this 2011 Metropolitan Museum
of Art presentation. As the video notes, the order and
dates are under discussion.
[5] MANETHO, The Lieb Classical Library; 1940, English
translation by W. G. Waddell, p 102-103

35.6 Summary
There is also little that can be said with certainty about the
life and reign of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Most
Egyptologists accept that she was a female and an individual apart of Smenkhkare. Many specialists in the
period believe the epigraphic evidence strongly indicates
she acted for a time as Akhenatens coregent.[16][25][35]
Whether she reigned before or after Smenkhkare depends
on the underlying theory as to her identity.

[6] Gabolde, Marc. DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon, 1998;


pp.145-185
Some internet theories equate Achencheres with Akhenaten.
[7] de Garies Davies, N. 1905. The Rock Tombs of El
Amarna, Part II: The Tombs of Panehesy and Meryra II.
Archaeological Survey of Egypt. F. L. Grith. London:
Egypt Exploration Fund. See Line Drawing from 'The
Rock Tombs of El Amarna'. Lepsius rendering of the
names is lower right, and were originally in the upper right
where Meritatens cartouche is quite clearly shown.

Based on the Pairi inscription dated to her 3rd Regnal


Year, it appears she enjoyed a sole reign. How much of [8] Allen, James P., The Amarna Succession, in Causing
His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and Hisher reign was as coregent and how much as sole ruler,
tory in Memory of William J. Murnane, p.2
is a matter of debate and speculation. The same tomb
inscription mentions an Amun temple in Thebes, per[9] Murnane, W.; (1977) Ancient Egyptian Coregencies,
haps a mortuary complex, which would seem to indipp.21315
cate that the Amun proscription had abated and the traditional religion was being restored towards the end of [10] Pendlebury, J. D. S. ; The City of Akhenaten (1951), Part
III, p.164
her reign.[25][26][35] Since much of her funeral equipment
used in Tutankhamens burial, it seems fairly certain she
[11] Pendlebury, J. D. S. ; The City of Akhenaten (1951), Part
was denied a pharonic burial by her successor.[25][26][35]
III, pl lxxxvi and xcvii
The reasons for this remain speculation, as does a regency
with Tutankhaten.
[12] Petrie, W M Flinders (1894). Tell el Amarna. pp. pl. XV.
103104.
With so much evidence expunged rst by Neferneferuatens successor, then the entire Amarna period by [13] Murnane, W; Texts from the Amarna Period, (1995).
Horemheb and later in earnest by the kings of the 19th
Note: Gardiner, JEA 14 (1928), pp. 1011 and pls. 5
Dynasty, the exact details of events may never be known.
6;, Reeves (False Prophet, 2001) and Murnane all give the
date as 10th Day, Month 3, Akhet. Dodson (2009) reports
The highly equivocal nature of the evidence often renders
the date as unequivocally 3rd day, Month 4, Akhet. The
it suggestive of something while falling short of proving it.
dierence is 23 days.
The various steles for instance, strongly suggest a female
coregent but oer nothing conclusive as to her identity.

Speculations regarding the end of the Amarna Period are


likely to continue for years to come. The recently discovered inscription mentioning Nefertiti as queen in year 16,
shows that the Amarna Period may yet have secrets and
clues to divulge.

35.7 References
[1] Krauss, Rolf. Das Ende der Amarnazeit (The End of the
Amarna Period); 1978, Hildesheim; pp.4347
[2] Allen, James P. (1994). Nefertiti and Smenkh-ka-re. Gttinger Miszellen 141. pp. 717.
[3] M. Gabolde, Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky, in P. Brand
(ed.), Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian
Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane, pp. 17-21

[14] J. R. Harris, Neferneferuaten, Gttinger Miszellen 4


(1973), 15-17;
Neferneferuaten Rediviva, Acta Orientalia 35 (1973), 513;
Neferneferuaten Regnans, Acta Orientalia 36 (1974),
11-21;
Akhenaten or Nefertiti?, Acta Orientalia 38 (1977), 510.

[15] Burton, Harry (Photographer). Statuette of the King


upon a leopard. Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation: The Howard Carter Archives. Grith Institute.
Retrieved 2012-09-23.
[16] Reeves, C. Nicholas; Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet;
(2001) Thames and Hudson
[17] Pendlebury J., Samson, J. et al; City of Akhenaten, Part III
(1951)
[18] Allen, James P. , Two Altered Inscriptions of the Late
Amarna Period, Journal of the American Research Center
in Egypt 25 (1988); pp.117-121.

124

[19] In fact, portions of Krausss hypothesis may have been put


forward twice previously. See Reeves, Nicholas; Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, vol. 78, no. 6 (1983)
[20] Gabolde, Marc (1998). "DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon".
pp. 14762, 213219.
[21] Allen (1994); Gabolde (1998); Eaton-Krauss and
Krauss(2001); Hornung (2006); von Beckerath (1997);
Allen (2006); Krauss (2007); Murnane (2001)
They otherwise hold very dierent views on the succession, chronology and identity of Neferneferuaten.
[22] Murnane, W; (1977) p.42
[23] Gabolde, Marc. DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon, 1998;
pp.156-157; This involves Isis relationship with Osiris.
[24] Dodson, A; Amarna Sunset (2009), appendix 3
[25] Allen, James P.; The Amarna Succession (2006); in P.
Brand (ed.), Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane"; Archived from the original
[26] Giles, 2001
[27] Miller, J; Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of Nibhururiya in Altoriental. Forsch. 34 (2007); p 272
[28] e.g. Murnane, J.; The End of the Amarna Periode Once
Again, (2001); Allen, J 1998, 2006; Gabolde, M.; Das
Ende der Amarnazeit, (2001); Hornung, E; The New Kingdom in Ancient Egyptian Chronology (2006); Miller, J.
Amarna Age Chronology (2007); Dodson A.; Amarna
Sunset (2009).
[29] Harris, J.R. Neferneferuaten Rediviva; 1973 in Acta Orientalia 35 pp. 513
Harris, J.R. Neferneferuaten Regnans; 1973 in Gttinger
Miszellen 4 pp. 1517
[30] Samson, J; City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti; Aris & Phillips
Ltd, 1972; ISBN 978-0856680007
[31] Dodson & Hilton (2004); p 285
[32] Dodson, A; Amarna Sunset (2009) p. 43
[33] Giles, Frederick. J., Ikhnaton Legend and History; 1970;
Associated University Press; 1972 US; p 59

CHAPTER 35. NEFERNEFERUATEN

[40] Dayr al-Barsha Project Press Release, Dec 2012; http://


www.dayralbarsha.com/node/124
[41] Athena Van der Perre, Nofretetes (vorerst) letzte dokumentierte Erwhnung, (Nefertitis (now) latest documented attestation) in: Im Licht von Amarna - 100 Jahre
Fund der Nofretete. [Katalog zur Ausstellung Berlin,
07.12.2012 - 13.04.2013]. (December 7, 2012 - April
13, 2013) Petersberg, pp.195-197
[42] Dayr al-Barsha Project featured in new exhibit 'Im Licht
von Amarna' at the gyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung in Berlin 12/06/2012
[43] Dodson, A; (2009) p. 50
[44] Dodson, Amarna Sunset 2009, pp. 27-29
[45] Dodson, Amarna Sunset 2009, p. 51, 45-46
[46] Murnane, W.; Ancient Egypt Coregencies (1977) p 31-32
[47] Dodson, Amarna Sunset 2009, pp.45-46
[48] JAMA. 2010 Feb 17; Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamuns family; Hawass Z, Gad YZ, Ismail S, Khairat
R, Fathalla D, Hasan N, Ahmed A, Elleithy H, Ball M,
Gaballah F, Wasef S, Fateen M, Amer H, Gostner P,
Selim A, Zink A, Pusch CM. Source Supreme Council
of Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt. http://jama.jamanetwork.
com/article.aspx?articleid=185393
[49] Gabolde, M; Ancient Near East Forum, Dec 2007
[50] Hoemeir, Van Dijk. "New Light on the Amarna Period
from North Sinai".
[51] Hoemeir, Van Dijk; New Light on the Amarna Period"
(2010) pp.201-202
[52] J. Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, 2006,
Thames & Hudson, pp.136-137;
also Gabolde, M,; Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky, P. Brand
(ed.), in Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane, (2006) pp.17-21
[53] Gabolde, Marc. DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon, 1998;
pp.178183
[54] Gabolde, Marc. DAkhenaton Tout-nkhamon, 1998;
pp.187-226

[34] Giles, F; 1972

[55] Murnane, W.; The End of the Amarna Period Once Again,
2001

[35] Dodson, A; Amarna Sunset, The American University in


Cairo Press, 2009

[56] Miller, J; Amarna Age Chronology (2007) p.275; to wit


Gabolde 1998; 2001; 2002

[36] Dodson, A; (2009); p. 43

[57] Miller, J.; The Amarna Age Chronology (2007) p.261

[37] Martin, G. T., The Rock Tombs of El-'Amarna. Part VII.


The Royal Tomb at El-'Amarna, 1974. The Objects. (Vol.
I.) London: Egypt Exploration Society.

[58] Miller, J.; The Amarna Age Chronology (2007) p.275


n104

[38] Bovot, J.-L. (1999). Un chaouabti pour deux reines


amarniennes?. gypte Afrique et Orient 13. pp. 3134.
[39] Aldred, Cyril (1988). Akhenaten: King of Egypt. Thames
and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27621-8.

[59] Miller, J.; The Amarna Age Chronology (2007) pp.260261; Miller believes Suppiluliuma was indeed that brutal
[and] unscrupulous"; implicitly he must have been much
less aware of the state of aairs at Amarna court than
Neferneferuaten was of minutiae regarding Suppiluliuma
such as his aliation with the Hittite sun god. p.273 n94

35.8. FURTHER READING

[60] Miller, J.; Amarna Age Chronology (2007) p.262


[61] Roeder, Amarna-Reliefs aus Hermopolis, pls. 19 (234VI) and 106 (451-VIIA). Also D. Redford, Studies on
Akhenaten at Thebes, II, JARCE 12 (1975), pp. 1112.
[62] Allen, J, Amarna Succession (2006); p 9-10, p9 n. 34
[63] van Dijk, Jacobus; The Death of Meketaten in Causing His
Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History
in Memory of William J. Murnane; (2006) pp 7-8
[64] Allen; Amarna Succession; p15
[65] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen; Penguin;
1998; ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[66] Allen, James P.; The Amarna Succession in Causing His
Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History
in Memory of William J. Murnane Online Archive pp
12-17

35.7.1

Notes

[1] Briey, an Egyptian queen writes to Suppiluliuma asking


for him to send a son for her to marry for she has no sons.
In marrying her, the son will become King of Egypt. The
Hittite king is wary and sends an envoy to verify the lack
of a male heir. The queen writes back, rebuking Suppiluliuma for suggesting she lied about a son and indicates she
is loath to marry a servant. A key element in the Hittite
sources is that Zannanza died not long after departing. It
has been supposed that he was murdered at the border of
Egypt (Brier) to thwart the plot. As there is no evidence
as to when or where he died nor that he was murdered,
Gabolde believes that he completed the trip and died only
after ascending the throne as Smenkhare.
The traditional view has been that Tutankhamuns widow
is the queen in question because she had no sons and eventually was married to a servant, Ay. Reeves has long
held that the queen was Nefertiti who was The Queen, par
excellence of the period.
[2] Gabolde and others have long noted that the name
Smenkhkare-Djeser Kheperu with the theophoric element
of Re and somewhat lofty epithet seems much more like
a throne name than a birth name. A name change does
seem likely to many even if he is Egyptian. The change
may have been simply adopting the 'Holy of Manifestations epithet or changing the theophoric element to 'Re'
to gain acceptance from both Atenists and traditionalists.

35.8 Further reading


Each of the leading candidates have their own proponents among Egyptologists, whose work can be consulted
for more information and many more details for a given
candidate. Several of the works of Nicholas Reeves and
Aidan Dodson advocate for Nefertiti as Neferneferuaten.
Marc Gabolde has written several papers and at least one
book (in French) supporting Meritaten. James Allens

125
previous work in this area primarily dealt with establishing the female gender of Neferneferuaten and then as an
individual apart from Smenkhkare. His paper on The
Amarna Succession is his rst theory as to identity of
King Neferneferuaten, having previously cited Nefertiti
or Meritaten as the probable or possible identity depending on the state of the evidence.
Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames &
Hudson, 1988).
Aldred, Cyril (1973). Akhenaten and Nefertiti. London: Thames & Hudson.
Aldred, Cyril (1984). The Egyptians. London:
Thames & Hudson.
Allen, James H. (2006). The Amarna Succession
(PDF). Archived from the original on May 28, 2008.
Retrieved 2008-06-23.
Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete
Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
Dodson, Aidan. Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian
Counter-Reformation. The American University in
Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3
Freed, Rita E., Yvonne J. Markowitz, and Sue H.
D'Auria (ed.) (1999). Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen. Bulnch Press.
ISBN 0-8212-2620-7.
Gabolde, Marc, Under a Deep Blue Starry Sky in
Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian
Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J.
Murnane"; Gabolde - Starry Sky
Giles, Frederick. J., Ikhnaton Legend and History
(1970, Associated University Press, 1972 US)
Giles, Frederick. J. The Amarna Age: Egypt (Australian Centre for Egyptology, 2001)
Hornung, Erik, Akhenaten and the Religion of
Light, translated by David Lorton, Cornell University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-3658-3)
Miller, Jared; Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of Nibhururiya in the Light of a Newly Reconstructed Hittite Text (2007); Altoriental. Forsch. 34
(2007) 2, 252293
Redford, Donald B., Akhenaten: The Heretic King
(Princeton University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-69103567-9)
Redford, Donald B.;Akhenaten: The Heretic King
(1984) Princeton University Press

126
Reeves, C. Nicholas., Akhenaten, Egypts False
Prophet (Thames & Hudson, 2001).
Reeves, C. Nicholas., The Complete Tutankhamun:
The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London:
Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990, ISBN 0-50005058-9 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-500-27810-5 (paperback)
Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin. 1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
The Amarna Project

CHAPTER 35. NEFERNEFERUATEN

Chapter 36

Small Aten Temple

Reconstruction of the Small Aten Temple at Amarna

The Small Aten Temple is located in the abandoned city


of Akhetaten (modern Amarna, in Egypt). It is one of the
two major temples in the city, the other being the Great
Temple of the Aten. It is situated close to the Kings House
and the Royal Palace, in the central part of the city.
Original known as the Hwt Aten or Mansion of the Aten, it
was probably constructed before the larger Great Temple.
Like the other structures in the city, it was constructed
quickly, and hence was easy to dismantle and reuse the
material for later construction.
Coordinates:
30.8963E

273843N 305347E / 27.6453N

127

Chapter 37

Tutankhamun
King Tut redirects here. For other uses, see King Tut When he became king, he married his half-sister,
(disambiguation).
Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to
Ankhesenamun.
They had two daughters, both
[8]
stillborn.
Computed
tomography studies released in
alternatively
Tutankhamun
(/tutnkmun/;[3]
2011
revealed
that
one
daughter died at 56 months of
spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian
pregnancy
and
the
other
at
9 months of pregnancy. No evpharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332 BC
idence
was
found
in
either
mummy of congenital anoma1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the
lies
or
an
apparent
cause
of
death.[14]
period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom.
He is popularly referred to as King Tut. His original
name, Tutankhaten, means Living Image of Aten",
while Tutankhamun means Living Image of Amun". 37.1.1
In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically
written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom
that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase
to show appropriate reverence.[4] He is possibly also
the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the
18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho,
an ancient historian, had reigned for nine yearsa
gure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of
Manethos Epitome.[5]
The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and George
Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon[6][7] of Tutankhamuns
nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It
sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for
which Tutankhamuns burial mask, now in Cairo Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts
from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010,
the results of DNA tests conrmed that he was the son of
Akhenaten (mummy KV55) and Akhenatens sister and
wife (mummy KV35YL), whose name is unknown but
whose remains are positively identied as "The Younger
Lady" mummy found in KV35.[8]

Reign

Cartouches of his birth and throne names are displayed between


rampant Sekhmet lioness warrior images (perhaps with his head)
crushing enemies of several ethnicities, while Nekhbet ies protectively above.

37.1 Life

Given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and the
Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed
him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain
law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king
when his temper ared.[15]

Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly


Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenatens sisters,[9] or perhaps one of his cousins.[10] As a prince he was known
as Tutankhaten.[11] He ascended to the throne in 1333
BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name
Nebkheperure.[12] His wet-nurse was a woman called
Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara.[13] A teacher was
most likely Sennedjem.

In his third regnal year, Tutankhamun reversed several


changes made during his fathers reign. He ended the
worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to
supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted
and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood.
The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of
Akhetaten abandoned.[16] This is when he changed his
name to Tutankhamun, Living image of Amun, reinforcing the restoration of Amun.

128

37.1. LIFE

129

As part of his restoration, the king initiated building


projects, in particular at Thebes and Karnak, where he
dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were
erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares
the king had spent his life in fashioning the images of
the gods. The traditional festivals were now celebrated
again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet, and Opet. His restoration stela says:

questions about Tutankhamuns lineage, proving that his


father was Akhenaten, but that his mother was not one
of Akhenatens known wives. His mother was one of
his fathers ve sisters, although it is not known which
one.[22] The team was able to establish with a probability of better than 99.99 percent that Amenhotep III was
the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the
father of Tutankhamun.[23] The young kings mother was
found through the DNA testing of a mummy designated
as 'The Younger Lady' (KV35YL), which was found lyThe temples of the gods and goddesses ...
ing beside Queen Tiye in the alcove of KV35. Her DNA
were in ruins. Their shrines were deserted
proved that, like his father, she was a child of Amenhotep
and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as nonIII and Tiye; thus, Tutankhamuns parents were brother
existent and their courts were used as roads ...
and sister.[24] Queen Tiye held much political inuence
the gods turned their backs upon this land ... If
at court and acted as an adviser to her son after the death
anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he
of her husband. Some geneticists dispute these ndings,
would never respond.[17]
however, and complain that the team used inappropriate
The country was economically weak and in turmoil fol- analysis techniques.[25]
lowing the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with While the data are still incomplete, the study suggests that
other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun one of the mummied fetuses found in Tutankhamuns
sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. tomb is the daughter of Tutankhamun himself, and the
Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from other fetus is probably his child as well. So far, only parvarious countries found in his tomb. Despite his eorts tial data for the two female mummies from KV21 has
for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics been obtained.[26] One of them, KV21A, may well be the
were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His infants mother, and, thus, Tutankhamuns wife, Ankhetomb contained body armor and folding stools appropri- senamun. It is known from history that she was the daughate for military campaigns. However, given his youth and ter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, and thus likely to be her
physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of husbands half-sister. Another consequence of inbreeda cane in order to walk (he died c. age 19), historians ing can be children whose genetic defects do not allow
speculate that he did not personally take part in these them to be brought to term.
battles.[8][18]
A further autopsy and genetic evidence in 2014 reconrmed the 2010 ndings that Tutankhamun was the
37.1.2 Health and appearance
product of a brother-sister relationship.[27][28]
See also: Racial identity of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun was slight of build, and was roughly 180
cm (5 ft 11 in) tall.[19] He had large front incisors and
the overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line
to which he belonged. Between September 2007 and
October 2009, various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project.
It was determined that none of the mummies of the
Tutankhamun lineage has a cephalic index of 75 or
less (indicating dolichocephaly), that Tutankhamun actually has a cephalic index of 83.9, indicating brachycephaly, and that none of their skull shapes can be considered pathological.[20] The research also showed that Tutankhamun had a slightly cleft palate"[21] and possibly a
mild case of scoliosis, a medical condition in which the
spine is curved from side to side.

37.1.4 Death
There are no surviving records of Tutankhamuns nal
days. What caused Tutankhamuns death has been the
subject of considerable debate. Major studies have been
conducted in an eort to establish the cause of death.
There is some evidence, advanced by Harvard microbiologist Ralph Mitchell, that his burial may have been hurried. Mitchell reported that dark brown splotches on the
decorated walls of Tutankhamuns burial chamber suggested that he had been entombed even before the paint
had a chance to dry.[29]

Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun


was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental. A CT scan taken in 2005 showed that he had
suered a left leg fracture[30] shortly before his death,
and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis
conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in
37.1.3 Genealogy
his system, leading to the belief that malaria and Khler
In 2008, a team began DNA research on Tutankhamun disease II combined led to his death.[31] On 14 Septemand the mummied remains of other members of his fam- ber 2012, ABC News presented a further theory about
ily. The results from the DNA samples nally put to rest Tutankhamuns death, developed by lecturer and sur-

130

CHAPTER 37. TUTANKHAMUN

geon Dr. Hutan Ashraan, who believed that temporal he struggled against other [congenital aws] until a selobe epilepsy caused a fatal fall which also broke Tu- vere bout of malaria or a leg broken in an accident added
tankhamuns leg.[32]
one strain too many to a body that could no longer carry
In June 2010, German scientists said they believed there the load, wrote Zahi Hawass, archeologist and head of
was evidence that he had died of sickle cell disease. Other Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquity involved in the
experts, however, rejected the hypothesis of homozygous research.
sickle cell disease[33] based on survival beyond the age of
5 and the location of the osteonecrosis which is characteristic of Freiberg-Kohler syndrome rather than sickle-cell
disease. Research conducted in 2005 by archaeologists,
radiologists, and geneticists, who performed CT scans on
the mummy found that he was not killed by a blow to the
head, as previously thought.[34] New CT images discovered congenital aws, which are more common among
the children of incest. Siblings are more likely to pass
on twin copies of harmful genes, which is why children
of incest more commonly manifest genetic defects.[22] It
is suspected he also had a partially cleft palate, another
congenital defect.[35]
Various other diseases, invoked as possible explanations to his early demise, included Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Frhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy),
Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome,
aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal
craniosynostosis syndrome, AntleyBixler syndrome or
one of its variants,[36] and temporal lobe epilepsy.[32]
A research team, consisting of Egyptian scientists Yehia
Gad and Somaia Ismail from the National Research Centre in Cairo, conducted further CT scans under the direction of Ashraf Selim and Sahar Saleem of the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University. Three international experts served as consultants: Carsten Pusch of
the Eberhard Karls University of Tbingen, Germany;
Albert Zink of the EURAC-Institute for Mummies and
the Iceman in Bolzano, Italy;[37] and Paul Gostner of
the Central Hospital Bolzano.[38] STR analysis based
DNA ngerprinting analysis combined with the other
techniques have rejected the hypothesis of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (e.g., Antley-Bixler syndrome)
or Marfan syndrome, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamuns family was evident. Several pathologies including Khler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused
death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1
genes specic for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including
Tutankhamuns.[39] However their exact contribution to
the causality of his death still is highly debated.
As stated above, the team discovered DNA from several strains of a parasite proving he was infected with the
most severe strain of malaria several times in his short
life. Malaria can trigger circulatory shock or cause a fatal
immune response in the body, either of which can lead
to death. If Tutankhamun did suer from a bone disease
which was crippling, it may not have been fatal. Perhaps

A review of the medical ndings to date found that


he suered from mild kyphoscoliosis, pes planus,
hypophalangism of the right foot, bone necrosis of second and third metatarsal bones of the left foot, malaria,
and a complex fracture of the right knee shortly before
death.[40]
In late 2013, Egyptologist Dr. Chris Naunton and scientists from the Craneld Institute performed a virtual
autopsy of Tutankhamun, revealing a pattern of injuries
down one side of his body. Car-crash investigators then
created computer simulations of chariot accidents. Naunton concluded that Tutankhamun was killed in a chariot
crash: a chariot smashed into him while he was on his
knees, shattering his ribs and pelvis. Naunton also referenced Howard Carters records of the body having been
burnt. Working with anthropologist Dr. Robert Connolly
and forensic archaeologist Dr. Matthew Ponting, Naunton produced evidence that Tutankhamuns body was
burnt while sealed inside his con. Embalming oils combined with oxygen and linen had caused a chemical reaction, creating temperatures of more than 200 C. Naunton said, The charring and possibility that a botched
mummication led to the body spontaneously combusting shortly after burial was entirely unexpected.[41][42]
A further investigation, in 2014, revealed that it was unlikely he had been killed in a chariot accident. Scans
found that all but one of his bone fractures, including
those to his skull, had been inicted after his death. The
scans also showed that he had a partially clubbed foot and
would have been unable to stand unaided, thus making
it unlikely he ever rode in a chariot; this was supported
by the presence of many walking sticks among the contents of his tomb. Instead, it is believed that genetic defects arising from his parents being siblings, complications from a broken leg and his suering from malaria,
together caused his death.[43][44]

37.1.5 Aftermath
With the death of Tutankhamun and the two stillborn
children buried with him, the Thutmosid family line
came to an end. The Amarna letters indicate that Tutankhamuns wife, recently widowed, wrote to the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, asking if she could marry one of
his sons. The letters do not say how Tutankhamun died.
In the message, Ankhesenamun says that she was very
afraid, but would not take one of her own people as husband. However, the son was killed before reaching his
new wife. Shortly afterward, Ay married Tutankhamuns
widow and became Pharaoh as a war was fought be-

37.4. LEGACY
tween the two countries, and Egypt was left defeated.[45]
The fate of Ankhesenamun is not known, but she disappears from record and Ays second wife Tey became
Great Royal Wife. After Ays death, Horemheb usurped
the throne and instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against him. Tutankhamuns father Akhenaten, stepmother Nefertiti, his wife Ankhesenamun, half sisters
and other family members were also included. Not even
Tutankhamun was spared. His images and cartouches
were also erased. Horemheb himself, despite a possible
marriage to Nefertitis sister, Mutnedjmet, was left childless and willed the throne to Paramessu, who founded the
Ramesside family line of pharaohs.

37.2 Signicance
Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became
Pharaoh, son of god Ra, and reigned for approximately
ten years. The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the
father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself
from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating
all other gods. (Donald B. Redford, PhD, Penn State)[46]
In historical terms, Tutankhamuns signicance stems
from the fact that his reign was close to the apogee of
Egypt as a world power and from his rejection of the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor
and father, Akhenaten.[47] Secondly, his tomb in the Valley of the Kings was discovered by Carter almost completely intactthe most complete ancient Egyptian royal
tomb ever found. As Tutankhamun began his reign at
such an early age, his vizier, and eventual successor Ay,
was probably making most of the important political decisions during Tutankhamuns reign.
Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary
cults and associated temples. Tutankhamun was one
of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his
lifetime.[48] A stela discovered at Karnak and dedicated to
Amun-Ra and Tutankhamun indicates that the king could
be appealed to in his deied state for forgiveness and to
free the petitioner from an ailment caused by sin. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and Faras
in Nubia. The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush
included a reference to the deied king, indicative of the
universality of his cult.[49]

37.3 Tomb
Further information: KV62
Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was small relative to his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb,
so that his mummy was buried in a tomb intended for
someone else. This would preserve the observance of the
customary seventy days between death and burial.[50]

131
King Tutankhamuns mummy still rests in his tomb in the
Valley of the Kings. On 4 November 2007, 85 years to
the day after Carters discovery, the 19-year-old pharaoh
went on display in his underground tomb at Luxor, when
the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden
sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box. The case
was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists
visiting the tomb.[51]
His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based
on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took
place within several months at most of the initial burial.
Eventually the location of the tomb was lost because it
had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent
tombs, either dumped there or washed there by oods. In
the years that followed, some huts for workers were built
over the tomb entrance, clearly not knowing what lay beneath. When at the end of the 20th Dynasty the Valley
of the Kings burials were systematically dismantled, the
burial of Tutankhamun was overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost and his name may
have been forgotten.
For many years, rumors of a "Curse of the Pharaohs"
(probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time
of the discovery[52] ) persisted, emphasizing the early
death of some of those who had entered the tomb. However, a recent study of journals and death records indicated no statistical dierence between the age of death
of those who entered the tomb and those on the expedition who did not.

37.4 Legacy
Further information: Exhibitions of artifacts from the
tomb of Tutankhamun
If Tutankhamun is the worlds best known pharaoh, it is
largely because his tomb is among the best preserved, and
his image and associated artifacts the most-exhibited. As
Jon Manchip White writes, in his foreword to the 1977
edition of Carters The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun, The pharaoh who in life was one of the least
esteemed of Egypts Pharoahs has become in death the
most renowned.
The discoveries in the tomb were prominent news in the
1920s. Tutankhamen came to be called by a modern neologism, "King Tut". Ancient Egyptian references became common in popular culture, including Tin Pan Alley songs; the most popular of the latter was Old King
Tut by Harry Von Tilzer from 1923, which was recorded
by such prominent artists of the time as Jones & Hare and
Sophie Tucker. King Tut became the name of products, businesses, and even the pet dog of U.S. President

132

CHAPTER 37. TUTANKHAMUN

Herbert Hoover.

tour, as the Egyptian government has determined that the


to withstand travel and will never again
Relics from Tutankhamuns tomb are among the most mask is too fragile[60]
leave
the
country.
traveled artifacts in the world. They have been to many
countries, but probably the best-known exhibition tour A separate exhibition called Tutankhamun and the World
was The Treasures of Tutankhamun tour, which ran from of the Pharaohs began at the Ethnological Museum in
1972 to 1979. This exhibition was rst shown in London Vienna from 9 March to 28 September 2008, showing
at the British Museum from 30 March until 30 September a further 140 treasures.[61] Renamed Tutankhamun: The
1972. More than 1.6 million visitors saw the exhibition, Golden King and the Great Pharaohs, this exhibition besome queuing for up to eight hours. It was the most pop- gan a tour of the US and Canada in Atlanta on 15 Novemular exhibition in the Museums history. The exhibition ber 2008. It is scheduled to nish in Seattle on 6 January
moved on to many other countries, including the USA, 2013.[62]
USSR, Japan, France, Canada, and West Germany. The
Metropolitan Museum of Art organized the U.S. exhibition, which ran from 17 November 1976 through 15 April
37.5 In popular culture
1979. More than eight million attended.
In 2004, the tour of Tutankhamun funerary objects en- See also: Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination
titled Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter, consisting of
fty artifacts from Tutankhamuns tomb and seventy funerary goods from other 18th Dynasty tombs, began in
Basle, Switzerland and went on to Bonn Germany on the 37.5.1 Film and television
second leg of the tour. This European tour was organised by the Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Re We Want Our Mummy, a 1939 lm by The Three
public of Germany, the Supreme Council of Antiquities
Stooges. In it, the slapstick comedy trio explores the
(SCA), and the Egyptian Museum in cooperation with the
tomb of the midget King Rutentuten (pronounced
Antikenmuseum Basel and Sammlung Ludwig. Deutsche
rootin'-tootin'") and his Queen, Hotsy Totsy. A
Telekom sponsored the Bonn exhibition.[53]
decade later, they were crooked used-chariot salesmen in Mummys Dummies, in which they ultimately
In 2005, Egypts Supreme Council of Antiquities, in partassist a dierent King Rootentootin (Vernon Dent)
nership with Arts and Exhibitions International and the
with a toothache.
National Geographic Society, launched a tour of Tutankhamun treasures and other 18th Dynasty funerary ob King Tut, played by Victor Buono, was a villain on
jects, this time called Tutankhamun and the Golden Age
the Batman TV series which aired from 1966 to
of the Pharaohs. It features the same exhibits as Tu1968. Mild-mannered Egyptologist William Omtankhamen: The Golden Hereafter in a slightly dierent
aha McElroy, after suering a concussion, came to
format. It was expected to draw more than three million
believe he was the reincarnation of Tutankhamun.
people.[54]
His response to this knowledge was to embark upon
The exhibition started in Los Angeles, then moved to Fort
a crime spree that required him to ght against the
Lauderdale, Florida, Chicago and Philadelphia. The exCaped Crusaders, Batman and Robin.
hibition then moved to London[55] before nally returning to Egypt in August 2008. An encore of the exhibi The Discovery Kids animated series Tutenstein stars
tion in the United States ran at the Dallas Museum of
a ctional mummy based on Tutankhamun, named
Art from October 2008 to May 2009.[56] The tour conTutankhensetamun and nicknamed Tutenstein in his
tinued to other U.S. cities.[57] After Dallas the exhibition
afterlife. He is depicted as a lazy and spoiled 10moved to the de Young Museum in San Francisco, folyear-old mummy boy who must guard a magical arlowed by the Discovery Times Square Exposition in New
tifact called the Scepter of Was from the evil EgypYork City.[58]
tian god Set.
In 2011 the exhibition visited Australia for the rst time,
The rst episode of the 2005 BBC series Egypt:
opening at the Melbourne Museum in April for its only
Rediscovering a Lost World focuses on the life and
Australian stop before Egypts treasures return to Cairo
death
of Tutankhamun and the serendipitous discov[59]
in December 2011.
ery of his tomb.
The exhibition includes 80 exhibits from the reigns of Tutankhamuns immediate predecessors in the Eighteenth
La Reine Soleil (2007 animated lm by Philippe
dynasty, such as Hatshepsut, whose trade policies greatly
Leclerc), features Akhenaten, Tutankhaten (later
increased the wealth of that dynasty and enabled the lavTutankhamun), Akhesa (Ankhesenepaten, later
ish wealth of Tutankhamuns burial artifacts, as well as 50
Ankhesenamun), Nefertiti, and Horemheb in a
from Tutankhamuns tomb. The exhibition does not incomplex struggle pitting the priests of Amun against
clude the gold mask that was a feature of the 19721979
Akhenatens intolerant monotheism.

37.7. ANCESTRY

133

In the US documentary series, King Tut Unwrapped, nb-prw-r, and, again, according to modern EgyptologiMoroccan singer-actor, Faissal Oberon Azizi, por- cal convention is written Nebkheperure, meaning Lord
trayed Tutankhamun.
of the forms of Re". The name Nibhurrereya in the
Amarna letters may be closer to how his praenomen was
actually pronounced.

37.5.2

Other media

"King Tut", a whimsical 1978 song by (American comedian) "Steve Martin and the Toot Uncommons (a backup group consisting of members of
the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band).
The 1981 arcade game Tutankham revolves around
King Tutankhamun.
1989 television networks often advertised commercials for King Tuts dog food, complete with Anubisstyled canine animation and music to the tune of
"Camel Caravan. The can label was also adorned
with themed hieroglyphs.
The mummy of Tutankhamun is depicted as a villain
in Raj Comics's Nagraj, a Hindi superhero comicbook. In this series, his mask is the source of his
power.
For "Transformers" the Decepticon character
Frenzy repeats the name, Tutankhamun.
The video game Sphinx and the Cursed Mummy
features a ctional representation of Prince Tutankhamun. Tutankhamun is the victim of an unnamed magical ritual which results in almost instantaneous mummication and extraction of what appears to be his life force. In the instruction manual, the Mummy is described as young, inexperienced and naive.
The novel Tutankhamun (2008) by novelist Nick
Drake [not the musician] takes place during the
reign of Tutankhamun and gives a possible explanation for his injury and death (and the aftermath)
set amid a murder mystery.
The novel The Lost Queen of Egypt (1937) by
novelist Lucile Morrison is about Ankhsenpaaten /
Ankhesenamun, the wife of Tutankhamun. He is
a major character, coming in about midway in the
story. Here, his name is spelled as 'Tutankhamon.'
Its strongly hinted that he was murdered.

37.6 Names

37.7 Ancestry
37.8 References
[1] Clayton, Peter A. (2006). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The
Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 128. ISBN 0-50028628-0.
[2] Frail boy-king Tut died from malaria, broken leg by Paul
Schemm, Associated Press. 16 February 2010.
[3] Tutankhamun or Tutankhamen. Collins Dictionary.
n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
[4] Zauzich, Karl-Theodor (1992). Hieroglyphs Without Mystery. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 3031. ISBN
978-0-292-79804-5.
[5] Manethos King List.
[6] The Egyptian Exhibition at Highclere Castle. Archived
from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
[7] Hawass, Zahi A. The golden age of Tutankhamun: divine
might and splendor in the New Kingdom. American Univ
in Cairo Press, 2004.
[8] Hawass, Zahi; et al. (17 February 2010). Ancestry and
Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family. The Journal
of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 638647.
Retrieved 21 October 2013.
[9] Hawass, Zahi; et al. (17 February 2010). Ancestry and
Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family. The Journal
of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 640641.
Retrieved 21 October 2013.
[10] Powell, Alvin (12 February 2013). A dierent take on
Tut. Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
[11] Jacobus van Dijk. The Death of Meketaten (PDF). p.
7. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
[12] Classroom TUTorials: The Many Names of King Tutankhamun (pdf). Michael C. Carlos Museum. Retrieved
10 July 2013.
[13] Egypt Update: Rare Tomb May Have Been Destroyed.

At the reintroduction of traditional religious practice,


Science Mag. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
his name changed. It is transliterated as twt-n-mn
q-wnw-m, and according to modern Egyptological [14] Hawass, Zahi and Saleem, Sahar N. Mummied daughters
of King Tutankhamun: Archaeological and CT studies.
convention is written Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema,
The American Journal of Roentgenology 2011. Vol 197,
meaning Living image of Amun, ruler of Upper
No. 5, pp. W829-836.
Heliopolis". On his ascension to the throne, Tutankhamun took a praenomen. This is transliterated as [15] Booth pp. 8687

134

CHAPTER 37. TUTANKHAMUN

[16] Erik Hornung, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, Translated by David Lorton, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8725-0.

[31] Roberts, Michelle (16 February 2010). "'Malaria' killed


King Tutankhamun. BBC News. Retrieved 12 March
2010.

[17] Hart, George (1990). Egyptian Myths. University of


Texas Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-292-72076-9.

[32] Rosenbaum, Matthew (14 September 2012). Mystery of


King Tuts death solved?". ABC News. Retrieved 21 October 2013.

[18] Booth pp. 129130


[19] Radiologists Attempt To Solve Mystery Of Tuts
Demise from ScienceDaily.com
[20] Hawass, Z.; Gad, Y. Z.; Ismail, S.; Khairat, R.; Fathalla,
D.; Hasan, N.; Ahmed, A.; Elleithy, H.; Ball, M.; Gaballah, F.; Wasef, S.; Fateen, M.; Amer, H.; Gostner, P.;
Selim, A.; Zink, A.; Pusch, C. M. (2010). Ancestry
and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family. JAMA
303 (7): 638647. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID
20159872.
[21] Handwerk, Brian (8 March 2005). King Tut Not Murdered Violently, CT Scans Show. National Geographic
News. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
[22] Bates, Claire (20 February 2010). Unmasked: The real
faces of the crippled King Tutankhamun (who walked
with a cane) and his incestuous parents. Daily Mail (London).
[23] King Tuts Family Secrets National Geographic Magazine. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
[24] King Tuts Family Secrets National Geographic Magazine. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
[25] DNA experts disagree over Tutankhamuns ancestry.
Archaeology News Network. 22 January 2011. Retrieved
24 February 2011.
[26] King Tuts Family Secrets National Geographic Magazine. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
[27] Gwennedd, pseudonym (October 21, 2014). King Tut
Revealed: Scientists do Virtual Autopsy of the Famous
King and Find Shocking Surprises. DailyKos. Retrieved
October 21, 2014.
[28] Ledwith, Mario (19 October 2014). The REAL face of
King Tut: Pharaoh had girlish hips, a club foot and buck
teeth according to 'virtual autopsy' that also revealed his
parents were brother and sister. Daily Mail. Retrieved 21
October 2014. A virtual autopsy, composed of more
than 2,000 computer scans, was carried out in tandem
with a genetic analysis of Tutankhamuns family, which
supports evidence that his parents were brother and sister. The scientists believe that this left him with physical
impairments triggered by hormonal imbalances. And his
family history could also have led to his premature death
in his late teens.
[29] Was King Tut Buried in a Hurry?". History.com.
[30] Hawass, Zahi. Tutankhamon, segreti di famiglia. National Geographic. Retrieved 2 June 2013.

[33] Pays, JF (December 2010). Tutankhamun and sicklecell anaemia. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 103 (5, number
5): 346347. doi:10.1007/s13149-010-0095-3. PMID
20972847. Retrieved 21 October 2013.(Abstract)
[34] King Tuts Family Secrets National Geographic Magazine. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
[35] King Tuts Family Secrets National Geographic Magazine. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
[36] Markel, H. (17 February 2010). King Tutankhamun,
modern medical science, and the expanding boundaries of historical inquiry. JAMA 303 (7): 667668.
doi:10.1001/jama.2010.153. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
(subscription required)
[37] EURAC research Research Institutes Institute for
Mummies and the Iceman Home. Eurac.edu. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
[38] King Tuts Family Secrets National Geographic Magazine. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
[39] JAMA. 17 Feb 2010;303(7):638-47. Ancestry and
pathology in King Tutankhamuns family. Hawass Z, Gad
YZ, Ismail S, Khairat R, Fathalla D, Hasan N, Ahmed
A, Elleithy H, Ball M, Gaballah F, Wasef S, Fateen M,
Amer H, Gostner P, Selim A, Zink A, Pusch CM. Source
Supreme Council of Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt. http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20159872.1
[40] Hussein K, Matin E, Nerlich AG (2013) Paleopathology
of the juvenile Pharaoh Tutankhamun-90th anniversary
of discovery. Virchows Arch
[41] Owen, Jonathan (3 November 2013). Solved: The mystery of King Tutankhamuns death. The Independent.
Retrieved 3 November 2013.
[42] Webb, Sam (2 November 2013). Mummy-fried! Tutankhamuns body spontaneously combusted inside his
con following botched embalming job after he died in
speeding chariot accident. The Daily Mail. Retrieved 3
November 2013.

[43] Webb, Sam (20 October 2014).


The Indepenhttp://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/
dent
king-tutankhamun-did-not-die-in-chariot-crash-virtual-autopsy-reveals-980
html. Retrieved 26 October 2014. Missing or empty
|title= (help)
[44] Webb, Sam (25 October 2014). Russia Today http://rt.
com/news/199328-tutankhamun-pharaoh-egypt-death/.
Retrieved 26 October 2014. Missing or empty |title=
(help)

37.9. FURTHER READING

135

[45] Interview with G.A. Gaballa, of Cairo University. The


Hittites: A Civilization that Changed the World by Cinema Epoch 2004. Directed by Tolga Ornek. Documentary.
[46] Redford, Donald B., PhD; McCauley, Marissa. How
were the Egyptian pyramids built?". Research. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
[47] Aude Gros de Beler, Tutankhamun, foreword Aly Maher
Sayed, Moliere, ISBN 2-84790-210-4
[48] Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, Editor Donald B. Redford, p. 85, Berkley, ISBN 0-42519096-X
[49] The Boy Behind the Mask, Charlotte Booth, p. 120,
Oneworld, 2007, ISBN 978-1-85168-544-8
[50] "The Golden Age of Tutankhamun: Divine Might and
Splendour in the New Kingdom", Zahi Hawass, p. 61,
American University in Cairo Press, 2004, ISBN 977424-836-8
[51] Michael McCarthy (5 October 2007). 3,000 years old:
the face of Tutankhaten. The Independent (London).
[52] Hankey, Julie (2007). A Passion for Egypt: Arthur
Weigall, Tutankhamun and the 'Curse of the Pharaohs.
Tauris Parke Paperbacks. pp. 35. ISBN 978-1-84511435-0.
[53] Al-Ahram Weekly | Heritage | Under Tuts spell.
Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
[54] King Tut exhibition. Tutankhamun & the Golden Age
of the Pharaohs. Treasures from the Valley of the Kings.
Arts and Exhibitions International. Retrieved 5 August
2006.
[55] Return of the King (Times Online)
[56] Dallas Museum of Art Website.
fart.org. Retrieved 18 July 2009.

Dallasmuseumo-

[57] Associated Press, "Tut Exhibit to Return to US Next


Year"
[58] Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs | King
Tut Returns to San Francisco, June 27, 2009 March 28,
2010. Famsf.org. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
[59] Melbourne Museums Tutenkhamun and the Golden Age
of the Pharaohs Ocial Site
[60] Jenny Booth (6 January 2005). CT scan may solve Tutankhamun death riddle. The Times (London).
[61] Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna
[62] King Tut: The Exhibition | King Tut | Special Exhibits.
Pacicsciencecenter.org. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
[63] Digital Egypt for Universities: Tutankhamun. University College London. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 5 August
2006.

37.9 Further reading


Andritsos, John. Social Studies of ancient Egypt:
Tutankhamun. Australia 2006
Booth, Charlotte. The Boy Behind the Mask",
Oneworld, ISBN 978-1-85168-544-8
Brier, Bob. The Murder of Tutankhamun: A
True Story. Putnam Adult, 13 April 1998, ISBN
0-425-16689-9 (paperback)/ISBN 0-399-14383-1
(hardcover)/ISBN 0-613-28967-6 (School & Library Binding)
Carter, Howard and Arthur C. Mace, The Discovery
of the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Courier Dover Publications, 1 June 1977, ISBN 0-486-23500-9 The
semi-popular account of the discovery and opening
of the tomb written by the archaeologist responsible
Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane. Sarwat Okasha
(Preface), Tutankhamun: Life and Death of a
Pharaoh. New York: New York Graphic Society,
1963, ISBN 0-8212-0151-4 (1976 reprint, hardcover) /ISBN 0-14-011665-6 (1990 reprint, paperback)
Edwards, I.E.S., Treasures of Tutankhamun. New
York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976, ISBN
0-345-27349-4 (paperback)/ISBN 0-670-72723-7
(hardcover)
Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, The
Mummy of Tutankhamun: the CT Scan Report, as
printed in Ancient Egypt, June/July 2005.
Haag, Michael.
The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty. London 2005. ISBN 1-84353-554-8.
Hoving, Thomas. The search for Tutankhamun:
The untold story of adventure and intrigue surrounding the greatest modern archeological nd. New
York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978, ISBN
0-671-24305-5 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-8154-1186-3
(paperback) This book details a number of interesting anecdotes about the discovery and excavation of
the tomb
James, T. G. H. Tutankhamun. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, 1 September 2000, ISBN 1-58663032-6 (hardcover) A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, lled with colour illustrations of the funerary
furnishings of Tutankhamun, and related objects
Neubert, Otto. Tutankhamun and the Valley of the
Kings. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972,
ISBN 0-583-12141-1 (paperback) First hand account of the discovery of the Tomb

136
Reeves, C. Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun:
The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London:
Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990, ISBN 0-50005058-9 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-500-27810-5 (paperback) Fully covers the complete contents of his tomb
Rossi, Renzo. Tutankhamun. Cincinnati (Ohio)
2007 ISBN 978-0-7153-2763-0, a work all illustrated and coloured.

37.10 External links


Grim secrets of Pharaohs cityBBC News
Tutankhamun and the Age of the Golden Pharaohs
website
British Museum Tutankhamun highlight
Swiss geneticists examine Tutankhamuns genetic
prole by Reuters
Ultimate Tut Documentary produced by the PBS
Series Secrets of the Dead

CHAPTER 37. TUTANKHAMUN

37.10. EXTERNAL LINKS

137

Bust of Tutankhamun found in his tomb, 1922.

Statue of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun at Luxor, hacked


at during the damnatio memoriae campaign against the Amarna
line of Thutmoside pharaohs.

Wooden bust of the boy king, found in his tomb.

Signet ring, with cartouche, for the Pharaoh Tutankhamun:


Perfect God, Lord of the Two Lands"('Ntr-Nfr, Neb-taui'
right to left)

138

CHAPTER 37. TUTANKHAMUN

Tutankhamuns chest now in the Cairo Museum.

Tutankhamun receives owers from Ankhesenamen.

Tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings.

King Tut Saloon, Louisiana.

Howard Carter and associates opening the shrine doors in the


burial chamber (1924 reconstruction of the 1923 event)
The gilded bier from the base of Tutankhamuns Sarcophagus.

37.10. EXTERNAL LINKS

A pectoral belonging to Tutankhamun, representing his


Prenomen.

139

Chapter 38

Amarna Period
The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history
during the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when
the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was
shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is
now Amarna. It was marked by the reign of Amenhotep
IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten (13531336
BC) in order to reect the dramatic change of Egypts
polytheistic religion into one where a sun-god Aten was
worshipped over all other gods. Aten was not solely
worshipped (the religion was not monotheistic), but the
other gods were worshipped to a signicantly lesser degree. The Egyptian pantheon of the equality of all gods
and goddesses was restored under Akhenatens successor. Other rulers of this period include Amenhotep III,
Smenkhkare, Neferneferuaten, Tutankhamun, Ay, and
Horemheb.

38.1 Religious developments


Akhenaten instigated the earliest veried expression of
monotheism, (although the origins of a pure monotheism are the subject of continuing debate within the academic community and some state that Akhenaten restored monotheism while others point out that he merely
suppressed a dominant solar cult by the assertion of another, while he never completely abandoned several other
traditional deities). Scholars believe that Akhenatens devotion to his deity, Aten, oended many in power below him, which contributed to the end of this dynasty; he
later suered damnatio memoriae. Although modern students of Egyptology consider the monotheism of Akhenaten the most important event of this period, the later
Egyptians considered the so-called Amarna period an unfortunate aberration. Religion prompted many innovations in the name and service of religion. They viewed
religion and science as one in the same. Previously, the
presence of many gods explained the natural phenomena, but during the Amarna period there was a rise in
monotheism. With people beginning to think of the origins of the universe, Amun-Re was seen as the sole creator and Sun-god. The view of this god is seen through the
poem entitled Hymn to the Aten"; When your movements disappear and you go to rest in the Akhet, the land
is in darkness, in the manner of death... darkness a blan-

ket, the land in stillness, with the one who makes them at
rest in his Akhet. The land grows bright once you have appeared in the Akhet, shining in the sun disk by day. When
you dispel darkness and give your rays, the Two Lands are
in a festival of light. From the poem, one can see that the
nature of the gods daily activity revolves around recreating the earth on a daily basis. It also focuses on the present
life rather than on eternity. After the Amarna reign, these
religious beliefs fell out of favor. This was partly because
access to Amun-Re was limited only to the king and his
family. Only they were allowed to worship, and the rest
were left to worship the king and his family.[1]

38.2 Royal women


The royal women of Amarna have more surviving text
about them than any other women from ancient Egypt.
It is clear that they played a large role in royal and religious functions. These women were frequently portrayed
as being very powerful. Many of the kings daughters
(Amenhotep) had inuences as great if not greater than
his wives. Tiye and Nefertiti were the most inuential
of his wives, and Nefertiti was said to be the force behind the new monotheist religion. Nefertiti, whose name
means the beautiful one is here, bore six of Amenhoteps daughters. There is a debate whether the relationship between Amenhotep and his daughters was sexual. Although there is much controversy over this topic,
there is no evidence that any of them bore his children.
Amenhotep gave many of his daughters titles of queen.
Tiye, the kings chief wife, came to be known as the
commoner queen for the lack of royal blood. Tiye
came from a military family, and had inuence even after Amenhoteps death.[2]

38.3 Art
Main article: Amarna art
During Akhenatens reign, royal portraiture underwent
dramatic change. Sculptures of Akhenaten deviate from
conventional portrayal of royalty. Akhenaten is depicted
in an androgynous and highly stylized manner, with large

140

38.5. FOREIGN RELATIONS

141
vestigate, and after further negotiations agreed to send
one of his sons to Egypt. This prince, named Zannanza
was however murdered, probably en route to Egypt. Suppiluliumas reacted with rage at the news of his sons death
and accused the Egyptians. Then, he retaliated by going
to war against Egypts vassal states in Syria and Northern
Canaan and captured the city of Amki. Unfortunately,
Egyptian prisoners of war from Amki carried a plague
which eventually would ravage the Hittite Empire and kill
both Suppiluliumas I and his direct successor.

A relief of a royal couple in the Amarna-period style; gures


may be Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Smenkhkare and Meritaten, or
Tutankhamen and Ankhesenamun; Egyptian Museum of Berlin.

thighs, a slim torso, drooping belly, full lips, and a long


neck and nose.[3] Some believe that the break with convention was due to the presence at Amarna of new people or groups of artists whose background and training
were dierent from those of the Karnak sculptors.[4]

The last two members of the eighteenth dynasty - Ay and


Horemheb - became rulers from the ranks of ocials in
the royal court, although Ay may have married the widow
of Tutankhamun in order to obtain power and she did
not live long afterward. Ays reign was short. His successor was Horemheb, who had been a diplomat in the
administration of Tutankhamun and may have been intended as his successor by the childless Tutankhamun.
Horemheb may have taken the throne away from Ay in a
coup. He also died childless and appointed his successor,
Paramessu, who under the name Ramesses I ascended
the throne in 1292 BC and was the rst pharaoh of the
Nineteenth Dynasty.

38.5 Foreign relations

The events following Akhenatens death are unclear and


the identity and policies of his co-regent and immediate
successor are the matter of ongoing scholarly debate.

38.4 Tutankhamun
and
Amarna Succession

the

Main article: Amarna succession


Tutankhamun died before he was twenty years old, and
the dynastys nal years clearly were shaky. The royal line
of the dynasty died out with Tutankhamun. Two fetuses
found buried in his tomb may have been his twin daughters who would have continued the royal lineage, according to a 2008 investigation.[5] An unidentied Egyptian queen Dakhamunzu, widow of King Nibhururiya
is known from Hittite annals. She is often identied as
Ankhesenamun, royal wife of Tutankhamun, although
Nefertiti and Meritaten have also been suggested as possible candidates. This queen wrote to Suppiluliuma I, king
of the Hittites, asking him to send one of his sons to become her husband and king of Egypt. In her letters she
expressed fear and a reluctance to take as husband one
of her servants. Suppiluliumas sent an ambassador to in-

Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing
the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the
Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani
(red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent
spheres of inuence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

The Great Powers Club is a recent reference to the


correspondence between the Great Kings as found in the
Amarna Letters.
These powers are Babylon, Assyria, Mitanni and Hatti,
viz. the major powers in Mesopotamia, the Levant and
Anatolia during the Late Bronze Age.

142

CHAPTER 38. AMARNA PERIOD

38.5.1

The Great Powers

king himself there must be a prot. [9]

Babylon EA 1-11
Mittani EA 1730
Assur

Zubeidi

Mari

Imlihiye
Dur-Kurigalzu

kilometers
miles

100

Sippar
Kish

Susa

Babylon

Nippur
Isin

Babylonia

at the time of the

Kassites

13th century BC

Girsu
Uruk

Ur

The extent of the Babylonian Empire during the Kassite dynasty

The Babylonians were conquered by an outside group of


people and were referred to in the letters as Karaduniyas
[6]
Babylon was ruled by the Kassite dynasty which would
later on assimilate to the Babylonian culture. The letters of correspondence between the two deal with various
trivial things but it also contained one of the few messages from Egypt to another power. It was the pharaoh
responding to the demands of the King Kasashman-Enlil
who initially inquired about the whereabouts of his sister, that was sent as a diplomatic marriage. The king,
Kasashman-Enlil who is hesitant to send out his daughter
to another diplomatic marriage until he knows the status
of his sister. The pharaoh responds by politely telling the
king to send someone who would recognize his sister.[7]
Then later correspondence dealt with the importance of
exchanging of gifts namely the gold which is used in the
construction of a temple in Babylonia. There was also a
correspondence where the Babylonian king was oended
by not having a proper escort for a princess. He was distraught by how few the chariots there was to transport her
and would be ashamed by the responses by the great kings
of the region.[8]
Assyria EA 15-16

Once enemies,The Mittannis were an old ally of Egypt


by the time of the Amarna letters.[10] The topics as hit by
the King Tuiseratta dealt with various topics as preserving and renewing marriage alliances or sending in various
gifts. For example, EA 22 and EA 25 in the Amarna letters is just an inventory of the gifts from the Mittani king
Tusratta to the pharaoh. The other correspondence of
note dealt with a gold status that was addressed in EA 26
and EA 27. Akhenaten married a princess of the Mittani
nation in order to create ties between the nations through
the bond or marriage.
Hatti EA 41-44
Kingdom from Eastern Anatolia that would later on make
the Mitanni a vassal of them. The correspondence from
them come from the king called Suppiluliumas. The letters varied from discussing about past alliances, to gift
giving and dealing with honor. In EA 42, the tablet stated
how the Hittite king was oended by the name of the
pharaoh written over his name. Although, the ending of
the text became too fragmented it mentioned that he will
blot out the name of the pharaoh.[11]

38.5.2 Amarna Letters


Main article: Amarna letters
These letters took their name from the region they were
found called el-Amarna, 190 miles south of Cairo.[12]
They are dated from the late Bronze Age during the 18th
Dynasty of Egypt from the reign of Amenhotep III to
Akhenaten and a possible third king.[13] They are clay
tablets written in Akkadian cuneiform, the Lingua franca
of the time. The dates of these correspondence are from
the New Kingdom. Within these tablets, there exists dialogue between what ancient historians began to term the
Great Powers Club which included Babylonia, Assyria,
Mittani, and Hatti.[14] The letters range from inquiries
about diplomatic marriages to requesting gifts. These letters themselves were not the earliest moments of international relations but greatly intrigued people who desired
to study the beginnings of international relations as they
saw and hoped to tie in the Amarna Letters to the happenings of the Cold War. These letters demonstrated a
glimpse in how the ancient Near East Great Powers interacted with each other.[15] The success of this system
lasted for two hundred years and there was no signicant
ghting amongst these great powers.[16]

An independent power by the time of the Amarna letters,


who were originally a vassal but regained independence.
The two letters came from the king Assur-uballit dealt
with him introducing himself and sending a messenger to
investigate Egypt He should see what you are like and
what your country is like, and then leave for here. (EA
15) The second letter dealt with him inquiring why Egypt
was not sending enough gold to him and arguing about
prot for the king. then let him (a messenger) stay out These clay tablets were found in the city of el-Amarna
and let him die right there in the sun, but for (but) for the which was founded by the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten.

38.6. GALLERY OF IMAGES


The locations of these tablets today are found in various museums such as the Vorderasiatisches Museum in
Berlin, the British Museum, the Cairo Museum and the
Oriental Institute.[17] There are over 300 tablets that range
from foreign correspondence to inventories. The modern
division of these letters were due to the Norwegian Assyriologist J. A. Knudtzon who published Die El-AmarnaTafeln.[18] There are over three hundred of these messages but some are in such a bad condition that they could
not be fully recovered.
The opening statement
William Moran discussed how the rst line in these documents followed a certain pattern of Say to PN. Thus
PN. There are variations of this but was found common
among all the tablets. The other is a salutation which
is one a report of the monarchs well being and then
the second which is a series of good wishes toward the
monarch.[19] Indeed, this seems to be part of the style of
Akkadian style of writing which helped facilitate foreign
correspondence for the long term. As scholars argued,
this aided in ltering out the chauvinistic domestic ideology at home to the other monarch. This allowed diplomacy to ourish which aided to the relative peace of the
time.[20]
Brothership
Despite the fact that there are great distances between the
rulers. The concept of a global village reigned.
The importance of this in EA 7 is that it demonstrates the
mindset of the rulers in the Near East world at the time.
The enlarged village which scholars like to term permeated their thoughts where they took the idea of brotherhood. They were related through the political marriages
but is an idea of a village of clans which gives reason to
the good wishes and update on the health of the monarchs themselves. The monarchs seem to have very little
concept of the time of travel between each other and at
most likely saw that the village worldview they lived in
was applicable for the long distant correspondence of the
Amarna letters.[21] Indeed, there is a constant demonstration of love as seen in these letters. Scholars pointed out
that to demonstrate good friendship it had to be on the
practical level of constant stream of gift giving. This request for gifts is constant with the various correspondence
with the Great Kings.[22]

38.6 Gallery of images


Queen Tiye, matriarch of the Amarna Dynasty.
She was the mother of Akhenaten and wife of
Amenhotep III. She mainly ran Egypts aairs of
state for her son.

143
Akhenaten, born Amenhotep IV, began a religious
revolution in which he declared Aten was a supreme
god and turned his back on the old traditions. He
moved the capital to Akhetaten.
Queen Nefertiti, the daughter of Ay, married
Akhenaten. Her role in daily life at the court soon
extended from Great Royal Wife to that of a coregent. It is also possible that she may have ruled
Egypt in her own right as pharaoh, Neferneferuaten.
Smenkhkare, was a co-regent of Akhenaten who
ruled after his death.
It was believed that
Smenkhkare was a male guise of Nefertiti. However, it is accepted that Smenkhkare was a male.
He took Meritaten, Queen Nefertitis daughter as his
wife.
Queen Meritaten, was the oldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. She was the wife of Smenkhkare.
She also may have ruled Egypt in her own right as
pharaoh and is one the possible candidates of being
the pharaoh, Neferneferuaten.
Neferneferure and Neferneferuaten Tasherit.
Shown here as children, they were two of six
daughters born to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. It is
possible that Neferneferuaten Tasherit was the one
who may have been her fathers co-regent and may
have ruled as the female pharaoh, Neferneferuaten.
Kiya. She was one of Akhenatens secondary wives.
It was once believed that she was the mother of Tutankhamun, but that was proven not the case when
DNA revealed it not so.
The Younger Lady mummy of KV35 was by
DNA matching Tutankhamuns mother. Originally thought to be Nefertiti, DNA showed that she
was the sister of Akhenaten. Princess Nebetah or
Beketaten are considered candidates.
Maia was the wet nurse of the Crown Prince, Tutankhamun. Having lost his mother at a young age,
she helped rear the young prince. Maia was later
allowed to have a grand tomb at Saqarra. Here the
young prince holds her hand.
Tutankhamun, formerly Tutankhaten, was Akhenatens son through an incestal relationship with his
sister. As pharaoh, he instigated policies to restore
Egypt to its old religion and moved the capital back
to Memphis.
Ankhesenamun, born Ankhesenpaaten, was the
wife of Tutankhamun, and daughter of Akhenaten.
After her husbands death, she was married to her
maternal grandfather Ay.
Ay served as vizier to Akhenaten, and Tutankhamun. He was the father of Nefertiti. After
the death of Tutankhamun, Ay lay a claim to the

144

CHAPTER 38. AMARNA PERIOD


throne by burying him and by marrying his granddaughter Ankhesenamun.

After the death of Ay, Horemheb assumed the


throne. A commoner, he had served as vizier to
both Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb instigated a
policy of damnatio memoriae, against everyone associated with the Amarna period. He was married
to Nefertitis sister, Mutnodjmet, who died in child
birth. With no heir, he appointed his own vizier,
Paramessu as his successor.
The ruins of Akhetaten. Now commonly called
Amarna, Akhenatens capital city was abandoned by
Tutankhamun. It survived several years before being torn apart by Horemhebs orders.

38.7 See also


Foreign relations of Egypt during the Amarna period
Amarna letters

38.8 References
[1] Arnold, Dorothea, James P. Allen, and L. Green. The
Royal Women of Amarna: Images of Beauty from Ancient Egypt. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of
Art, 1996. Print.
[2] Arnold, Dorothea, James P. Allen, and L. Green. The
Royal Women of Amarna: Images of Beauty from Ancient Egypt. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of
Art, 1996. Print.
[3] Cothren, Michael and Stokstad, Marilyn: Art History.
Prentice Hall, 2011.
[4] Arnold, Dorothea, James P. Allen, and L. Green. The
Royal Women of Amarna: Images of Beauty from Ancient Egypt. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of
Art, 1996. Print.
[5] Khanna, Aditi (2008-09-01). Bodies found in the tomb
of 'boy king' Tutankhamuns tomb are twin daughters.
Times Online (London). Retrieved 2008-09-01.
[6] Ibid., 7
[7] Moran. Amarna Letters. 1-3
[8] Moran. Amarna Diplomacy. 21
[9] Moran. Amarna Letters. 41-42.
[10] Cohan and Westbrook. Amarna Diplomacy. 6.
[11] Moran. Amarna Diplomacy. 116
[12] Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. p.xii. ISBN
0-8018-4251-4.

[13] Cohen, Raymond and Westbrook, Raymond. (2000).


Amarna Diplomacy: the Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.
6 ISBN 0-8018-6199-3
[14] Ibid., 6-7
[15] Ibid., 3-4
[16] Ibid., 234
[17] Moran. Amarna Letters. xiii - xv
[18] Ibid., xiv
[19] Moran. Amarna Letters. XXII - XXIII.
[20] Cohan and Westbrook. Amarna Diplomacy. 235-236
[21] Liverani, Mario, The Great Powers Club, in Amarna
Diplomacy, edited by Raymond Cohen and Raymond
Westbrook, 18-19
[22] Zaccagnini, Carlos, The Interdependence of the Great
Powers, in Amarna Diplomacy, edited by Raymond Cohen and Raymond Westbrook, 145.

Chapter 39

Abdi-Heba
Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or AbdiHebat) was a local chieftain of Jerusalem during the
Amarna period (mid-1330s BC). Abdi-Hebas name can
be translated as servant of Hebat", a Hurrian goddess.
Whether Abdi-Heba was himself of Hurrian descent is
unknown, as is the relationship between the general populace of pre-Israelite Jerusalem (called, several centuries
later, Jebusites in the Bible) and the Hurrians. Egyptian
documents have him deny he was a aznu and assert he
is a soldier (we'w), the implication being he was the son
of a local chief sent to Egypt to receive military training
there.[1]

governed Jerusalem or whether he was put on the throne


by the Egyptians. Abdi-Heba himself notes that he holds
his position not through his parental lineage but by the
grace of Pharaoh, but this might be attery rather than
an accurate representation of the situation. At this time
the area he administered from his garrison may have had
a population of fteen hundred people and Jerusalem
would have been a 'small highlands stronghold' in the
fourteenth century BC with no fortications or large
buildings.[2]

39.1 Correspondence with Egypt


During Abdi-Hebas reign the region was under attack from marauding bands of Apiru.[3] Abdi-Heba
made frequent pleas to the Pharaoh of Egypt (probably
Amenhotep III), for an army[4] or, at least, an ocer
to command.[5] Abdi-Heba also made other requests for
military aid in ghting o his enemies, both Canaanite
warlords and bands of Apiru:

EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to


pharaoh), (note paragraph divisions).

Also unknown is whether he was part of a dynasty that


145

Say to the king, my lord: Message of AbdiHeba, your servant. I fall at the feet of my lord
7 times and 7 times. Consider the entire affair. Milkilu and Tagi brought troops into Qiltu
against me... ...May the king know (that) all the
lands are at peace (with one another), but I am
at war. May the king provide for his land. Consider the lands of Gazru, Aqaluna, and Lakisi.
They have given them [my enemies] food, oil
and any other requirement. So may the king
provide for archers and send the archers against
men that commit crimes against the king, my
lord. If this year there are archers, then the
lands and the hazzanu (client kings) will belong to the king, my lord. But if there are no
archers, then the king will have neither lands
nor hazzanu. Consider Jerusalem! This neither my father nor my mother gave to me. The
strong hand (arm) of the king gave it to me.
Consider the deed! This is the deed of Milkilu
and the deed of the sons of Lab'ayu, who have
given the land of the king to the 'Apiru. Consider, O king, my lord! I am in the right!.... EA

146

CHAPTER 39. ABDI-HEBA


287.[6]

[3] EA 179. Scholars refer to the Amarna letters by a number


system prexed with EA for El Amarna.

As a result, conspiracy charges are made against Abdi


Heba, who defended himself strenuously in his correspondence with Pharaoh.[7]

[4] EA 179-183.

In later years Abdi-Heba appears to have reconciled with


the Apiru, or at least certain bands of them, and hired
mercenaries from among their ranks. Indeed, though
he earlier complained about the depredations of Labaya,
Shuwardata, king of the Canaanite town of Keilah as well
as other places in the Judean highlands, refers to him as
a new Labaya":

[6] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore: Johns


Hopkins University Press, (1992), pp.327-28

Say to the king, my lord, my god, my Sun:


Message of Shuwardata, your servant, the dirt
at your feet. I fall at the feet of the king, my
lord, my god, my Sun, 7 times and 7 times.
The king, my lord, permitted me to wage war
against Qeltu (Keilah). I waged war. It is now
at peace with me; my city is restored to me.
Why did Abdi-Heba write to the men of Qeltu,
Accept silver and follow me?"... Moreover,
Labaya, who used to take our towns, is dead,
but now another Labaya is Abdi-Heba, and he
seizes our town. So, may the king take cognizance of his servant because of this deed...
EA 280.[8]

[5] EA 182

[7] EA 179.
[8] Moran, op. cit., pp.321-22
[9] Moran, op. cit., pp.325-334

39.4 Resources
39.4.1 Sources
Translations adapted from
Moran, William (ed. and trans.) The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992.

39.4.2 Other works

Abdi-Hebas ultimate fate is unknown.

Baikie, James. The Amarna Age: A Study of the


Crisis of the Ancient World. University Press of the
Pacic, 2004.

39.2 List of Abdi-Hebas 6 letters


to Pharaoh

Cohen, Raymond and Raymond Westbrook (eds.).


Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Johns Hopkins University Press,
2002.

Abdi-Heba was the author of letters EA 285-290.[9]


1. EA 285title:
Jerusalem"

The soldier-ruler of

2. EA 286title: A throne granted, not inherited


3. EA 287title: A very serious crime"'
4. EA 288title: Benign neglect
5. EA 289title: A reckoning demanded
6. EA 290title: Three against one"' [9]

39.3 References
[1] Donald B. Redford , Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient
Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 p.270.
[2] Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil AsherThe Bible
Unearthed: Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel
and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, 2001, The Free Press,
New York City, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 p. 239

Chapter 40

Ahatmilku
Ahatmilku (. 1265 BCE) was a princess of Amurru,
who became queen of Ugarit through marriage.

40.1 Life
Ahatmilku was a wife of the King Niqmepa of Ugarit and
daughter-in-law of Niqmaddu II.[1] She held great wealth
and inuence.
She supported her youngest son Ammittamru IIs succession to the throne after the death of her husband.[2] She
banished two of her sons to Cyprus, when they contested
this, but made sure they had sucient supplies.[3]

40.2 Notes
[1] Sweeney, Emmet John (2007). Empire of Thebes, or, Ages
in Chaos Revisited. Algora Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 087586-480-5.
[2] Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah by Bob Becking, Meindert
Dijkstra, Marjo Korpel, Karel Vriezen
[3] Marsman, Hennie J (2003). Women in Ugarit & Israel.
Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV. p. 660.

147

Chapter 41

Alashiya
Amarna letters contain references to a ship belonging to
the King of Alashiya and the men of Lukki (probably part
of the Sea Peoples, similar to pirates) seizing villages in
Alashiya.[3]
In other correspondence, the King of Ugarit pleads for
help from the King of Alashiya to protect Ugarit from the
Sea Peoples. Another document from Ugarit records the
banishment of two princes to the land of Alashiya. One
further text found at Ugarit may contain a further clue to
the location of the capital city of Alashiya, as it could
imply that the city was located on a mountain. However,
this word has more usually been translated as shore.[4]

Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna period

Alashiya or Alasiya was a state which existed in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, and was situated somewhere
in the Eastern Mediterranean. It was a major source of
goods, especially copper, for Ancient Egypt and other
states in the Ancient Near East. It is referred to in a number of the surviving texts and is now thought to be the
ancient name of Cyprus, or an area of Cyprus. This was
conrmed by the scientic analysis performed in the Tel
Aviv University of the clay tablets which were sent from
Alashiya to other rulers.[1]

41.1 The texts

The extant ending of the Story of Wenamun records how


Wenamun, a priest of Egypt, had been blown o course
on the sea journey from Byblos to Egypt and ended up on
Alashiya. Wenamun reports that he was almost killed by
an angry mob, but was rescued by Hatbi, the princess of
the town.
Some of the last texts referring to Alashiya are from the
Hittite Empire (based in modern Turkey) and boast of
quelling Alashiya by force. However, with all such military reports it is dicult to assess the true outcome.

41.2 Identication

The name of the state translated as Alashiya is found on


texts written in Egyptian, Hittite, Akkadian, Mycenean
(Linear B) and Ugaritic. A number of the Amarna letters are from the King or ministers of Alashiya. These
mostly concern the amount of copper that has been sent
from Alashiya and requests for silver or ivory in return.
One letter refers to 500 talents of copper (probably about
12.5 tons) and makes excuses as to why so little copper
has been sent. Pharaoh is also referred to by the King
of Alashiya as his brother, indicating that the king regarded himself as an equal, probably because of the economic power of his kingdom. Papyrus Anastasi IV, written several centuries later, also refers to copper (as well
as cows) sent from Alashiya to Egypt.[2]

Alashiya therefore needs to be situated somewhere where


there was sizable Bronze Age copper production, on the
coast, and in the East Mediterranean.
Some scholars have suggested sites and areas of Syria or
Turkey, but it is now generally (although not universally)
agreed that Alashiya refers to at least part of Cyprus.[5]
Specically, it was generally argued that the site of
Enkomi was the capital of the kingdom of Alashiya,
which covered the entire island of Cyprus.[6]

The identication of Cyprus with Alashiya was conrmed


by the 2003 publication by Goren et al. of an article
in the American Journal of Archaeology detailing the
petrographic and chemical analysis of a number of the
Any place identied as Alashiya must therefore have had Amarna and Ugaritic letters sent from Alashiya. These
sizable copper production during the Late Bronze Age. examinations of the provenance of the clay used to creThere are a number of other clues in the texts. The ate the tablets indicate that Syria could not be the location
148

41.5. EXTERNAL LINKS


of Alashiya, while clay on Cyprus is a good match.
However, this analysis showed that the clays did not originate anywhere near the site of Enkomi and that suitable
clays are close to the sites of Kalavasos and Alassa (itself
a possible cognate of Alashiya). These sites, especially
Kalavasos, were also important Late Bronze Age sites and
are located close to sources of copper.
Moreover, Armstrong[7] argues that there is considerable
evidence for regional variation and that there is no evidence for a centralized, island-wide political authority on
Cyprus during the Late Bronze Age.
It is therefore currently unclear whether the kingdom of
Alashiya comprised the whole of Cyprus, with the capital
city moving location (probably starting with Enkomi), or
was always sited at Kalavasos, or whether Alashiya comprised only one region of Cyprus.[8]

41.3 References
[1] Goren et al. 2003
[2] Knapp 1996
[3] Armstrong 2003
[4] Goren 2003
[5] Wachsmann 1986
[6] Knapp 1997
[7] Armstrong, 2003
[8] Goren et al. 2003; Armstrong 2003

41.4 Sources
Armstrong, K. M. 2003 Settlement Hierarchy and
The Location of Alashiya on Cyprus. Unpublished
MA dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Buttrick, G. A. and C. M. Laymon. 1971 The Interpreters One Volume Commentary on the Bible, pp.
1314. ISBN 0-687-19299-4.
Goren, Y., Bunimovitz, S., Finkelstein, I. and
Na'aman, N. 1993 The Location of Alashiya, Petrographic analysis of the tablets. American Journal
of Archaeology 107:233-255
Knapp, A. B. ed. 1996 Near Eastern and Aegean
Texts from the Third to the First Millennia BC.
(Translations of all 122 Bronze Age and early
Iron Age texts referring to Alashiya). ISBN 09651704-2-X
Knapp, A. B. 1997 The Archaeology of Late Bronze
Age Cypriot Society. ISBN 0-85261-573-6

149
Schwemer, D. 2008 The Storm-Gods of the Ancient Near East: Summary, Synthesis, Recent Studies (part II). Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2008.
Wachsmann, S. 1986 Is Cyprus Ancient Alashiya?
New Evidence from an Egyptian Tablet. The Biblical Archaeologist 49(1):37-40

41.5 External links


Ancient Cyprus
Cyprus in the Late Bronze Age
Letters from the king of Alasiya
The Amarna Letters

Chapter 42

Amarna art

Two of Akhenatens daughters, Nofernoferuaton and Nofernoferure, c. 1375-1358 BC

The Ancient Egyptian art style, known as Amarna Art


or the Amarna Style, is a style which was adopted in
the Amarna Period (i.e. during and just after the reign
of Akhenaten in the late Eighteenth Dynasty), and is noticeably dierent from more conventional Egyptian art
styles.
It is characterized by a sense of movement and activity
in images, with gures having raised heads, many gures
overlapping and many scenes busy and crowded. Also,
the human body is portrayed dierently in Amarna style
artwork than Egyptian art on the whole. For instance, Princess of the Akhenaten family, Louvre, Paris.
many depictions of Akhenatens body give him distinctly
feminine qualities, such as large hips, prominent breasts,
and a larger stomach and thighs. This is a divergence from 42.1 Tombs
the earlier Egyptian art which shows men with perfectly
chiseled bodies. Faces on reliefs are still shown exclu- The decoration of the tombs of non-royals is quite diersively in prole.
ent from previous eras. These tombs do not feature any
The illustration of gures hands and feet are apparently funerary or agricultural scenes, nor do they include the
important. Fingers and toes are depicted as long and slen- tomb occupant unless he or she is depicted with a memder and are carefully detailed to show nails. The skin ber of the royal family. There is an absence of other gods
color of both male and female is generally dark brown and goddesses, apart from the Aten, the sundisc. How(contrasted with the usual dark brown or red for males ever, the Aten does not shine its rays on the tomb owner,
and light brown or white for females) this could merely only on members of the royal family. There is neither
be convention, or it may depict the life blood. Figures in a mention of Osiris nor other funerary gures. There is
this style are shown with both a left and a right foot, con- also no mention of a journey through the underworld. Intrasting the traditional style of being shown with either stead, excerpts from the Hymn to the Aten are generally
present.
two left or two right feet.
150

42.3. ARCHITECTURE

151
has a similarly shaped skull, although not so elongated as
[in typical Amarna-style art]". However, there is still a
possibility the style is purely ritualistic.
The hands at the end of each ray extending from Aten
in the relief are delivering the ankh, which symbolized
life in the Egyptian culture, to Akhenaten and Nefertiti
and often also reach the portrayed princesses. The importance of the Sun God Aten is central to much of the
Amarna period art, largely because Akhenatens rule was
marked by its monotheistic following of Aten.
In several, if not most sculptures of Akhenaten, he has
wide hips and a visible paunch. His lips are thick and
his arms and legs are thin and lack muscular tone, unlike his counterparts of other eras in Egyptian artwork.
Some scholars suggest that the presentation of the human
body as imperfect during the Amarna period is in deference to Aten. Others think Akhenaten suered from a
genetic disorder (most likely the product of inbreeding)
that caused him to look as such. Others interpret this unprecedented stylistic break from Egyptian tradition to be
a reection of the Amarna Royals attempts to wrest political power from the traditional priesthoods and bureaucratic authorities.
Much of the nest work, including the famous Nefertiti
bust in Berlin, was found in the studio of the second and
last Royal Court Sculptor Thutmose, and is now in Berlin
and Cairo, with some in the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York.

Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

42.2 Sculpture

The period saw the use of sunk relief, previously used


for large external reliefs, extended to small carvings, and
used for most monumental reliefs. Sunk relief appears
best in strong sunlight. This was one innovation that had
a lasting eect, as raised relief is rare in later periods.

Sculptures from the Amarna period are set apart from


other periods of Egyptian art. One reason for this is the 42.3 Architecture
accentuation of certain features. For instance, an elongation and narrowing of the neck and head, sloping of the
forehead and nose, a prominent chin, large ears and lips, Not many buildings from this period have survived the
spindle-like arms and calves as well as large thighs, stom- ravages of later kings, partially as they were constructed
out of standard size blocks, known as talatat, which were
achs, and hips were often portrayed.
very easy to remove and reuse. In recent decades, reIn a relief of Akhenaten, he is portrayed with his primary building work on later buildings has revealed large numwife, Nefertiti, and their children, the six princesses, in an ber of reused blocks from the period, with the origiintimate setting. His children appear to be fully grown, nal carved faces turned inwards, greatly increasing the
only shrunken to appear smaller than their parents, a rou- amount of work known from the period.
tine stylistic feature of traditional Egyptian art. They also
have elongated necks and bodies. An unnished head of Temples in Amarna did not follow the traditional Egypa princess from this time, that is currently an artifact of tian design and were smaller, with sanctuaries open to the
the Tutankhamun, and the golden age of the pharaohs ex- sun, containing large numbers of altars. They had no closhibition, displays a very prominent elongation to the back ing doors. See Great Temple of the Aten, Small Temple
of the Aten and the Temple of Amenhotep IV.
of the head.
The unusual, elongated skull shape often used in portrayal
of the royal family may be a slightly exaggerated treatment of a hereditary trait of the Amarna royal family, according to the Brooklyn Museum, seeing as the mummy
of Tutankhamun, presumed to be related to Akhenaten,

42.4 See also


Art of ancient Egypt

152

Amarna monkey. Blue faience from Brooklyn Museum

Amarna letters

42.5 External links


'Gifts for the Gods: Images from Egyptian Temples, a fully digitized exhibition catalog from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Amarna art

CHAPTER 42. AMARNA ART

Chapter 43

Amarna succession
The succession of kings at the end of the Eighteenth dy- 43.1 Sources
nasty of Ancient Egypt is a matter of great debate and
confusion. There are very few contemporary records that The Coregency Stela, found in a tomb in Amarna possibly
can be relied upon, due to the nature of the Amarna Pe- shows his queen Nefertiti as his coregent, ruling alongside
riod and the reign of Akhenaten and his successors and him.
possible co-regents. It is known that Akhenaten reigned
for seventeen years, and it was previously believed that in
the last 3 or 4 years, he had two co-regents: Smenkhkare,
43.2 References
who was possibly his brother or son, and Neferneferuaten,
who was either one of his daughters or his Great Royal
Wife Nefertiti. It is unknown in which order they fol- [1] James H. Allen. The Amarna Succession. p. 1.
Archived from the original on 2008-05-28. Retrieved
lowed each other, and neither of their reigns lasted long,
2008-06-23., reprinted from Brand, Peter and Cooper,
for Tutankhamun succeeded not long after Akhenatens
Louise, Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian
death.
Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane
(Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 37), (LeiThe last dated appearance of Akhenaten and the Amarna
den: E. J. Brill, 2009).
family is in the tomb of Meryre II, and dates from sec[1]
ond month, year 12 of his reign. After this the his- [2] Athena Van der Perre, Nofretetes (vorerst) letzte dokutorical record is unclear, and only with the succession of
mentierte Erwhnung, in: Im Licht von Amarna - 100
Tutankhamun is it somewhat claried.
Jahre Fund der Nofretete. [Katalog zur Ausstellung Berlin,
However, the coregency theory has now been discredited
by the December 2012 announcement of the discovery
of a Year 16 III Akhet day 15 inscription dated explicitly to Akhenatens reign which mentions, in the same
breath, the presence of Queen Nefertiti--or the "Great
Royal Wife, His Beloved, Lady of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti"--in its third line.[2] The badly legible ve line text, found in a limestone quarry at Deir elBersha mentions a building project in Amarna"--Egypts
political capital under Akhenaten and was deciphered
and interpreted by Athena Van der Perre.[3] This means
that there Nefertiti was still Akhenatens living wife late
in this pharaohs 16th year; thus, the Amarna pharaohs
Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten could only have succeeded to the throne after Akhenatens death and may
have had an independent reign of their own over Egypt.
The royal line of the dynasty died out with Tutankhamun,
for two foetuses found buried in his tomb may have been
his twin daughters, according to a 2008 investigation.[4]

153

07.12.2012 - 13.04.2013]. (December 7, 2012-April 13,


2013) Petersberg, pp.195-197
[3] Dayr al-Barsha Project featured in new exhibit 'Im Licht
von Amarna' at the gyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung in Berlin 12/06/2012
[4] Khanna, Aditi (2008-09-01). Bodies found in the tomb
of 'boy king' Tutankhamuns tomb are twin daughters.
Times Online (London). Retrieved 2008-09-01.

Chapter 44

Amarna Tomb 1
Coordinates: 273942N 305420E / 27.66167N The South Wall: includes two scenes depicting Tiye sit30.90556E
ting at meal with Akhenaten and Nefertiti Akhenaten and
Nefertiti are seated on the left. Akhnaten seems to wear
The tomb of the Ancient Egyptian noble Huya, known
as Amarna Tomb 1 is located in the cluster of tombs a khat headdress and Nefertiti a short Nubian style wig.
known collectively as the Northern tombs, near to the city Next to Nefertiti seated on small chairs are Meritaten
and one of her sisters - possibly Neferneferuaten-tasherit.
of Amarna, in Egypt.
Queen Tiye is shown opposite the King and Queen. She is
Huya was the treasurer and steward in the house of the seated and wears the double plumed headdress with the
Kings Chief Wife, Tiye and the overseer of the royal horned sundisk. She is accomponaied by her daughter
quarters of the Great Kings Wife Tiye. He held further Baketaten, who is seated next to her on a small chair.
titles including that of favorite of the Lord of the Two
Lands.

Banquet scene

The sculptor Iuti-Iuti working on a statue of Beketaten.

In another scene Tiye is now seated on the left. She


wears a tripartite wig, topped with a modius and the
double plumes with the horned sun-disk. Baketaten is
shown standing next to Tiye. On the right Akhenaten
and Nefertiti are seated and shown drinking from cups.
Ankhesenpaaten is shown standing on the footstool in
front of Nefertiti, while another princess (Meketaten?)
stands next to Nefertiti and looks as though shes helping herself to some fruit. Nefertiti is called: The heiress,
great of favor, lady of grace, charming in loving-kindness,
mistress of South and North, the Great wife of the King
whom he loves, the Lady of the Two Lands, Nefertiti,
living for ever and ever.

Huya is also appointed as standard-bearer of the troop of


young ghters called 'Aten Appears for him'. In other
scenes he is shown overseeing the craftsmen and others
who serve under him. Mentioned in the tomb are the
scribe of the House of Charm, Nakhtiu and the Overseer of the sculptors of the kings chief wife Tiye, named East wall: Akhenaten is shown leading his mother Tiye
Iuti-Iuti.
to a temple. They are accompanied by the princess
Huya also mentions his wife Wenher, and his mother Tuy. Baketaten as they enter the temple. Nefertiti and her
In other scenes there is mention of two possible sisters of daughters are not shown in this scene.
Huya, by the name of Nebet and Kherpu(t).
West Wall: Akhenaten and Nefertiti on the State PalanThe tomb includes several scenes:[1]

quin and the year 12 Durbar scene. Akhenaten and


154

44.1. REFERENCES

Akhenaten leading Tiye to the temple

Nefertiti are shown being carried on a sedan chair.


Akhenaten appears to be wearing the red crown of the
north and holding a crook and ail(?). The royal daughters Meritaten and Meketaten are shown walking behind
the sedan chair. They are attended by two nurses and six
female attendants.
On the North Wall Huya is shown in an award scene.
He appears before Akhenaten and Nefertiti to receive his
reward. Two princesses are shown in the palace. The
princesses are identied as Meritaten and Meketaten.

The two royal families as shown on the lintel

The Lintel on the North Wall shows a depiction of the


two royal families. On the left hand side Akhenaten
and Nefertiti are shown seated. Nefertiti turns toward Akhenaten. Before them four royal daughters
are shown: Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and
Neferneferuaten Tasherit. All four girls are holding
plume shaped wands. On the right side Amenhotep III
is shown seated opposite Queen Tiye who is accompanied by the princess Baketaten. Three female attendants
are shown behind Tiye.

44.1 References
[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5

155

Chapter 45

Amarna Tomb 3
The tomb of the Ancient Egyptian noble Ahmes (Ahmose), known as Amarna Tomb 3, is located in the northern side of the wadi that splits the cluster of tombs known
collectively as the Northern tombs, near to the city of
Amarna, in Egypt.[1]
Ahmes was a sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, the
sole companion, the attendant of the Lord of the Two
Lands, the favorite of the good god, true kings scribe,
steward in the house of Akhenaten, overseer of the front
hall of the Lord of the Two Lands (=court of justice?),
and a fanbearer at the right hand of the king.[2]
On the west wall of the tomb Akhenaten and Nefertiti are
depicted riding a chariot. The royal couple is on their way
to visit the temple. They are shown together in the chariot accompanied by one of their daughters. Akhenaten
wear a khepresh crown, while Nefertiti is shown wearing
her at topped blue crown. In another scene on the west
wall the royal family is shown eating. Akhenaten is shown
seated eating what appears to be a roasted duck. Behind
him we see Nefertiti seated with one of the princesses on
her lap. She is holding meat. Next to Nefertiti we see two
more princesses seated on chairs.[1]

45.1 References
[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5
[2] Murnane, W.J., Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt,
Atlanta, 1995

156

Chapter 46

Amarna Tomb 5
Penthu served at court during the reign of Akhenaten.
Pentu held the titles of sealbearer of the King of Lower
Egypt, the sole companion, the attendant of the Lord of
the Two Lands, the favorite of the good god, kings scribe,
the kings subordinate, First servant of the Aten in the
mansion of the Aten in Akhetaten, Chief of physicians,
chamberlain.
Pentus tomb is one of the six Northern tombs at Amarna.
The tomb is located to the south of the Tomb of Meryra.
The tomb is very similar to the tomb of Ahmes. It is Tshaped and the inner chamber would have served as the
burial chamber.[1]
The tomb is decorated and scenes include a visit from the
royal family to the temple and a reward scene.[1]
North Wall: The royal family is shown entering the temple. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are accompanied by three
of their daughters: Meritaten, Meketaten and most likely
Ankhesenpaaten.
On the same wall the royal family is depicted rewarding
Penthu at the temple. Akhenaten is shown wearing the
read crown and Nefertiti stands behind him (the upper
half of her body is damaged). Behind the royal couple
we see three princesses accompanied their nurse(s).
On the South Wall Penthu is depicted in another award
scene but this one takes place at the palace. In an associated scene the king and queen are shown having a
meal. Akhenaten is shown wearing a khat headdress. He
is seated and is eating fowl. Nefertiti is seated behind
him, wearing her blue crown and seems to be drinking
from a cup.[1]

46.1 References
[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5

157

Chapter 47

Amarna Tomb 7
Coordinates: 273942N 305420E / 27.66167N
30.90556E Amarna tomb 7 was one of the Southern
tombs at Amarna, and belonged to Parennefer who was a
pure handed cupbearer of the kings Person.

47.1 References

The facade of the tomb depicts scenes with Akhenaten,


Nefertiti, Meritaten, and Meketaten (and on the left
Ankhesenpaaten) oering to the Aten.[1]
Near the entrance Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters oer to the Aten and in a nearby scene Parennefer
oers a prayer.

An award scene with Akhenaten and Nefertiti from the tomb of


Parennefer

On the West Wall an award scene shows Akhenaten and


Nefertiti in the window of Appearances. The priincesses
Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and the Queens
Sister Mutbenret (sometimes referred to as Mutnodjemet) are shown in the palace in a room behind the window. Parennefer is shown receiving many gifts from the
royal family, followed by a trip back to his house among
celebrating crowds. Parennefer is shown being received
at the gates of his own house by his wife (whose name
was lost), but was said to be a favorite of the Kings Chief
Wife Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti.
The East Wall contains a scene where the King gives and
audience to Parennefer. Akhenaten, nefertiti and one of
their daughter are shown in a kiosk, while Parennefer and
a servant appear before the royal family. The servant offers ointment, while Parennefer oers a speech. Several
courtiers and musicians are shown attending with several
tables with food and drink presented in the scene.[2]
158

[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts V


and VI, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-161-3
[2] Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period
in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0

Chapter 48

Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Nebetah on the right; and another, whose name is deAmna-tpa; meaning Amun is Satised) also known stroyed, on the left.[8]
as Amenhotep the Magnicent was the ninth pharaoh of
the Eighteenth dynasty. According to dierent authors,
he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388
BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC[4] after his father
Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by a minor wife Mutemwiya.[5]
His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and
artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its
artistic and international power. When he died (probably in the 39th year of his reign), his son initially ruled as
Amenhotep IV, but later changed his own royal name to
Akhenaten.

48.1 Family
The son of the future Thutmose IV (the son of
Amenhotep II) and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC.[6] He was a member
of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost
150 years since the reign of Thutmose I.
Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great
Royal Wife Tiye, a queen who could be considered as
the progenitor of monotheism[7] through her rst son,
Crown Prince Thutmose, who predeceased his father,
and her second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as
Akhenaten, who ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to
the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father
of a third childcalled Smenkhkare, who later would
succeed Akhenaten and briey rule Egypt as pharaoh.
Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah.[8]
They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during
the reign of their father and also are represented by
smaller objectswith the exception of Nebetah.[9] Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records
on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet
Habu.[10] This huge sculpture, that is seven meters high,
shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, with
three of their daughters standing in front of the throne-Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre;

Vase in the Louvre with the names Amenohotep III and Tiye written in the cartouches on the left, (and Tiyes on the right).

Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters


Sitamun and Isisto the oce of great royal wife during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to this oce by Year 30 of his reign,
is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the
royal palace at Malkata.[8] It should be noted that Egypts
theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several dierent generations as
wives to strengthen the chances of his ospring succeeding him.[11] The goddess Hathor herself was related to
Ra as rst the mother and later wife and daughter of
the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of
the Ancient Egyptian religion.[8] Hence, Amenhotep IIIs
marriage to his two daughters should not be considered

159

160

CHAPTER 48. AMENHOTEP III

unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage.


Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign
women:
Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni,
in the tenth year of his reign.[12]
Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign.[13][14]
A daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon.[14]
A daughter
Babylon.[14]

of

Kadashman-Enlil,

king

of

A daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa.[14]


A daughter of the ruler of Ammia (in modern
Syria).[14]

48.2 Life
Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of
his statues having been discovered and identied. Since
these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of
portraits covering the entire length of his reign.
Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep IIIs reign
is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone
scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic
area ranging from Syria (Ras Shamra) through to Soleb in
Nubia.[15] Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these
commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions
(either 102 or 110 depending on the reading) that Amenhotep III killed with his own arrows from his rst regnal
year up to his tenth year.[16] Similarly, ve other scarabs
state that the foreign princess who would become a wife
to him, Gilukhepa, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317
women. She was the rst of many such princesses who
would enter the pharaohs household.[16]

Queen Tiye, whose husband, Amenhotep III, may have been depicted to her right in this broken statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a


child, perhaps between the ages of 6 and 12. It is likely
that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at
that early age. He married Tiye two years later and
Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artishe lived twelve years after his death. His lengthy reign
cial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen
was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic
Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year,
splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic
and international power. Proof of this is shown by the
"Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty
diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria,
of...Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given
Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti which is preserved in the
life, and the Great Royal Wife Tiye; may she
archive of Amarna Letters; these letters document frelive; her fathers name was Yuya, her mothers
quent requests by these rulers for gold and numerous
name Tuya. His Majesty commanded the
other gifts from the pharaoh. The letters cover the pemaking of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye
riod from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end
--may she live--in her town of Djakaru. (near
of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence
Akhmin). Its length is 3,700 (cubits) and its
Amarna letter EA 4--Amenhotep III is quoted by the
width is 700 (cubits). (His Majesty) celebrated
Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in rmly rejecting
the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third
the latters entreaty to marry one of this pharaohs daughmonth of Inundation, day sixteen. His Majesty
ters:
was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it
[17]
Amenhotep IIIs refusal to allow one of his daughters to
[the lake].

48.2. LIFE

161

One of the many commemorative scarabs of Amenhotep III. This


scarab belongs to a class called the marriage scarabs, which
arm the divine power of the king and the legitimacy of his wife,
Tiye. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be


connected with Egyptian traditional royal practices that
could provide a claim upon the throne through marriage Colossal granite head of Amenhotep III, British Museum.
to a royal princess, or, it be viewed as a shrewd attempt
on his part to enhance Egypts prestige over those of her
gold as part of a marriage dowry for sending his daughter,
neighbours in the international world.
Tadukhepa, into the pharaohs household.[22] This corThe pharaohs reign was relatively peaceful and unevent- respondence implies that if any co-regency occurred beful. The only recorded military activity by the king is tween Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, it lasted no more
commemorated by three rock-carved stelas from his fth than a year.[23] Lawrence Berman observes in a 1998 biyear found near Aswan and Sai Island in Nubia. The o- ography of Amenhotep III that,
cial account of Amenhotep IIIs military victory emphasizes his martial prowess with the typical hyperbole used
It is signicant that the proponents of the
by all pharaohs.
coregency theory have tended to be art hisAmenhotep III celebrated three Jubilee Sed festivals,
torians [ie: Raymond Johnson], whereas hisin his Year 30, Year 34, and Year 37 respectively at
torians [such as Donald Redford and William
his Malkata summer palace in Western Thebes.[20] The
Murnane] have largely remained unconvinced.
palace, called Per-Hay or House of Rejoicing in anRecognizing that the problem admits no easy
cient times, comprised a temple of Amun and a festival
solution, the present writer has gradually come
hall built especially for this occasion.[20] One of the kings
to believe that it is unnecessary to propose a
most popular epithets was Aten-tjehen which means the
coregency to explain the production of art in
Dazzling Sun Disk"; it appears in his titulary at Luxor
the reign of Amenhotep III. Rather the pertemple and, more frequently, was used as the name for
ceived problems appear to derive from the inone of his palaces as well as the Year 11 royal barge, and
terpretation of mortuary objects.[24]
denotes a company of men in Amenhoteps army.[21]

48.2.1

Proposed co-regency by Akhenaten

In February 2014, Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that
Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8
years, based on the evidence coming from the tomb of
Vizier Amenhotep-Huy.[25][26] The tomb is being studied
by a multi-national team led by the Instituto de Estudios
del Antiguo Egipto de Madrid and Dr Martin Valentin.

There is currently no conclusive evidence of a co-regency


between Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. A letter
from the Amarna palace archives dated to Year 2rather
than Year 12of Akhenatens reign from the Mitannian
king, Tushratta, (Amarna letter EA 27) preserves a com- The theory of co-regency was rst proposed by John
plaint about the fact that Akhenaten did not honor his fa- Pendlebury who excavated at Amarna, as well as by N.
thers promise to forward Tushratta statues made of solid de Garis Davies.

162

CHAPTER 48. AMENHOTEP III


father-in-law Tushratta of Mitanni, a statue of Ishtar of
Nineveha healing goddessin order to cure him of his
various ailments which included painful abscesses in his
teeth.[28] A forensic examination of his mummy shows
that he was probably in constant pain during his nal years
due to his worn, and cavity-pitted teeth. However, more
recent analysis of Amarna letter EA 23 by William L.
Moran, which recounts the dispatch of the statue of the
goddess to Thebes, does not support this popular theory.
The arrival of the statue is known to have coincided with
Amenhotep IIIs marriage with Tadukhepa, Tushratta's
daughter, in the pharaohs 36th year; letter EA 23s arrival in Egypt is dated to regnal year 36, the fourth month
of winter, day 1 of his reign.[29] Furthermore, Tushratta
never mentions in EA 23 that the statues dispatch was
meant to heal Amenhotep from his maladies. Instead,
Tushratta merely writes,

Amenhotep III and Sobek, from Dahamsha, now in the Luxor


Museum

48.2.2

Final years

The likeliest explanation is that the statue was sent to


Egypt to shed her blessings on the wedding of Amenhotep III and Tadukhepa, as she had been sent previously for Amenhotep III and Gilukhepa.[31] As Moran
writes: One explanation of the goddess visit is that she
was to heal the aged and ailing Egyptian king, but this
explanation rests purely on analogy and nds no support in this letter... More likely, it seems, is a connection with the solemnities associated with the marriage of
Turattas daughter; sf. the previous visit mentioned in
lines 18f., perhaps on the occasion of the marriage of
Kelu-Heba (i.e.: Gilukhepa)...and note, too, aukas role
along with Aman, of making Tadu-Heba answer to the
kings desires.[32]
The contents of Amarna letter EA21 from Tushratta to his
brother Amenhotep III strongly arms this solution. In
this correspondence, Tushratta explicitly states,

48.2.3 Death
Amenhotep IIIs highest attested regnal date is Year
38, which appears on wine jar-label dockets from
Malkata.[34] He may have lived briey into an unrecorded
Year 39, dying before the wine harvest of that year.[35]
Birds - Wall painting fragment from the Malkata palace.
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Amenhotep III was buried in the Western Valley of


the Valley of the Kings, in Tomb WV22. Sometime during the Third Intermediate Period his mummy
was moved from this tomb and was placed in a sidechamber of KV35 along with several other pharaohs of
the Eighteenth and Nineteenth dynasties where it lay until discovered by Victor Loret in 1898.

Reliefs from the wall of the temple of Soleb in Nubia


and scenes from the Theban tomb of Kheruef, Steward of the Kings Great Wife, Tiye, depict Amenhotep
as a visibly weak and sick gure.[27] Scientists believe
that in his nal years he suered from arthritis and be- An examination of his mummy by the Australian
came obese. It has generally been assumed by some anatomist Grafton Elliot Smith concluded that the
scholars that Amenhotep requested and received from his pharaoh was aged between forty and fty years old at

48.2. LIFE

163

An authentic sphinx of Amenhotep III, now adorning


Universitetskaya Embankment in Saint Petersburg, Russia

during Year 9 and Year 12 of her sons reign.[37][38]


Foreign leaders communicated their grief at the pharaohs
death, with Tushratta saying:

Amenhotep III, Muse du Louvre.

Faience decoration with Amenhotep IIIs prenomen from his Theban palace, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

death.[36] His chief wife, Tiye, is known to have outlived


him for at least twelve years as she is mentioned in several Amarna letters dated from her sons reign as well as
depicted at a dinner table with Akhenaten and his royal
family in scenes from the tomb of Huya, which were made

When Amenhotep III died, he left behind a country


that was at the very height of its power and inuence,
commanding immense respect in the international world;
however, he also bequeathed an Egypt that was wedded
to its traditional political and religious certainties under
the Amun priesthood.[40]
The resulting upheavals from his son Akhenaten's reforming zeal would shake these old certainties to their
very foundations and bring forth the central question of
whether a pharaoh was more powerful than the existing
domestic order as represented by the Amun priests and

164

CHAPTER 48. AMENHOTEP III

their numerous temple estates. Akhenaten even moved


the capital away from the city of Thebes in an eort to
break the inuence of that powerful temple and assert
his own preferred choice of deities, the Aten. Akhenaten moved the Egyptian capital to the site known today
as Amarna (though originally known as Akhetaten, 'Horizon of Aten'), and eventually suppressed the worship of
Amun.[41]

48.3 The Court


There were many important individuals in the court
of Amenhotep III. Viziers were Ramose, Amenhotep,
Aperel and Ptahmose. They are known from a remarkable series of monuments, including the well known tomb
of Ramose at Thebes. Treasurers were another Ptahmose
and Merire. High stewards were Amenemhat Surer and
Amenhotep (Huy). Viceroy of Kush was Merimose. He
was a leading gure in the military campaigns of the king
in Nubia. Perhaps the most famous ocial of the king
was Amenhotep, son of Hapu. He never had high titles
but was later worshipped as god and main architect of
some of the kings temples.[42] Priests of Amun under the
king included the brother-in-law of the king Anen and
Simut. Both were second prophet of Amun.
The northern Colossus of Memnon

48.4 Monuments
Amenhotep III built extensively at the temple of Karnak
including the Luxor temple which consisted of two
pylons, a colonnade behind the new temple entrance, and
a new temple to the goddess Ma'at. Amenhotep III dismantled the fourth pylon of the Temple of Amun at Karnak to construct a new pylonthe third pylonand created a new entrance to this structure where he erected
two rows of columns with open papyrus capital[s]" down
the centre of this newly formed forecourt.[43] The forecourt between the third and fourth pylons of Egypt, sometimes called an obelisk court, was also decorated with
scenes of the sacred barque of the deities Amun, Mut, and
Khonsu being carried in funerary boats.[44] The king also
started work on the Tenth pylon at the Temple of Amun
there. Amenhotep IIIs rst recorded act as kingin his
Years 1 and 2was to open new limestone quarries at
Tura, just south of Cairo and at Dayr al-Barsha in Middle
Egypt in order to herald his great building projects.[45] He
oversaw construction of another temple to Ma'at at Luxor
and virtually covered Nubia with numerous monuments.
"...including a small temple with a
colonnade (dedicated to Thutmose III) at
Elephantine, a rock temple dedicated to Amun
'Lord of the Ways at Wadi es-Sebuam, and
the temple of Horus of Miam at Aniba...[as

well as founding] additional temples at Kawa


and Sesebi.[46]

Luxor Temple of Amenhotep III

His enormous mortuary temple on the west bank of the


Nile was, in its day, the largest religious complex in
Thebes, but unfortunately, the king chose to build it too
close to the oodplain and less than two hundred years
later, it stood in ruins. Much of the masonry was purloined by Merneptah and later pharaohs for their own
construction projects.[47] The Colossi of Memnontwo
massive stone statues, eighteen meters high, of Amenhotep that stood at the gateway of his mortuary temple
are the only elements of the complex that remained standing. Amenhotep III also built the Third Pylon at Karnak

48.7. FOOTNOTES

165

and erected 600 statues of the goddess Sekhmet in the [7]


Temple of Mut, south of Karnak.[48] Some of the most
magnicent statues of New Kingdom Egypt date to his
reign such as the two outstanding couchant rose granite lions originally set before the temple at Soleb in Nu- [8]
bia" as well as a large series of royal sculptures.[49] Several beautiful black granite seated statues of Amenhotep [9]
wearing the nemes headress have come from excavations
behind the Colossi of Memnon as well as from Tanis in
the Delta.[49]
[10]
One of the most stunning nds of royal statues dating to
[11]
his reign was made as recently as 1989 in the courtyard
of Amenhotep IIIs colonnade of the Temple of Luxor
where a cache of statues was found, including a 6 feet
(1.8 m)-high pink quartzite statue of the king wearing the
Double Crown found in near-perfect condition.[49] It was [12]
mounted on a sled, and may have been a cult statue.[49]
The only damage it had sustained was that the name of
the god Amun had been hacked out wherever it appeared [13]
in the pharaohs cartouche, clearly done as part of the systematic eort to eliminate any mention of this god during [14]
the reign of his successor, Akhenaton.[49]

Schwarz-Bart, Simone & Schwarz-Bart, Andr (2001). In


Praise of Black Women, Ancient African Queens: Volume
1. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 5261. ISBN 0299-17250-3.
O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., p.7
Kozlo, Arielle. & Bryan, Betsy. Royal and Divine Statuary in Egypts Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and his
World, (Cleveland, 1992), nos. 24, 57, 103 & 104
Kozlo & Bryan, g. II, 5
Troy, Lana. Patterns of Queenship in Ancient Egyptian
Myth and History. University of Uppsala, Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations 14, (1986), 103, 107, 111
Dodson, Aidan & Hilton, Dyan The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004),
p.155
Fletcher (2000), p.156
Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic
Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London, 2005,
ISBN 978-0-9547218-9-3

[15] O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., pp.11-12

48.5 Ancestry
48.6 See also

[16] O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric., p.13


[17] Kozlo & Bryan, no.2
[18] William L. Moran, p.8

Colossal red granite statue of Amenhotep III

[19] Urk. IV 1665-66

Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III

[20] David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.16

History of ancient Egypt

[21] David O'Connor & Eric Cline, pp.3 & 14

Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree


Mitanni

[22] William L. Moran, translation, op. cit., pp.87-89


[23] Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypts False Prophet,
Thames & Hudson, 2000, pp.75-78

Quay with Sphinxes

[24] Lawrence M. Berman, 'Overview of Amenhotep III and


His Reign,' in Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his Reign,
ed: David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.23

48.7 Footnotes

[25] Pharaoh power-sharing unearthed in Egypt Daily News


Egypt. February 6, 2014

[1] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore: Johns


Hopkins University Press, (1992), EA 3, p.7

[26] Proof found of Amenhotep III-Akhenaten co-regency thehistoryblog.com

[2] Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames &


Hudson Ltd., 1994. p.112

[27] Grimal, p.225

[3] Amenhotep III


[4] Beckerath, Jrgen von, Chronologie des Pharaonischen
gypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997) p.190
[5] O'Connor, David & Cline, Eric. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998,
p.3
[6] Fletcher (2000), p.10

[28] William Hayes, Internal aairs from Thutmosis I to the


death of Amenophis III, in CAH Pt 1, Vol 2, The Middle
East and the Aegean Region, c.1800-1380 BC, 1973, p.346
[29] Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten: King of Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 1991, pl.13
[30] William L. Moran, translation, pp.61-62
[31] David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.22
[32] William L. Moran, translation, p.62 n.2

166

[33] William L. Moran, translation, p.50


[34] Kozlo & Bryan, p.39, g. II.4
[35] Clayton, p.119
[36] Grafton Elliot Smith, The Royal Mummies, 1912, Cairo,
p.50
[37] North Tombs at Amarna. Archived from the original on
7 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
[38] David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.23
[39] Fletcher (2000), p.161
[40] Grimal, pp.223 & 225
[41] Fletcher (2000), p.162
[42] Lichtheim (1980), p.104
[43] Amenhotep III
[44] The Obelisk Court of Amenhotep III
[45] Urk. IV, 1677-1678
[46] Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell
Books: 1992. p.223
[47] Grimal, p.224
[48] Grimal, p.224 & 295
[49] Clayton, p.118

48.8 Bibliography
Aldred, Cyril (1991). Akhenaten: King of Egypt.
Thames & Hudson.
Allen, James P. The Amarna Succession. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
Beckerath, Jrgen von (1997). Chronologie des
Pharaonischen gypten.
Mainz: Philipp von
Zabern,.
Clayton, Peter (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs.
Thames & Hudson Ltd.
O'Connor, David; Cline, Eric (1998). Amenhotep
III: Perspectives on His Reign. University of Michigan Press.
Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete
Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson.
Fletcher, Joann (2000). Chronicle of a Pharaoh The Intimate Life of Amenhotep III. Oxford University Press.
Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt.
Blackwell Books.

CHAPTER 48. AMENHOTEP III


Hayes, William (1973). Internal aairs from Thutmosis I to the death of Amenophis III. The Middle
East and the Aegean Region, c.1800-1380 BC. Pt 1,
Vol 2.
Kozlo, Arielle; Bryan, Betsy (1992). Royal and
Divine Statuary in Egypts Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep
III and his World. Cleveland.
Lichtheim, Miriam (1980). Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings: The Late Period. University of California Press.
Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Reeves, Nicholas (2000). Akhenaten: Egypts False
Prophet. Thames & Hudson.
Troy, Lana (1986). Patterns of Queenship in Ancient Egyptian Myth and History. Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations
(Uppsala: University of Uppsala) 14.

Chapter 49

Amurru kingdom
Coordinates: 343411N 361355E / 34.56972N
36.23194E

The geopolitic map of the Middle East during the Amarna Period,
before Amurru became part of the Hittite zone of inuence

Amurru was an Amorite kingdom located at the territory


that spans modern western and north-western Syria and
northern of modern Lebanon, which made up northern
Syrian during the 14th12th centuries BC[1][2]
The rst documented leader of Amurru was AbdiAshirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the
Egyptian empire. His son Aziru made contact with the
Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, and eventually defected to the
Hittites.
The Amurru kingdom was destroyed by the Sea Peoples
around 1200 B.C.

49.1 Notes
[1] Izre'el, Sh. (1991). Amurru Akkadian: A Linguistic Study.
With an Appendix on the History of Amurru by Itamar
Singer. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press.
[2] Singer, I. (1991). The Land of Amurru and the Lands
of Amurru in the augamuwa Treaty. Iraq 53: 6974.
doi:10.2307/4200336.

49.2 External links


Chronology of Amurru
167

Chapter 50

Archers (Egyptian ptati)


50.1 A letter example--no. 337
A vassalstate letter example from Hiziru, a 'mayor'(often referred to as the Man of the City-(L)), in ancient Palestine is EA 337-(EA for 'el Amarna'), entitled:
Abundant supplies ready. The letter is short, and undamaged:

Say to the king, my lord, my Sun, my god:


Message of Hiziru, your servant. I fall at
the feet of the king, my lord, 7 times and
7 times. The king, my lord, wrote to me,
Prepare the supplies before the arrival of
a large army of p-ta-ti of the king, [m]y
l[ord]. May the god of the king, my lord,
grant that the king, my lord, come forth
along with his large army and learn about
his lands. I have indeed prepared accordingly abundant supplies before the arrival
of a large army of the king, my lord.

Rahotep, a superintendent of the military, and military supplies,


including archers(Note Archer hieroglyph, and quiver hieroglyph).
(Superintendent-(overseer): is 'Emir', represented by the Owl
above mouth hieroglyphs, for m-r, 'emeer'.)

The Ptati (p-ta-ti) were a contingent of archers in the


Egyptian Empire, often requested and dispatched, to
support the Egyptian vassalage in Canaan, or northern
Canaan. They are recorded in the correspondence of the
1350 BC Amarna letters, and were often requested to defend against the Habiru, also rogue vassal-kings and foreign troops of neighboring kingdoms-(for example Hatti),
who were on the attack.

The king, my lord, wrote to me, Guard


Maya, the commissioner of the king, my
lord. Truly. I guard Maya very carefully.
-EA 337, lines 1-30 (complete)

50.2 Archers and myrrh

The vassal cities, and 'city-states' were constantly requesting the services-(protection) of the Pharaohs armies, Letter no. 3 of 5 by Milkilu of Gazru, modern Gezer:
by means of this archer-army force, basically garrison
forces. A request for lodging, and preparations of food,
Say to the god, my king, my lord, my Sun:
drink, straw, and other supplies required,[1] is often deMessage of Milkilu, your servant, the dirt
manded by the pharaoh, for a small, or a large contingent.
at your feet. I fall at the feet of the god,
The ptati archer force were mercenaries from the southmy king, my lord, my Sun, 7 times and 7
ern Egyptian land of Kush"-(named Kaa, or Kai in the
times. I have heard what the king, my lord,
letters).
wrote to me, and so may the king, my lord,
The rst use of Nubian mercenaries was by Weni the Elsend the archers to his servants, and may the
der of the 6th Dynasty, (the Old Kingdom of about 2300
king, my lord send myrrh for medication.
BC).
-EA 269, lines 1-17 (complete)
168

50.5. REFERENCES

50.3 Analysis
Part of the debate in analyzing the army-archer-force
is whether the army just annually accompanied the
pharaohs commissioner/envoy and were then extracting
tribute, or whether the archer-force duty was strictly military, and in support of the Egyptian borderlands control
and inuence. The short time period of the Amarna letters, 1520 years, (17?), may give an answer to the inuence of the archer-forces.

50.4 See also


Letters from Yidya, (EA 325)

50.5 References
[1] Moran, William L., 1992. The Amarna Letters, p. 352353. EA 325: Title: (from, Man of the City: Yidya):
Preparations completed, (2),
"...indeed prepared absolutely everythingfood, strong
drink, oxen, 'sheep and goats, grain, straw, absolutely everything that the king, my lord, commanded.

Moran, William L., 1992. The Amarna Letters.


Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. (softcover, ISBN 0-8018-6715-0)

169

Chapter 51

Ay
For other uses, see AY (disambiguation).
Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's
18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a
brief four-year period (probably 13231319 BC[1] or
13271323 BC, depending on which chronology is followed), although he was a close advisor to two and
perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him
and was said to be the power behind the throne during
Tutankhamun's reign. Ays prenomen or royal name
Kheperkheperuremeans Everlasting are the Manifestations of Ra while his birth name Ay it-netjer reads as
'Ay, Father of the gods.'[2] Records and monuments that A stone block shows Ay receiving the 'Gold of Honor' award in
can be clearly attributed to Ay are rare, not only due to his Amarna tomb from Akhenaten.
his short length of reign, but also because his successor,
Horemheb, instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae
against him and other pharaohs associated with the un- 51.2 Amarna Period
popular Amarna Period.

51.1 Origins
Ay is usually believed to be a native Egyptian from
Akhmim. During his short reign, he built a rock cut
chapel in Akhmim and dedicated it to the local deity there: Min. He may have been the son of Yuya,
who served as a member of the priesthood of Min at
Akhmin as well as superintendent of herds in this city,
and wife Tjuyu.[3] If so, Ay could have been of partial
non-Egyptian, perhaps Syrian blood since the name Yuya
was uncommon in Egypt and is suggestive of a foreign
background.[4] Yuya was an inuential nobleman at the
royal court of Amenhotep III who was given the rare privilege of having a tomb built for his use in the royal Valley of the Kings presumably because he was the father
of Tiye, Amenhoteps chief Queen. There are also noted
similarities in the physical likenesses of monuments attributed to Ay and those of the mummy of Yuya, and
both held similar names and titles.[5]

All that is known for certain was that by the time he


was permitted to build a tomb for himself (Southern
Tomb 25) at Amarna during the reign of Akhenaten, he
had achieved the title of Overseer of All the Horses
of His Majesty, the highest rank in the elite charioteering division of the army, which was just below the
rank of General.[6] Prior to this promotion he appears to
have been rst a Troop Commander and then a regular Overseer of Horses, titles which were found on a box
thought to have been part of the original furnishings for
his tomb.[7] Other titles listed in this tomb include Fanbearer on the Right Side of the King, Acting Scribe of the
King, beloved by him, and Gods Father. The 'Fan-bearer
on the Right Side of the King' was a very important position, and is viewed as showing that the bearer had the
'ear' of the ruler. The nal Gods Father title is the one
most associated with Ay, and was later incorporated into
his royal name when he became pharaoh.[7]
This title could mean that he was the father-in-law of
the pharaoh, suggesting that he was the son of Yuya
and Tjuyu, thus being a brother or half-brother of Tiye,
brother-in-law to Amenhotep III and the maternal uncle
of Akhenaten. If Ay was the son of Yuya, who was a senior military ocer during the reign of Amenhotep III,
then he likely followed in his fathers footsteps, nally inheriting his fathers military functions upon his death. Al-

170

51.3. TUTANKHAMUN
ternatively, it could also mean that he may have had a
daughter that married the pharaoh Akhenaten, possibly
being the father of Akhenatens chief wife Nefertiti. Ultimately there is no evidence to denitively prove either
hypothesis.[8] The two theories are not mutually exclusive, but either relationship would explain the exalted status to which Ay rose during Akhenatens Amarna interlude, when the royal family turned their backs on Egypts
traditional gods and experimented, for a dozen years or
so, with monotheism; an experiment that, whether out of
conviction or convenience, Ay appears to have followed
under the reign of Akhenaten.
The Great Hymn to the Aten is also found in his Amarna
tomb which was built during his service under Akhenaten. It is likely that this was required by Akhenaten,
though not evidence that Ay agreed with Akhenatens decision to promote the Aten above all other gods. It suggests that he did believe in Akhenatens religious revolution. His wife Tey was born a commoner but was given
the title Nurse of the Pharaohs Great Wife.[8] If she were
the mother of Nefertiti she would be expected to have the
royal title Mother of the Pharaohs Great Wife instead, had
Ay been the father of Nefertiti, then Tey would have been
her stepmother.[8] In several Amarna tomb chapels there
is a woman whose name begins with Mut who had the
title Sister of the Pharaohs Great Wife. This could also
be a daughter of Ays by his wife Tey, and it is known that
his successor Horemheb married a woman with the name
Mutnodjimet.[9]

51.3 Tutankhamun

Ay performing the opening of the mouth ceremony for Tutankhamun, scene from Tutankhamuns tomb.

Ays reign was preceded by that of King Tutankhamun,


who ascended to the throne at the age of eight or nine,

171
at a time of great tension between the new monotheism
and the old polytheism. He was assisted in his kingly
duties by his predecessors two closest advisors: Grand
Vizier Ay and General of the Armies Horemheb. Tutankhamuns nine-year reign, largely under Ays direction, saw the gradual return of the old gods and, with
that, the restoration of the power of the Amun priesthood,
who had lost their inuence over Egypt under Akhenaten.
Egyptologist Bob Brier suggested that Ay murdered Tutankhamun in order to usurp the throne, a claim which
was based on X-ray examinations of the body done in
1968. He also alleged that Ankhesenamun and the Hittite Prince she was about to marry were also murdered at
his orders.[10] This murder theory was not accepted by all
scholars, and more detailed CT-scans of the mummy undertaken by National Geographic (published in late 2005)
suggested that Tutankhamun did not die from a blow to
his head as Brier had theorized. The National Geographic
forensic researchers instead presented a new theory that
Tutankhamun died from an infection caused by a badly
broken leg since he is often portrayed as walking with
a cane due to spina bida, a hereditary trait in his family on his fathers side.[11] The bone fragments found in
Tutankhamuns skull were most likely the result of postmortem damage caused by Howard Carters initial examination of the boy king "because they show no evidence
of being inundated with the embalming uid used to preserve the pharaoh for the afterlife.[12] However, Brier has
stated that the bone fragment in the skull is not relevant
to the issue of whether Tutankhamun was murdered, acknowledging that it was likely caused by the embalmers.
The evidence Brier presents for the murder is a dark spot
on the base of the skull, indicating a blow to the head.
Dr. Gerald Irwin agrees with Brier on this point. (The
Murder of Tutankhamen (March, 1999) ISBN 0-42516689-9)
When the results of the CT-Scan examination had been
published, many scientists accepted its ndings, but some
still believe the mystery of Tutankhamuns death is far
from solved and continue to support the older murder theory. There are books that have subsequently
been published that adhere to the original murder theory and dispute the conclusions reached by the CT scan
team, though also citing other means of murder, such as
poisoning.[13][14] In 2010, a team led by Zahi Hawass
reported that he had died from complications caused
by malaria and Kohlers disease but another team from
the Bernhard Noct Institute for Tropical Medicine in
Hamburg believes his death was caused by sickle-cell
disease.[15] Tutankhamun could very well have died from
this, combined with the infection in his knee. Ay was also
buried in the tomb intended for Tutankhamun in the West
Valley of the Kings (KV 23), and Tutankhamun in Ays
intended tomb in the East Valley of the Kings (KV 62).

172

CHAPTER 51. AY

51.4 Rule As The Pharaoh

been designated as the idnw or Deputy of the Lord of


the Two Lands under Tutankhamun and was presumed
to be the boy kings heir apparent and successor.[16] It appears that Horemheb was outmaneuvered to the throne
by Ay who married Ankhesenamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, in order to legitimise his claim to the throne.
Ay was certainly a powerful gure: he was close to the
centre of political power at the royal palace for some 25
years under both Tutankhamun and Akhenaten. But this
was probably still not enough, however, to legitimize his
claims to the throne in the highly hierarchical society of
Ancient Egypt, if he was of non-royal birth especially at
a time of domestic upheaval without his marriage to Tutankhamuns widow. Since he was already advanced in
age upon his accession, Ay ruled Egypt in his own right
for only four years. During this period, he consolidated
the return to the old religious ways that he had initiated
as senior advisor and constructed a mortuary temple at
Medinet Habu for his own use. A stela of Nakhtmin
(Berlin 2074), a military ocer under Tutankhamun and
Aywho was Ays chosen successor is dated to Year
4, IV Akhet day 1 of Ays reign.[17] Manetho's Epitome assigns a reign length of 4 years and 1 month to
Horemheb and this was usually assigned to Ay based on
this Year 4 dated stela; however, it is now believed that
gure should be raised by a decade to [1]4 years and 1
month and attributed to Horemheb instead as Manetho intended. Hence, Ays precise reign length is unknown and
he could have ruled for as long as 7 to 9 years since most
of his monuments and his funerary temple at Medinet
Faience plate with the complete royal titulary of Ay, Egyptian Habu were either destroyed or usurped by his successor,
Horemheb.
Museum.

51.5 Royal succession

Fragment of a cartouche of Ay in the Petrie Museum.

Tutankhamuns death at the age of 18 or 19, together with


his failure to produce an heir, left a power vacuum that
his Grand Vizier Ay was quick to ll: Ay is depicted
conducting the funerary rites for the deceased monarch
and assuming the role of heir. The grounds on which Ay
based his successful claim to power are not entirely clear.
The Commander of the Army, Horemheb, had actually

Prior to his death, Ay designated Nakhtmin to succeed


him as pharaoh. However, Ays plan for his succession went awry since Horemheb became the last king of
Egypts 18th Dynasty instead of Nakhtmin. The fact that
Nakhtmin was Ays intended heir is strongly implied by
an inscription carved on a dyad funerary statue of Nakhtmin and his spouse which was presumably made during Ays reign. Nakhtmin is clearly given the titles rpat
(Crown Prince) and zA nzw (Kings Son).[18] The only
conclusion which can be drawn here is that Nakhtmin was
either a son or an adopted son of Ay and that Ay was
grooming Nakhtmin for the royal succession instead of
Horemheb. The Egyptologists Aidan Dodson and Dyan
Hilton observe that the aforementioned statue:
is broken after the signs for 'Kings Son of',
and there has been considerable debate as to
whether it continued to say 'Kush', making
Nakhtmin a Viceroy of Nubia, or 'of his body',
making him an actual royal son. Since there is
no other evidence for Nakhtmin as a Viceroy-with another man [Paser I] attested in oce at

51.7. FAMILY
this period as well--the latter suggestion seems
the most likely. As Nakhtmin donated items to
the burial of Tutankhamun without such a title, it follows that he only became a Kings Son
subsequently, presumably under Ay. This theory is supported by the evidence of intentional
damage to Nakhtmins statue, since Ay was
amongst the Amarna pharaohs whose memories were execrated under later rulers.[19]

51.6 Aftermath

173
jars from the temple magazines read: Wine
from the temple of Harmhab."'[22]

51.7 Family
Ay is believed to be the son of Yuya and Thuya, and therefore a brother of Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III,
and the Prophet of Amun, Anen. Hence, he would be
the uncle of pharoaohs Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. His
assumed wife was Iuy, mother of Nakhtmin, chosen successor of Ay. His Great Royal Wife was Tey, Wet Nurse
to Queen Nefertiti.
Ay is believed to be the father of Queen Nefertiti,
wife of Akhenaten, and Mutbenret or Mutnodjmet depending on how the name is read, Mutnodjmet being the wife of Horemheb. Their mother is plausibly the Adoratrix of Min, Songstress of Isis" Iuy,
who is known to be the mother of Nakhtmin, Ays
chosen successor, and presumed son. Therefore, he
is believed to be the grandfather of Queen Meritaten,
Meketaten, Queen Ankhesenamun, Neferneferuaten
Tasherit, Neferneferure and Setepenre.

51.8 In ction
The burial chamber of Ays tomb in the Valley of the Kings

It appears that one of Horemhebs undertakings as


Pharaoh was to eliminate all references to the monotheistic experiment, a process that included expunging the
name of his immediate predecessors, especially Ay, from
the historical record. Horemheb desecrated Ays burial
and had most of Ays royal cartouches in his WV23 Tomb
Wall paintings erased while his sarcophagus was smashed
into numerous fragments.[20] However, the sarcophagus
lid was discovered in 1972 by Otto Schaden, the US
Egyptologist who opened Tomb KV63 in the Valley of
the Kings in 2006. It still preserved Ays cartouche. The
sarcophagus had been buried under debris in this kings
tomb.[21] Horemheb also usurped Ays mortuary temple
at Medinet Habu for his own use. Uvo Hlscher (1878
1963) who excavated the temple in the early 1930s provides these interesting details concerning the state of AyHoremhebs mortuary temple:
'Wherever a cartouche has been preserved, the
name of Eye [ie: Ay] has been erased and replaced by that of his successor Harmhab. In
all but a single instance had it been overlooked
and no change made. Thus the temple, which
Eye had begun and nished, at least in the rear
rooms with their ne paintings, was usurped by
his successor and was thenceforth known as the
temple of Harmhab. Seals on stoppers of wine

Ay appears as a major character in P. C. Doherty's trilogy


of Ancient Egyptian novels, An Evil Spirit Out of the West,
The Season of the Hyaena and The Year of the Cobra.
He is also a character in Mika Waltaris historical novel
The Egyptian and Wolfgang Hohlbein's Die Prophezeihung (The Prophecy). He is also a major character in
Michelle Moran's bestselling novel Nefertiti. Ay is the
villain of Lucile Morrison's 1937 young adult novel The
Lost Queen of Egypt. He also appears as a villain in the
Lucien de Gieters Papyrus comic book series (the seventeenth book in the series: Tutankhamun, the assassinated
pharaoh). Kerry Greenwoods novel, Out of the Black
Land features him as a greedy villain whose sole goal
was accruing wealth.

51.9 See also


Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree

51.10 References
[1] Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p. 493
[2] Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames &
Hudson Ltd, 1994. p136

174

CHAPTER 51. AY

[3] Egypt during the reign of Akhenaten


[4] Yuyas name was analysed by G. Maspero in The Tomb
of Iouiya and Austin by Theodore M. Davis, Archibald
Constable and Co. Ltd, 1907, pp. xiiixiv

51.11 Further reading


Jrgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen gypten, MS 46 (Philip von Zabern, Mainz:
1997), pp. 201

[5] Hindley, Marshall. Featured Pharaoh: The Gods Father


Ay, Ancient Egypt, April/May 2006. p. 26
[6] Hindley, Marshall. Featured Pharaoh: The Gods Father
Ay, Ancient Egypt, April/May 2006. p. 2728.
[7] Dodson, Aidan.
Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian CounterReformation. p. 95 The American University in Cairo
Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3
[8] Dodson, Aidan.
Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian CounterReformation. p96 The American University in Cairo
Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3
[9] Dodson, Aidan.Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation.
p. 98 The American University in Cairo Press. 2009,
ISBN 978-977-416-304-3
[10] Hawass, Zahi. Scanning Tutankhamun, KMT. Volume
16, Number 2. p. 33. Summer 2005.
[11] Hawass, Zahi. Scanning Tutankhamun, KMT. Volume
16, Number 2. p. 34. Summer 2005.
[12]

King Tut Not Murdered Violently, CT Scans Show, National Geographic, March 8, 2005.

[13] Haywood, John. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient


Civilizations p. 56. Penguin. 2005. ISBN 0-14-101448-2
[14] King, Michael R., Cooper, Gregory M. Who Killed King
Tut?: Using Modern Forensics to Solve a 3300-Year-Old
Mystery (with New Data on the Egyptian CT Scan), New
Ed. 2006. ISBN 1-59102-401-3
[15] King Tuts Chariot travels to New York.
[16] Peter J. Brand, The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic,
Historical and Art Historical Analysis, Brill, NV Leiden,
(2000), p. 311
[17] Urk IV: 2110
[18] Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: Texte der
Hefte 20-21 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1984), pp. 1908
1910
[19] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, (2004), p. 151
[20] Bertha Porter, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient
Egyptian Hieroglyph Texts, Vol 1, Part 2, Oxford Clarendon Press, (1960), Tomb 23, pp. 550551
[21] Otto Schaden, Clearance of the Tomb of King Ay (WV
23), JARCE 21(1984) pp.3964
[22] Uvo Hlscher, Excavations at Ancient Thebes 1930/31,
pp. 5051

51.12 External links


The Tomb of Ay

Chapter 52

Aziru
city of Byblos for 4 months to conclude a treaty with the
king of Beirut, Ammunira, but when he returned home,
he learned that a palace coup led by his brother Ilirabih
had unseated him from power.[2] He temporarily sought
refuge with Ammunira and unsuccessfully appealed for
support from Egypt to restore him to the throne. (EA
136-138; EA 141 & EA 142)[3] When this failed, RibHadda was forced to ignominiously appeal to his sworn
enemy, Aziru, to place him back on the throne of his city.
Aziru promptly betrayed him and dispatched Rib-Hadda
into the hands of the rulers of Sidon where Rib-Hadda almost certainly met his death.[3] This event is mentioned in
Amarna letter EA 162 by Akhenaten to Aziru when the
pharaoh demanded that Aziru travel to Egypt to explain
his actions.[4] Aziru was detained in Egypt for at least a
year before being released when the advancing Hittites
conquered the important city of Amki thereby threatening Amurru (EA 170).

EA 161, line 2: message (speaking thus) ':


1. A-zi-ru,
servant-yours
(Individual (1.) + 3 cuneiform characters, A, zi, ru.)
Amarna letter EA 161, Aziru to Pharaoh, An Absence Explained. (British Museum no. 29818, painted in black on top
of letter, visible)[1]

Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern


Lebanon, in the 14th century BC. He was the son of AbdiAshirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru and a
direct contemporary of Akhenaten.
The dealings of Aziru are well-known from the Amarna
letters. While being a formal vassal of Egypt, he tried to
expand his kingdom towards the Mediterranean coast and
captured the city of Sumur (Simyrra). This was seen with
alarm by his neighbouring states, particularly Rib-Hadda,
the king of Gubla, (Byblos), who pleaded for Egyptian
troops to be sent for their protection. Rib-Hadda was
ultimately exiledand probably not long afterwards
killed at the behest of Aziru. Rib-Hadda had left his

Aziru was allowed to leave Egypt and return to his kingdom. Aziru had, however, made secret contacts with the
Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, and sometime upon his return
to Amurru, he permanently switched his allegiance to
the Hittites to whom he remained loyal until his death.[5]
Henceforth, Amurru remained rmly in Hittite hands until the reign of the 19th dynasty Pharaohs Seti I and
Ramesses II.

52.1 See also

175

Amarna letter EA 161

176

52.2 References
[1] Moran, 1970, The Amarna Letters, EA 161, An absence
explained, pp. 247-248.
[2] Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Clarendon
Press, 1998., p.186
[3] Bryce, p.186
[4] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkings
University, 1992. p.248-249
[5] Bryce, p.189

Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. (softcover, ISBN
0-8018-6715-0)

CHAPTER 52. AZIRU

Chapter 53

Bek (sculptor)
Bek (or Bak; the name means 'servant' in Ancient Egyptian) was the rst chief royal sculptor during the reign of
Pharaoh Akhenaten. His father Men held the same position under Akhenatens father Amenhotep III; his mother
Roi was a woman from Heliopolis.[1]

out.[4]

On the stela Bek states that he is the apprentice whom


His Majesty taught. It is likely that he oversaw the making of the statues which show Akhenaten and his family
in an overly naturalistic style, breaking with the idealised
Bek grew up in Heliopolis, an important cult centre of depiction that tradition demanded.[5]
the sun god Ra. The young prince Amenhotep (who be- A stela (now in Berlin) shows Bek with his wife Taheret.
came the pharaoh Akhenaten) had a palace here, and it is This is possibly the rst self-portrait in history. The inlikely that his religious views were formed in part by the scription of this stela also mentions him being taught by
Heliopolitan teachings.[2] Bek followed his lord to Akhet- Akhenaten. A drawing of Akhenaten, which depicts the
Aten, the city founded by Akhenaten. He oversaw the pharaoh and Aten and is likely to have been made in the
construction of the great temple statues of the king and early years of his reign, is possibly Beks work. This picthe opening of the Aswan and Gebel es-Silsila stone quar- ture shows Aten with a falcon-headed man, which was an
ries, from where the stone was transported.[3]
attribute of Ra.[5]

53.1 Sources
[1] Cyril Aldred: Akhenaten, King of Egypt (London,
Thames and Hudson, 1991, ISBN 0-500-27621-8,
pp.93,94
[2] Aldred, pp.259260
[3] Aldred, op.cit., p.262
[4] Aldred, op.cit., p.93
The Aswan stela of Men and Bek

[5] Aldred, p.94

A stela found in Aswan, made around the 9th regnal


year of Akhenaten shows Men and his son Bek with the
pharaohs they serve. On the right side Men stands before
the statue of Amenhotep III. The statue is very likely to
be one of the colossi of the pharaoh that was made by
Men. This side of the stela reects the traditional artistic style of the 18th dynasty, and the only indication of
the Amarna period is that the name Amenhotep is left
out, instead of it the pharaohs throne name Nebmaatre
is repeated, in order to avoid having to mention the god
Amun whose cult was forbidden. On the left side of the
stela Bek is shown before Akhenaten, who makes oerings to his god Aten; according to the inscription the depicted scene is set in the Great Temple of the Aten. A typical feature of Amarna era pictures, the rays of Aten end
in hands. Atens and Akhenatens name was later chiseled

53.2 External links

177

Information and images

Chapter 54

Beketaten
Beketaten (14th century BCE) was an Ancient Egyptian
princess of the 18th dynasty. Beketaten is considered
to be the youngest daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III
and his Great Royal Wife Tiye, thus the sister of Pharaoh
Akhenaten.[1] Her name means Handmaid of Aten".

54.1 Biography

Akhenaten and his mother Tiye. Beketaten stands behind Tiye

Banquet scene

Beketaten is mainly known from the tomb of Huya, the


steward of Queen Tiye in Amarna.[2]
Amenhotep III, Tiye and Beketaten.
Beketaten is shown with Queen Tiye in two separate
banquet scenes. Queen Tiye is shown seated opposite
Pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. In one scene 54.2 Proposed alternative identiBeketaten is shown seated on a small chair next to her
ties
mother Tiye, and in the other banquet scene Beketaten is
shown standing next to Tiye. On the east wall of Huyas
tomb Akhenaten is shown leading his mother Tiye to a Beketatens only known title is Kings Daughter of his
temple. They are accompanied by the Beketaten as they Body. It is likely that she died young since she is not mentioned in the historical records after Queen Tiyes death.
enter the temple.[2]
The lintel on the North Wall shows a depiction of the two Some scholars have speculated that Nebetah, Amenhotep
[3]
royal families. On the right side Amenhotep III is shown IIIs youngest daughter, was identical with Beketaten.
seated opposite Queen Tiye who is accompanied by the However, no evidence proves that they are the same perprincess Beketaten. Three female attendants are shown son.
behind Tiye.[2]

According to one theory Beketaten was in fact a daugh178

54.4. SOURCES
ter of Akhenaten and his secondary wife Kiya. She may
be identical with the princess who is shown with Kiya,
whose name ends in -aten but whose full name was lost.
After Kiyas demise her depictions were re-carved to
show Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten with their daughters
Meritaten Tasherit and Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (who
might have been ctional and made up to ll the place
of Kiyas child on these depictions).[4] This theory is partially based on the fact that Beketaten was never named
kings sister in the scenes from Amarna, but only kings
bodily daughter. She never appears alongside the daughters of Nefertiti, leading to the conjecture that she must
be the daughter of Akhenaten by another wife who may
be Kiya. After the death of her mother, Beketaten may
have been raised by her grandmother Tiye.[5] A wine
docket mentioning Beketaten dates to year 13 and it has
been proposed that she inherited Kiyas estates after her
death.[6]

54.3 In Fiction
54.3.1

Amarnan Kings series

Beketaten is the central character in a series of ve historical novels written by Max Overton and published
by Writers Exchange E-Publishing. The novels follow the life of Beketaten from early childhood through
to the end of her life in the reign of Ramses the
Great. The ve books cover her life during the reigns of
Akhenaten (Scarab-Akhenaten), Smenkhkare (ScarabSmenkhkare), Tutankhamen (Scarab-Tutankhamen), Ay
(Scarab-Ay), and Horemheb (Scarab-Horemheb). A
sixth novel in the series is set in 1960s Egypt and deals
with the discovery of Beketatens tomb.

54.3.2

The Egyptian

Beketaten is featured as a secondary character in Mika


Waltari's novel The Egyptian, going under the name
Baketaton (and named Bakethamun in the movie). In the
novel, she is wed to Horemheb, Egypts warlord though of
common blood, that has desired her (and her royal bloodline) since youth. However, she resents being touched by
a simple commoner, and makes good on her promise that
if he ever touches her again, she will lie with every man
in Thebes, starting a rumor she is the incarnation of the
goddess Bast.

54.4 Sources
[1] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004), p.154
[2] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration

179

Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5


[3] Joyce Tyldesley: Nefertiti Egypts Sun Queen
[4] Dr. Marc Gabolde: The End of the Amarna Period
[5] Kramer, Enigmatic Kiya, from: A Delta-man in Yebu
edited by A. K. Eyma, C. J. Bennett,Universal-Publishers,
2003
[6] Jacobus van Dijk, A noble lady from Mitanni and other
royal favorites from the eighteenth dynasty, from Essays
on ancient Egypt in honour of Herman te Velde, Brill,
1997

Chapter 55

Biridawa
Biridawa was a mayor of Atartu, (Tell-Ashtara), south
of Damascus, (named Dimasqu/Dimaqu), during the
time of the Amarna letters correspondence, about 13501335 BC. A second mayor of Atartu, Ayyab, existed in
this short 15-20 year time period.

waged war with Biridawa against me, constantly saying, Come, lets kill Biryawaza(i.e. 'of Damascus), and we must not let
him go to [...] .... But, I got away from them
and stayed in [...]Dimaqa, for [by myself
h]ow can I serv[e the king, my lord]? [They]
keep saying, "[We are servants of the king
of Hatti, and I keep saying, I am a servant of the king of Egyp[t]-(named Mizri).
Arsawuya went to Ki[ssa]-(Qidu/Kadesh),
took (some of) Aziru's troops, and captured
addu. He gave it to the 'Apiru and did
not give it to the king, my lord. Now, since
Itatkama (Etakkama), has caused the loss
of the land of Kissa, and since Arsawuya
along with Biridawa is causing the loss of
Apu-(i.e. the region surrounding Damascus), may the king look carefully to his land
lest the enemies take it. Since my brothers
are at war with me, I am guarding Kumidu,
the city of the king, my lord. May the king
indeed be at one with his servant. [M]ay the
king [not] abandon his servant, [and may]
the kings of [... (and) the ki]ngs of Apu see
whe[ther ...] ... I have seen the archers. -EA
197, lines 1-42 (~~complete, with lacunae)

55.1 History
Though Biridawa did not communicate with the
Egyptian pharaoh directly in any of the Amarna letters,
he, along with the mayors of Busruna and Halunnu were
involved with the intrigues of city/city-state takeovers, in
the region of Damascus. The region around Dimaqu
was named Upu, or Apu, a name going back to at least
pharaoh Thutmose III's time, (1479-1425 BC).

55.2 Biridawa of EA letters 196,


and EA 197
Biryawaza the king of Dimaqu wrote 4 letters addressed
to pharaoh, and letters 3 and 4 are about Biridawa.

55.2.1

Letter no. 197: title: Biryawazas Letter EA 197-(EA for 'el Amarna'), is the only reference
plight
to the locality/capture of: addu. Also the only reference
to city Yanuamma.

Biryawaza letter no. 4 of 4:


"[... ...he] said t[o me when] your servant
was in A[dura, ...They gave] his horses and
hi[s] chariots to the 'Apiru, and they did
not [give them] to the king, my lord. And
who am I? My (only) purpose is to be a servant. Everything belongs to the king. Biridawa saw this deed and moved Yanuamma
to rebellion against me. Having barred the
city gate against me, he took chariots from
Atartu but gave both of them to the 'Apiru
and did not give both of them to the king, my
lord. When the king of Busruna and the
king of Halunnu saw (i.e. saw this), they

55.2.2 Letter no. 196: title: Unheard-of


deeds
Biryawazas letter 196, is a heavily reconstructed letter
with 6 lines of 43, a lacuna. The ending is mostly complete and has the referencing to Biridawa.
Biryawaza letter no. 3 of 4:
"...
Moreover, may the king, [my] lord, send
me 200men to guard ((to guard))-(emphasis?), the cities of the king, [my]
180

55.4. REFERENCES
lord, [un]til [I] see the archers [of the
king], my lord. The king, my lord, must
not negle[ct] this deed that Biridawa [has]
committed, for he has moved the land
of [the king], my lord, and [his] cities to
rebellion. -EA 196 (only lines 33-43(End))

55.3 See also


Biryawaza
Aram Damascus
Upu

55.4 References
Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. (softcover, ISBN
0-8018-6715-0)

181

Chapter 56

Burna-Buriash II
Burna-Buria II, rendered in cuneiform as Bur-na- or
Bur-ra-Bu-ri-ia-a in royal inscriptions and letters, and
meaning servant of the Lord of the lands in the Kassite
language, where Buria is a Kassite storm god possibly corresponding to the Greek Boreas,[1] was a king
in the Kassite dynasty of Babylon, in a kingdom called
Kardunia at the time, ruling ca. 13591333 BC (short
chronology). Recorded as the 19th King to ascend the
Kassite throne, he succeeded Kadaman-Enlil I, who was
likely his father, and ruled for 27 years. He was a contemporary of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. The proverb
the time of checking the books is the shepherds ordeal was attributed to him in a letter to the later king
Esarhaddon from his agent Mar-Issar.[2]

things went awry and, in EA 8,[i 8] he complains that


Egypts Canaanite vassals had robbed and murdered his
merchants. He demanded vengeance, naming umAdda, the son of Balumme, aliation unknown, and
utatna, the son of aratum of Akka, as the villainous
perpetrators.[i 8]:842
In his correspondence with the Pharaohs, he did not hesitate to remind them of their obligations, quoting ancient
loyalties:
In the time of Kurgalzu, my ancestor,
all the Canaanites wrote here to him saying,
Come to the border of the country so we can
revolt and be allied with you. My ancestor
sent this (reply), saying, Forget about being
allied with me. If you become enemies of the
king of Egypt, and are allied with anyone else,
will I not then come and plunder you? For
the sake of your ancestor my ancestor did not
listen to them.[6]
Burna-Buria, from tablet EA 9, BM 29785,
line 19 onward.

56.1 Correspondence with Egypt


The diplomatic correspondence between Burna-Buria
and the pharaohs is preserved in nine of the Amarna letters, designated EA (for El Amarna) 6 to 14. The relationship between Babylon and Egypt during his reign was
friendly at the start, [i 1] and a marriage alliance was in the
making. From the time my ancestors and your ancestors
made a mutual declaration of friendship, they sent beautiful greeting-gifts to each other, and refused no request for
anything beautiful.[i 2] Burna-Buria was obsessed with
being received as an equal and often refers to his counterpart as brother.[3] They exchanged presents, horses,
lapis-lazuli and other precious stones from Burna-Buria
and ivory, ebony and gold from Akhenaten.[i 3]

Posterity has not preserved any Egyptian response, however, Abdi-Heba, the Canaanite Mayor of Jerusalem,
then a small hillside town, wrote in EA 287[i 9] that Kassite agents had attempted to break into his home and assassinate him.

But then things began to go sour. On EA 10,[i 4] he complains that the gold sent was underweight.[4] You have
detained my messenger for two years! he declares in
consternation.[i 5]:4950 He reproached the Egyptian for
not having sent his condolences when he was ill[i 5]:1425
and, when his daughters wedding was underway, he complained that only ve carriages were sent to convey her to
Egypt.[i 6]:2122 The bridal gifts lled 4 columns and 307
lines of cuneiform inventory on tablet EA 13.[i 7][5]

With regard to the Kassites Though the


house is well fortied, they attempted a very
serious crime. They took their tools, and I
had to seek shelter by a support for the roof.
And so if he (pharaoh) is going to send troops
into Jerusalem, let them come with a garrison
for regular service. And please make the
Kassites responsible for the evil deed. I was
almost killed by the Kassites in my own house.
May the king make an inquiry in their regard.
Abdi-Heba, El-Amarna tablet EA 287.

Not only were matters of state of concern. What


you want from my land, write and it shall be brought,
and what I want from your land, I will write, that it One letter[i 10] preserves the apologetic response from
may be brought.[i 1]:1317 But even in matters of trade, a mrat arri, or princess, to her m b-l-ia, or lord
182

56.3. DOMESTIC AFFAIRS


(Nefertiti to Burna-Buria?). The letters present a playful, forthright and at times petulant repartee, but perhaps conceal a cunning interplay between them, to conrm their relative status, cajole the provision of desirable
commodities and measure their respective threat, best exemplied by Burna-Buria' feigned ignorance of the distance between their countries, a four month journey by
caravan.[i 5] Here he seems to test Akhenaten to shame
him into sending gold[4] or perhaps just to gauge the extent of his potential military reach.

56.2 International Relations

183
his neutrality in the face of the Mitanni succession crisis. He refused asylum to the eeing Shattiwaza, who
received a more favorable response in Hatti, where Suppiluliuma I supported his reinstatement in a diminished
vassal state.[8] According to her step son Mursili II, she
became quite a troublemaker, scheming and murderous,
as in the case of Mursilis wife, foistering her strange
foreign ways on the Hittite court and ultimately being
exiled.[9] His testimony is preserved in two prayers in
which he condemned her.[10]
Kassite inuence reached to Bahrain, ancient Dilmun,
where two letters found in Nippur were sent by a Kassite ocial, Il-ippara, in Dilmun to Ililiya, a hypocoristic form of Enlil-kidinni, who was the governor, or
andabakku, of Nippur during Burna Burias reign and
that of his immediate successors.[11][12] In the rst letter, the hapless Ili-ippara complains that the anarchic local Alam tribesmen have stolen his dates and there is
nothing I can do while in the second letter they certainly
speak words of hostility and plunder to me.[13]

56.3 Domestic Aairs


Building activity increased markedly in the latter half of
the fourteenth century with Burna-Buria and his successors undertaking restoration work of sacred structures.[14]
Inscriptions from three door sockets and bricks, some of
which are still in situ, bear witness to his restoration of the
Ebabbar of the sun god ama in Larsa. A tablet provides
an exhortation to Enlil and a brick refers to work on the
great socle of the Ekiur of Ninlil in Nippur.[15] A thirteen
line bilingual inscription can now probably be assigned to
him.[i 13][16] Neo-Babylonian temple inventory from Ur
mentions him along with successors as a benefactor.[i 14]
A cylinder inscription of Nabonidus[i 15] recalls BurnaBuria earlier work on the temenos at Sippar:
Bronze statue of Napir-asu[i 11] in the Louvre.

Diplomacy with Babylons neighbor, Elam, was conducted through royal marriages. A Neo-Babylonian copy
of a literary text which takes the form of a letter,[i 12] now
located in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin, is addressed to the Kassite court by an Elamite King. It details
the genealogy of the Elamite royalty of this period, and
from it we nd that Pahir-Ian married Kurigalzu Is sister and Humban-Numena married his daughter and their
son, Untash-Napirisha was betrothed to Burna-Burias
daughter.[7] This may have been Napir-asu, whose headless statue[i 11] (pictured) now resides in the Louvre in
Paris.
It is likely that Suppiluliuma I, king of the Hittites, married yet another of Burna Burias daughters, his third and
nal wife, who thereafter was known under the traditional
title Tawananna, and this may have been the cause of

The foundation record of Ebarra which


Burna-buria, a king of former times, my
predecessor, had made, he saw and upon
the foundation record of Burna-buria, not a
nger-breadth too high, not a nger-breadth
beyond, the foundation of that Ebarra he
laid.[17]
Inscription of Nabonidus, cylinder BM
104738.

There are around 87 economic texts, most of which were


found at successive excavations in Nippur, providing a
date formula based on regnal years, which progress up
to year 27. Many of them are personnel rosters dealing with servile laborers, who were evidently working under duress as the terms Z, escapee, and ka-mu, fettered, are used to classify some of them.[18] Apparently
thousands of men were employed in construction and

184
agriculture and women in the textile industry. An oppressive regime developed to constrain their movements and
prevent their escape.[19] Other texts include two extispicy
reports provide divinations based on examination of animal entrails.[15] Nippur seems to have enjoyed the status
of a secondary capital. The presence of the royal retinue
replete with scribes would have provided the means for
the creation of business records for the local population.

56.4 Kara-arda, Nazi-Buga and


the events at end of his reign

CHAPTER 56. BURNA-BURIASH II

[4] EA 10, Burna-Buria to Napureya (Akhenaten): Egyptian gold and carpenters, tablet BM 29786 in the British
Museum, London, CDLI ORACC Transliteration
[5] EA 7, Burna-Buria to Napureya (Akhenaten): A lesson
in geography, tablet VAT 150 in the Vorderasiatisches
Museum, Berlin, CDLI ORACC Transliteration
[6] EA 11, Burna-Buria to Napureya (Akhenaten): Proper
escort for a betrothed princess, tablet VAT 151 in
the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, CDLI ORACC
Transliteration
[7] EA 13, Burna-Buria to Napureya (Akhenaten): Inventory of a dowry, tablet VAT 1717 in the Vorderasiatisches
Museum, Berlin, CDLI ORACC Transliteration

Later in his reign the Assyrian king Aur-uballi I was


received at the Egyptian court by Tutankhamen, who had [8]
by then ascended the throne. This caused a great deal
of dismay from Burna-Buria who claimed the Assyrians
were his vassals, Why have they been received in your
land? If I am dear to you, do not let them conclude any
[9]
business. May they return here with empty hands!" on EA
9.[20] Finally released from beneath the yoke of Mitanni
hegemony, Assyria emerged as a great power during his
[10]
reign, threatening the northern border of the kingdom.
Perhaps to cement relations, Muballiat-ra, daughter of Aur-uballi, had been married to either BurnaBuria[21] or possibly his son,[22] Kara-arda; the historical sources do not agree.[23] The scenario proposed
by Brinkman[24] has come to be considered the orthodox interpretation of these events. A poorly preserved
letter in the Pergamon Museum possibly mentions him
and a princess or mrat arri.[i 16] Kara-arda was murdered, shortly after succeeding his father to the throne,
during a rebellion by the Kassite army in 1333 BC. This
incited Aur-uballi to invade, depose the usurper installed by the army, one Nazi-Buga or uziga, described as a Kassite, son of a nobody,[25] and install
Kurigalzu II, the younger, variously rendered as son
of Burnaburia[i 17] and son of Kadaman-arbe, likely
a scribal error for Kara-arda.[i 18] Note, however, that
there are more than a dozen royal inscriptions of Kurigalzu II identifying Burna-Buria as his father.

56.5 Inscriptions
[1] EA 6, Burna-Buria to Nummuwarea (Amenhotep III):
An oer of friendship, tablet VAT 149 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, CDLI ORACC Transliteration
[2] EA 9, Burna-Buria to Niburrereya (Tutankhamen?):
Ancient loyalties, new requests, tablet BM 29785 in the
British Museum, London, CDLI ORACC Transliteration
[3] EA 14, Egyptian king to Burna-Buria: Inventory of
Egyptian gifts, tablets VAT 1651 and VAT 2711 in the
Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, and 1893.1-41 in the
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, CDLI ORACC Transliteration

EA 8, Burna-Buria to Napureya (Akhenaten): Merchants murdered, vengeance demanded, tablet VAT 152
in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, CDLI ORACC
Transliteration
EA 287, Abdi-Heba to Egyptian Pharaoh: A very serious crime, tablet VAT 1644 in the Vorderasiatisches
Museum, Berlin, CDLI ORACC transliteration
EA 12, Princess to King: A letter from a princess, tablet
VAT 1605 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin,
CDLI ORACC Transliteration

[11] Sb 2731, Statue of Queen Napirasu, wife of UntashNapirisha.


[12] utruk-Naunte (?) to Kassite court, Tablet VAT 17020
CDLI
[13] Bilingual inscription Sm. 699, K. 4807 + Sm. 977 + 797-8,80 + 79-7-8,314.
[14] Temple inventory UET 4 143 (now = IM 57150).
[15] Cylinder BM 104738, column I, lines 49 to 52.
[16] Tablet VAT 11187 published as KAV 097 CDLI, line 1:
[ka-ra-] ar-da-a, and 3: a-ma DUMU MUNUS MAN
di-mu.
[17] The Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21), K4401a, Column
1, line A16.
[18] Chronicle P (ABC 22), tablet BM 92701, line 14

56.6 References
[1] Georges Roux (1964). Ancient Iraq. George Allen & Unwin. pp. 221, 233234.
[2] K. Fabritius (1999). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopography
of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part II: BG. The
Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 354.
[3] Amanda H. Podany (2010). Brotherhood of Kings: How
International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. Oxford University Press. p. 206.

56.6. REFERENCES

185

[4] Raymond Westbrook (JulSep 2000). Babylonian Diplomacy in the Amarna Letters 120 (3). Journal of the American Oriental Society. pp. 377382.

[21] Sarah C. Melville (2004). 16 Royal Women and the Exercise of Power in the Near East. In Daniel C. Snell. A
companion to the ancient Near East. p. 225.

[5] Stephen Bertman (2003). Handbook to life in ancient


Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press. p. 81.

[22] Paul Collins (2008). From Egypt to Babylon: the international age 1550-500 BC. Trustees of the British Museum.
p. 65.

[6] William L. Moran (2000). The Amarna Letters. Johns


Hopkins University Press. p. 18.
[7] D. T. Potts (1999). The archaeology of Elam: formation and transformation of an ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 207.
[8] Trevor Bryce (2005). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford
University Press. p. 159.
[9] Trevor Bryce (2003). Letters of the Great Kings of the
Ancient Near East: The Royal Correspondence of the Late
Bronze Age. Routledge. pp. 14, 103.
[10] Harry A. Honer, Jr. (JanMar 1983). A Prayer of
Murili II about His Stepmother. Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1): 187192. JSTOR 601872.
discussing tablets K Bo 4.8 and KUB 14.4.
[11] P. B. Cornwall (1952). Two Letters from Dilmun.
Journal of Cuneiform Studies 6 (4): 137145. JSTOR
1359537.
[12] Albrecht Goetze (1952). The texts Ni. 615 and 641 of
the Istanbul Museum. Journal of Cuneiform Studies (6):
142145. JSTOR 1359537.
[13] Eric Olijdam (1997). Nippur and Dilmun in the second
half of the fourteenth century BC: a re-evaluation of the
Il-ippara letters. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 27: 199203.
[14] Richard L. Zettler et al. (1993). Nippur III, Kassite Buildings in Area WC-1. Oriental Institute Publication. p. 8.
[15] J. A. Brinkman (1976). Burna-Buria". Materials and
Studies for Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 105108.
[16] J. A. Brinkman (Autumn 1985). Texts and Fragments.
Journal of Cuneiform Studies 37 (2): 249252. JSTOR
1359870.
[17] S. Langdon (Jan 1916). New Inscriptions of Nabuna'id.
The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 32 (2): 112. doi:10.1086/369788. JSTOR 52834.
[18] J. A. Brinkman (May 1982). Sex, Age, and Physical
Condition Designations for Servile Laborers in the Middle
Babylonian Period. In G. van Driel. Zikir Sumin. V.U.
Uitgeverij. pp. 18.
[19] J. A. Brinkman (Jan 1980). Forced Laborers in the Middle Babylonian Period. Journal of Cuneiform Studies 32
(1): 1722. JSTOR 1359787.
[20] J. A. Brinkman (Jul 1972). Foreign Relations of Babylonia from 1600 to 625 B. C.: The Documentary Evidence. American Journal of Archaeology 76 (3): 271
281. JSTOR 503920.

[23] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles. J. J. Augustin. p. 211.


[24] J. A. Brinkman. The Chronicle Tradition Concerning the
Deposing of the Grandson of Aur-uballi I. MSKH I.
pp. 418423.
[25] Amlie Kuhrt (1995). The ancient Near East, c. 3000-330
BC. Routledge.

Chapter 57

Coregency Stela
The Coregency Stela is the name given to seven limestone stela-fragments which were found in a tomb at
Amarna. The stela dates from the late Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and shows the gures of Akhenaten,
Nefertiti, and Meritaten. At some time after the stela
was made, Nefertitis name had been chiselled out and
was replaced with Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, the
name of Akhenatens co-regent. At the same time Meritatens name was replaced with that of Ankhesenpaaten,
Akhenaten and Nefertitis third daughter.
The stela might shed light on the events of the littleknown late-Amarna Period and the question of Akhenatens immediate succession.[1] Restoration and interpretation of the stela vary, but it has been suggested that it
supports the claim that Nefertiti should be identied as
Akhenaten co-regent and successor.[2]
The stela is currently in the Petrie Museum, in London.[3]

57.1 References
[1] James H. Allen. The Amarna Succession. Retrieved
2008-06-22.
[2] Nicholas Reeves. Book Review: Rolf Krauss, Das Ende
der Amarnazeit (Hildesheimer gyptologische Beitrge,
1978)". Retrieved 2008-06-22.
[3] Stelae UC410. Petrie Museum. Retrieved 2008-06-22.

186

Chapter 58

Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu (sometimes Dahamunzu) is the name 58.2 The Zannanza aair
of an Egyptian queen known from the Hittite annals
The Deeds of Suppiluliuma, which were composed by The annals then recount the message the Egyptian widow
Suppiluliuma I's son Mursili II. The identity of this queen queen wrote to Suppiluliuma:
has not yet been established with any degree of certainty
and Dakhamunzu has variously been identied as either
My husband died. A son I have not. But
Nefertiti, Meritaten or Ankhesenamen. The identicato
thee,
they say, the sons are many. If thou
tion of this queen is of importance both for Egyptian
wouldst
give
me one son of thine, he would bechronology and for the reconstruction of events during
come
my
husband.
Never shall I pick out a serthe late Eighteenth Dynasty.
vant of mine and make him my husband. I am
The episode in The Deeds of Suppiluliuma that features
afraid.[3]
Dakhamunzu is often referred to as the Zannanza aair,
after the name of a Hittite prince who was sent to Egypt
Such an oer to marry a female member of the Egypto marry her.
tian royal family was unprecedented,[1] as Amenhotep III
made clear in his correspondence with a foreign king, the
gift of women in marriage was for Egypt a one way trade:
From time immemorial no daughter of the king of Egypt
is given to anyone.[4] Suppiluliuma is therefore surprised
58.1 Context
and suspicious,[1] the annals report his reaction:
The Dakhamunzu episode should be seen against the
Such a thing has never happened to me in
background of Egypts relations with the other major
my whole life[5]
powers in Western Asia during the second half of the 14th
century BC, more specically the three-cornered struggle Nevertheless he sends his chamberlain to Egypt to invesfor power between Egypt, Mitanni and the newly arising tigate the matter,[1] he orders him:
power of the Hittites under Suppiluliuma I.[1] During the
late-Amarna period and its immediate aftermath we are
Go and bring thou the true word back to
almost totally dependent on the Hittite records for infor[2]
me.
Maybe they deceive me. Maybe in fact
mation on these matters.
they do have a son of their lord[5]
While involved in war with Mitanni, the Hittites are attacked by Egyptian forces in the region of Kadesh, which
only recently came under Hittite control. Suppiluliuma In the meantime Suppiluliuma concludes the siege of Carretaliates by simultaneously besieging Mitanni forces at chemish[1] and then returns to his capital Hattusa for the
Carchemish and sending forces into the Amqu region, at winter. The following spring his chamberlain and a
return to him, bringing a further
that time an Egyptian vassal state.[1] At this point the an- messenger from Egypt
[6]
letter
of
the
queen:
nals inform us that:
Why didst thou say 'they deceive me' in
that way? had i a son, would I have written
about my own and my countrys shame to a
foreign land? Thou didst not believe me and
hast even spoke thus to me. He who was my
husband has died. A son I have not. Never
shall I take a servant of mine and make him

"[The Egyptians] were afraid.


And
since, in addition, their lord Nibhururiya
had died, therefore the queen of Egypt,
who was Dakhamunzu, sent a messenger to
[Suppiluliuma].[3]
187

188

CHAPTER 58. DAKHAMUNZU


my husband. I have written to no other country, only to thee have i written. They say thy
sons are many: so give me one son of thine.
To me he will be husband, but to Egypt he will
be king[7]

58.4 Identication of the Egyptian


protagonists

Initially the name Dakhamunzu was believed to be


a misreading of Sankhamun, a supposed version of
Suppiluliuma however remains suspicious and he tells the Ankhesenamun, Tutankhamun's widow. This emendation is however now seen as unjustied and it is
Egyptian messenger:
rather assumed that Dakhamunzu is a Hittite rendering of the Egyptian title ta hemet nesu (the kings wife)
You keep asking me for a son of mine as if
instead of a proper name of a queen.[10] As a conseit were my duty. He will in some way become
quence Dakhamunzu has variously been identied as eia hostage, but king you will not make him[8]
ther Nefertiti, Meritaten or Ankhesenamen.
Nevertheless, after further negotiations with the Egyptian messenger and consultation of an earlier peace treaty
between the Hittites and Egypt, Suppiluliuma agrees to
send one of his sons to Egypt.[9] But this prince, named
Zannanza, was killed, possibly before he even reached
Egypt.[10] As the annals make clear, the Hittites accused
the Egyptians for this murder:
They spoke thus: 'The people of Egypt
killed Zannanza' and brought word: 'Zannanza
died'. And when [Suppiluliuma] heard of the
slaying of Zannanza, he began to lament for
Zannanza and to the gods he spoke thus: 'Oh
gods! I did no evil, yet the people of Egypt did
this to me, and they also attacked the frontier
of my country'.[11]
This led to recriminations on behalf of Suppiluliuma,
who again attacks Amqu, drives the Egyptians from it and
returns with prisoners to Hattusa.[12]

58.3 Aftermath

Nibhururiya, the name of the recently deceased Pharaoh


as it is recorded in the annals, might equally be seen as a
rendering of the prenomen of either Akhenaten (Neferkheperure ) or Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure)[10] and the
exibility of the chronology of the period admits both
possibilities.[15] The chronology of events requires that
the death of Nibhururiya occurs near the end of Suppiluliumas life[16] and therefore conventional Egyptian
chronology favours Tutankhamun. It is also assumed
that the situation at the Egyptian court (i.e. the lack of
male royal ospring) ts better with the period after Tutankhamuns death.[2] In this case Dakhamunzu should
be identied as Ankhesenamun, while the anonymous
pharaoh from Suppiluliumas draft letter can be identied
as Ay, a servant Dakhamunzu did not want to marry.
Alternative Egyptian[17] or Hittite[18] chronologies however make Akhenaten a more likely candidate for Nibhururiya. Comparison between the probable times of
death for Akhenaten (after the vintaging of wine, i.e. at
the end of September or the start of October) and Tutankhamun (in December, based on oral and faunal evidence from his tomb) with the account found in the Hittite annals (which places the reception of Dakhamunzus
rst letter in late autumn) also seems to favour the identication of Nibhururiya with Akhenaten.[19] Further evidence to support this identication might come from
one of the Amarna letters which seems to deal with the
same military actions against Amqu that are reported
in the Hittite annals. Since the Amarna archives seems
to have been abandoned and closed by the end of Tutankhamuns reign, the presence of this letter there suggest he cannot have been the recently deceased pharaoh
from the annals.[20] The recently proposed identication
of an Egyptian ocial named Armaa, who appears in a
Hittite document relating events from Mursili IIs regnal
years 7 and 9, as Horemheb in his function of viceroy and
commander in Asia (i.e. before his ascent to the throne)
would also rule out Tutankhamun as possible candidate
for Nibhururiya.[21]

Nothing is told of the eventual fate of Dakhamunzu, but


the draft for a letter written by Suppiluliuma[13] might
shed more light on the matter. This letter is addressed
to an unnamed pharaoh, written in response to an earlier letter from this pharaoh to Suppiluliuma. From this
correspondence it appears that this pharaoh came to the
throne of Egypt at some time before the murder of Zannanza, and that Suppiluliuma seems to have been unaware
of this development at the Egyptian court at the time he
send his son there. This new pharaoh might be seen either
as a servant to whom Dakhamunzu was married against
her own wish or as supplanting her on the throne, depending on the identication of the individuals involved (see
below).
The identication of Nibhururiya as Akhenaten does
The deaths of both Suppiluliuma and his immediate suc- however complicate the identity of Dakhamunzu because
cessor Arnuwanda II might be seen as an indirect result of besides his great royal wife Nefertiti, Meritaten seems to
the Zannanza aair because both succumbed to a plague have held the title ta hemet nesu in relation to her father
brought to Hattusa by the prisoners from Amqu.[12][14]
as well.[22] in this case the identity of Dakhamunzu is

58.6. SEE ALSO


largely depended on the identity of Akhenatens co-regent
and successor. Those who see evidence for a gradually
changing role for Nefertiti (from great royal wife, over
co-regent to sole ruler after Akhenatens death) will naturally identify Dakhamunzu as Nefertiti and they see the
Zannanza aair as further evidence for Nefertitis continuing importance in the late-Amarna period. In this case it
is believed that, in spite of her changed role at the Egyptian court, to the outside world she would have remained
to be known as the kings wife[23] and a parallel is drawn
between the Hatshepsut-Tuthmosis III co-rule earlier in
the 18th dynasty and a co-regency between Nefertiti and
Tutankhamun,[24] the latter king can then be identied
as the unnamed pharaoh from Suppiluliumas letter, supplanting Nefertiti on the Egyptian throne. Others however maintain that Nefertiti predeceased her husband and
they will therefore identify Dakhamunzu/Akhenatens female co-regent as Meritaten. In this scenario Smenkhare
can be identied as the new unnamed pharaoh, who would
then be the servant Dakhamunzu was unwilling to marry,
although the identication of Smenkhkare as Zannanza is
also suggested as a (more unlikely) possibility.[22]

189

[12] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 298
[13] http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http:
//www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/Alley/4482/Ay.
html&date=2009-10-25+11:24:47
[14] http://www.hittites.info/history.aspx?text=history%
2fEarly+Late+Empire.htm#Arnuwanda2
[15] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 229
[16] McMurray, W., Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt, p.4
[17] McMurray, W., Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt, p.5 and table 1
[18] Miller, J.L., Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of
Nibhururiya in the Light of a Newly Reconstructed Hittite
Text, Altorientalische Forschungen, 34 (2007) g. 1
[19] Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet (Thames
and Hudson, 2001) pp. 176-177
[20] Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet (Thames
and Hudson, 2001) p. 177

58.5 Notes & references


58.5.1

References

[1] Reeves (2001) p.175


[2] Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and Hudson, 1988) p. 297

[21] Miller, J.L., Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of


Nibhururiya in the Light of a Newly Reconstructed Hittite
Text, Altorientalische Forschungen, 34 (2007)
[22] McMurray, W., Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt, p.5
[23] Reeves (2001) p.177

[3] Gterbock (1956) p.94

[24] Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet (Thames


and Hudson, 2001) p. 180

[4] Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet (Thames


and Hudson, 2001) p. 64

58.5.2 Bibliography

[5] Gterbock (1956) p.95


[6] Gterbock, H.G., The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by
his son, Mursilli II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10
(1956) p. 96
[7] Gterbock, H.G., The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by
his son, Mursilli II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10
(1956) pp. 96-97
[8] Gterbock, H.G., The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by
his son, Mursilli II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10
(1956) p. 97
[9] Gterbock, H.G., The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by
his son, Mursilli II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10
(1956) pp. 97-98
[10] Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet (Thames
and Hudson, 2001) p. 176
[11] Gterbock, H.G., The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by
his son, Mursilli II, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 10
(1956) p. 108

Aldred, C., Akhenaten, King of Egypt (Thames and


Hudson, 1988)
Gterbock, H.G., The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as
told by his son, Mursilli II, Journal of Cuneiform
Studies, 10 (1956)
Reeves, C.N., Akhenaten, Egypts False Prophet
(Thames and Hudson, 2001)

58.6 See also


Foreign relations of Egypt during the Amarna period

Chapter 59

Gath (city)
59.1 Archaeological site
A tradition reported by Ishtori Haparchi and other early
Jewish writers is that Ramla was Gath.[2] Archaeology indicates that Ramla was not built on the site of an ancient
city,[3] but Mazar proposed that ancient Gath lay at a site
Ras Abu Hamid east of Ramla.[2] Avi-Yonah, however,
considered that to be a dierent Gath, usually now called
Gath-Gittaim.[4]

Archaeological ndings at Gath

Gath, Gat, or Geth (Hebrew: , Winepress; Latin: Geth), often referred to as Gath of the Philistines, was one
of the ve Philistine city-states, established in northwestern Philistia. According to the Bible, the king of the city
was Achish, in the times of Saul, David, and Solomon. It
is not certain whether this refers to two or more kings of
the name 'Achish' or not. Gath was also the home city of
Goliath and his brothers, as well as of Itai and his 600 soldiers who aided David in his exile from Absalom. David,
while running from Saul, escaped to Gath, and served under its king Achish. During Solomon's reign, Shemei goes
to Gath to return his escaped slave (I Kings). In II Kings,
the city of Gath is mentioned as being captured by Hazael
of Aram Damascus. Recent excavations at the site have
produced dramatic evidence of a siege and subsequent
destruction of the site in the late 9th century BC, most
probably related to this event, although a stone inscription
disclosing the name of the city has yet to be discovered.

The 19th-century scholar Edward Robinson proposed


that Gath be identied with Tell es-Sa, and this identication was generally accepted until the early 20th
century.[1] In the 1920s, famed archaeologist W. F. Albright disputed this identication, writing that The archaeological exploration of Tell el-Sa did not yield a
shred of evidence for the identication with Gath.[1]
Albright suggested another site, Tell 'Areini (now close
to the city of Kiryat Gat) which, despite some opposition, was accepted to the point that the Israel Government Names Committee renamed it as Tel Gat in 1953.[1]
However, excavations at Tell 'Areini starting in 1959
found no Middle Bronze Age traces and the excavators
proposed instead that Gath be identied with a third site
Tell en-Nejileh (Tel Nagila), a possibility that itself was
abandoned after excavations in the 1980s.[1] Attention
then returned to Tell es-Sa, and it is now again the most
favored site as the location of Gath.[1]
Tell es-Sa and Tel Zat (Arabic: , Tall af ; Hebrew: , Tzafit Tel) are Arabic and Hebrew names for the ancient mound now identied as
Gath, one of the ve cities in the ancient Canaanite and
Philistine Pentapolis (along with Gaza, Ekron, Ashkelon,
and Ashdod). It is a large multi-period site that is located in central Israel, approximately half way between
Jerusalem and Ashkelon, on the border between the
southern Coastal Plain of Israel and the Judean foothills.

Although rst noted by explorers in the mid-19th century CE, and subsequently briey excavated in 1899 by
Gath is also mentioned in the El-Amarna letters as the British archaeologists F.J. Bliss and R.A.S. MacalisGimti/Gintu, ruled by a king Shuwardata, and possibly ter, extensive exploration of the site was not conducted
by Abdi-Ashtart as well.
until 1996, when a long-term project was commenced at
The site most favored as the location of Gath is Tel es- the site, directed by Aren Maeir of Bar-Ilan University,
Sat, also called Tel Zat in Tel Tzat National Park.[1] Israel. Since 1996, excavations, surveys and other studies
190

59.3. IRON AGE

191

have been conducted at the site, focusing on various cul- sites (such as Ekron, Ashdod, and Ashkelon) these phases
tures, periods and aspects relating to the site, its culture are not well represented.
and history, and its surroundings.[5]
According to the Jerusalem Post archeologists have unThe site was inhabited from Proto-Historic through Mod- covered a Philistine temple and evidence of a major
ern times. The earliest evidence for settlement is from earthquake in biblical times, during digs carried out at
the Chalcolithic Period (c. 5th millennium BCE), after the Tel Tzat National Park.
which there is continuous occupation until the modern
These excavations by Aren Maeir helped to establish the
Palestinian village of Tell es-Sa, abandoned during the dating of this geological event,
1948 ArabIsraeli War.

59.2 Bronze Age

Based on the tight stratigraphic context,


this [earthquake] can be dated to the mid-8th
cent. BCE...[6]

During the Early Bronze Age there is evidence of a large Other major nds there were evidence of the destruction
urban site, apparently similar to other EB III urban sites of Gath by Hazael King of Aram-Damascus around 830
in southern Canaan, such as nearby Tel Yarmut.
BCE, and evidence of the rst Philistine settlement in
[7]
Scant evidence of this period was found on the tell in the Canaan.
form of stray sherds. In the vicinity of the tell (to the east, A very impressive, site-wide destruction is evidenced at
in Area C6) evidence of tombs and possible domestic ac- the site during the late Iron Age IIA (c. late 9th century
tivities were found.
BCE). Throughout the site there is evidence of this deFinds from the MB IIB (and a few MB IIA) were found on
various parts of the tell in the survey (including a scarab
of Khyan, found in the 1960s). Recently, in the 2006 season, evidence of an impressive MB IIB fortication was
found in the vicinity of the summit of the tell, comprising
a stone wall/tower and a packed earth rampart/glacis.

struction, and well-preserved assemblages of nds. The


dating of this destruction to the late 9th century BCE is a
strong indication that it can be related to the conquest of
Gath by Hazael, King of Aram Damascus, as mentioned
in II Kings 12:18. Evidence of a large-scale siege system
that was found surrounding the site, is apparently related
to this event. This siege system, which comprises a manmade siege trench, a related berm (earth embankment)
and other elements, is currently the earliest archaeological evidence on the ground for an ancient siege system.
It could also be in relation to the conquest of Gath by
Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:6);coinciding well with the siege
technology described in 2 Chronicles 26:15.

The Late Bronze remains at the site are impressive as


well, evidence of the Canaanite city of Gath, which is
mentioned in the El-Amarna letters. Finds from this period include a large, apparently public building, culticrelated nds, and a small collection of Egyptiaca, including two Egyptian Hieratic inscriptions, both inscribed on
locally-made vessels. This city was apparently destroyed
at the end of the Late Bronze Age, most probably with Among the numerous nds from this destruction level,
one can note the impressive pottery assemblage, various
the arrival of the Philistines.
cultic objects, a bone tool workshop, and assorted other
nds.

59.3 Iron Age


59.3.1 Goliath Shard
During the Iron Age, the site becomes a major Philistine site, Gath of the Philistines, one of the ve cities
of the Philistine Pentapolis, known from biblical and
extra-biblical sources. Settled from the earliest phases of
the Philistine culture (ca. 1175 BCE), evidence of the
various stages of the Philistine culture have been found.
In particular, nds indicating the gradual transformation
of the Philistines, from a non-local (Aegaean) culture,
to a more locally-oriented culture abound. This process,
which has been termed Acculturation or Creolization
can be seen in various aspects of the Philistine culture, as
the Iron Age unfolds.
Of particular importance are the strata dating to the 10th9th century BCE, in which rich assemblages of nds were
uncovered. These strata enable the study of the entire
sequence of the Philistine culture, since at other Philistine

In the 2005 season, below the late 9th-century BCE destruction level, in a stratum dating to an earlier phase of
the Iron Age IIA, an important inscription was found.
Scratched on a sherd typical of the Iron Age IIA, two
non-Semitic names written in Semitic Proto-Canaanite
letters were found. These two names, ALWT ()
and WLT (), are etymologically similar to the name
Goliath (), the well-known Philistine champion, who
according to the biblical text, was a native of Gath.
These two name fragments might indicate that names
similar to the name Goliath were in use in Philistia during
the Iron Age IIA, approximately the same time as Goliath
is described in the Bible. Although not proof of Goliaths
existence, the ostracon provides evidence of the cultural
milieu of this period. In any case, they provide a useful

192
example of the names used by the Philistines during that
time, and the earliest evidence for the use of an alphabetic
writing system in the Philistine culture.[8]

59.4 Crusader Period

CHAPTER 59. GATH (CITY)

59.6 References
[1] Horton Harris (2011).
The location
a review of the candidate sites, based
cal, topographical and archaeological
Palestine Exploration Quarterly 143 (2):
doi:10.1179/003103211x12971861556954.

of Ziklag:
on Biblievidence.
119133.

[2] B. Mazar (1954). Gath and Gittaim. Israel Exploration


Journal 4 (3/4): 227235.
[3] Nimrod Luz (1997). The Construction of an Islamic City
in Palestine. The Case of Umayyad al-Ramla. Journal of
the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series 7 (1): 2754.
[4] Michael Avi-Yonah. Gath. Encyclopedia Judaica 7
(second ed.). p. 395.
[5] Looking for a wider view of history, Israeli archaeologists
are zooming in, Haaretz
[6] View of Philistine temple and Amos earthquake The
Tell es-Sa/Gath Excavations Weblog - July 2010
[7] Temple found in Philistine home of Goliath, Kiryat Gat
discovery sheds light on Samson, Ben Hartman, July 29,
2010, Jerusalem Post.
Blanche Garde, Tel Tzat

Main article: Tell es-Sa

[8] For the editio princeps and an in-depth discussion of the


inscription and its signicance, see: Maeir, A.M., Wimmer, S.J., Zukerman, A., and Demsky, A. 2008. An Iron
Age I/IIA Archaic Alphabetic Inscription from Tell esSa/Gath: Paleography, Dating, and Historical-Cultural
Signicance. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental
Research.

Following the destruction of the site by Hazael, Philistine Gath lost its role as a primary Philistine city. Although the site was settled during later periods, it never [9] Gittite. WebBible Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-02regained its role as a site of central importance. Dur26.
ing the Crusader period, following the conquest of the
land during the First Crusade, a small fortress, named [10] Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach, vol. II, chapter 11,
s.v. , (3rd edition) Jerusalem 2007, p.
Blanche Garde for the dramatic white chalk clis that
78 (Hebrew)
guard its western approach, was built at the site as part of
the Crusader encirclement of Fatimid Ashkelon. This site
was subsequently captured by the Ayyubids, and served
the basis for the Medieval and Modern village of Tell es- 59.7 Further reading
Sa, which existed until 1948. The ruins of the castle and
Rainey, A. 1975. The Identication of Philistine
the village can be seen on the site today. Portions of the
Gath - a Problem in Source Analysis for Historical
exterior fortications of the castle have been excavated
Geography. Eretz Israel 12:63*76*.
in recent years.

59.5 Other Gaths


Gath was a common place name in ancient Israel and the
surrounding regions. Various cities are mentioned in the
Bible with such names as Gath of the Philistines, GathGittaim, and Gath Carmel, and other sites with similar
names appear in various ancient sources, including the
Amarna letters. A Gittite is a person from Gath.[9] Some
scholars hold the view that the biblical Gath was located
where Ramlah is now built, based on a medieval Jewish
tradition passed down by Ishtori Haparchi.[10]

Schniedewind, W. 1998. The Geopolitical History


of Philistine Gath. Bulletin of the American Schools
of Oriental Research 309:6977.
Ackermann, O., Maeir, A., and Bruins, H. 2004.
Unique Human-Made Catenary Changes and Their
Eect on Soil and Vegetation in the Semi-Arid
Mediterranean Zone: A Case Study on Sarcopterium Spinosum Distribution Near Tell esS/Gath, Israel. Catena 57: 309-30
Ackermann, O., Bruins, H., and Maeir, A. 2005. A
Unique Human-Made Trench at Tell es-Sa/Gath,
Israel: Anthropogenic Impact and Landscape Response. Geoarchaeology 20(3): 303-28

59.8. EXTERNAL LINKS


Avissar, R., Uziel, J., and Maeir, A. 2007. Tell esSa/Gath During the Persian Period. Pp. 65115
in A Time of Change: Judah and Its Neighbors in the
Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods, ed. Y. Levin.
London: T&T Clark International.
Ben-Shlomo, D., Shai, I., Zukerman, A., and Maeir,
A. 2008. Cooking Identities: Aegean-Style and
Philistine Cooking Jugs and Cultural Interaction in
the Southern Levant During the Iron Age. American
Journal of Archaeology 112: 22546.
Horwitz, L., Lev-Tov, J., Chadwick, J., Wimmer, S., and Maeir, A. 2006. Working Bones: A
Unique Iron Age IIA Bone Workshop from Tell esSa/Gath. Near Eastern Archaeology 66: 16973.
Maeir, A. 2003. Notes and News: Tell es-Sa.
Israel Exploration Journal 53(3): 237-46
Idem. 2004. The Historical Background and Dating
of Amos VI 2: An Archaeological Perspective from
Tell es-Sa/Gath. Vetus Testamentum 54(3): 319-34
Idem. 2007. Ten Years of Excavations at Biblical
Gat Plishtim (In Hebrew). Qadmoniot 133: 1524.
Idem. 2007. A New Interpretation of the Term
`Opalim ( )in Light of Recent Archaeological Finds from Philistia. Journal for the Study of the
Old Testament 32: 2340.

193
Maeir, A., Wimmer, S., Zukerman, A., and
Demsky, A. 2008. A Late Iron Age I/Early
Iron Age II Old Canaanite Inscription from Tell
e-f/Gath, Israel: Palaeography, Dating, and
Historical-Cultural Signicance. Bulletin of the
American Schools of Oriental Research.
Uziel, J., and Maeir, A. 2005. Scratching the Surface at Gath: Implications of the Tell es-Sa/Gath
Surface Survey. Tel Aviv 32(1): 50-75.
Wimmer, S., and Maeir, A. 2007. The Prince
of Sat: A Late Bronze Age Hieratic Inscription
from Tell Es-S/Gath. Zeitschrift Des Deutschen
Palstina-Vereins 123(1): 3748.
Zukerman, A. H., L.K., Lev-Tov, J., and Maeir,
A. 2007. A Bone of Contention? Iron Age IIA
Notched Scapulae from Tell es-Sa/Gath, Israel.
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 347: 5781.
Zukerman, A., and Shai, I. 2006. The Royal City
of the Philistines in the Azekah Inscription and
the History of Gath in the Eighth Century BCE.
Ugarit-Forschungen 38: 729816.

59.8 External links


Tell es-Sa website

Tell es-Sa weblog


Idem. 2008. Fragments of Stone Reliefs from Bliss
and Macalisters Excavations at Tell es-Sa/Gath (In
Hebrew with English Abstract). Eretz Israel (E. Stern Coordinates: 314200N 345049E / 31.700N
34.847E
Volume) 28.
Idem., ed. 2012. Tell es-Sa/Gath I: Report on the
19962005 Seasons. gypten und Altes Testament
69. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Maeir, A. and Ehrlich, C. 2001. Excavating Philistine Gath: Have We Found Goliaths Hometown?
Biblical Archaeology Review 27(6): 22-31
Maeir, A., and Shai, I. 2007. An Iron Age IIA
Phoenician-Style (?) Fluted Ceramic Bowl from
Tell es-Sa/Gath: A Ceramic Imitation of a Metal
Prototype. Journal of the Serbian Archaeological
Society 23: 21926.
Maeir, A., and Uziel, J. 2007. A Tale of Two
Tells: A Comparative Perspective on Tel MiqneEkron and Tell es-S/Gath in Light of Recent Archaeological Research. Pp. 2942 in Up to the Gates
of Ekron: Essays on the Archaeology and History
of the Eastern Mediterranean in Honor of Seymour
Gitin, eds. S. Crawford, A. Ben-Tor, J. Dessel, W.
Dever, A. Mazar and J. Aviram. Jerusalem: Israel
Exploration Society.

Chapter 60

Horemheb
Horemheb (sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab
and meaning Horus is in Jubilation) was the last pharaoh
of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from either 1319
BC to late 1292 BC,[1] or 1306 to late 1292 BC (if he
ruled for 14 years) although he was not related to the preceding royal family and is believed to have been of common birth.
Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankamun
and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed
the state and it was under his reign that ocial action
against the preceding Amarna rulers began.
Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten,
reusing their remains in his own building projects,
and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay.
Horemheb presumably remained childless since he
appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who
would assume the throne as Ramesses I.

60.1 Early career


Horemheb is believed to have originated from
Herakleopolis Magna or ancient Hnes (modern Ihnasya el-Medina) on the west bank of the Nile near the
entrance to the Fayum since his coronation text formally
credits the God Horus of Hnes for establishing him on
the throne.[2]

A statue of Horemheb as a scribe

His parentage is unknown but he is believed to have been


a commoner. According to the French (Sorbonne) Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to
be the same person as Paatenemheb (Aten Is Present In
Jubilation) who was the Commander-in-chief of Akhenatens army.[3] Grimal notes that Horemhebs political career rst began under Tutankhamun where he is depicted
at this kings side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis.[4]

Tutankhamun, becoming Commander-in-Chief of the


Army and advisor to the Pharaoh. Horemhebs specic
titles are spelled out in his Saqqara tomb, which was built
while he was still only an ocial: Hereditary Prince,
Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, and Chief
Commander of the Army"; the attendant of the King
in his footsteps in the foreign countries of the south and
the north"; the Kings Messenger in front of his army to
the foreign countries to the south and the north"; and the
Sole Companion, he who is by the feet of his lord on the
battleeld on that day of killing Asiatics.[5]

In the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served


as the royal spokesman for [Egypts] foreign aairs
and personally led a diplomatic mission to visit the Nubian governors.[4] This resulted in a reciprocal visit by
the Prince of Miam (Aniba)" to Tutankhamuns court,
an event [that is] depicted in the tomb of the Viceroy
Huy.[4] Horemheb quickly rose to prominence under

When Tutankhamun died while still a teenager,


Horemheb had already been ocially designated as
the rpat or iry-pat (basically the Hereditary or Crown
Prince) and idnw (Deputy of the King in the entire
land) by the child pharaoh; these titles are found inscribed in Horemhebs then private Memphite tomb at
Saqqara which dates to the reign of Tutankhamun since

194

60.2. INTERNAL REFORM


the child kings ...
... cartouches, although later usurped by
Horemheb as king, have been found on a
block which adjoins the famous gold of honour scene, a large portion of which is in Leiden.
The royal couple depicted in this scene and in
the adjacent scene 76, which shows Horemheb
acting as an intermediary between the king and
a group of subject foreign rulers, are therefore
to be identied as Tut'ankhamun and 'Ankhesenamun. This makes it very unlikely from
the start that any titles of honours claimed by
Horemheb in the inscriptions in the tomb are
ctitious.[6]

195
ously not even he could possibly have predicted
that the king would die without issue. It must
always have been understood that his appointment as Crown Prince would end as soon as
the king produced an heir, and that he would
succeed Tut'ankhamun only in the eventuality of an early and/or childless death of the
sovereign. There can be no doubt that nobody
outranked the Hereditary Prince of Upper and
Lower Egypt and Deputy of the King in the
Entire Land except the king himself, and that
Horemheb was entitled to the throne once the
king had unexpectedly died without issue. This
means that it is Ays, not Horemhebs accession which calls for an explanation. Why was
Ay able to ascend the throne upon the death of
Tut'ankhamun, despite the fact that Horemheb
had at that time already been the ocial heir
to the throne for almost ten years?"[8]
The aged Vizier Ay sidelined Horemhebs claim to the
throne and instead succeeded Tutankhamun, likely because Horemheb was in Asia with the army at the
time of Tutankhamuns death. No objects belonging to Horemheb was found in Tutankhamuns tomb,
whereas items donated by other high-ranking ocials
such as Maya and Nakhtmin were found in tomb
KV62 by Egyptologists. Further, Tutankhamuns queen,
Ankhesenamun, refused to marry Horemheb, a commoner, and so make him king of Egypt.[9] Having
pushed Horemhebs claims aside, Ay proceeded to nominate the aforementioned Nakhtmin, who was possibly
Ays son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than
Horemheb.[10][11]

Relief from Horemhebs tomb. Receiving 'gold of honour' collars.

The title iry-pat (Hereditary Prince) was used very frequently in Horemhebs Saqqara tomb but not combined
with any other words. When used alone, the Egyptologist Alan Gardiner has shown that the iry-pat title
contains features of ancient descent and lawful inheritance which is identical to the designation for a Crown
Prince.[7] This means that Horemheb was the openly
recognised heir to Tutankhamuns throne and not Ay, Tutankhamuns ultimate successor. As the Dutch Egyptologist Jacobus Van Dijk observes:
There is no indication that Horemheb always intended to succeed Tut'ankhamun; obvi-

After Ays reign, which lasted for a little over four years,
Horemheb managed to seize power presumably from his
position as Commander of the Army, to assume what he
must have perceived to be his just reward for having ably
served Egypt under Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb
quickly removed Nakhtmins rival claim to the throne and
arranged to have Ays WV23 tomb desecrated by smashing the latters sarcophagus, systematically chiselling out
Ays name and gure out of the tomb walls and probably destroying Ays mummy.[12] However, he spared Tutankhamuns tomb from vandalism presumably because
it was Tutankhamun who had promoted his rise to power
and chosen him to be his heir. Horemheb also usurped
and enlarged Ays mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for
his own use and erased Ays titulary on the back of a 17
foot colossal statue by carving his own titulary in its place.

60.2 Internal reform


Upon his accession, Horemheb initiated a comprehensive
series of internal transformations to the power structures
of Akhenaten's reign, due to the preceding transfer of

196

CHAPTER 60. HOREMHEB


had two tombs constructed for himself: the rst when he
was a mere nobleman at Saqqara near Memphis, and the
other in the Valley of the Kings, in Thebes, in tomb KV57
as king. His chief wife was Queen Mutnedjmet, who may
have been Nefertiti's younger sister. They did not have
any children. He is not known to have any children by his
rst wife, Amenia, who died before Horemheb assumed
power.[17]

60.3 Reign length: 26/27 years or


14 years?

Horemheb with Amun at the Museo Egizio

state power from Amens priests to Akhenatens government ocials. Horemheb appointed judges and regional
tribunes ... reintroduced local religious authorities and
divided legal power between Upper Egypt and Lower
Egypt" between the Viziers of Thebes and Memphis
respectively.[13]
These deeds are recorded in a stela which the king erected
at the foot of his Tenth Pylon at Karnak. Occasionally
called The Great Edict of Horemheb,[14] it is a copy of the
actual text of the kings decree to re-establish order to the
Two Lands and curb abuses of state authority. The stelas
creation and prominent location emphasizes the great importance which Horemheb placed upon domestic reform.
Horemheb also reformed the Army and reorganized
the Deir el-Medinah workforce in his 7th Year while
Horemhebs ocial Maya renewed the tomb of Thutmose
IV, which had been disturbed by tomb robbers in his 8th
Year. While the king restored the priesthood of Amun,
he prevented the Amun priests from forming a stranglehold on power, by deliberately reappointing priests
who mostly came from the Egyptian army since he could
rely on their personal loyalty.[15] Horemheb was a prolic builder who erected numerous temples and buildings throughout Egypt during his reign. He constructed
the Second, Ninth and Tenth Pylons of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in the Temple at Karnak, using recycled
talatat blocks from Akhenatens own monuments here, as
building material for the rst two Pylons.[16]

The sarcophagus of Horemheb and wall reliefs in his KV57 tomb.

This pharaohs reign length is a matter of debate among


scholars. Horemhebs highest clearly known dates are
a pair of Year 13 and Year 14 wine labels from this
kings wine estates which were found in his royal tomb
in the Valley of the Kings. It is traditionally believed
that Horemhebs highest year-date is likely attested in an
anonymous hieratic grato written on the shoulder of a
now fragmented statue from his mortuary temple in Karnak which mentions the appearance of the king himself,
or a royal cult statue representing the king, for a religious feast. The ink grato reads Year 27, rst Month
of Shemu day 9, the day on which Horemheb, who loves
Amun and hates his enemies, entered the temple for this
event. (JNES 25[1966], p. 123) Donald Redford, in a
BASOR 211(1973) No.37 footnote, observes that the use
of Horemhebs name and the addition of a long Meryamun (Beloved of Amun) epithet in the grato suggests
a living, eulogised king rather than a long deceased one.

The Egyptologist Rolf Krauss, in a DE 30(1994) paper,


argued that this date may well reect Horemhebs accession where a feast or public holiday was traditionally proclaimed to honour the accession date of a deceased or a
current king. Krauss supports his hypothesis with evidence from Ostraca IFAO 1254 which was initially published by Jac Janssen in a BIFAO 84(1984) paper under
the title "A Curious Error."[18] The ostraca records the
Because of his unexpected rise to the throne, Horemheb number of days on which an unknown Deir el-Medinah

60.3. REIGN LENGTH: 26/27 YEARS OR 14 YEARS?


workman was absent from work and covers the period
from Year 26 III Peret day 11 to Year 27 II Akhet day
12 before breaking o.[19] The signicant fact here is
that a Year change occurred in the ostraca from Year
26 to Year 27 around the interval IV Peret day 28 and I
Shemu day 13. The Year 27 date of Horemheb is located
within this interval and would reect Horemhebs accession date, Krauss suggests. Ays accession date occurred
somewhere in the month of III Peret.[20] Since Manetho
gives Ay a reign of 4 years and 1 month, this ruler would
have died sometime around the month of IV Peret or the
rst half of I Shemu at the very latest. This is precisely the
time period noted in Ostraca IFAO 1254. The fact that
the ostraca records the case of only one worker rather than
an entire group of workmen means the necropolis scribe
cannot be presumed at rst glance to have committed
a dating error in altering the unknown kings Year date in
the interval between IV Peret 28 and I Shemu 13.

197
instead. Janssen also observed that the palaeography of
the ostraca suggests a date in the 20th Dynasty partly because it followed the later New Kingdom form of writing and due to its provenance in the Grand Putit region,
which features numerous Dynasty 20 ostracas. However,
this form of writing is also attested in monuments of
Ramesses II and it would, therefore, not be unexpected
to nd it in a document from the very late 18th Dynasty
since the transition from the Early New Kingdom to the
Late New Kingdom Form of writing had already occurred
prior to the end of Horemhebs reign, as Frank Yurco
once noted. Indeed, Janssens palaeographical reference
for his paperProf. Georges Posenerhimself suggested
a date in the 19th Dynasty due to the form of the wsf
(absent) and akhet (inundation) text. As Janssen himself
writes, a few 19th Dynasty ostracas have been found in
the Grand Putit area prior to the 20th Dynastys intensive exploitation of this region.[21] This does not exclude
some late 18th Dynasty work here either. Secondly, both
Janssen and Krauss stress in their papers that the relative
scarcity of the hieratic text in Ostraca IFAO 1254 precludes a clear dating of the document to Ramesses IIIs
reign and that palaeography, in general, does not give a
precise date for a documents creation. Hence, a dating
of the ostraca to Horemhebs reign on the basis of the
Year change is eminently plausible. On other matters, a
damaged wall fragment painting from the Petrie Collection reportedly mentions Horemhebs 15th or 25th Year.

However, it is manifestly obvious from a close study of


Manetho that he did not reckon the last month of a kings
reign (and his death) in the context of a year from the
pharaohs accession date. That was only done in civil
dating on a document or monument. Manetho supplied
whole regnal years and then gave the month in which the
king died (if he thought he knew it) reckoning from the
beginning of that year. For example, the historian (erroneously) thought Hatshepsut must have died in the 9th
month of the year because he knew that Thutmose III succeeded on Day 4 of the rst month of Summer (the 9th Another important text, The Inscription of Mes, records
month of the civil calendar), thereby assigning her a reign that a court case decision was rendered in favour by a rival
of 21 years and 9 months. (Marianne Luban)
branch of Mes family in Year 59 of Horemheb.[22] Since
the Mes inscription was composed during the reign of
Ramesses II when the Amarna-era Pharaohs were struck
from the ocial king-lists, the Year 59 Horemheb date
certainly includes the nearly 17 year long reign of Akhenaten, the 2 year independent reign of Neferneferuaten, the
9 year reign of Tutankhamun and the 4 year reign of Ay.
Once all these rulers reigns are deducted from the Year
59 date, Horemheb would still have easily enjoyed a reign
of 2627 years.

A wall relief of Horemheb making an oering to Amun on the


10th pylon at Karnak.

Janssen, in his original BIFAO paper, noted the curious


fact that no known New Kingdom pharaohs who reigned
for a quarter of a century including Ramesses II and
Ramesses III had their accession date in this time frame
and suggests the Year change was an error committed on
behalf of the scribe. He then attributed the ostraca to
Ramesses III, whose accession date was I Shemu day 26
and expressed his view that the scribe may have inadvertently implemented the Year change two weeks early

At a well known 1987 Conference from Gothenburg,


Sweden, Kenneth Kitchen astutely noted that any attempt
to explain away the Year 59 Horemheb date as a scribal
error fails to consider the long and volumnious listed series of court trials and legal setbacks which Mes family
endured in order to win back control over certain valuable lands which had been stolen from his familys line.
Indeed, Mes likely ordered the protracted legal dispute,
which is presented as a series of court depositions and
testimonies of various plaintis and witnesses, to be inscribed on his tomb walls in order to create a permanent
('carved in stone') record of his familys ultimately victorious struggle to win back these lands. Mes, hence, could
hardly be expected to forget the beginning of his familys
legal tribulations in Year 59 of Horemheb. Kitchen also
observes in his paper that Horemhebs extensive building
projects at Karnak supported the theory of a long reign

198

CHAPTER 60. HOREMHEB

for this Pharaoh and stressed that a good number of the


undated 'late 18th Dynasty' private monuments that are
in both Egypt and the worlds Museums must, in fact, belong to his reign. Horemheb, hence, probably was assumed to have died after a minimum reign of 27 or, at
most, 28 years. Manetho's Epitome assigns a reign length
of 4 years and 1 month to Horemheb and this was usually
assigned to Ay; however, it is now believed that gure
should be raised by a decade to [1]4 years and 1 month
and attributed to Horemheb instead as Manetho intended.

60.3.1

Horemhebs new reign length

However, the most recent archaeological evidence from 3


excavation seasons conducted under G.T. Martin in 2006
and 2007 establishes that Horemheb most likely died after a maximum reign of 14 years based on a massive hoard
of 168 inscribed wine sherds and dockets recently discovered below densely compacted debris in a great shaft
(called Well Room E) in this kings royal KV57 tomb.
Of the 46 wine sherds with year dates, 14 have nothing
but the year date formula, 5 dockets have Year 10+X, 3
dockets have Year 11+X, 2 dockets preserve Year 12+X
and 1 docket has a Year 13+X. Meanwhile, 22 dockets
mention Year 13 and 8 have Year 14 [of Horemheb]"
but none mention a higher date for Horemheb.[23]
The full text of the docket reads are identical and reads
as:
Year 13. Wine of the estate of
Horemheb-meren-Amun, L.P.H.,
in the domain of Amun. Western
River. Chief vintner Ty.[23]

for Horemheb after his Year 14 also explains the unnished state of Horemhebs royal KV57 tomb--"a fact not
taken into account by any of those [scholars] defending
a long reign [of 26 or 27 years]. The tomb is comparable to that of Seti I in size and decoration technique,
and Seti Is tomb is far more extensively decorated than
that of Horemheb, and yet Seti managed to virtually complete his tomb within a decade, whereas Horemheb did
not even succeed in fully decorating the three rooms he
planned to have done, leaving even the burial hall unnished. Even if we assume that Horemheb did not begin
the work on his royal tomb until his Year 7 or 8, ... it remains a mystery how the work could not have been completed had he lived on for another 20 or more years.[26]
Therefore, Horemhebs reign has been determined and
accepted today by most scholars to be 14 years and 1
monthManetho had assigned him a reign of 4 years in
his Epitome and 1 monthbased on the clear evidence
of the wine jar labels and the lack of dates beyond his
Year 14 but this gure should be raised by a decade. As
for the Year 27 hieratic grato at Horemhebs Funerary temple at Medinet Habu and the Year 59 date from
the inscription of Mes, Van Dijk argues that the rst date
likely inaugurated a statue of Horemheb during Year 27
of Ramesses II or III in Horemhebs temple while the latter date of Mes can hardly be taken seriously, and indeed
is not taken at face value by even the staunchest supporters
of a long reign for Horemheb since there was no standard
Egptian practise of including the years of all the rulers between Amenhotep III and Horemheb as Wolfgang Helck
makes clear.[27]

60.4 Succession

Meanwhile, the Year 14 dockets, in contrast, are all individual and mention specic wines such as very good
quality wine or, in one case sweet wine and the location of the vineyard is identied.[23] A general example is
this text on a Year 14 wine docket:
Year 14, Good quality wine
of the estate of Horemheb-merenAmun, L.P.H., in the domain of
Amun, from the wineyard of Ath,
Chief vintner Haty.[23]
Other Year 14 dockets mention Memphis (?), the Western River while their vintners are named as Nakhtamun,
[Mer-]seger-men, Ramose and others.[24]
The quality and consistency of the KV57 dockets
strongly suggest that Horemheb was buried in his Year
14, or at least before the wine harvest of his Year 15
at the very latest.[24] This evidence is consistent with
the Horemheb dockets from Deir el-Medina which mention Years 2, 3, 4, 6, 13 and 14, but again no higher
dates... while a docket ascribed to Horemheb from Sedment has Year 12.[25] The lack of dated inscriptions

KV57: the Tomb of Horemheb

Under Horemheb, Egypts power and condence were


once again restored after the internal chaos of the Amarna
period; this situation set the stage for the rise of the 19th
Dynasty under such ambitious Pharaohs like Seti I and
Ramesses II. Horemheb is believed to have unsuccessfully attempted to father an heir to the throne since the

60.5. FICTIONAL REPRESENTATIONS

199

60.5 Fictional representations


Horemheb is a major character in Katie Hamsteads
trilogy, Kiya: Hope of the Pharaoh, Kiya: Mother of
the King and Kiya: Rise of a New Dynasty.
Horemheb is a major character in P. C. Doherty's
trilogy of historical novels, An Evil Spirit Out of the
West, The Season of the Hyaena and The Year of the
Cobra.
Horemheb is a major character in Pauline Gedge's
historical novel The Twelfth Transforming.
The forecourt of Horemhebs Memphite tomb at Saqqara.

mummy of his second wife was found with a fetus in it.


Georey Martin in his excavation work at Saqqara states
that the burial of Horemhebs second wife Mutnedjmet
was located at the bottom of a shaft to the rooms of
Horemhebs Saqqara tomb. He notes that a fragment
of an alabaster vase inscribed with a funerary text for the
chantress of Amun and Kings Wife, Mutnodjmet, as well
as pieces of a statuette of her [was found here] ... The funerary vase in particular, since it bears her name and titles
would hardly have been used for the burial of some other
person.[28]
Expert analysis subsequently showed that
the bones represented part of the skull and
other portions of the body, including the pelvis,
of an adult female who had given birth several
times. Furthermore, she had lost all her teeth
early in life, and was therefore only able to eat
soft foods for much of the time. She died in her
mid-forties, perhaps in childbirth, for with her
bones were those of a foetus or newborn child.
The [tomb] plunderers had evidently dragged
the two mummies, mother and child, from the
burial chamber below, and broken them open
in the pillared hall above. The balance of probability, taking into account the evidence of the
objects inscribed for Mutnodjmet, is that the
adult bones are those of the queen herself and
that she died in attempting to provide her husband the Pharaoh with an heir to the throne.[28]
Since Horemheb remained childless, he appointed his
Vizier, Paramesse, to succeed him upon his death, both
to reward Paramesses loyalty and because the latter had
both a son and grandson to secure Egypts royal succession. Paramesse employed the name Ramesses I upon assuming power and founded the 19th Dynasty of the New
Kingdom. While the decoration of Horemhebs KV57
tomb was still unnished upon his death, this situation is
not unprecedented: Amenhotep II's tomb was also not
fully completed when he was buried, even though this
ruler enjoyed a reign of 26 Years.

Horemheb is a major character in Mika Waltaris


historical ction international bestseller, Sinuhe, The
Egyptian. He was portrayed by Victor Mature in the
lm adaptation The Egyptian (1954).
Horemheb is a major character in Nick Drakes trilogy of mystery novels, The Book of the Dead,
Tutankhamun and The Book of Chaos.
Horemheb appears as a major character in Lynda
Suzanne Robinson's Lord Meren series of Egyptian
mysteries.
Horemheb is a minor character in the novel Nefertiti
by Michelle Moran.
Horemheb is a minor character in the Japanese
graphic novel, Red River centered around ancient
Anatolia and ancient Egypt.

60.6 References
[1] Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.493 Chronology table
[2] Alan Gardiner, The Coronation of King Haremhab,
JEA 39 (1953), pp.14, 16 & 21
[3] Virtual Egyptian Museum - The Full Collection
[4] Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell:
1992, p.242
[5] John A. Wilson "Texts from the Tomb of General Hor-emheb" in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET) relating to
the Old Testament, Princeton Univ. Press, 2nd edition,
1955. pp.250-251
[6] THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS:
THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS.
Historical and Iconographical Studies by JACOBUS VAN
DIJK, University of Groningen dissertation. Groningen
1993. Chapter One: Horemheb, Prince Regent of Tutankh'amun, pp.17-18 (online: pp.9-10)
[7] Alan Gardiner, The Coronation of King Haremhab, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol.39 (1953), pp.13-31

200

[8] THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS:


THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS.
Historical and Iconographical Studies by JACOBUS VAN
DIJK, University of Groningen dissertation. Groningen
1993. Chapter One: Horemheb, Prince Regent of Tutankh'amun, pp.48-49 (online: pp.40-41)
[9] THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS:
THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS.
Historical and Iconographical Studies by JACOBUS VAN
DIJK, Ibid., pp.50-51 & 56-60 (online: pp.42-43 & 4852)
[10] Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: Texte der
Hefte 20-21 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1984), pp.19081910
[11] THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS:
THE NEW KINGDOM NECROPOLIS OF MEMPHIS.
Historical and Iconographical Studies by JACOBUS VAN
DIJK, University of Groningen dissertation. Groningen
1993. Chapter One: Horemheb, Prince Regent of Tutankh'amun, pp.59-62 (online: pp.51-54)
[12] Tomb 23 in the western annex of the Valley of the Kings;
see Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyph Texts, Reliefs and Parts, vol.
1, part 2, (Oxford Clarendon Press:1960), pp.550-551
[13] Nicolas Grimal, op.cit., p.243
[14] The Great Edict of Horemheb
[15] Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames &
Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.137

CHAPTER 60. HOREMHEB

the Memphite Area and Sidmant. 3. An inscribed amphora from Sidmant, in J. Baines, et al., Pyramid Studies
and Other Essays presented to I.E.S. Edwards (London,
1988), 118-120, pl.21.
[26] Van Dijk, JARCE 44, p.198
[27] Helck, Urkunden IV, 2162 & Van Dijk, JARCE 44,
pp.198-99
[28] G. Martin, The Hidden Tombs of Memphis, Thames &
Hudson (1991), pp.97-98

60.7 Bibliography
Alan Gardiner, The Inscription of Mes: A Contribution to Egyptian Juridical Procedure, Untersuchungen IV, Pt. 3 (Leipzig: 1905).
Jrgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des pharaonischen gypten, MS 46, Philip Von Zabern, Mainz:
1997
Nicholas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt,
Blackwell Books: 1992
K.A. Kitchen, The Basis of Egyptian Chronology in
relation to the Bronze Age, Volume 1: pp. 3755 in High, Middle or Low?: Acts of an International Colloquium on absolute chronology held at
the University of Gothenburg 2022 August 1987.
(ed: Paul Astrm).

[16] Grimal, op.cit., pp.243, 303


[17] Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt,
Thames & Hudson 2006. p.140
[18] Rolf Krauss, Nur ein kurioser Irrtum oder ein Beleg fr
die Jahr 26 und 27 von Haremhab?" Discussions in Egyptology 30, 1994, pp.73-85
[19] Jac Janssen, A Curious Error, BIFAO 84(1984), pp.303306.
[20] J. von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen
gypten, Mainz, (1997), p.201
[21] Janssen, op. cit., p.305
[22] Inscription of Mes
[23] Jacobus Van Dijk, New Evidence on the Length of the
Reign of Horemheb, Journal of the American Research
Centre in Egypt (JARCE) 44, 2008, p.195
[24] Van Dijk, JARCE 44, p.196
[25] Van Dijk, JARCE 44, pp.197-98 which quotes papers
by G. Nagel, La ceramique du Nouvel Empire a Deir
Medineh (Cairo) 1938, 15:6 (Year 2); Y. Koenig, Catalogues des etiquettes de jarres hieratiques de Deir el
Medineh (Cairo, 1979-1980), nos. 6299 (Year 3), 6295
(Year 4), 6403 (Year 6), 6294 (Year 13) 6345 (Year 14) &
G.T. Martin, Three Objects of New Kingdom Date from

60.8 External links


Horemheb - Archaeowiki.org
Symposium on Horemhab, Metropolitan Museum
of Art

Chapter 61

Huya (noble)
Huya was an Egyptian noble living around 1350 BC. He
was the Superintendent of the Royal Harem, Superintendent of the Treasury and Superintendent of the
House, all titles that are associated with Queen Tiye,
mother of Akhenaten.
He had a tomb constructed in the Northern cemetery at
Amarna, although his remains have never been identied.
His tomb contained a large amount of material about the
royal family and the Aten cult, including a Hymn to the
Aten.[1][2]

61.1 References
[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5
[2] Michael Rice, Whos Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge
2001, ISBN 0-415-15448-0, p.73

61.2 External links


Northern tomb no. 1 of Huya

201

Chapter 62

Labaya
Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Lib'ayu) was invaded Gezer and insulting its king Milkilu. He denied
a 14th-century BCE ruler or warlord in the central hill any knowledge of his sons alleged collaboration with the
country of southern Canaan. He lived contemporane- Habiru:
ously with Pharaoh Akhenaten. Labaya is mentioned in
several of the Amarna Letters (abbreviated EA, for 'el
To the king, my lord and my Sun: Thus
Amarna'), which is practically all scholars know about
Lab'ayu, your servant and the dirt on which
him. He is the author of letters EA 25254.
you tread. I fall at the feet of the king, my
lord and my Sun, 7 times and 7 times. I have
Labaya was active over the whole length of Samaria and
obeyed the orders that the king wrote to me.
slightly beyond, as he gave land to Habiru in the vicinity
Who am I that the king should lose his land on
of akmu (Shechem) and he and his sons threatened such
account of me? The fact is that I am a loyal
powerful towns as Jerusalem and Gazru (Gezer) to the
servant of the king! I am not a rebel and I am
south, and Megiddo to the north.
not delinquent in duty. I have not held back
my payments of tribute; I have not held back
anything requested by my commissioner. He
62.1 Career
denounces me unjustly, but the king, my Lord,
does not examine my (alleged) act of rebellion.
Moreover, my act of rebellion is this: when
I entered Gazru-(Gezer), I kept on saying,
Everything of mine the king takes, but where
is what belongs to Milkilu? " I know the
actions of Milkilu against me! Moreover, the
king wrote for my son. I did not know that my
son was consorting with the 'Apiru. I hereby
hand him over to Addaya-(commissioner).
Moreover, how, if the king wrote for my wife,
how could I hold her back? How, if the king
wrote to me, Put a bronze dagger into your
heart and die, how could I not execute the
order of the king?
(EA 254)[1]

Other Canaanite rulers, such as Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem,


complained of Labayas depredations (e.g. EA 289)[2]
but note that in later years, Abdi-Heba would himself be
referred to as another Labaya in EA 280.[3] Labaya was
Map of Canaan in Labayas era
accused of capturing cities that were under Egyptian protection. Biridiya, the king of Megiddo, accused him of
The Amarna letters give an incomplete look at Labayas besieging his city:
career. In the rst of Labayas letters thus far discovSay to the king-(pharaoh), my lord and my
ered (EA 252), he defends himself to the Pharaoh against
complaints of other city rulers about him, for examSun: Message of Biridiya, the loyal servant
ple, the complaint that he has hired mercenaries from
of the king, I fall at the feet of the king, my
among the Habiru. Labaya further admitted to having
lord and my Sun, 7 times and 7 times. May
202

62.4. REFERENCES

203

the king, my lord, know that since the return


(to Egypt) of the [Egyptian]-archers, Lab'ayu
has waged war against me. We are thus unable
to do the plucking: Ka-Zi-ra (harvesting),
and we are unable to get out of the city gate,
because of Lab'ayu. When he learned that
archers were not coming out, he immediately
determined to take Magidda. May the king
save his city lest Lab'ayu seize it. Look, the
city is consumed by pestilence, by.... ...So may
the king give a garrison of 100 men to guard
his city lest Lab'ayu seize it. Look, Lab'ayu
has no other purpose. He seeks simply the
seizure of Maggida.
(EA 244)[4]

After receiving numerous complaints about Labayas behavior, the pharaoh (probably Amenhotep III) nally ordered several Canaanite rulers to take Labaya prisoner
and send him to Egypt. Biridiya, ruler of Megiddo, wrote
to the pharaoh that Zurata, governor of Akko, had captured Labaya, but accepted a bribe from the latter and
released him (EA 245).[5]
Labaya was eventually killed by the citizens of Gina
(Beth-Hagan, possibly modern-day Jenin). His death
was reported to the Pharaohs agent, Balu-Ur-Sag, by
Labayas two sons. The sons of Labaya continued
to campaign against other Egyptian vassals in Canaan.
One of Labayas sons, Mutbaal, ruled Pella in the
Trans-Jordanian part of Canaan. Biryawaza, king of
Damascus, was eventually asked to take armed action
against Labayas sons (EA 250).[6]

EA 161, letter by Aziru (leader of Amurru) stating his case to


pharaoh, one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a
clay tablet

Still others, such as David Rohl, have advocated a totally revised chronology of ancient Israelite and Egyptian history, and instead identify Labaya with Saul, and
62.2 List of Labayas three letters Mutbaal with Sauls son Ishbaal. Ish-baal and Mutbaal,
whose names have the same meaning, Man of Baal,
to Pharaoh
moved their capital to Transjordan after the death of their
fathers, whose center of power had been west of the
Labayas name is referenced in fourteen el Amarna letters Jordan river. Rohl further identies Dadua, Ayab and
and his name used thirty-two times. He was the author of Yishaya, three gures mentioned by Mutbaal in a later
letters EA 252-254.[7]
Amarna Letter, with King David, his general Joab and
Davids father Jesse.[10] The Rohl chronology is not, however, widely accepted. Rohls suggestions are rejected by
1. EA 252title: Sparing ones enemies
other Egyptologists, such as Kenneth Kitchen, who ar2. EA 253title: Neither rebel nor delingue that there are discrepancies between the Labaya of
quent (1)"
the Amarna texts and King Saul as he is described in the
3. EA 254title: Neither rebel nor delinBooks of Samuel.
quent (2)"' [8]

62.3 Identications with Biblical


gures
Some researchers, such as Richard Abbott, note the possibility that Labaya and the biblical gure of Abimelech
ben Gideon, from Judges 9, were identical.[9]

62.4 References
[1] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters (Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins, 1992), p. 307
[2] Moran, pp. 332-333
[3] Moran, p. 321

204

[4] Moran, p. 298


[5] Moran, pp. 299-300
[6] Moran, pp. 303-304
[7] Moran, pp. 305-308
[8] Moran, p. 379. See: Commissioner Addaya.
[9] Abimelech, Saul, and Amarna - Abimelech and Labayu
(dead link)
[10] Arguments identifying Labaya with Saul (dead link). See
also EA 256, title: Oaths and denials, in Moran, p. 309310.

62.5 Bibliography
Baikie, James (2004). The Amarna Age. Seattle:
University Press of the Pacic. ISBN 1-4102-15105.
Moran, William (1992). The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 08018-6715-0.
Rohl, David (1995). Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical
Quest. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-51770315-7.
Westbrook, Raymond (2000). Amarna Diplomacy.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN
0-8018-7103-4.

62.6 External links


Abimelech, Saul, and Amarna - Abimelech and
Labayu
Saul and Labayu - are they the same person?
Arguments identifying Labaya with Saul
The Revision of Ancient History - A Perspective
Amarna Letters Concerning the Labaya Aair

CHAPTER 62. LABAYA

Chapter 63

Maya (Egyptian)

Statue of Maya and Merit from Leiden


Frontal view of Maya & Merits statue

Maya was an important gure during the reign of


Pharaohs Tutankhamun, Ay and Horemheb of the
eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
time, however, the tomb was covered by sand, and its loThe Overseer of the Treasury, he was also an important cation was lost. In 1975, a joint expedition of archaeoloocial and was noted for restoring the burials of several gists from the Egypt Exploration Society in London and
earlier Pharaohs in the Royal Necropolis in the years fol- the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, Netherlands
lowing the deaths of Tutankhamun and Ay. The statues began a quest to rediscover the[1]tomb, and on February
of Maya and his wife Merit have been put on display in the 6, 1986 they nally succeeded. On this date, Professor
National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Netherlands Georey T. Martin together with Dr. Jacobus Van Dijk
since 1823. He donated a shabti gure to the tomb of representing the Leiden museum discovered the burial
chamber of Mayas subterranean tomb at Saqqara some
Tutankhamun.
18 metres (60 feet) below the surface.[1]
Maya collected taxes and performed other services for
these pharaohs, including supervising the preparation As Martin states:
of their tombs. Mayas own tomb at Saqqara was initially partly excavated in 1843 by the archaeologist Karl
"We were in total darkness for about 15 minRichard Lepsius,and its impressive reliefs were recorded
utes...Suddenly we glimpsed wonderful reliefs
in sketches and some of them brought to Berlin. Over
and were extremely startled to nd ourselves in
205

206

CHAPTER 63. MAYA (EGYPTIAN)


the antechamber leading to a burial chamber.
My colleague looked across at an inscribed wall
and said, 'My God, its Maya'.[1]

The rst full seasons work on Mayas burial in early 1987


indicated that his tomb is a slightly smaller and abbreviated version of Horemhebs Saqqara tomb. An open
courtyard has a collanade on its west side and doors leading to three vaulted ceilings. An inner courtyard has been
found to contain reliefs of very ne quality and a statue
of Maya and his wife.[1] The underground burial chambers were paved with limestone and decorated with reliefs
showing Maya and his wife in front of gods.

63.1 References
[1] Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the Pharaohs:
A Complete Guide to Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson,
1987. p.115

63.2 Bibliography
Rice, Michael (1999). Whos Who in Ancient Egypt.
Routledge. p. 106.
Georey T. Martin: The Hidden Tombs of Memphis,
London 1991, p. 147-88 ISBN 0-500-39026-6
The Experience of Ancient Egypt by Ann Rosalie
David, 2000 Routledge, pp. 107 .
Coordinates: 295159N 311301E / 29.86639N
31.21694E

Chapter 64

Meritaten Tasherit
Meritaten Tasherit, which means Meritaten the Younger
was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. She
is likely to have been the daughter of Meritaten, eldest
daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten.
The father of this child remains under debate. Many
assume it to be none other than Meritatens father, Akhenaten, or possibly her husband Smenkhkare.
Since both Meritaten Tasherit and another princess,
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit appear only in texts that once
mentioned Akhenatens second wife Kiya, it is also possible that they were children of Akhenaten and Kiya, or that
they were ctional, replacing the name of Kiyas daughter, who might have been Beketaten, more commonly
thought to be Tiye's child.[1][2]
The fate of this child is uncertain. The mention of the god
Aten in her name suggests that she was indeed a daughter of Akhenaten, since his successors reverted his religious reforms, and reverted to the worship of Egypt's traditional gods. Meanwhile, the name Aten was dropped
from popular use during this time.

64.1 References
[1] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN
0-500-05128-3, p.148
[2] Dr. Marc Gabolde: The End of the Amarna Period

Eyma, Aayko ed., A Delta-Man in Yebu: Occasional


Volume of the Egyptologists Electronic Forum No. 1,
Universal-Publishers.com 2003, p. 54

207

Chapter 65

Meryre II
The Ancient Egyptian noble known as Meryre II was
superintendent of the queen Nefertiti, and had the title
Royal scribe, Steward, Overseer of the Two Treasuries,
Overseer of the Royal Harim of Nefertiti.[1]
He had a tomb constructed at Amarna, Tomb 2, although
his remains have never been identied. The tomb has the
last dated appearance of Akhenaten and the Amarna family, dating from second month, year 12 of his reign.[2]

65.1 References
[1] North Tombs. The Amarna Project. Retrieved 200807-08.
[2] James H. Allen. The Amarna Succession. p. 1.
Archived from the original on 2008-05-28. Retrieved
2008-06-23.

208

Chapter 66

William L. Moran
William Lambert Moran (August 11, 1921 December 19, 2000) was an American Assyriologist. He was
born in Chicago, United States.

66.2 External links

In 1939, Moran joined the Jesuit order. He then attended


Loyola University in Chicago, where he received his B.A.
in 1944. After this, he taught Latin and Greek in a high
school in Cincinnati between 1946 and 1947. He resumed his studies at Johns Hopkins University and gained
his Ph.D. in 1950. After further studies he worked on
the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, and in 1955 he taught
biblical studies at the Pontical Biblical Institute in Rome
between 1958 and 1966.

William Lambert Moran

In 1966, he took the position as professor of Assyriology


at Harvard University, and was respected as a rigorous
and learned teacher of the Akkadian language who could
easily discuss problems in Biblical lexicon and literature.
He was married to Suzanne Drinker in 1970. In 1985, he
was appointed Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities Emeritus, and in 1996 he was made a Fellow of
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
He retired in 1990, and moved to Brunswick, Maine,
where he died in 2000. In 2005, a 224 page book titled
'Biblical and Oriental Essays in Memory of William L.
Moran,' edited by Agustinus Gianto for Biblica et Orientalia 48 was published by Roma: Ponticio Istituto Biblico to honor his career and memory.

66.1 Publications
His doctorate, under W.F Albright, studied Canaanite
glosses in the Amarna letters and was signicant for the
understanding of biblical Hebrew. Other signicant publications include the standard translation and commentary of "The Amarna Letters" in 1992. These texts document the international and imperial correspondence of
the Egyptian Pharaohs around the time of the Egyptian kings Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun.
Many other journal articles concerned illuminating studies of Akkadian literature, including the Gilgamesh Epic.
209

Obituary from Harvard Gazette

Chapter 67

Mutbaal
Mutbaal (Akk. man of Baal") was a Canaanite king of
the Amarna Period. He is identied in the Amarna letters
as a son of Labaya, the ruler of the hill country north of
Jerusalem, including the territory in the vicinity of the
city of Shachmu (biblical Shechem).
Mutbaal may be the son whose association with the
Habiru raiders Labaya denounced in EA 254. He ruled in
Pella on the eastern side of the Jordan river. After his fathers death at the hands of the citizens of Gina, Mutbaal
and his brother continued their assaults on other Canaanite rulers and their holdings, employing Habiru mercenaries. Eventually Biryawaza of Damascus was ordered by
the Egyptian court to take armed action against the sons
of Labaya. (EA 250)

whom Rohl identies with David, Jesse,


and Joab.

67.2 References
[1] Moran, The Amarna Letters, pp 308-310.

67.3 Resources

David Rohl identies Mutbaal with Ishbaal or Ishbosheth, the son of the Israelite King Saul, but the
chronology that would make this identication feasible
is not accepted by the majority of scholars. It cannot be
denied that the names have exactly the same meaning,
but two people may have the same name and still belong
to dierent time-periods. But of both Mutbaal son of
Labaya and of Ishbosheth son of Saul it can be said that,
though his father ruled from Shechem, he himself ruled
from Pella.
In Rohls historical view, it would not have been Mutbaal
but Jonathan who displeased Labaya by associating with
the Habiru. Mutbaals brother in the post-Labaya period
would be David, his brother-in-law.

67.1 List of Mutbaals 2 letters to


Pharaoh
1. EA 255title: No destination too far
See: Karaduniyash
2. EA 256title: Oaths and denials.[1]
EA 256 is about Mutbaal, and Pella(Pihilu); a list of cities in the letter, in the
Golan Heights=(Garu)Udumu, Aduru,
Araru, Meta-(Meshta), Magdalu, Henianabi-(Kheni-anabi), Sarqu, Hayyunu, &
Yabiluma. People mentioned in this letter include Dadua, Yishuya and Ayab,
210

Baikie, James. The Amarna Age: A Study of the


Crisis of the Ancient World. University Press of the
Pacic, 2004.
Cohen, Raymond and Raymond Westbrook (eds.).
Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Johns Hopkins University Press,
2002.
Moran, William L. (ed. and trans.) The Amarna
Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Chapter 68

Mutnedjmet
68.3 Monuments and Inscriptions

For other Egyptian ladies called Mutnedjmet see


Mutnedjmet (disambiguation)
Mutnedjmet (Mutnedjemet, Mutnodjmet, Mutnodjemet)
an Ancient Egyptian queen, the Great Royal Wife of
Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The
name, Mutnedjmet, translates as: The sweet Mut.

Mutnedjmet is known from several object and inscriptions:


A double statue of Horemheb and Mutnedjmet was
found in Karnak, but is now in the Museo Egizio in
Turin (1379). On Mutnedjmets side of the throne
she is depicted as a winged sphinx who adores her
own cartouche. As Sphinx she is depicted wearing
a at topped crown topped with plant elements associated with the goddess Tefnut. The back of the
statue records Horemhebs rise to power.[5]

68.1 Titles
Mutnedjemets titles include: Hereditary Princess (irytp`t), Great Kings Wife (hmt-niswt-wrt), Great of Praises
(wrt-hzwt), Lady of Grace (nbt-im3t), Sweet of Love
(bnrt-mrwt), Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwtShmw -mhw), Songstress of Hathor (hsyt-nt-hwt-hrw),
and Songstress of Amun (Smyt-nt-imnw) [1]

Horemheb and Mutnodjemet are depicted in the


tomb of Roy (TT255) in Dra Abu el-Naga. The
Royal couple are shown in an oering scene.[6]
One of the colossal statues in Karnak (north side of
the 10th pylon) was made for Horemheb and depicted Mutnedjmet. The statue was later usurped
and reinscribed for Ramesses II and Nefertari.[7]

68.2 Mutnedjmet as Nefertitis Sister


Some Egyptologists have speculated that Mutnedjemet is
identical to Nefertiti's sister Mutbenret.[2] This identication was partially based on the fact that Mutbenret's
name used to be read as Mutnedjmet. Other Egyptologist such as Georey Martin note that there is no denite
evidence to prove this assertion.[3] Martin writes that:
The name Mutnodjmet was not particularly
rare in the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and even
if she were the sister of Nefertiti her marriage to Horemheb would have had no effect on Horemhebs legitimacy or candidacy
since Mutnodjmet (who is depicted in the private tombs at El-Amarna) was not herself of
royal blood. In any case whatever her antecedents Mutnodjmet could have been married to Horemheb a little before he became
Pharaoh.[4]

Mutnedjmet usurped several


Ankhesenamun in Luxor.[8]

inscriptions

of

Statues (fragments) and other items including alabaster fragments naming Mutnodjemet were found
in Horemheb's Saqqara tomb. Some items bear funerary texts.[9]

68.4 Death and Burial


Mutnedjmet died soon after Year 13 of her husbands
rule in her mid-40s based on a wine-jar docket found
in a burial chamber of Horemheb tomb at Saqqara, in
Memphis and a statue and other items of hers found
here.[10] The mummy was found in King Horemheb's unused Memphite tomb along with the mummy of a stillborn, premature infant. She appears to have been buried
in the Memphite tomb of Horemheb, alongside his rst
wife Amenia. Mutnedjmets mummy shows she had
given birth several times, but the last King of the 18th dynasty did not have a living heir at the time of his demise.

211

212

CHAPTER 68. MUTNEDJMET

It has been suggested that she had a daughter who was [12] Elizabeth Thomas: Was Queen Mutnedjmet the Owner of
Tomb 33 in the Valley of the Queens? in: The Journal of
simply not mentioned on any monuments. The presence
Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 53, (Dec., 1967), pp. 161of the infant along with Mutnedjmet in the tomb suggests
163
that this queen died in childbirth. A canopic jar of the
[11]
Queen is now located in the British Museum.
It is possible that the tomb KV33 in the Valley of the
Queens was originally built for her. The tomb is known as
the tomb of an otherwise unknown Tanedjmet, but both
cartouches with her name are damaged and the similar
hieroglyphs for ta and mut allow for this interpretation.[12]

68.5 In popular culture


The South African artist Winifred Brunton painted
a portrait of this queen during the 1920s.
In Michelle Moran's novel, Nefertiti: A Novel,
Mutnedjmet is the principal character as the
younger sister of Queen Nefertiti. She is also referenced in Morans second novel, The Heretic Queen,
as the mother of the principal character, Princess
and later Queen Nefertari.
Mutnedjmet is one of two main characters in Kerry
Greenwoods historical mystery, Out of the Black Land
(2010)

68.6 References
[1] Grajetski Ancient Egyptian Queens: a hieroglyphic dictionary Golden House Publications
[2] J. Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, 2006,
Thames & Hudson
[3] Georey Martin, The Hidden Tombs of Memphis,
Thames & Hudson (1991), p.96
[4] Martin, p.96
[5] J. Tyldesley, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, 2006,
Thames & Hudson
[6] Briant Bohleke, Amenemopet Panehsi, Direct Successor
of the Chief Treasurer Maya, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 39, (2002), pp. 157-172
[7] Maya Mller, ber die Bste 23725 in Berlin, Jahrbuch
der Berliner Museen, Bd. 31, (1989), pp. 7-24
[8] Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, 2004, ISBN
0-500-05128-3, pg 156
[9] Georey T. Martin, Excavations at the Memphite Tomb
of oremeb, 1977: Preliminary Report, The Journal of
Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 64, (1978), pp. 5-9
[10] Dodson & Hilton, p.156
[11] Dodson & Hilton, p.156

Chapter 69

Nakhtpaaten
Nakhtpaaten (Strong is the Aten) or Nakht was an
ancient Egyptian vizier during the reign of Pharaoh
Akhenaten of the 18th dynasty.

69.1 Career
Nakhtpaaten seems to have succeeded the Vizier Ramose
in oce. Ramose was the vizier in Thebes possibly up
to the time of the move to Akhetaten, Akhenaten's new
capitol. Ramoses tomb in Thebes was not nished and
after the move to the new city in year 4-5 of Akhenaten Nakhtpaaten is the vizier. His titles as given in his
house and tomb were: Hereditary prince, count, sealbearer, overseer of the city and vizier, overseer of the
work projects in Akhet-Aten.[2]
It is likely Nakhtpaaten who is depicted in the tomb of
Mahu who served as the Chief of Police. Mahu is shown
meeting with a vizier and a lesser ocial named Heqanefer in a scene related to policing the city.[3]
He lived in the southern city part of Akhet-Aten, his
house has been found.[4] Nakhtpaatens house was a large
mansion which included reception halls, bedrooms, a
bathroom, a lavatory and oces.[5]
His tomb was Tomb no. 12 of the Amarna rock tombs.[6]

69.2 References
[1] Hermann Ranke: Die gyptische Persnennamen. Verlag
von J. J. Augustin in Glckstadt, 1935, p.210
[2] Murnane, William J, Texts from the Amarna Period in
Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 155540-966-0
[3] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5
[4] Nicholas Reeves: Akhenaten Egypts False Prophet.
London, Thames & Hudson, 2005. ISBN 0-500-28552-7,
p.126
[5] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8

213

[6] Reeves, op.cit, p.136

Chapter 70

Neferkheperuhesekheper
Neferkheperu-her-sekheper was an ancient Egyptian
ocial during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten. He was
the mayor of Akhet-Aten, the pharaohs new capital. He
was buried in Tomb EA13 in the southern group of the
Amarna rock tombs.[2] His name (Neferkheperu causes
me to live is a basilophoric name (one that contains the
name of a king, usually to glorify him), since Neferkheperu is an element of Akhenatens throne name.

70.1 Tomb
Neferkheperu-her-sekhepers tomb was ocially opened
by Bouriant in 1883 and excavated by Daressy in 1893,
but it had been entered before, as inscriptions on the ceiling included modern-era names and dates.[3]
The tomb is unnished and in a good state. Its layout
is similar to that of other Amarna tombs. It consists of
one room, with six white columns in one row perpendicular to the entry; the distance between the two middle
ones is slightly more than between the others. Work has
been started on the back wall of the room, there would
have been another room or possibly a shrine there. Decoration below the ceiling is complete, only the colours
and the inscriptions are missing. Decoration lower on
the wall is completely missing; on the south side even the
columns haven't been carved completely.[4] By the time
the burial took place it must have been evident that the
tomb wouldn't be nished; after nishing the room and
most of the columns the workers began to work in the
northeastern corner, the usual place of the stairs leading to the burial chamber. The chamber itself was just
large enough to contain the sarcophagus. Two corridors
leading from it are either contemporary or were carved
later.[4]

70.2 Sources
[1] Hermann Ranke: Die gyptische Persnennamen. Verlag
von J. J. Augustin in Glckstadt, 1935., p.199
[2] Amarna Project: The South Tombs (PDF)

214

[3] Norman de Garis Davies: The Rock Tombs of El-Amarna.


Part IV: Tombs of Penthu, Mahu, and others. Egypt Exploration Society, London, 1906. p.23
[4] de Garies Davies, p.24

Chapter 71

Panehesy
Not to be confused with the Nubian viceroy
Pinehesy.

[3] Amarna North Tomb 6


[4] Gay Robins, Ann S. Fowler, Proportion and Style in
Ancient Egyptian Art, University of Texas Press 1994,
pp.130f.
[5] Robert Hari, New Kingdom - Amarna Period: The Great
Hymn to Aten, Brill 1985, p.24
[6] Robins & Fowler, p.60

Panehesys EA6 Amarna tomb

The Egyptian noble Panehesy was the 'Chief servitor of


the Aten in the temple of Aten in Akhetaten' ('Second
Prophet of the Lord of the Two Lands). He was also the
'Seal-bearer of Lower Egypt.'.[1] These titles show how
powerful he must have been during the Amarna Period.
His house has been located in the ruins of Amarna,[2]
lying in the main city back from the Royal Road in
Amarna. In this house was a large shrine which depicted
Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and princess Meritaten making offerings to the Aten.
He had a tomb constructed at Amarna, Tomb 6[3] containing scenes of himself and his family[4] and others showing
the royal family,[5] but his remains have never been identied. In later times, his tomb was turned into a Coptic
place of worship for a while[6] and suered damage.

71.1 References
[1] Aayko Eyma, ed., A Delta-Man in Yebu: Occasional Volume of the Egyptologists Electronic Forum No. 1, p.35
[2] Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society
by Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society, Manchester
University Press 1935, p.19

215

Chapter 72

Penthu
The Egyptian noble Penthu was the sealbearer of the
King of Lower Egypt, the sole companion, the attendant
of the Lord of the Two Lands, the favorite of the good
god, kings scribe, the kings subordinate, First servant of
the Aten in the mansion of the Aten in Akhetaten, Chief
of physicians, and chamberlain.[1] These titles alone show
how powerful he would have been in Eighteenth Dynasty
Egypt.
He was originally Chief Physician to Akhenaten, but may
have survived the upheavals of the end of the Amarna
period, and served under Ay, after being Vizier under
Tutankhamun.[2] The identication of Penthu the Physician with Pentu the Vizier is not certain however.[3]
He had a tomb constructed at Amarna, Amarna Tomb
5,[1] although his remains have never been identied, and
he was probably never buried there.

72.1 References
[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5
[2] J. Cerny: Hieratic Inscriptions from the Tomb of
Tut'ankhamun, Oxford 1965, S. 4 no. 26
[3] Aiden Dodson, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun,
Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation,
American University in Cairo Press (2009), page 79

72.2 External links


El Amarna North Tombs

216

Chapter 73

Pihuri
Pakhura (Pihu) was an Egyptian commissioner in the
Land of Retenu" (Canaan) mentioned in the Amarna
letters. He probably served under Pharaoh Amenhotep
III and/or Akhenaten. In EA 122, Rib-Hadda, king of
Byblos, complained of an attack by Pakhura, who killed
a number of Byblos Shardana mercenaries and took captive three of Rib-Haddas men.

73.1 References
I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond,
E. Sollberger, eds., The Cambridge Ancient History,
Cambridge University Press 1973
Epiphanius Wilson, Egyptian Literature, The Colonial Press 1901, p.212
Charles Francis Horne, The Sacred Books and Early
Literature of the East, Kessinger Publishing 2001,
p.288

217

Chapter 74

Ramose
74.2 External links
Theban Tomb TT 71, Senenmuts parents

Lamenting Women, from the tomb (TT55) of Ramose, c. 14111375 BCE

Ramose was an ancient Egyptian name, meaning Born


of Ra.
Variants of the name include Ramesses
(Ramessu) and Paramessu; these various spellings could
be used to refer to the same person.[1]
Notable bearers of the name include:
Ramose, a son of Ahmose I.
Ramose, the father of Senenmut, Hatshepsuts highest state ocial;
Ramose, Amenhotep IIIs vizier (TT55);
Ramose, a general from Amarna (Tombs of the Nobles (Amarna)).

74.1 References
[1] Cruz-Uribe, Eugene (July 1978). The Father of Rameses
I: 0I 11456. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 37 (3): 237
244.

218

Chapter 75

Ramose (TT55)

Mourning women scene.

The Ancient Egyptian noble, Ramose was Governor


of Thebes and Vizier under both Amenhotep III and
Akhenaton. He was one of the earliest public gures to
convert to Atenism.

75.1 TT55
His tomb[1] is located in the Sheikh Abd el-Qurna part
of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile,
opposite to Luxor, and is notable for the high quality decorations in both the traditional and Amarna styles.

75.2 References
[1] Ramose (TT 55)

219

Chapter 76

Rib-Hadda
Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, RibAdda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna
letters all to Akhenaten. His name is Akkadian in
form and may invoke the Northwest Semitic god Hadad,
though his letters invoke only Ba'alat Gubla, the Lady of
Byblos (probably another name for Asherah).

Letter EA 362 written by Rib-Hadda to Pharaoh, one of the


Amarna letters, Louvre Museum

Rib-Haddas letters often took the form of complaints or


pleas for action on the part of the reigning Pharaoh. In
EA 105, he begged Pharaoh to intervene in a dispute with
Beirut, whose ruler had conscated two Byblian merchant
vessels.[1] In EA 122, Rib-Hadda complained of an attack by the Egyptian commissioner Pihuri, who killed a
number of Byblos Shardana mercenaries and took cap-

tive three of Rib-Haddas men.


Rib-Hadda was involved in a long-standing dispute with
Abdi-Ashirta, the ruler of Amurru (probably in southeastern Lebanon and southwestern Syria), who hired mercenaries from among the Habiru, Shardana, and other
warlike tribes. EA 81 contains a plea for Egyptian aid
against Amurru, whose ruler Rib-Hadda accused of luring away his followers and inciting them to rebellion. He
reported further that an assassin sent by Abdi-Ashirta
had attempted to kill him.[2] Rib-Hadda pleaded with
Akhenaten to send archers to defend him from the forces
of Amurru and from his own increasingly resentful peasantry. In one of the most poignant of the Amarna texts,
Rib-Hadda wrote the people of Ammiya have killed
their lord and I am afraid. (EA 75). He added: like
a bird in a trap so I am here in Gubla (ie: Byblos). (EA
74 & EA 81)[3] Zemar, a city previously under his control, fell to Abdi-Ashirta (EA 84). Shortly thereafter the
Egyptian commissioner Pahannate was withdrawn from
northern Canaan, leaving Rib-Hadda without even the appearance of Egyptian support. His pleas for assistance
evidently went unanswered (EA 107) and caused much
annoyance to Akhenaten. Akhenatens irritation with
Rib-Hadda is recounted in EA 117 where the pharaoh
is quoted saying to Rib-Hadda Why do you alone keep
writing to me?" (EA 117)[4] While Abdi-Ashirta is reported to have been killed in EA 101, this only provided temporary relief to Rib-Hadda since the former
was succeeded by his son Aziru; Rib-Hadda soon after
complains about the depredations caused by the sons
of Abdi-Ashirta in several Amarna letters to Akhenaten
such as EA 103[5] and EA 109[6]
In EA 89, Rib-Hadda reported a coup d'etat in neighboring Tyre, in which the ruler of Tyre, his fellow kinsmen, was killed along with his family. Rib-Haddas sister
and her daughters, who had been sent to Tyre to keep
them away from Abdi-Ashirtas Amurru invaders, were
also presumed to be among those killed.[7] If this was
not bad enough, Rib-Hadda wrote again to report that
the Hittites were invading Egyptian protectorates in Syria
and burning the Kings lands. (EA 126). At one point
Rib-Hadda was forced to ee to exile in Beirut, under
the protection of king Ammunira. (EA 137) In EA 75,
Rib-Hadda details the changing political situation around

220

76.1. SEE ALSO

221
Rib-Hadda was ultimately exiled by his younger brother
Ilirabih and not long afterwards, killed at the behest of
Aziru.[9] This event is mentioned in Amarna letter EA
162 from Akhenaten to Aziru.[10]

76.1 See also


Amarna letter EA 86, Rib-Hadda to ocial
Amanappa at the Egyptian court of Pharaoh

76.2 References
Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna period,
showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti
(yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria
(grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control,
darker areas represent spheres of inuence. The extent of the
Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

[1] The designation EA followed by a number is used by


Egyptologists and other historians to refer to the various
Amarna letters by the number assigned to them.
[2] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins
University Press, 2002., p.150
[3] Moran, p.143 & p.151

Byblos:
[Ri]b Hadda says to his lord, king of all
countries, Great King: May the Lady of
Gubla grant power to my lord. I fall at the
feet of my lord, my Sun, 7 times and 7 times.
May the king, my lord, know that Gubla
(ie: Byblos), the maidservant of the king
from ancient times, is safe and sound. The
war, however, of the Apiru against me is severe. (Our) sons and daughters and the furnishings of the houses are gone, since they
have been sold [in] the land of Yarimuta for
our provisions to keep us alive. For the
lack of a cultivator, my eld is like a woman
without a husband. I have written repeatedly to the palace because of the illness aficting me, [but there is no one] who has
looked at the words that keep arriving. May
the king give heed [to] the words of [his]
servant... ...The Apiru killed [[Aduna of
Arqa|Ad[una]] the king] of Irqata-(Arqa),
but there was no one who said anything
to Abdi-Ashirta, and so they go on taking
(territory for themselves). Miya, the ruler
of Arani, seized Ar[d]ata, and just now
the men of Ammiy have killed their lord.
I am afraid. May the king be informed
that the king of Hatti has seized all the
countries that were vassals of the king of
Mitan<ni>...Send arc[hers] [8]
An aged and ailing Rib-Hadda continued to write to
Pharaoh, telling him of violent upheavals in Phoenicia
and Syria, including revolutions instigated by AbdiAshirtas son Aziru coupled with incursions by Apiru
raiders. (e.g., EA 137)

[4] Moran, p.193


[5] Moran, p.176
[6] Moran, p.183
[7] Moran, p.162
[8] Moran, EA 75 p.145
[9] Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Clarendon
Press, 1998. p.186
[10] Moran, The Amarna Letters, p.xxvi

76.3 Resources
Baikie, James. The Amarna Age: A Study of the
Crisis of the Ancient World. University Press of the
Pacic, 2004.
Cohen, Raymond and Raymond Westbrook (eds.).
Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Johns Hopkins University Press,
2002.
Moran, William L. (ed. and trans.) The Amarna
Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Chapter 77

Suteans
The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan circa 1350 BC, and were
later to be found in Babylonia also. They are mentioned
in eight of the 382 Amarna letters. Like the Habiru,
they traditionally worked as mercenaries. They are listed
in documents from the Middle Assyrian Empire (13951075 BC) as being extant in the Assyrian colony city of
Emar, in what is now north east Syria. Together with
other Semitic peoples; the Chaldeans and Arameans, they
overran swathes of Babylonia circa 1100 BC. They were
eventually conquered by Assyria, along with the rest of
Babylonia.[1]

77.1 Amarna letters


One letter mentioning the Suteans is entitled Waiting
for the Pharaohs words, from Biryawaza of Dimasqu(Damascus) to pharaoh:
I am indeed, together with my troops and
chariots, together with my brothers, my 'Apiru
and my Suteans, at the disposition of the
archers, wheresoever the king, my lord, shall
order (me to go).
EA 195 (EA for el Amarna), lines 24-32.[2]
This usage is somewhat atypical of the usage of Habiru
and external mercenary forces in the Amarna letters,
since this letter quotes them as being necessary and benecial to the eorts of Biryawaza.
The Sutean language appears to have been Semitic.

77.2 References
[1] George Roux. Ancient Iraq. ISBN 978-0140125238.
[2] Moran, William L. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1987, 1992. (softcover, ISBN 0-80186715-0)

222

Chapter 78

Tadukhipa
78.1 Marriage to Amenhotep III
Relatively little is known about this princess of Mitanni.
She is believed to have been born around Year 21 of the
reign of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III, (c. 1366 BC).
Fifteen years later, Tushratta married his daughter to his
ally Amenhotep III to cement their two states alliances in
Year 36 of Amenhotep IIIs reign (1352 BC). Tadukhipa
is referenced in seven of Tushrattas thirteen Amarna letters, of about 1350-1340 BC.[2] Tushratta requested that
his daughter would become a queen consort, even though
that position was held by Queen Tiye.[3] The gifts sent to
Egypt by Tushratta include a pair of horses and a chariot, plated with gold and inlaid with precious stones, a
litter for a camel adorned with gold and precious stones,
cloth and garments, jewelry such as bracelets, armlets and
other ornaments, a saddle for a horse adorned with gold
eagles, more dresses colored purple, green and crimson
and a large chest to hold the items.[4] In return Amenhotep III never sent the golden statues he oered and after his death Tushratta sent some missives complaining
about the lack of reciprocity.[5]

78.2 Marriage to Akhenaten


Amenhotep III died shortly after Tadukhipa arrived
in Egypt and she eventually married his son and heir
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten).[3]
One of the Amarna Letters negotiating a marriage between
Amenhotep III and Tushratta's daughter Tadukhipa

Tadukhipa, in the Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was


the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca.
1382 BC1342 BC) and his queen, Juni and niece of
Artashumara. Tadukhipas aunt Gilukhipa (sister of
Tushratta) had married Pharaoh Amenhotep III in his
10th regnal year. Tadukhipa was to marry Amenhotep
III more than two decades later.[1]

78.3 Identied with Kiya or Nefertiti


Some scholars tentatively identify Tadukhipa with Kiya,
a queen of Akhenaten.[1] It has been suggested that the
story of Kiya may be the source for the New Kingdom
story called the Tale of Two Brothers. This fable tells
the story of how the pharaoh fell in love with a beautiful
foreign woman after smelling her hair. If Tadukhipa was
later known as Kiya, then she would have lived at Amarna
where she had her own sunshade and was depicted with
the pharaoh and at least one daughter.[6]

223

224
Others such as Petrie, Drioton and Vandier have suggested that Tadukhipa was given a new name after becoming the consort of Akhenaten and is to be identied
the famous queen Nefertiti.[6] This theory suggests that
Nefertitis name the beautiful one has come refers to
Nefertitis foreign origin as Tadukhipa. Seele, Meyer and
others have pointed out that Tey, wife of Ay, held the title of nurse to Nefertiti, and that this argues against this
identication. A mature princess arriving in Egypt would
not need a nurse.[7]

78.4 References
[1] Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal
Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004.
ISBN 0-500-05128-3
[2] William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1992, EA 23, pp. 61-62
[3] Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt.
Thames & Hudson. 2006. p. 124 ISBN 0-500-051453
[4] A. L. Frothingham, Jr., Archological News, The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine
Arts, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1893), pp. 557-631
[5] Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and
Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8
[6] Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypts Sun Queen. Penguin.
1998. ISBN 0-670-86998-8
[7] Cyril Aldred, The End of the El-'Amrna Period, The
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 43, (Dec., 1957),
pp. 30-41

CHAPTER 78. TADUKHIPA

Chapter 79

Tiye
For other uses, see Tiye (disambiguation).
served as a priest and superintendent of oxen or comTiye (c. 1398 BC 1338 BC, also spelled Taia, mander of the chariotry.[2] Tiyes mother, Thuya, was involved in many religious cults, as her dierent titles attested (Singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both
Amun and Min...),[3] which suggests that she was a member of the royal family. Some Egyptologists,[note 1] believe that Tiye is of Mitanni (Armenian) origin, and she
brought the Aten religion to Egypt from her native land,
and taught her son, Akhenaten.[4]
It sometimes is suggested that Tiyes father, Yuya, was
of Asiatic or Nubian descent due to the features of
his mummy and the many dierent spellings of his
name, which might imply it was a non-Egyptian name in
origin.[5] Some suggest that the queens strong political
and unconventional religious views might have been due
not just to a strong character, but to foreign descent.[3]
Tiye also had a brother, Anen, who was Second Prophet
of Amun.[6] Other Egyptologists speculated that Ay, a
successor of Tutankhamen as pharaoh after the latters
death, also might have been descended from Tiye. No
clear date or monument can conrm the link between the
two, but these Egyptologists presumed this by Ays origins, also from Akhmin, and because he inherited most
of the titles that Tiyes father, Yuya, held during his lifetime, at the court of Amenhotep III.[3][7]

Queen Tiye, whose husband, Amenhotep III, may have been depicted to her right in this broken statue

Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu (also
spelled Thuyu). She became the Great Royal Wife of
the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. She was the mother
of Akhenaten and grandmother of Tutankhamun. Her
mummy was identied as The Elder Lady found in the
tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35) in 2010.

79.1 Family and early life

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of


his reign. He had been born of a secondary wife of his
father and needed a stronger tie to the royal lineage.[5] He
appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps
between the ages of six to twelve. They had at least seven,
possibly more children:
1) Sitamun- The eldest daughter, who was elevated to the
position of Great Royal Wife around year 30 of her fathers reign.[8]
2) Isis- Also elevated to the position of Great Royal
Wife.[8]
3) Henuttaneb- Not known to have been elevated to
Queenship, though her name does appear in a Cartouche
at least once.

4) Nebetah- Sometimes thought to have been renamed


Tiyes father, Yuya, was a non-royal, wealthy landowner Baketaten during her brothers reign.
from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmin,[1] where he
225

226

CHAPTER 79. TIYE

5) Crown Prince Thutmose- Crown Prince and High


Priest of Ptah, pre-deceasing his father.
6) Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten- Succeeded his father
as pharaoh, husband of Queen Nefertiti, father of
Ankhesenamun, who married Tutankhamun.
7) Smenkhkare- traditionally seen as one of Akhenaten's
immediate successors, today some Egyptologists such as
Aidan Dodson believe he was the immediate predecessor of Neferneferuaten and a junior co-regent of Akhenaten who did not have an independent reign.[9] Sometimes
identied with the mummy from KV55, and therefore
Tutankhamuns father.
8) The Younger Lady from KV35- A daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye, mother of Tutankhamun and sisterwife of KV55. Presumably one of the already-known
daughters of Amenhotep III and Tiye.
9) Baketaten- Sometimes thought to be Queen Tiyes
daughter, usually based on a stelae with Baketaten seated
next to Tiye at dinner with Akhenaten and Nefertiti.[1]

79.2 Monuments
Her husband devoted a number of shrines to her and
constructed a temple dedicated to her in Sedeinga in
Nubia where she was worshipped as a form of the god- Fragmentary funerary mask of Queen Tiye - in the gyptisches
dess Hathor-Tefnut.[10] He also had an articial lake built Museum collection in Berlin
for her in his Year 12.[11] As the American Egyptologists
David O'Connor and Eric Cline note:

79.3 Inuence at court

his wish to continue on friendly terms with her son,


Akhenaten.[14]

Tiye wielded a great deal of power during both her husbands and sons reigns. Amenhotep III became a ne
sportsman, a lover of outdoor life, and a great statesman.
He often had to consider claims for Egypts gold and requests for his royal daughters in marriage from foreign
kings such as Tushratta of Mitanni and Kadashman-Enlil
I of Babylon. The royal lineage was carried by the women
of Ancient Egypt and marriage to one would have been
a path to the throne for their progeny. Tiye became her
husbands trusted adviser and condant. Being wise, intelligent, strong, and erce, she was able to gain the respect of foreign dignitaries. Foreign leaders were willing
to deal directly through her. She continued to play an
active role in foreign relations and was the rst Egyptian
queen to have her name recorded on ocial acts.[13]

Amenhotep III died in Year 38 or Year 39 of his reign


(1353 BC/1350 BC) and was buried in the Valley of the
Kings in WV22; however, Tiye is known to have outlived him for as many as twelve years. Tiye continued
to be mentioned in the Amarna letters and in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king. Amarna letter
EA 26, which is addressed to Tiye, dates to the reign of
Akhenaten. She is known to have had a house at Amarna,
Akhenatens new capital and is shown on the walls of the
tomb of Huya a steward in the house of the kings
mother, the great royal wife Tiyi" depicted at a dinner
table with Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their family and then
being escorted by the king to her sunshade.[15] In an inscription approximately dated to November 21 of Year 12
of Akhenatens reign (1338 BC), both she and her granddaughter Meketaten are mentioned for the last time. They
are thought to have died shortly after that date.

Tiye may have continued to advise her son, Akhenaten,


when he took the throne. Her sons correspondence with
Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, speaks highly of the political inuence she wielded at court. In Amarna letter EA 26, Tushratta, king to Mitanni, corresponded directly with Tiye to reminisce about the good relations he
enjoyed with her then deceased husband and extended

If Tiye died soon after Year 12 of Akhenatens reign


(1338 BC), this would place her birth around 1398 BC,
her marriage to Amenhotep III at the age of eleven or
twelve, and her becoming a widow at the age of fortyeight to forty-nine. Suggestions of a co-regency between
Amenhotep III and his son Akhenaten lasting for up to
twelve years continue, but most scholars today, either ac-

79.5. NOTES

227

cept a brief co-regency lasting no more than one year at Dodson and Dyan Hilton, who once stated that it seems
the most,[16] or no co-regency at all.[15]
very unlikely that her mummy could be the so-called 'Elder Lady' in the tomb of Amenhotep II.[17]

79.4 Burial and mummy

By 2010, DNA analysis, sponsored by the Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities Zahi
Hawass, was able to formally identify the Elder Lady to
be Queen Tiye. Also, the strands of her hair found inside Tutankhamuns tomb matched the DNA of the Elder
Lady.[19]

79.5 Notes
[1] Flinders Petrie (19th century Egyptologist) after whom
Petrie Museum in London, England is named

Jacquetta Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations Yet


the Hurrians did not disappear from history. Away to
the North in their Armenian homeland, they entrenched
themselves and build up the kingdom of Urartu."; M.
Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia, The new kingdom
of Urartu, which proved to be the stronghold of the Hurrian race.

79.6 References
[1] Tyldesley 2006, p. 115.

The mummy of Queen Tiye, now in the Egyptian Museum

Tiye is believed to have been originally buried in Akhenatens royal tomb at Amarna alongside her son and granddaughter, Meketaten, as a fragment from the tomb not
long ago was identied as being from her sarcophagus.
Her gilded burial shrine (showing her with Akhenaten)
ended up in KV55 while shabtis belonging to her were
found in Amenhotep III's WV22 tomb.[17]
Her mummied remains was found adjacent to two other
mummies in an opposite side chamber of Amenhotep II
in KV35 by Victor Loret in 1898. The two other mummies were a young boy who died at around the age of
ten, thought to be Webensenu or Prince Thutmose and
another, younger unknown woman. All three were found
together, lying naked side-by-side and unidentied in a
small antechamber of the tomb. They had been extensively damaged by ancient tomb robbers.[18] At rst, researchers were unable to identify both female mummies
and were instead given names with Tiye being labelled
as the 'The Elder Lady' while the other woman was 'The
Younger Lady'. Several researchers argued that the Elder Lady was Queen Tiye. Some noted that miniature
cons inscribed with her name were found at the tomb of
her grandson, Tutankhamun, as memento from a beloved
grandmother.[17] There were also some scholars who were
skeptical about this theory such as British scholars Aidan

[2] Bart, Anneke.


Ancient Egypt. http://euler.slu.
edu/~{}bart/egyptianhtml/kings%20and%20Queens/
amenhotepiii.htm
[3] Tyldesley 2006, p. 116.
[4] King, L. W. (Leonard William); Hall, H. R. (Harry Reginald). History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and
Assyria in the Light of Recent Discovery. p. 384.
[5] O'Connor 1998, p. 5.
[6] O'Connor 1998, p. 5-6.
[7] Shaw, Ian. The Oxford history of Ancient Egypt. Oxford
University Press: London, 2003. p.253
[8] Tyldesley 2006, p. 121.
[9] Aidan Dodson, Amarna Sunset:
Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemhab and the Egyptian Counterreformation (Cairo: AUC Press, 2010), pp.27-29
[10] O'Connor 1998, p. 6.
[11] Kozlo, Arielle; Bryan, Betsy (1992). Royal and Divine
Statuary. Egypts Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and his
World (2). Cleveland. ISBN 978-0-940717-16-9.
[12] O'Connor 1998, p. 6-7.
[13] Tyldesley 2006, p. 118.
[14] EA 26 - A Letter from Tushratta to Tiye.

228

[15] O'Connor 1998, p. 23.


[16] Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: The False Prophet, pp. 7578
[17] Dodson 2004, p. 157.
[18] Hawass Z, Gad YZ, Ismail S, Khairat R, Fathalla D,
Hasan N, Ahmed A, Elleithy H, Ball M, Gaballah F,
Wasef S, Fateen M, Amer H, Gostner P, Selim A, Zink
A, Pusch CM (February 2010). Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 63847.
doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872.
[19] Hawass, Zahi et al. Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamuns Family The Journal of the American Medical Association pp.640-641

Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete


Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames
& Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05128-3.
O'Connor, David; Cline, Eric H. (1998).
Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN
978-0-472-08833-1.
Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of
Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0500-05145-0.

CHAPTER 79. TIYE

Chapter 80

Tomb of Meryra
The Tomb of Meryra is part of a group of tombs located near Amarna, Egypt. Placed in the mountainsides,
the tombs are divided into north and south groupings; the
northern tombs are located in the hillsides and the southern on the plains. Meryras tomb, identied as Amarna
Tomb 4 is located in the northern cluster. The tomb is the
largest and most elaborate of the noble tombs of Amarna.
It, along with the majority of these tombs, was never
completed.[1] The rock cut tombs of Amarna were constructed specically for the ocials of King Akhenaten.
Norman de Garis Davies originally published details of
the Tomb in 1926 in the Rock Tombs of El Amarna, Part
I the Tomb of Meryra. The tomb dates back to the 18th
Egyptian Dynasty.

80.1 Tomb layout


The tomb was found in relatively good condition compared to the other tombs of Amarna. After the death of
Akhenaten, depictions of his rule and religion were destroyed because they were considered to be heretical. In
Meryras tomb, Akhenaten and Nefertitis features have
been consistently erased. The desecration is conned
to these individuals, and the names and gures of the
princesses remain untouched. The tomb consists of four
sections: the antechamber, the hall of columns, a second
hall, and the shrine. The entrance to the tomb was originally decorated with inscriptions to the Amarna Royal
family and the Aten. These decorations have either been
destroyed, or are hidden by the modern doors protecting
the tomb entrance. The antechamber itself shows Meryre
oering prayers to the Akhenaten, and the cartouches of
the king, Nefertiti and the Aten. The door jambs are
inscribed with funerary prayers for Akhenaten and the
Aten. The entrance from the antechamber to the outer
hall is decorated with the Short Hymn to the Aten, and
shows Meryres wife Tenre making oerings to the sundisc.

Plan of the tomb

80.2 Meryra
Meryra served as the high priest of the cult of Aten, a new
religious tradition instituted by King Akhenaten. This
belief system placed exclusive emphasis on sun worship
in the form of Aten, or the solar disc, a deity encapsulating the idea of many gods into the essence of the
sun.[2] The tomb provides little information regarding the
personal life of Merya. Familial references are limited

229

230
to depictions of his wife, Tenre, who is described as a
great favorite of the Lady of the two Lands. Lady of the
two Lands refers to Nefertiti, the queen of Akhenaten.
Not all ocials at Amarna had tombs. Having a tomb
at Amarna reected closeness with Akhenaten, due, in
part, to demonstrating a commitment to Akhenatens institution of Atenism.[1]

80.3 Tomb Decorations


The sculptured reliefs of Meryras tomb were done in a
new artistic style instituted under Akhenaten. The technique of modeling in plaster which was used consisted
of the images initially being cut directly into the stone,
and then covered by a layer of plaster, which was nally
painted over.[3] Like the style, the subject of the scenes
was also unique. Traditionally tombs in the New Kingdom contained decorations dedicated to the owner of the
tomb, such as depictions of family members and ancestors, or scenes about the owners career, amusement or
domestic life.[3] This tradition was not carried out in the
tomb of Meryra, or the other tombs of Amarna, which instead focused almost exclusively on Akhenaten and worship of the Aten. Davies acknowledges the tombs of
Amarna were often dicult to identify as little emphasis was placed on the owner. This contrasts sharply with
the dominant tradition of New Kingdom tombs in which
cartouches and images of the ruling king were marginal
aspects to the tomb, sometimes not even identied.[3]

CHAPTER 80. TOMB OF MERYRA


the House of Aten, in Ahket-aten.[4] In this statement,
the reliance on Akhenaten in Atenism is referred to in a
physical sense, as Akhenaten pledges to attach Meryra
to him. This is similar to the contact the royal family has
with the Aten, which is furnished with hands, or ankhs
extending from its rays. One purpose of the ankhs is to
literally ll the recipient through bodily orices with the
life and prosperity of the Aten.[1]
A variety of texts were found in the tomb, including
prayers to be said by visitors to the tomb, as well as religious texts, such as the Hymn to the Aten. The Hymn
to Aten, traditionally ascribed to Akhenaten himself celebrates the Aten as the universal creator of all life. Although similar to hymns to Amun, the Hymn to Aten reects the originality of Akhenatens simplistic perception
of his solar religion.[2]

80.4 See also


Amarna
Akhenaten
Aten
Atenism

The reliefs in the Tomb of Meryra are decidedly centered 80.5 References
upon praising Akhenaten, and Meryra himself only appears marginally, sometimes indistinguishable from other [1] Redford, Donald, B. The Sun-disc in Akhenatens Program: Its Worship and Antecedents, IJournal of the
minor gures carved in the relief. Despite this, Meryra
American Research Center in Egypt. 13. (1976), 47maintains a constant contextual presence in the scenes,
61, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40001118. (accessed Oceven if not being explicitly portrayed. In the scene Davies
tober 29, 2010).
titles, A Royal Visit to the Temple, Akhenaten and Nefertiti are depicted paying a visit to Meryra at the temple. [2] Kemp,Barry J.. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. New York: Routledge, 1989.
It is uncertain if Meryra is included in this image and
the description of the scene has been destroyed. Davies
[3] Davies,Norman de Garis. The Rock Toms of El Amarna.
speculates that the scene either shows Akhenaten on his
1, London, Boston: Oces of the Egypt Exploration
way to the temple to appoint Meryra as the High Pries of
Fund, 1903.
Aten, or it is simply as example of Merya honored with
the presence of the King and Queen at the temple and [4] Murnane, William J., Meltzer, Edmund S,Texts from the
Amarna period in Egypt. Scholars Press: 1995.
exercising his oce for them. Either situation serves to
promote the role and importance of Merya, even though
the scene seems to be immediately focused upon Akhen- Coordinates: 273950N 305539E / 27.66389N
aten. As the art was not focused upon Meryra, maintain- 30.92750E
ing a strong contextual importance allowed for Meryra to
still be bestowed with honor and praise.
In the immediately preceding scene, Akhenaten ocially
declares Merya as the High Priest of Aten. Despite being the High Priest of Aten, Meryra was not recognized
with the power to access the Aten, an exclusive ability of
Akhenaten. In the text of this relief, Akhenaten addresses
Meryra with the proclamation, Behold, I am attaching
you to myself, to be the Greatest of Seers of the Aten, in

Chapter 81

Tushratta
Tushratta was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of
Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten
approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the
son of Shuttarna II. His sister Gilukhipa and his daughter Tadukhipa were married to the Egyptian pharaoh
Amenhotep III; Tadukhipa later married Akhenaten who
took over his fathers royal harem.

The Hittite army then marched through various districts


towards the Mitanni capital of Washshukanni. Suppiluliumas claims to have plundered the district and to have
brought loot, captives, cattle, sheep and horses back to
Hatti. He also claims that Tushratta ed, but obviously he
failed to capture the capital. While the campaign weakened Tushrattas kingdom, he still held onto his throne.

He had been placed on the throne after the murder of his


brother Artashumara. He was probably quite young at the
time and was destined to serve as a gurehead only. But
he managed to dispose of the murderer.

81.2 A second campaign

81.1 History
At the beginning of his reign, the Hittite King
Suppiluliuma I, reconquered Kizzuwatna, then invaded
the western part of the Euphrates valley and conquered
the Amurru and Nuhae in Hanigalbat. According to the
Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza treaty, Suppiluliuma had made
a treaty with Artatama, a rival of Tushratta. Nothing
is known of Artatamas previous life or connection, if
any, to the royal family. The document calls him king of
the Hurrians, while Tushratta is given the title of King
of Mitanni, which must have disagreed with Tushratta.
Suppiluliuma started to plunder the lands of the west bank
of the Euphrates river and he annexed Mount Lebanon.
Tushratta threatened to raid beyond the Euphrates if even
a single lamb or kid was stolen.
Suppiluliuma then recounts how the land of Isuwa on the
upper Euphrates had seceded in the time of his grandfather. Attempts to conquer it failed. In the time of
his father, other cities rebelled. Suppiluliumas claims to
have defeated them, but the survivors ed to the territory
of Isuwa that must have been part of Tushrattas realm.
A clause to return fugitives was part of many treaties
made at the time, so possibly the harbouring of fugitives
by Isuwa formed the pretext for the Hittite invasion. A
Hittite army crossed the border, entered Isuwa and returned the fugitives (or deserters or exile governments)
to Hittite rule. I freed the lands which I captured; they
dwelt in their places. All the people whom I released rejoined their peoples and Hatti incorporated their territories, Suppiluliuma later boasted.

In a second campaign, the Hittites again crossed the


Euphrates and subdued Halab, Mukish, Niya, Arahati,
Apina, and Qatna as well as some cities whose names have
not been preserved. Charioteers are mentioned among
the booty from Arahati, who were brought to Hatti together with all their possessions. While it was common
practice to incorporate enemy soldiers in the army, this
might point to a Hittite attempt to counter the most potent weapon of the Mitanni, the war-chariots, by building
up or strengthening their own chariot forces.
Tushratta had possibly suspected Hittite intentions on his
kingdom, for the Amarna letters include several tablets
from Tushratta concerning the marriage of his daughter
Tadukhipa with Akhenaten, explicitly to solidify an alliance with the Egyptian kingdom. However, when Suppiluliumas invaded his kingdom, the Egyptians failed to
respond in timeperhaps because of the sudden death
of Akhenaten, and the resulting struggle for control of
the Egyptian throne.
According to a treaty later made between Suppiluliuma
and Tushrattas brother Shattiwaza, after a third devastating Hittite raid led to the fall of Carchemish, Tushratta
was assassinated by a group led by one of his sons. A
time of civil war followed which came to an end when
Suppiluliuma placed Shattiwaza on the Mitannian throne.

81.3 See also

231

Mitanni
Amarna letter EA 19

Chapter 82

Zemar
For the moth genus, see Simyra (moth).
Zemar (Biblical Hebrew: , Tzumur; Egyptian: Smr;

The location of Zimyra/Zemar (in the north)

Akkadian: Sumuru; Assyrian: Simirra) was a Phoenician


city in what is now Syria. Zemar was a major trade center.
Zemar (as Sumura or Sumur) appears in the Amarna
letters; Ahribta is named as its ruler. It was under the
guardianship of Rib-Hadda, king of Byblos, but revolted
against him and joined Abdi-Ashirta's expanding kingdom of Amurru. Pro-Egyptian factions may have seized
the city again, but Abdi-Ashirtas son, Aziru, recaptured
Zemar.
It has been linked by Maurice Dunand and N. Salisby to
the archaeological site of Tell Kazel in 1957.[1]

82.1 References
[1] Badre, Leila., Tell Kazel-Simyra: A Contribution to a
Relative Chronological History in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age, American University
of Beirut, Lebanon, Bulletin of the American Schools of
Oriental Research, 2006.

232

Chapter 83

Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten


today.

83.2 Work done on the stelae


Claude Sicard, a Jesuit priest, rst discovered the site in
1714 but the work he did was minimal. More work was
done in the early and mid-1800s by Joseph Bonomi, John
Wilkinson and others. Karl Lepsius also did some work
on the site thanks to some funding from the Prussian government. Flinders Petrie was the rst to categorize the
stelae in a systematic way using letters. However, the
work of Norman de Garis Davis and William J. Murnane
contributed the most knowledge of the site than anyone
else.[2] Stela 'H' was only found in 2006.

83.3 Stelae

Boundary stela U, Amarna, Egypt.

The Boundary Stelae at the city of Amarna were constructed between Year 5 and Year 8 in the reign of
Akhenaten.

83.1 Naming
There have been sixteen stelae found at this site, each of
which has been labeled with a letter. Of the sixteen, three
are located on the western side of the Nile. These have
been distinguished as the letters A, B and F. The other
twelve are located on the eastern side of the Nile and are
represented by the letters H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, U,
V, X.[1] This system of labeling the stelae was created by
the English Egyptologist Flinders Petrie and is still used

Akhenaten built the city of Akhetaten for the sun deity


Aten. He also decided to make the city both the political and religious capital. The stelae he built around the
perimeter of the city explained why the city was built,
what he planned on doing in honor of Aten, and described
the projected layout of the city. Some of them also depict
Akhenaten and his royal family worshiping Aten. Sadly,
many of these rock-hewn stelae which marked the exact bounds of the city of Akhetaten are now in a sad
state.[3] This is due to a number of things including natural weathering, and being built in a bad type of rock.
Stelae P was blown up in 1906.[4] Though many of the stelae are in bad shape, Stelae A is still in fairly good shape
and is also easy for archaeologists and tourists to get to.
The building of the city and the transition that Akhenaten
made to the religion aected the state of Egypt. Many of
the temples were closed down. Though people still worshiped the old gods, they were unable to visit the temples and participate in the ceremonies associated with the
gods.

233

234

83.3.1

CHAPTER 83. BOUNDARY STELAE OF AKHENATEN

Damage

Stelae P was dynamited around 1908, and Stelae S was


extensively damaged in 1984 by looters and then dynamited in 2004, totally destroying it.[5] The stelae were
subjected to further vandalism in February 2013.[6]

83.4 References
[1] http://amarnaproject.com/pages/amarna_the_place/
boundary_stelae/index.shtml
[2] Murnane, William J. and Charles C. Van Siclen III. 1993.
The Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten. Kegan Paul International: London. pp. 2-6
[3] ldred, Cyril. 1989. Akhenaten King of Egypt. Thames and
Hudson: London. p. 45
[4] Aldred, Cyril. 1989. Akhenaten King of Egypt. Thames
and Hudson: London. p. 45
[5] Boundary Stelae.
[6] Hartley, Aiden (9 November 2013). The new tomb
raiders. The Spectator (UK). Retrieved 10 November
2013.

83.5 External links


Media related to Boundary Steles of Akhenaten at Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 84

Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh

Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh at Amarna

The building known as the Bureau of Correspondence


of Pharaoh (also known as the Records Oce) is located in the 'Central City' area of the Ancient Egyptian city of Amarna, Akhetaten, the short-lived capital of
Akhenaten.[1]

84.1 History
The actual building (although the name may refer to
a larger complex of buildings[2] ) is located behind the
buildings known as the 'Kings House' and the Small Aten
Temple, and is now ruined, and it appears to be where local villagers discovered a deposit of tablets, now known
as the Amarna letters around the year 1888.[3] The building included bricks stamped with the words Bureau of
Correspondence of Pharaoh.

84.2 References
[1] The Central City. Amarna Project. Retrieved 2007-0628.
[2] Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. p.xvi. ISBN
0-8018-4251-4.
[3] Fatemah Farag. Kiss and Tel. Al-Ahram Weekly Online. Retrieved 2007-06-28.

235

Chapter 85

Kom el-Nana
A central platform with a building including a
columned hall and other rooms
The Southern Shrine, consisting of rooms and a
western portico.
In the southeast corner of the southern enclosure stood a
group of houses in two sets, with garden plots.[2]

85.1 Sources
[1] Nicholas Reeves: Akhenaten Egypts False Prophet.
London, Thames & Hudson, 2005. ISBN 0-500-28552-7
, p.126

Kom el-Nana

Kom el-Nana is an archaeological site near the ancient


Egyptian city of Akhet-Aten. It lies south of the city and
east of the modern village of el-Hagg Quandil. For a long
time its ruins were thought to be those of a Roman military camp, but between 1988 and 2000 Barry Kemp excavated remains of an Amarna period stone temple with
garden and subsidiary buildings including a bakery and a
brewery. Neither the original name nor the owner of the
complex has been identied.[1] It is likely to have been
a sun temple and is very similar to Maru-Aten. It consists of a brick enclosure with an area of 228213 m; it
is divided into two unequal parts by an east-west wall. It
is likely that pylon gates opened on all four outer walls.
Since it stood at a very prominent place at the southern end of the so-called Royal Road, the main street of
Akhet-Aten its possibly identical with the sunshade
temple of Nefertiti mentioned on the boundary stelae.[2]
In the northern part of the enclosure brick ovens were
found, ndings suggest a bakery and brewery. Traces
of a building (the northern shrine) were also found.
Most of the northern part was overbuilt by a 5th-6th century Christian monastery that reused the original walls,
so the southern part, which was not overbuilt, is better
preserved; the follosing buildings were excavated:[2]
A stone-oored pylon
The rectangular Southern Pavilion, surrounded by
sunken gardens;
236

[2] The Amarna Project: Kom el-Nana

Chapter 86

Maru-Aten

Plan of the complex

Located 3 km to the south of the central city area of the


city of Akhetaten (todays el Amarna), the Maru-Aten,
short for Pa-maru-en-pa-aten (The Viewing-Palace-ofthe-Aten),[1] is a palace or sun-temple originally thought
to have been constructed for Akhenaten's queen Kiya, but
on her death her name and images were altered to those
of Meritaten, his daughter.[2]
This site is now lost beneath modern elds, but was excavated by Leonard Woolley in 1921.

86.1 References
[1] D. P. Silverman, J. Houser Wegner, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun: Revolution and Restoration, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum 2006, p.87
[2] Aayko Eyma ed., A Delta-Man in Yebu, UniversalPublishers. 2003, p.53

Maru-Aten

237

Chapter 87

Northern Palace (Amarna)


clis, the North City.
Most of Amarna is covered with sand and/or badly
eroded. Scientists are trying their best to preserve, clean,
and repair the ciy, making it more accessible.

87.1 External links


Models and reconstructions of the city, including the
Northern Palace
Ruins of the North Palace, showing reconstruction and restoration

Coordinates: 274012N 305412E / 27.67000N


30.90333E

The Northern Palace is located in the abandoned


Northern Suburbs of the city of Ahketaten (modern
Amarna, in Egypt).
Like the other structures in the city, it was constructed
quickly, and hence was easy to dismantle and reuse the
material for later construction.
Far north of the excavated structure in northern Amarna
(ancient Akhetaten) rests the North Palace. Today we
believe that the structure was eventually converted into
a palace for Akhenatens oldest daughter, Pharaoh Nerfetiti, and may have previously been the home of one of
his queens. It could very well be that the future king, Tutankhamun was raised in this palace. However, the origins of the building are more obscure and some scholars
believe it may have once served as perhaps a retreat for
the king as a sort of garden where he could satisfy his love
of nature. It has even been suggested that it could have
been Akhenatens principle residence. But these are all
possibilities, not facts.
The city of Amarna rests on the nile river and divides
into a number of zones. The Central City was home to
the main palaces, temples to the sun, and administrative buildings. Running directly south was a dense area
of houses, the Main City, with a more thinly developed
southern extension, the South Suburb. To the north of
the Central City, after a gap, came another area of housing, the North Suburb. Further north still lay the isolated
North Palace. And beyond this, sitting at the foot of the
238

Chapter 88

Workmens Village, Amarna


Located in the desert east of the ancient city of
Akhetaten, the Workmens village at Amarna closely
resembles in many respects that much more ancient
workers village at Lahun or at Deir el-Medina, and
was intended for the artisans who worked on the nearby
Tombs of Nobles and the Royal Wadi. At the height of
the Amarna Period, the population was 310.
It is located in a little valley on the south side of a low
plateau that runs out from the base of the clis between
the Royal Wadi and the Southern Tombs. Excavations
here have yielded important discoveries.

239

Chapter 89

Mahu (noble)
Mahu was Chief of Police at Akhetaten.
Mahus tomb is Amarna Tomb 9 of the Tombs of the Nobles at Amarna. In the tomb Mahu is shown being rewarded by king Akhenaten. He is shown inspecting the
defences of the city with the king and queen. The vizier
and other ocials are also present. In another scene
Mahu is shown in his work policing the city, and is shown
in a meeting with the vizier (probably Nakhtpaaten) and
a lesser ocial named Heqanefer. [1]

89.1 References
[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5

89.2 External links


Egyptian Monuments, El-Amarna South Tombs

240

Chapter 90

Royal Wadi and tombs


The Royal Wadi (known locally as Wadi Abu Hassah their child Baketaten (if she was their child and not a sister
el-Bahari) at Amarna is a where the Royal Family of of Akhenaten).
Amarna were to be buried. It can be thought of as being an Amarna replacement for the Valley of the Kings.
There has been a great deal of work to ease access to the
Royal Tomb, and to protect the tombs from damage by
ash ooding. The wadi can now be journeyed along on
a metalled road, and the tomb is protected by a covering
and channels to divert water away from its entrance. The
angle of the entrance and descent allows sunlight (Aten)
to reach all the way down to the burial chamber, however
the tomb is unnished and had it been nished at the time,
sunlight would not have been able to reach the chamber.
In the wadi itself, there are 5 tombs, the Royal Tomb of
Akhenaten, three unnished tombs in a side wadi, and
what seems to be a cache, near to the Royal Tomb.

90.4 Tomb 29
This tomb was plastered, but never decorated. It consists
of 4 corridors, and in plan is similar to the suite of rooms
in the Royal Tomb, and may have been intended for a
lesser Royal Wife.
A docket found in this tomb refers to a Year 1, so the
tomb must have been open in the time of Akhenaten's
successors.

90.5 References
Gabolde M & Dunsmore A, The Royal Necropolis
at Tell el-Amarna, Egyptian Archaeology, Autumn
2004

90.1 Royal Tomb


Main article: Royal Tomb of Akhenaten
The Royal Tomb (Tomb 26) is the only decorated tomb,
and contained the burial of Akhenaten. It includes a suite
of chambers for his daughters, his mother and probably
Nefertiti, although she was never buried there.

90.2 Tomb 27
The next of the tombs, Tomb 27, seems to have been intended for a Royal Burial, as the doorway and entrance
are of a similar size to that of the Royal Tomb. However, it was never nished and no burial material has ever
been found. It may have been intended for the burial of
Akhenaten's successor.

90.3 Tomb 28
This is the only nished tomb in the Wadi. It may have
been used by a lesser wife of Akhenaten, maybe Kiya and
241

Chapter 91

Southern Tomb 11
Southern Tomb 11 at Amarna, Egypt, was used for
the burial of Ramose (General), whose titles included,
Royal scribe, Commander of troops of the Lord of the
Two Lands, Steward of Nebmaatra (Amenhotep III)".[1]
It is unknown whether he was the same person as the
Vizier Ramose whose Theban tomb is TT55, but it seems
unlikely because they have dierent titles and the names
of their wives do not agree.[2]
The tomb is small and the main body is undecorated.
The entrance doorway shows Ramose being rewarded
by Akhenaten, together with scenes showing Nefertiti
and Meritaten.[2] In the shrine a double statue showing
Ramose and his sister Nebetiunet was carved out of the
rock, then plastered.

91.1 References
[1] Southern Tombs. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
[2] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III
and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5

Amarna Project: The South Tombs (PDF)

242

Chapter 92

Southern Tomb 23
Southern Tomb 23 at Amarna was used for the burial
of Any, whose titles included, Royal scribe, Scribe of
the oering-table of the Aten, Steward of the estate of
Aakheperura (Amenhotep II).
The tombs corridor design resembles some of the
northern group of tombs. It has 2 unnished porches on
either side of the door and is only basically decorated.

92.1 References
N. de G. Davies - The Rock Cut Tombs of El
Amarna. Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, 2004 (ISBN 0-85698-160-5).
Owen, Gwil - The Amarna courtiers tombs. Egyptian Archaeology Autumn 2000

92.2 External links


Tomb of Any

243

Chapter 93

Southern Tomb 25
Southern Tomb 25 at Amarna was intended for
the burial of Ay, who later became Pharaoh, after
Tutankhamun. The tomb was never nished, and he was
later buried in the Western Valley of the Valley of the
Kings (WV23), in Thebes.
The tomb was only partially carved from the rock, with
the rst part of the pillared hall approaching completion.
The tomb contains depictions of Ay receiving rewards
from Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
The tomb also contains a version of the Great Hymn to
the Aten.

244

Chapter 94

Southern Tombs Cemetery


The Southern Tomb Cemetery, the burial of low status
individuals from the city of Akhenaten (the modern city
of Amarna), is located close to the southern tombs of the
Nobles.[1]

94.1 Discovery
This cemetery, together with several other disturbed
cemeteries, was discovered in 2007, by the continuing
EES exploration discovered the cemetery, during the
desert GPS survey.[2]

94.2 References
[1] Barry Kemp. SOUTH TOMBS Cemetery. The
Amarna Project. The Amarna Project. Retrieved 200908-23.
[2] John Hayes-Fisher (2008-01-25). Grim secrets of
Pharaohs city. BBC Timewatch. news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-10-01.

245

Chapter 95

Tomb of Meryra II
The tomb of the Ancient Egyptian noble Meryre II,
known as Amarna Tomb 2, is located in the northern
side of the wadi that splits the cluster of tombs known
collectively as the Northern tombs, near to the city of
Amarna, in Egypt.[1] The tomb is largely destroyed. It
was decorated with the last dated appearance of Akhenaten and the Amarna family, dating from the second
month, year 12 of his reign.[2]

95.1 References
[1] Guide Book, Northern tombs (PDF). pp. p.5. Retrieved
2008-07-08.
[2] James H. Allen. The Amarna Succession. pp. p.6.
Archived from the original on 2008-05-28. Retrieved
2008-07-08.

246

Chapter 96

Tombs of the Nobles (Amarna)


Located in Middle Egypt, the Tombs of the Nobles at 96.2 Southern tombs
Amarna are the burial places of some of the powerful
courtiers and persons of the city of Akhetaten.
The southern tombs are located in a series of low blus
The tombs are in 2 groups, cut into the clis and blus in south and east of the main city. Associated with these
the east of the dry bay of Akhetaten. There are 25 major tombs a recently discovered workers cemetery has been
tombs, many of them decorated and with their owners found.[3]
name, some are small and unnished, others modest and
unassuming. Each seems to reect the personality and
patronage of the tombs original owner.

96.1 Northern tombs

Southern Tombs at Amarna, showing clis behind

96.3 Rediscovery and excavation


Some the tombs have obviously been open since antiquity, and have been used variously as burial places in
the Ptolemaic times, store houses, houses and as coptic
churches.

Northern Tombs at Amarna, looking south along the clis

These tombs are located in two groups in the clis overlooking the city of Akhetaten, to the north and east of
the city. They are split into two groups by a Wadi, and
are near one of the Boundary Stelae (Stelae V).

96.4 Notes and references


96.4.1 References

96.1.1

Desert altars

At a short distance to the west and north of the Northern Tombs lie the remains of three large mud-brick solar
altars in the form of platforms with ramps. The reason
for their location is not clear. Their connection with an
ancient road leading to the Northern Tombs would seem
to be a sign that they were for the benet of those buried
in them.
247

[1] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts III


and IV, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-160-5
[2] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts
I and II, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-159-1
[3] The Pharaohs Lost City. Retrieved 2008-01-29.

248

CHAPTER 96. TOMBS OF THE NOBLES (AMARNA)

[4] N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts V


and VI, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration
Society, ISBN 0-85698-161-3

96.4.2

Further reading

N. de G. Davis - The Rock Cut Tombs of El


Amarna. Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, 2004 (ISBN 0-85698-160-5).
Owen, Gwil - The Amarna courtiers tombs. Egyptian Archaeology Autumn 2000

96.5 External links


City of Amarna, including all Tombs
Northern tomb no. 1 of Huya
Northern tomb no. 3 of Ahmes/Ahmose
Northern tomb no. 4 of Meryra/Meryre I
Northern tomb no. 6 of Panhesy

96.5. EXTERNAL LINKS

249

{{int:Coll-attribution-page|
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Addbot, Tassedethe, Frehley, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Jesielt, Thuvan Dihn, Schmittz, Cdw1952, Citation bot 1, Bluebliss, Hanay, Pando98,
BrokenAnchorBot, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, Iry-Hor, R.F.Morgan, Monkbot and Anonymous: 25
Meketaten Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meketaten?oldid=621785733 Contributors: Delirium, Dimadick, Alensha, Kwamikagami, FeanorStar7, Captmondo, FlaBot, JiFish, Markh, YurikBot, Welsh, Asarelah, That Guy, From That Show!, Chris the speller,
OrphanBot, Kajk, KyraVixen, Cydebot, Tiger cub, AsgardBot, TXiKiBoT, AnnekeBart, SieBot, PolarBot, Fadesga, Addbot, LaaknorBot,
Luckas-bot, Yobot, Xqbot, Incognitos, Helpful Pixie Bot, Khazar2 and Anonymous: 9
Meritaten Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meritaten?oldid=627269166 Contributors: Delirium, Ugen64, Dimadick, Neferuaten,
Alensha, Deeceevoice, Peter Greenwell, Rd232, AndreasPraefcke, FeanorStar7, Str1977, Markh, YurikBot, Igin, That Guy, From That
Show!, Gilliam, Sbharris, Leoboudv, Kajk, Reade, JLCA, CmdrObot, Cydebot, Tawkerbot4, Omicronpersei8, Thijs!bot, Ludde23, Gatemansgc, Madmarigold, AsgardBot, DrKiernan, 83d40m, DorganBot, TXiKiBoT, AnnekeBart, SieBot, ClarkSavageJr, ImageRemovalBot,
ClueBot, Fadesga, Jusdafax, Addbot, Desoleil, AkhtaBot, Favonian, SpBot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Xqbot, LucienBOT, BenzolBot, Ver-bot,
A8UDI, Tashery, Tim1357, EmausBot, WittyMan1986, Concert Interruptus, Whoop whoop pull up, ClueBot NG, Hmainsbot1, Theatenist,
and Anonymous: 25
Neferneferuaten Tasherit Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neferneferuaten_Tasherit?oldid=621785206 Contributors: Delirium, Dimadick, Alensha, Kwamikagami, FeanorStar7, Tabletop, Str1977, Bgwhite, Leoboudv, Cydebot, Tiger cub, AsgardBot, 83d40m, L!nus,
AnnekeBart, SieBot, Phe-bot, PipepBot, Fadesga, Addbot, Voodoopoodle, LaaknorBot, Ptbotgourou, John of Reading, ZroBot, Frietjes,
Helpful Pixie Bot, Hmainsbot1 and Anonymous: 3
Neferneferure Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neferneferure?oldid=621785187 Contributors: Delirium, Ijon, Dimadick, Alensha,
Kwamikagami, Markh, Grafen, Colonies Chris, Cydebot, Tiger cub, AsgardBot, AnnekeBart, SieBot, Phe-bot, PipepBot, Fadesga, Addbot,
Ptbotgourou, Frietjes, Helpful Pixie Bot, Hmainsbot1 and Anonymous: 1
Nefertiti Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nefertiti?oldid=631690845 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Css, Zoe, Olivier, Frecklefoot,
JohnOwens, Vaughan, Paul Barlow, Oliver Pereira, Dante Alighieri, Menchi, Ixfd64, Delirium, Minesweeper, Egil, Ahoerstemeier,
Notheruser, Error, Netsnipe, Evercat, Vroman, Bemoeial, JCarriker, Mw66, Selket, Haukurth, Furrykef, Ffabris, Jnc, Rei, Wetman, Hajor, Dimadick, Modulatum, Academic Challenger, Bertie, Mervyn, Wikibot, Neferuaten, TOO, Obli, Everyking, Bkonrad, Miya, Beardo,
Gilgamesh, Alensha, Zhen Lin, Mboverload, Bluejay Young, Tipiac, Sonjaaa, Quadell, Mgream, Gscshoyru, Picapica, Deeceevoice,
Moxfyre, Mike Rosoft, Discospinster, HeikoEvermann, LindsayH, Ivan Bajlo, JPX7, SpookyMulder, Joepearson, Flapdragon, Tezkah,
Furius, MBisanz, DS1953, Shanes, Oniongirl, RoyBoy, Keane4, Bobo192, Reinyday, Jericho4.0, Jojit fb, DCEdwards1966, Doplgangr, Knucmo2, Storm Rider, Keenan Pepper, ArbiterOne, Andrew Gray, Lectonar, Suruena, Evil Monkey, BlastOButter42, Heida
Maria, Adrian.benko, Dejvid, Issk, Fred Condo, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), FeanorStar7, LOL, Zrenneh, Qaddosh, MONGO,
Cy21, Twthmoses, Macaddct1984, Koavf, Captmondo, Kazrak, HappyCamper, Erkcan, Bhadani, DoubleBlue, Olessi, Yamamoto Ichiro,
Pvc.mermaid, FlaBot, Nivix, Novium, Gurch, Str1977, Markh, Chobot, DVdm, Dj Capricorn, The Rambling Man, Mercury McKinnon,
YurikBot, SpikeJones, Sceptre, Pigman, Stephenb, Gaius Cornelius, Rsrikanth05, NawlinWiki, Astral, Tailpig, Nutiketaiel, Moe Epsilon,
Mugwump2, Chewyrunt, Beanyk, Syrthiss, DeadEyeArrow, Wknight94, Johnsemlak, Igin, Wikilackey, Imperial avis, Denisutku, Sotakeit, Rms125a@hotmail.com, Redgolpe, GraemeL, DaltinWentsworth, Tiria, Garion96, Philip Stevens, That Guy, From That Show!,
SmackBot, Tobias Schmidbauer, KnowledgeOfSelf, Zerida, Pgk, Zserghei, Jab843, Frymaster, Kintetsubualo, Alsandro, Yamaguchi ,
Gilliam, Skizzik, Gorman, Lubos, MalafayaBot, SchftyThree, Oreos, Kungming2, Zinneke, NYKevin, Can't sleep, clown will eat me,
Aremith, Shalom Yechiel, AP1787, Thisisbossi, TheKMan, Parent5446, Leoboudv, Flyboy Will, John D. Croft, Geor, Hgilbert, EdGl,
Jklin, DavidJ710, Ceoil, SashatoBot, AlbertHerring, Thanatosimii, Kuru, Bydand, Onlim, DIEGO RICARDO PEREIRA, SMasters, A.
Parrot, Stilleon, Doczilla, Neddyseagoon, MTSbot, Nectanebo, Meraloma, Iridescent, IvanLanin, Dp462090, Tawkerbot2, Ghaly, AbsolutDan, Gypsy2006, Neferneferu, CmdrObot, Comrade42, Asdf01, KyraVixen, Cbdeandc, Orannis, Gurthnar, Moyerjax, FilipeS,
Cydebot, Slp1, Mike Christie, Gogo Dodo, ST47, Dusty relic, Tawkerbot4, Dougweller, Chrislk02, Omicronpersei8, JodyB, Thijs!bot,
Epbr123, Dechastelaine, Coelacan, Gaijin42, Welsh4ever76, S Marshall, Sendbinti, John254, Amelie poulain, BehnamFarid, CharlotteWebb, Haleth, Pie Man 360, AntiVandalBot, Luna Santin, GeoWPC, Seaphoto, Modernist, Stemoko, Sluzzelin, JAnDbot, Hespers,
Janejellyroll, Hello32020, Novaguy1968, Dream Focus, Geniac, Connormah, ZPM, VoABot II, AuburnPilot, Je Dahl, JNW, Vikas Kumar Ojha, Zioroboco, Waacstats, Froid, Avicennasis, Catgut, ClovisPt, Rmeyermn, Breandandalton, Glen, DerHexer, Simon Peter Hughes,
WLU, RebDrummer61, Gun Powder Ma, Robin S, Seba5618, Pinudjem, MartinBot, STBot, Iluvbukakke, Rettetast, Mike6271, Anaxial,
CommonsDelinker, Fconaway, Tgeairn, AlphaEta, J.delanoy, Sp3000, Rhinestone K, Ginsengbomb, Extransit, WarthogDemon, Katalaveno, Seftsirag, AntiSpamBot, Plasticup, Cooldude7273, NewEnglandYankee, SJP, 83d40m, Jevansen, Endlessmike 888, MishaPan,
Robors, DraxusD, Redtigerxyz, Wikieditor06, 28bytes, Hammersoft, VolkovBot, Cireshoe, DDSaeger, Meaningful Username, Je G.,
FergusM1970, TXiKiBoT, Mosmof, Charbroil, Vanished user ikijeirw34iuaeolaseric, Dr. Hannibal Lecter, LeaveSleaves, Bob f it, Cremepu222, Master Bigode, Jeeny, L!nus, AnnekeBart, Enviroboy, Anjingbuduk, Chainedwind, Only hot g, Adamboy555, SMC89, SieBot,
Yoda317, BotMultichill, Winchelsea, Dawn Bard, Caltas, Yintan, Keilana, Flyer22, Doughnutshbutt, Ptolemy Caesarion, Steven Zhang,
IdreamofJeanie, OKBot, Reneeholle, Janggeom, JL-Bot, Everjung, Lethesl, ClueBot, Snigbrook, Fadesga, Madshortmad, Meisterkoch,
Airwaveovercali, Parkwells, Bob bobato, Neverquick, Skteosk, Excirial, Coralmizu, NuclearWarfare, Iohannes Animosus, Matthew Dillenburg, Bleubeatle, Dekisugi, Ron nizamov96, Thingg, Jtle515, Aitias, X0elanaaaaaaxox9, 101KingdomHearts101, DumZiBoT, TattooedLibrarian, Surtsicna, Anticipation of a New Lovers Arrival, The, Thebestofall007, Addbot, Imeriki al-Shimoni, Non-dropframe, Hot200245,

252

CHAPTER 96. TOMBS OF THE NOBLES (AMARNA)

TutterMouse, Shirtwaist, Damiens.rf, NjardarBot, Ccacsmss, AndersBot, Favonian, Dudejames66, Casey75965, Godfather21, Tassedethe,
Tide rolls, Lightbot, Smeagol 17, Jan eissfeldt, Hairylegs, Legobot, Luckas-bot, MileyDavidA, Yobot, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Tuxraider
reloaded, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, IW.HG, Szajci, AnomieBOT, Sagaci, Gurgen818, Jim1138, Piano non troppo, Geroldford, Materialscientist, LilHelpa, Xqbot, SciGuy013, Gabrielletrussler, GenQuest, Tad Lincoln, ProtectionTaggingBot, Mathonius, MuedThud,
Tamabat45, TroyHoran, Whynowagain, Polyxeros, Trueshow111, Biker Biker, Pinethicket, Yahia.barie, Jauhienij, Kgrad, Trappist the
monk, TimothyDexter, OWAIS NAEEM, Kohir-gabr, Reaper Eternal, Diannaa, Tbhotch, Slon02, DASHBot, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, NinjaTazzyDevil, RA0808, Sillybillypiggy, K6ka, Doddy Wuid, Alpha Quadrant (alt), Donner60, Chewings72, Orange Suede
Sofa, Popculturegeek, Karixma, DASHBotAV, Dexter Bond, ClueBot NG, MotorBootyBaby, This lousy T-shirt, Baseball Watcher, Frietjes, Widr, Md.altaf.rahman, Miamimario, Helpful Pixie Bot, Lowercase sigmabot, BG19bot, Keivan.f, Solar Police, ElphiBot, Atomician,
Mbardwell, Paris182, DMAZLPDGtrooper, ImhotepBallZ, RemJester, EuthanasiaEnthusiast, ZuluKane, TJIMLILOVANDRWE!:), IryHor, MadGuy7023, Deathlasersonline, Belteatrera, JalenV, Dexbot, Webclient101, Lone boatman, Masterpeace3, Lugia2453, VIAFbot,
Jamarei, Kasper.Fossland, LedaJune, KayaLily, Littlelokilost, Kenyaalee, Raybobisawsome, Cutiepie55766, DavidLeighEllis, MarkRoxWiki, Ginsuloft, DemolitionTurtle, AnapaulPrince, JaconaFrere, G S Palmer, Nefertitipowerful, Andrew J.Kurbiko, Nefertiti01, Poisonchallis, EgyptRawFactsOrFiction, Tyrannosaurus rex, FayeClark1, Ashkayath, TheTNLStudio, Sandwich de patatas and Anonymous: 698
Parennefer Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parennefer?oldid=621711044 Contributors: Delirium, Markh, Igin, Curpsbotunicodify, That Guy, From That Show!, Cydebot, Tirk, Waacstats, Andi d, Rosenknospe, AnnekeBart, Fadesga, Addbot, Msmarmalade,
FrescoBot, Kibi78704, RjwilmsiBot, ChuispastonBot and Anonymous: 1
La Reine Soleil Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Reine_Soleil?oldid=626259528 Contributors: Paul Barlow, GrahamHardy,
Bovineboy2008, Krikke, Fadesga, MystBot, Addbot, Yobot, Fortdj33, ZroBot, BG19bot, Autumncomet and Anonymous: 3
Royal Tomb of Akhenaten Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Tomb_of_Akhenaten?oldid=621715074 Contributors: Warofdreams, Utcursch, Twthmoses, Markh, That Guy, From That Show!, Fuhghettaboutit, Cydebot, Odie5533, The Anomebot2, CrystalFormosa, DorganBot, Fadesga, Addbot, Lightbot, Xqbot, Ebrambot, ClueBot NG and Anonymous: 16
Setepenre (princess) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setepenre_(princess)?oldid=621785778 Contributors: Dimadick, Alensha,
Kwamikagami, Theelf29, Magioladitis, Waacstats, AnnekeBart, Moonriddengirl, CorenSearchBot, Fadesga, Addbot, ChrisGualtieri and
Anonymous: 3
Smenkhkare Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smenkhkare?oldid=631732969 Contributors: Paul Barlow, Llywrch, JCarriker, Wik,
Ffabris, Jnc, Rei, Lord Emsworth, Wjhonson, Lzur, Michael Devore, RScheiber, ZeroJanvier, Deeceevoice, Perceval, Rd232, Ynhockey,
Binabik80, Garzo, Ghirlandajo, Avram Fawcett, FeanorStar7, Twthmoses, WBardwin, Captmondo, FlaBot, Str1977, Markh, LeCire,
Chobot, Bullzeye, Thane, Knyght27, Dysmorodrepanis, Douglasfrankfort, Grafen, Nigel Campbell, Bota47, Wknight94, That Guy, From
That Show!, BomBom, SmackBot, Jicannon, Valley2city, Comrade Che 1, HoodedMan, Leoboudv, John D. Croft, Monotonehell, Ericl,
Bejnar, Thanatosimii, Green Giant, A. Parrot, Brerbunny, MTSbot, Xionbox, Ghaly, Cydebot, Dougweller, Thijs!bot, Antony the genius,
.anacondabot, Je Dahl, T@nn, Balloonguy, Giggy, Lord Pheasant, Cliau, Jeendan, CommonsDelinker, Vandriel1325, 83d40m, STBotD,
Ariobarzan, VolkovBot, Margacst, TXiKiBoT, Dr. Hannibal Lecter, JhsBot, Jeeny, L!nus, AnnekeBart, SieBot, Witchzenka, ClarkSavageJr, Yintan, Digwuren, Mjk3ntr, G.-M. Cupertino, Gr8opinionater, ImageRemovalBot, ClueBot, Fadesga, Parkwells, Joe Baker, DragonBot, PixelBot, Life of Riley, Addbot, Merqurial, Jim10701, Favonian, Lightbot, Yobot, Jayhayman, AnomieBOT, Ramarren, Xqbot,
Tad Lincoln, Omnipaedista, RibotBOT, Zumalabe, Eugene-elgato, Dailycare, FrescoBot, Smenkhkare, HRoestBot, RedBot, Yutsi, Plasticspork, EmausBot, John of Reading, Cornicularius, WittyMan1986, Whuup, R.azz.miligi, Chewings72, Concert Interruptus, ClueBot NG,
Snotbot, DenseFog, BattyBot, Iry-Hor, Smalleditor, Plutonix, Epicgenius, Rsuracollins, Jake 422 and Anonymous: 68
Stela of Akhenaten and his family Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stela_of_Akhenaten_and_his_family?oldid=626258432 Contributors: Furius, Dl2000 and Fadesga
Temple of Amenhotep IV Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Amenhotep_IV?oldid=623657174 Contributors: Warofdreams, Alensha, Grm wnr, Twthmoses, JIP, Markh, That Guy, From That Show!, Eskimbot, Cush, A. Parrot, Iridescent, CmdrObot,
Cydebot, Nick Number, Escarbot, The Anomebot2, LordAnubisBOT, Rmih, Ptolemy Caesarion, Fadesga, Addbot, Citation bot, EmausBot, ClueBot NG and Anonymous: 4
Thutmose (sculptor) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_(sculptor)?oldid=621715381 Contributors: Ubiquity, Paul Barlow,
Llywrch, Delirium, Ahoerstemeier, Jimfbleak, Jnc, TOO, Alensha, FeanorStar7, Twthmoses, Rjwilmsi, Captmondo, YurikBot, Tlevine,
Igin, 2fort5r, Udimu, That Guy, From That Show!, Bouette, Tobias Schmidbauer, Sbharris, Dreadstar, Wizardman, Aleenf1, A. Parrot,
JMK, Cydebot, Thijs!bot, Modernist, Andi d, Redtigerxyz, WOSlinker, AnnekeBart, Shakko, KoshVorlon, ImageRemovalBot, Fadesga,
DragonBot, Stepshep, BOTarate, Ltmboy, Addbot, Lightbot, Yobot, Fraggle81, Neurolysis, Gumruch, Khruner, DixonDBot, Sat Ra,
Jaba1977, RjwilmsiBot, EmausBot, Spongie555, ZroBot, ClueBot NG, O.Koslowski, Helpful Pixie Bot, RscprinterBot, CaptianC3, Theatenist and Anonymous: 11
TT188 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TT188?oldid=621711073 Contributors: Warofdreams, D6, FeanorStar7, Markh, Thiseye,
That Guy, From That Show!, SmackBot, Cydebot, The Anomebot2, VolkovBot, AnnekeBart, Fadesga, Addbot, AnomieBOT, Erik9bot,
JMCC1 and ChrisGualtieri
3199 Nefertiti Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3199_Nefertiti?oldid=621785234 Contributors: Merovingian, Rich Farmbrough, Alai,
BillC, RussBot, Ospalh, Theanphibian, Cydebot, Coyets, T@nn, TXiKiBoT, Fadesga, ClueBot II, Addbot, Numbo3-bot, Luckas-bot,
Amirobot, KamikazeBot, Xqbot, MastiBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, DarafshBot and Anonymous: 1
Nefertiti Bust Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nefertiti_Bust?oldid=626963344 Contributors: Frecklefoot, Paul Barlow, Oliver
Pereira, Tpbradbury, Mervyn, Waltpohl, Bcameron54, Redroach, Caeruleancentaur, Wtmitchell, Rjwilmsi, Tim!, Noclador, Kordas,
Johnsemlak, JDspeeder1, Edgar181, Carbonix, Gilliam, Smallbones, Ceoil, A. Parrot, SQGibbon, Dl2000, Clarityend, Maima, Cydebot, Reywas92, Dougweller, Nick Number, QuiteUnusual, Rothorpe, Simon Burchell, Magioladitis, Hamiltonstone, Khalid Mahmood,
WLU, Analytikone, CommonsDelinker, Tgeairn, Johnbod, Olegwiki, KylieTastic, Redtigerxyz, Philip Trueman, Anonymous Dissident,
Aymatth2, Itemirus, Yohlanduh, Martarius, Fadesga, Kafka Liz, RafaAzevedo, Khateeb88, Yomangan, Bilsonius, Mm40, Jhendin, Addbot, LaaknorBot, LinkFA-Bot, Smeagol 17, Legobot, Luckas-bot, AnomieBOT, Floquenbeam, Jim1138, JackieBot, Materialscientist,
Citation bot, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Jezhotwells, Dougofborg, LucienBOT, Citation bot 1, AstaBOTh15, Moonraker, Sat Ra, Le temps perdu,
RjwilmsiBot, EmausBot, John of Reading, ZroBot, F, Mystichumwipe, ClueBot NG, RakiSykes, Helpful Pixie Bot, Regulov, George
Ponderevo, Klilidiplomus, BattyBot, Iry-Hor, Dexbot, Chris troutman, Monkbot, Batmankid152, Patrickgallagher, Claudia.byrne, TranquilHope and Anonymous: 55

96.5. EXTERNAL LINKS

253

Aten Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aten?oldid=628243540 Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Andre Engels, Rickyrab, Stevertigo,
Rbrwr, Llywrch, Dante Alighieri, Menchi, TakuyaMurata, Looxix, Ellywa, TUF-KAT, Andres, Charles Matthews, RickK, Reddi, Ffabris, Jnc, Hajor, Robbot, Henrygb, Brw12, Wikibot, ManuelGR, DocWatson42, Gtrmp, Alensha, Eep, Rich Farmbrough, Dbachmann,
Aranel, Bobo192, Cmdrjameson, BlueNovember, Alansohn, Wiki-uk, Rd232, Suruena, Garzo, TShilo12, Borderer, -Ril-, Tutmosis, Wayward, Mandarax, Koavf, Kalogeropoulos, Ttwaring, FlaBot, Gurch, Markh, Saraal, Roygbiv666, Roboto de Ajvol, YurikBot, RussBot,
Semolo75, Lexicon, Irishguy, Alex43223, BOT-Superzerocool, Ozaru, Lt-wiki-bot, Garion96, Mmcannis, Dzonko, That Guy, From That
Show!, Sardanaphalus, SmackBot, Reedy, McGeddon, KocjoBot, Eskimbot, Flameeyes, Gilliam, Jicannon, Cush, Stevenwagner, DHN-bot,
Pa-merynaten, OSborn, Rrburke, Leoboudv, King Vegita, Radagast83, Engwar, Dreadstar, Das Baz, BlackTerror, OneTopJob6, Nrgdocadams, Saerain, Bjankuloski06en, IronGargoyle, A. Parrot, TheSoggyStick, MTSbot, Galactor213, Noctifer, Iridescent, Joseph Solis
in Australia, JLCA, CmdrObot, Rosaecruz, Lazulilasher, FilipeS, Dougweller, Moheroy, Therealmikelvee, Escarbot, Dr. Blofeld, Alphachimpbot, Rnolst, WANAX, MER-C, Bravehearted, Acroterion, Andi d, Edward321, Simon Peter Hughes, Gun Powder Ma, Robin S,
FisherQueen, Anaxial, SlowJog, Stammer, McSly, 83d40m, DorganBot, CardinalDan, VolkovBot, AlnoktaBOT, MenasimBot, TXiKiBoT,
Apepch7, Rei-bot, Z.E.R.O., John Carter, Khabs, Seb az86556, Galandor, Isis4563, Falcon8765, Ottarvendel, PericlesofAthens, Bentogoa,
JetLover, Mimihitam, Oxymoron83, Ptolemy Caesarion, ClueBot, Descartes1979, The Thing That Should Not Be, Ryoutou, CharlieRCD,
DragonBot, Excirial, Alexbot, Drawn Some, Thehelpfulone, Nimavojdani, Vanished User 1004, Budelberger, XLinkBot, Addbot, Some
jerk on the Internet, Vatrena ptica, Cst17, Names of gods, Josh Keen, TheSuave, Yobot, Synchronism, AnomieBOT, Materialscientist,
ArthurBot, Xqbot, Kaelbu, 4twenty42o, GrouchoBot, GhalyBot, Thewillowinmyheart, Pinethicket, RedBot, Impala2009, Kataryna, Tahir
mq, Phearson, VenomousConcept, Dmthoth, NickVertical, Tibetan Prayer, Javierito92, KI6ZON, Hyarmendacil, Minkin9, Timtempleton, Immunize, Wikipelli, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie Bot, Akutra, Drift chambers, Haymouse, Iry-Hor, JYBot, GreenGoldsh17 and
Anonymous: 152
Atenism Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atenism?oldid=618581827 Contributors: SimonP, Michael Hardy, Ashley Y, Rursus, Hadal,
UtherSRG, Lethe, Home Row Keysplurge, Sharavanabhava, DanielCD, Rich Farmbrough, Dbachmann, SamEV, Bennylin, (aeropagitica), Pearle, Jonathunder, Ranveig, Rd232, Bdwilliamscraig, Dr Fell, Deacon of Pndapetzim, Notcarlos, Fred Condo, BD2412, Koavf,
Str1977, LeCire, Saraal, Michael Slone, Sjb90, Nutiketaiel, Igin, Richardcavell, Eduard Gherkin, Mmcannis, That Guy, From That
Show!, SmackBot, Bkawcazn, Pa-merynaten, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Proofreader, Leoboudv, Zvar, Radagast83, John D. Croft,
Thanatosimii, A. Parrot, NJMauthor, Judgesurreal777, Lonyo, LadyofShalott, Kosunen, Synergy, Dougweller, Epbr123, Escarbot, Alphachimpbot, Bravehearted, Mrld, Simon Peter Hughes, Textorus, Lord Pheasant, Arjun01, Redtigerxyz, VolkovBot, Sparkzy, Satseshat,
Wingedsubmariner, Michaeldsuarez, Digwuren, Elcobbola, Lightmouse, PipepBot, Niusereset, Place Clichy, Wikistoriographer, Wertuose,
Addbot, Gyonis, Luckas-bot, AnomieBOT, Jo3sampl, Xqbot, TPaineTX, Kelvin Samuel, Ladnavfan, MrArifnajafov, Thegeebox, EmausBot, ZroBot, OnePt618, The Dark Peria, ClueBot NG, Zakteh, Zakteh2, Helpful Pixie Bot, BattyBot, Nathanielrst, Mogism, JPerseus
and Anonymous: 81
Great Temple of the Aten Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Temple_of_the_Aten?oldid=623656944 Contributors: Delirium,
Warofdreams, Alensha, Utcursch, D6, Twthmoses, Captmondo, Markh, Mmcannis, That Guy, From That Show!, SmackBot, Leoboudv,
A. Parrot, Marysunshine, CmdrObot, KyraVixen, Cydebot, JamesAM, V79benno, Misibacsi, Jalo, L!nus, Jan1nad, Addbot, Wikipelli,
ZroBot, Fpan020 and Anonymous: 13
Meryre Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meryre?oldid=623657629 Contributors: Dimadick, Alensha, Deanos, Markh, Igin,
Curpsbot-unicodify, That Guy, From That Show!, SmackBot, Rory096, A. Parrot, JHunterJ, Cydebot, RobJ1981, Croton, Waacstats,
Andi d, AnnekeBart, SieBot, Addbot, Qkowlew, Yobot, RjwilmsiBot and Anonymous: 1
Neferneferuaten Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neferneferuaten?oldid=631421909 Contributors: Llywrch, Csernica, Dimadick,
Bearcat, RScheiber, Alensha, Echuck215, Fdewaele, FeanorStar7, Rjwilmsi, Str1977, Markh, Xtine66, Bgwhite, Bachrach44, Asarelah,
Mmcannis, SmackBot, Chris the speller, DHN-bot, Colonies Chris, Leoboudv, Adrigon, Cydebot, Dougweller, Magioladitis, Je Dahl,
R'n'B, 83d40m, Squids and Chips, Redtigerxyz, VolkovBot, L!nus, AnnekeBart, SieBot, Yintan, LKNUTZ, Mild Bill Hiccup, Sun Creator,
HarrierVI, DumZiBoT, Addbot, Ettrig, Luckas-bot, Yobot, KamikazeBot, AnomieBOT, Taam, PauAmma, FrescoBot, Thinking of England, Plasticspork, Trappist the monk, RjwilmsiBot, EmausBot, John of Reading, Emad97, Italia2006, Chewings72, Whoop whoop pull
up, CactusSeed, BG19bot, Hispaniensis, Hergilei, Iry-Hor, Smalleditor, Dodsona402, Plutonix, Jodosma and Anonymous: 16
Small Aten Temple Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_Aten_Temple?oldid=623656995 Contributors: Delirium, Warofdreams,
Alensha, D6, Twthmoses, Markh, That Guy, From That Show!, A. Parrot, Cydebot, V79benno, The Anomebot2, Hugo999, AlleborgoBot,
Addbot, RedBot, Primergrey and Anonymous: 1
Tutankhamun Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutankhamun?oldid=631663550 Contributors: MichaelTinkler, Vicki Rosenzweig,
Mav, Bryan Derksen, Jeronimo, Sjc, Andre Engels, Gianfranco, Karen Johnson, Zoe, Imran, Hephaestos, Frecklefoot, Edward, Infrogmation, Paul Barlow, Llywrch, Oliver Pereira, Nixdorf, Ixfd64, Gaurav, GTBacchus, Egil, Looxix, Ihcoyc, Ahoerstemeier, Derek davis,
Kricxjo, Julesd, Bogdangiusca, Andres, JamesReyes, Hashar, RodC, EALacey, JCarriker, Doradus, Tpbradbury, Nv8200p, Ffabris, Jnc,
Tempshill, Ed g2s, Bevo, Lord Emsworth, JonathanDP81, Wetman, Hajor, Dimadick, Robbot, Naddy, Tim Ivorson, Timrollpickering, Tobycat, Bkell, Mervyn, Hadal, MykReeve, Ruakh, TOO, DocWatson42, Lethe, Everyking, Jacob1207, Gro-Tsen, Cantus, Beardo, Alensha,
Bluejay Young, Iceberg3k, Bobblewik, Bookcat, Utcursch, Antandrus, Jossi, MacGyverMagic, Rdsmith4, Euphoria, PFHLai, Jawed, CesarFelipe, Neutrality, Ensrifra, Klemen Kocjancic, Karl Dickman, Deeceevoice, Valadius, Fanghong, Trevor MacInnis, Freakofnurture,
MattKingston, CALR, Jrp, Discospinster, Clawed, Wk muriithi, Moki80, Xezbeth, Ratatosk, Dbachmann, Paul August, MarkS, Jnestorius,
Furius, Brian0918, El C, Shrike, Lankiveil, Kwamikagami, Shanes, Kaveh, Jpgordon, Causa sui, Thuresson, Bobo192, Dralwik, Dystopos, Adraeus, Mfolkes, BrokenSegue, ZayZayEM, Elipongo, Jguk 2, Midas, Irrawaddy, TheProject, Flammifer, Pschemp, MPerel, Sam
Korn, Espoo, Jumbuck, Storm Rider, Wendell, Alansohn, Gary, Anthony Appleyard, Qwe, Polarscribe, Guy Harris, Rd232, Ricky81682,
Linmhall, InShaneee, Bootstoots, DreamGuy, Snowolf, Judson, Wtmitchell, Binabik80, BanyanTree, Saga City, ProhibitOnions, *Kat*,
Garzo, Runtime, Jblncht, RainbowOfLight, Sciurin, Dave.Dunford, Gunter, Versageek, Tobyc75, Avram Fawcett, Kitch, Richard Weil,
Adrian.benko, Bastin, Feezo, Nuno Tavares, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Woohookitty, FeanorStar7, TigerShark, Havermayer, Nuggetboy, PoccilScript, Miaow Miaow, E. Brown, MrWhipple, Vynce, Before My Ken, Nefertum17, Chochopk, Tabletop, Twthmoses, Hbdragon88, SCEhardt, Alcoved id, Pfalstad, Graham87, WBardwin, BD2412, David Levy, Pmj, Edison, Josh Parris, Pentawing, Rjwilmsi,
Angusmclellan, Nightscream, Koavf, Captmondo, Darguz Parsilvan, Mike s, Nneonneo, FlaBot, SchuminWeb, Akiss, Master Thief Garrett, Nihiltres, Fragglet, Hottentot, Kerowyn, Hellznrg, RexNL, Gurch, Str1977, Markh, Ben Babcock, Spikebrennan, BradBeattie, CJLL
Wright, WillMcC, VolatileChemical, Gwernol, Lo, Brandmeister (old), Jschultz, AlV, RussBot, Michael Slone, Nicander, Jumbo Snails,
Codythegreat, GusF, Hellbus, Stephenb, Dawud, Gaius Cornelius, Ritchy, Ugur Basak, Marcus Cyron, Alynna Kasmira, Odysses, MosheA,
NawlinWiki, Muntuwandi, Dysmorodrepanis, Wiki alf, Magicmonster, Worldruler20, Grafen, Ptcamn, Jaxl, Welsh, Dureo, Kiwidude,
Irishguy, Nick, D. F. Schmidt, Dmoss, CaliforniaAliBaba, Adam Rock, Felsir, Zagalejo, Xgu, Aaron Schulz, Foofy, Morgan Leigh, Bota47,

254

CHAPTER 96. TOMBS OF THE NOBLES (AMARNA)

Andropolis, Gsherry, Tuckerresearch, FF2010, Wikilackey, Sotakeit, E Wing, Seventy-one, BorgQueen, DGaw, Rlove, Jim Apple, HereToHelp, Petrograd, Ilmari Karonen, Extreme Unction, Extension, Allens, Bluezy, Kungfuadam, Mmcannis, DearPrudence, Samuel Blanning, DVD R W, Udimu, That Guy, From That Show!, BomBom, Sardanaphalus, Attilios, SmackBot, Dark droid, TomGreen, Unschool,
Iacobus, Aiman abmajid, Williamnilly, KnowledgeOfSelf, Zerida, FlashSheridan, David.Mestel, Pgk, Furry, Jagged 85, Delldot, Thenickdude, Lrothc, Abbatangelo, Septegram, Quidam65, Betacommand, Skizzik, Fogster, Carl.bunderson, BRoys, Bluebot, Cush, Skookum1,
Justforasecond, MK8, Master of Puppets, CGengomics, Paulleake, Lbh95, MalafayaBot, SchftyThree, Sadads, Rolypolyman, Whispering,
Prisoner627, DHN-bot, Broadacre, Rlevse, Htra0497, Esprix, Scwlong, Gsp8181, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Rebelkass, DanMat6288,
MaxCosta, Rrburke, Andy120290, Leoboudv, Addshore, Bolivian Unicyclist, Jmlk17, Aldaron, Fuhghettaboutit, Decltype, Bigturtle,
Nakon, Savidan, Oanabay04, Qylecoop, John D. Croft, RaCha'ar, SnappingTurtle, CJBR, Naaj, Dreadstar, RandomP, LoveEncounterFlow, Gth0824, Weregerbil, Only, Iridescence, Das Baz, Adrigon, Gump Stump, PeterJeremy, Gaelin, Pilotguy, DCB4W, Ohconfucius,
Bouncingmolar, CIS, ArglebargleIV, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Thanatosimii, Kuru, Khazar, John, Bendybendy, AmiDaniel, Writtenonsand,
Treyt021, Heimstern, SilkTork, Srdjan Vesic, Chiwara, Dr.saptarshi, A.b.s, Edwy, Minna Sora no Shita, Jazriel, Mgiganteus1, Goodnightmush, Fig wright, IronGargoyle, PseudoSudo, LancasterII, The Man in Question, Mr. Vernon, Panglossa, A. Parrot, Slakr, Jimmy Pitt,
Waggers, Mets501, Dcyer, Xionbox, Keycard, DabMachine, Norm mit, Tut74749, HelloAnnyong, Iridescent, Thameen, Shoeofdeath,
Chunga 67, Hawkestone, IvanLanin, Tony Fox, Pimlottc, Sandeepmdas, Blehfu, Az1568, Courcelles, Chovain, Charleenmerced, A.C.E,
FairuseBot, Tawkerbot2, BBuchbinder, Jtakemann, Ghaly, AbsolutDan, Darkingre, FatalError, ShakespeareFan00, CmdrObot, Glanthor
Reviol, DieKai, Elyu, Jordinho, Iuio, KyraVixen, RedRollerskate, FinFangFoom, Orayzio, Dgw, Keithh, Onion.terror, TJDay, Michaelhaag,
Cydebot, Iamnotgeorge, Ntsimp, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Kanags, Reywas92, Treybien, LordHuNPu, Steel, Scottiscool, SyntaxError55, UncleBubba, Gogo Dodo, Dreadpiratetif, Anthonyhcole, ST47, Stupid guy, Retired user 0002, Kozo, Tawkerbot4, Dougweller,
DumbBOT, Mcmachete, Morrowdays, Omicronpersei8, JodyB, Uspn, Mockiewicz, CieloEstrellado, Thijs!bot, Joseph.nobles, Barticus88,
Gaijin42, Qwyrxian, AntonioBu, Herbphilly, Mojo Hand, FlaviaR, John254, Woody, James086, Master Spiky, Therealmikelvee, Aericanwizard, Batman tas, Dawnseeker2000, Natalie Erin, Oreo Priest, Mentisto, KrakatoaKatie, AntiVandalBot, Kd5ogu, Majorly,