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What is/ was Modern Architecture?

In other words, are we still today in the era of Modern Architecture, or is it over,

What is/ was Modern Architecture? In other words, are we still today in the era of

having been replaced by some form of "Post-Modernism"?

Where do we locate Modern Architecture?

• Gothic, about 1150 to 1350 • Renaissance, about 1400 to 1600 • Baroque, about 1600 to 1700 • Rococo, about 1700 to 1750 • Neo-Classicism, about 1700 to 1800 • 19 th Century, 1800 to 1900 • Modernism, about 1900 to ?

Where do we locate Modern Architecture? • Gothic, about 1150 to 1350 • Renaissance, about 1400

Design Environments before the Industrial Revolution

(1) Neo-classicism (2) Picturesque

Design Environments before the Industrial Revolution (1) Neo-classicism (2) Picturesque (3) Gothic Revival

(3) Gothic Revival

(1)

(1) NEO

NEO--CLASSICISM

CLASSICISM

(1) (1) NEO NEO - - CLASSICISM CLASSICISM

Neo-classicism

Definition:

Definition:

Neo

Neo--classical,

classical, or

or "new"

"new" classical,

classical, architecture

architecture

describes buildings

describes

buildings that

that are

are inspired

inspired byby the

the

classical architecture

classical

architecture particularly

particularly of

of ancient

ancient

Greece and

Greece

and Rome.

Rome.

Domed roof Triangular pediment building isis likely Symmetrical shape likely toto have Symmetrical classical building Triangular
Domed roof
Triangular pediment
building isis likely
Symmetrical shape
likely toto have
Symmetrical
classical building
Triangular
shape
these features:
all of
AA Neo
Neo--classical
or all
features:
roof
Orders
The use
have some
Domed
some or
the Greek
The
Tall columns/
use of
columns/ orders
Greek && Roman
the full
full height
height of
building
building
Tall
that rise
rise the
Roman Orders
of the
orders that
of the
the
of
these
Hounslow, London, Park,, Hounslow, Osterley Park London, Robert Robert Adam Osterley Adam
Hounslow, London,
Park,, Hounslow,
Osterley Park
London, Robert
Robert Adam
Osterley
Adam

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Neoclassicism represents simplification after

Baroque and Rococo:

straight lines are favored over curves,

volumes are less often contrasted,

adornments are fewer,

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Neoclassicism represents simplification after Baroque and Rococo: straight lines are

symmetry becomes a must

columns and lintels are more frequent than arches,

triangular pediments than semi-circular ones.

balustrades crown buildings.

Origin

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

During the 1500s, the famous Renaissance architect

Andrea Palladio awakened an interest in the architecture

of ancient Greece and Rome.

Palladio's ideas became the model for architecture in

Europe for many centuries.

Origin Neo - - classicism Neo classicism During the 1500s, the famous Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio

In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the newly-formed

United States drew upon classical ideals to

construct grand government buildings as well as

smaller private homes.

United United States States Capitol Capitol,, Washington, Washington, D.C., D.C., 1793 1793--present present
United
United States
States Capitol
Capitol,, Washington,
Washington, D.C.,
D.C., 1793
1793--present
present

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

The neoclassical movement that produced

Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-

18th century, (1750 -1850)

Reaction against both the surviving Baroque and

Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to:

the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome,

Classicism.

to a lesser extent, 16th century Renaissance

the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient

Greek arts (where almost no Western artist

had actually been) and

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

The theme of neo-classicism:

(1) History (2) Purity (3) Rationality

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism The theme of neo-classicism: (1) History (2) Purity (3) Rationality

(4) Education

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

(I) History

The rediscovery of the past and the new

history.

The past as an architectural department

store.

1762-80.

Robert Adam (1728-92). Adam as a

neoclassicist and a decorator.

Example; Osterley Park, Hounslow, London,

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Osterley Park

Osterley

Park,, Hounslow,

Hounslow, London,

London, 1762

1762--8080

Robert Adam Front elevation Robert Adam
Robert Adam
Front elevation
Robert
Adam

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Hounslow, London,

Park,, Hounslow,

Osterley Park

London, 1762

Robert Adam

Osterley

1762--8080

Robert

Adam

Etruscan room
Etruscan room

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Foundation of

Foundation

of Modern

Modern Architectural

Architectural Theory

Theory

Hounslow, London,

Park,, Hounslow,

Osterley Park

London, 1762

Robert Adam

Osterley

1762--8080

Robert

Adam

Entrance hall
Entrance hall

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

(2) Purity

The classical past as good architecture, and a

source of basic principles.

The desire to strip away illusion, ambiguity,

(1713-80).

complexity (Baroque & Rococo)

Church of St. Genevieve/ The Pantheon,

Paris, 1757-90, Jacques-Germain Soufflot

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Church

Church of

of St.Genevieve

St.Genevieve// The

The Pantheon

Pantheon,, Paris,

Paris, 1757

1757--90,

90,

Jacques--Germain

Jacques

Germain Soufflot

Soufflot (1713

(1713--80).

80).

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Church Church of of St.Genevieve St.Genevieve / / The The
Front elevation / entry
Front elevation / entry

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Church

Church of

of St.Genevieve

St.Genevieve// The

The Pantheon

Pantheon,, Paris,

Paris, 1757

1757--90,

90,

Jacques--Germain

Jacques

Germain Soufflot

Soufflot (1713

(1713--80).

80).

View up towards dome
View up towards dome
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Church Church of of St.Genevieve St.Genevieve / / The The

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Church

Church of

of St.Genevieve

St.Genevieve// The

The Pantheon

Pantheon,, Paris,

Paris, 1757

1757--90,

90,

Jacques--Germain

Jacques

Germain Soufflot

Soufflot (1713

(1713--80).

80).

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Church Church of of St.Genevieve St.Genevieve / / The The
Interior court with frescoes
Interior court with frescoes

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Church

Church of

of St.Genevieve

St.Genevieve// The

The Pantheon

Pantheon,, Paris,

Paris, 1757

1757--90,

90,

Jacques--Germain

Jacques

Germain Soufflot

Soufflot (1713

(1713--80).

80).

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Church Church of of St.Genevieve St.Genevieve / / The The
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Church Church of of St.Genevieve St.Genevieve / / The The

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

(3) Rationality

Interest in pure geometrical forms and

volumes.

The "visionary" or "revolutionary" architecture

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (3) Rationality Interest in pure geometrical forms and volumes. The

of Etienne-Louis Boullee (1728-99).

Project for Newton Cenotaph, 1784.

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Project for Newton Cenotaph Cenotaph,, 1784. for Newton Project 1784.
Project for
Newton Cenotaph
Cenotaph,, 1784.
for Newton
Project
1784.

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Royal saltworks

Senans,, 1770s,

Nicolas Ledoux

Claude--Nicolas

Ledoux [1736

[1736--1806]).

saltworks at

et--Senans

Claude

1806]).

1770s,

Arc--et

at Arc

Royal

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Royal saltworks Senans , , 1770s, Nicolas Ledoux Claude -

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

(4) (4) Education Education

The The teaching teaching responsibilities

responsibilities of

of design:

design: the

the duty

duty ooff the

the

architect

architect or

or other

other educated

educated person

person asas aa citizen.

citizen.

Explicit

Explicit teaching:

teaching: the

the new

new museums,

museums, including

including those

those of

of

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas

Jefferson (1743

(1743--1826)

1826) at

at the

the second

second Monticello

Monticello

(1793--1809),

1809), near

(1793

Charlottesville, Virginia,

near Charlottesville,

Virginia, and

Sir John

and Sir

John

neoclassical capitol:

Washington, D.C.,

especially William

The neoclassical

1820), Charles

but especially

(1764--1820),

Washington,

Soane inin his

his house

Soane

(1764

The

but

1793--present,

robe

Walter.

Latrobe

London.

Capitol,,

Henry Lat

U. Walter.

everyone,

D.C., 1793

Thomas U.

architects: everyone,

United States

capitol: United

States Capitol

Benjamin Henry

Charles Bulfinch,

house inin London.

Bulfinch, Thomas

William Thornton,

present, architects:

Thornton, Benjamin

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Foundation of

Foundation

of Modern

Modern Architectural

Architectural Theory

Theory

Washington, D.C., Capitol,, Washington, States Capitol 1793--present United States D.C., 1793 present United
Washington, D.C.,
Capitol,, Washington,
States Capitol
1793--present
United States
D.C., 1793
present
United

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Source

Source of

of Inspiration

Inspiration

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Source Source of of Inspiration Inspiration Architects of the time

Architects of the time drew inspiration from a

number of architectural building types taken

from antiquity:

Most common resources are:

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism Source Source of of Inspiration Inspiration Architects of the time

(1) The Roman triumphal arch.

(2) The Greek / Roman temple.

(1)

(1) The

The Roman

Roman Triumphal

Triumphal

Arch

Arch

(1) (1) The The Roman Roman Triumphal Triumphal Arch Arch

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

The Building

The

Building Example

Example

of those and Pierre Pierre Francois out carries carries aa carved over each at each which
of those
and Pierre
Pierre Francois
out carries
carries aa carved
over each
at each
which breaks
lower and
are lower
hole isis the
center hole
each of
Constantine
Francois--
breaks out
with
and
the center
the
out over
(
))
carved
Arc
Paris
Carrousel, Paris
Arc dede Triomphe
Triomphe dudu Carrousel,
arches.
two are
slab of
Arch of
each
that
those
dividing the
subsidiary arches.
masonry with
rising toto anan
and rising
of masonry
arches, that
the arches,
of Constantine
Copied
separate column
Charles Piercier
columns, dividing
entablature, which
Leonard Fontaine
stand onon pedestals
narrower subsidiary
massive rectangular
(1806-08
Charles
Leonard
standing figure.
massive
three
main
narrower
Four
stand
separate
points
standing
main arch,
figure.
and at
rectangular slab
of Arch
detail of
points of
arch, the
the other
the detail
other two
Fontaine
Copied the
of breaking
three holes
column and
entablature,
breaking out
Piercier and
holes inin itit--the
pedestals and
Four columns,
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism The Building The Building Example Example of those and Pierre
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism The Building The Building Example Example of those and Pierre

(2)

(2) The

The Roman

Roman // Greek

Greek

Temple

Temple

(2) The Roman / / Greek Temple Temple

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

The Building

The

Building Example

Example

Maison Carree ( 130 AD )

‘Temple architecture were used widely

as an antique model for architecture.

The best preserved of all Roman

temples is the Corinthian Maison Carree

at Nimes (c. AD 130).

A typical temple - a rectangular building

the eighteenth century. Used as a model for churches widely in Attracted such bored epithets as
the eighteenth century.
Used as a model for churches widely in
Attracted such bored epithets as 'mere
copyism and 'cold imitation' to the Neo
with an open portico and pediment in
front with columns all round - was
classical movement
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism The Building The Building Example Example Maison Carree ( 130
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism The Building The Building Example Example Maison Carree ( 130
continued byby Napoleon church inin 1842. of anan antique reference toto the Direct reference paraphrase of
continued byby Napoleon
church inin 1842.
of anan antique
reference toto the
Direct reference
paraphrase of
was completed
Roman temple.
LaLa Madeleine
Maison Carree
Carree,, resulting
(1807--1842)
begun asas aa church,
Madeleine (1807
completed asas aa church
was continued
antique Roman
1842.
but was
Direct
temple.
1842)
of Glory
begun
the Maison
Glory but
church, was
paraphrase
of

Napoleon asas aa TTemple

emple

resulting aa lifeless

lifeless

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

  • (a) FRANCE

  • (b) ENGLAND

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (a) FRANCE (b) ENGLAND (c) GERMAN
  • (c) GERMAN

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (a) (a) France France classicism before telling images Most telling
  • (a) (a) France

France

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (a) (a) France France classicism before telling images Most telling

classicism before

telling images

Most telling

before and

classicism

images of

and prior

Most

of neo

prior

neo--

toto the

the French

French Revolution.

Revolution.

Spearheaded

Spearheaded byby 22

architects:

architects:

Boullee Claude language. expressive Architecture Claude--Nicolas Architecture asas anan expressive language. Etienne 1799) Louis Boullee Etienne--Louis
Boullee
Claude
language.
expressive
Architecture
Claude--Nicolas
Architecture asas anan
expressive language.
Etienne
1799)
Louis Boullee
Etienne--Louis
(1728--1799)
(1736
(1728
(1736--1806)
1806)

Nicolas Ledoux

Ledoux

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (a) (a) France France classicism before telling images Most telling
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (a) (a) France France classicism before telling images Most telling

i)i) Claude

Claude Nicholas

Nicholas Ledoux

Ledoux

i) i) Claude Nicholas Ledoux

Ledoux

Ledoux

Revolutionary

Revolutionary architect

architect inin his

his approach

approach toto the

the

architectural ideal

architectural

ideal made

made through

through geometry

geometry..

Ledoux

Ledoux was

was nono mere

mere copyist

copyist even

even when

when hehe applied

applied

conventional details.

conventional

details.

buildings between the traditional between 1765 and 1780 with the of the of French reconcile the
buildings between
the
traditional
between 1765
and 1780
with the
of the
of French
reconcile the
traditional elements
number of
HeHe designed
of buildings
designed aa number
new
1765
the
classicism with
French classicism
1780 inin which
which hehe attempted
the antique
attempted toto reconcile
antique..
elements of
spirit of
new spirit
and

Ledoux

Ledoux

Tollhouses (1780

Tollhouses

(1780s)

s)

Explored range

combinations. combinations.

neo--classical

Explored

classical

range of

of neo

included temple

Basically cube

and included

fronts with:

cube--like

Basically

like and

temple

fronts

with:

Arcuated Arcuated Palladian Palladian windows windows

Peristyles Peristyles

arrangement. arrangement. Specialty isis inin the constitution of Specialty constitution Domes Domes
arrangement. arrangement.
Specialty isis inin the
constitution of
Specialty
constitution
Domes Domes

AA host host of of other other classical classical elements. elements.

the combination

combination or

or rere--

of architectural

architectural

Ledoux Ledoux Tollhouses (1780 Tollhouses (1780 ’ ’ s) s) Explored range combinations. combinations. neo -
Ledoux Ledoux Tollhouses (1780 Tollhouses (1780 ’ ’ s) s) Explored range combinations. combinations. neo -

Ledoux

Ledoux

Royal

Royal Saltworks

Saltworks at

at Chaux

Chaux (1775

(1775--

1779) Aerial view showing the salt works which were built at the center of the double
1779)
Aerial view showing the salt works which were built at the
center of the double D-shaped plan
1779)
Ledoux Ledoux Royal Royal Saltworks Saltworks at at Chaux Chaux (1775 (1775 - - 1779) Aerial

Director's House, Saltworks, Arc et Senans; note the Banded Doric columns

Ledoux Ledoux Royal Royal Saltworks Saltworks at at Chaux Chaux (1775 (1775 - - 1779) Aerial

The curved range of work buildings

Ledoux

Ledoux

Chateau

Chateau dede Benouville

Benouville,, Calvados

Calvados

(1768 (1768--75) 75)

applied conventional

conventional details.

designed aa number

was nono mere

mere copyist

HeHe designed

copyist even

Ledoux was

of buildings

even when

hehe applied

number of

buildings

Ledoux

details.

when

new elements between attempted toto reconcile between 1765 the antique. elements of attempted new spirit of
new
elements
between
attempted toto reconcile
between 1765
the antique.
elements of
attempted
new spirit
of French
and 1780
1765 and
antique.
spirit of
of the

reconcile the

1780 inin which

which hehe

the traditional

traditional

French classicism

classicism with

with the

the

Besançon. Theater, 1775-79

Ledoux Ledoux Chateau de de Benouville Calvados (1768 (1768 - - 75) 75) conventional details. a
Ledoux Ledoux Chateau de de Benouville Calvados (1768 (1768 - - 75) 75) conventional details. a
Ledoux Ledoux Chateau de de Benouville Calvados (1768 (1768 - - 75) 75) conventional details. a

ii)ii) Etienne

Etienne--Louis

Louis Boullee

Boullee

ii) ii) Etienne Etienne - - Louis Louis Boullee Boullee

Boullee

Boullee

Architectural

Architectural visionary

visionary of

of France.

France.

Little built

Little

built works

works more

more of

of anan architectural

architectural theorist.

theorist.

Vision

Vision soared

soared beyond

beyond conventional

conventional means

means designs

designs

asas aa form

form of

of poetic

poetic communication.

communication.

UnUn--built

built abstract

abstract projects

projects pure

pure studies

studies of

of pure

pure

toto aa new

world of

with

new world

Utopian

geometry.

geometry.

with politics

politics and

Utopian ideals

ideals architecture

architecture must

the social

must bebe associated

associated

lead the

and the

social condition

condition toto lead

the way

way

of better

better standards.

standards.

Boullee

Boullee

Cenotaph

Cenotaph && Monument

Monument for

for

Sir

Sir Isaac

Isaac Newton

Newton (1784)

(1784)

metaphorical tribute

scientistss work.

hollow sphere

metaphorical

tribute toto the

Huge hollow

sphere asas

scientist

work.

Huge

the

elements. stripped scale with Monumental with stripped Monumental scale Interior View - Night: Internal illumination system
elements.
stripped
scale with
Monumental
with stripped
Monumental scale
Interior View - Night: Internal
illumination system to simulate the
solar system.
shrine.
and
and shrine.
house aa planetarium
planetarium
down classicizing
Building toto house
classicizing elements.
down
Building
Boullee Boullee Cenotaph & & Monument for Sir Sir Isaac Isaac Newton Newton (1784) (1784) tribute

Exterior View: note rows of cypress trees ringing the sphere

Boullee Boullee Cenotaph & & Monument for Sir Sir Isaac Isaac Newton Newton (1784) (1784) tribute

Boullee

Boullee

Bibliotheque Bibliotheque dudu Roi Roi (The (The National National Library) Library)

1788 1788

Library

of stacks

vault, full

Between

of tunnel

highlight

wall and

astness

walls of

full length

stacks

scale.

of the

vault.

and

of

the vvastness

defined byby walls

colonnade toto hi

space, defined

coffered barrel

and aa coffered

hall consisting

Between wall

overall scale.

length colonnade

consisting of

barrel vault.

Library hall

like space,

ghlight the

the overall

tunnel--like

and vault,

Boullee Boullee Bibliotheque du du Roi (The National Library) 1788 Library of stacks vault, full Between

iii)

iii) Alexander

Alexander--Pierre

Pierre Vignon

Vignon

iii) iii) Alexander Alexander - - Pierre Pierre Vignon Vignon

Vignon

Vignon

LaLa Madeleine

Madeleine (1807

(1807--1842)

1842)

the Maison direct copyism such approach temple. was completed of anan antique paraphrase Napoleon church, was
the Maison
direct copyism
such approach
temple.
was completed
of anan antique
paraphrase
Napoleon
church, was
Direct reference
Winckelmann would
church inin 1842.
copyism..
reference toto the
was continued
Theorist Winckelmann
with such
lifeless
of
would
Maison
but
1842.
Glory but
resulting aa lifeless
direct
disagree
Theorist
temple.
Carree
Direct
was
begun
Roman
disagree with
begun asas aa church,
approach of
paraphrase of
Temple of
continued byby
completed asas aa church
antique Roman
Napoleon asas aa Temple
of Glory
Carree,, resulting
Vignon Vignon La La Madeleine Madeleine (1807 (1807 - - 1842) 1842) the Maison direct copyism
Vignon Vignon La La Madeleine Madeleine (1807 (1807 - - 1842) 1842) the Maison direct copyism

iv)

iv) Jacques

Jacques--Germain

Germain

Soufflot

Soufflot

iv) iv) Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot Soufflot 1713 - - 1780
  • 1713 1713 -- 1780

1780

Soufflot

Soufflot

classical Roman classical Roman revival Question the Question of structure the validity of Roman validity of
classical
Roman classical
Roman revival
Question the
Question
of structure
the validity
of Roman
validity of
structure inin Roman
Truth of
revival
mode.
mode.
Truth
design.
design.
gothic
churches:
churches:
Remarked
Remarked onon lessons
lessons from
Paris
Church
from gothic
Church of
of St.
St. Genevieve/
Pantheon,
Genevieve/ Pantheon,
Paris (1757
92)
(1757--92)
Lightness Plan Venice St Mark resembling St Plan resembling Mark’’ss inin Venice entablatures from of
Lightness
Plan
Venice
St Mark
resembling St
Plan resembling
Mark’’ss inin Venice
entablatures
from
of structure
derived from
structure derived
examples
Domes
gothic examples
straight entablatures
Lightness of
straight
gothic
cross
with
Greek cross
columns with
single columns
supported byby single
Domes supported
Greek
Soufflot Soufflot classical Roman classical Roman revival Question the Question of structure the validity of Roman

Soufflot

Soufflot

entablatures columns with Greek cross Domes Greek cross with straight entablatures structure derived Lightness single columns
entablatures
columns with
Greek cross
Domes
Greek
cross
with
straight entablatures
structure derived
Lightness
single columns
derived from
Lightness of
of structure
from gothic
straight
gothic
examples
examples
St. Genevieve/
Plan
Venice
Mark’’ss inin Venice
St Mark
Paris
Church
Plan resembling
Church of
of St.
resembling St
Pantheon,
Genevieve/ Pantheon,
Paris (1757
92)
(1757--92)
supported byby single
Domes supported
with Greek/Roman England England decoration. decoration. and rich rich inin Interior Roman Sir John Soane’’ss Bank
with Greek/Roman
England
England
decoration.
decoration.
and rich
rich inin
Interior Roman
Sir John
Soane’’ss Bank
Bank of
with Sir
Interior
John Soane
ToTo compare
compare with
styling.
of
Greek/Roman styling.
Roman inin feeling
feeling and
lightness with
Gothic lightness
Gothic
Soufflot Soufflot entablatures columns with Greek cross Domes Greek cross with straight entablatures structure derived Lightness

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (b) (b) England England
  • (b) (b) England

England

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (b) (b) England England
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (b) (b) England England

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

England

England

England

England made

made the

the most

most determined

determined effort

effort toto

apply the

apply

the new

new archaeological

archaeological information

information toto the

the

creation of

creation

of aa new

new architecture

architecture directly

directly inspired

inspired

byby the

the antique.

antique.

Sometimes they used information interior space. early architects architects used buildings and and interior There were
Sometimes they
used information
interior space.
early architects
architects used
buildings and
and interior
There were
information
context toto
garden buildings
changed their
they changed
their context
Sometimes
were early
There
garden
space.
Palladio, but
from
generation preferred
preferred toto study
study the
previous architects
generation
from previous
the antique
antique models
from
like Palladio,
from first
but later
architects like
first hand.
models
hand.
later

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism (England)

(England)

Building Examples

Building

Examples

England, London

of England,

Bank of

London

Bank

John Soane

(1788--1833)

Sir John

Soane

(1788

1833)

Sir

 
and fretwork. thin diagrammatic basic geometric geometric surface expression composition. the composition. of grooves Pilasters, entablatures
and fretwork.
thin diagrammatic
basic geometric
geometric
surface expression
composition.
the composition.
of grooves
Pilasters, entablatures
Flat surface
and coffers
diagrammatic
tendencies evident.
reduced toto aa thin
entablatures and
the basic
fretwork.
coffers
evident.
outline.
the
Evident are
Evident
of the
are the
Rigorist
patterns
reduced
Pilasters,
crisp
Flat
shapes
Rigorist tendencies
grooves and
patterns of
shapes of
expression stressing
stressing the
crisp outline.
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (England) (England) Building Examples Building Examples England, London of England,
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (England) (England) Building Examples Building Examples England, London of England,

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism England

England

Building Examples

Building

Examples

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism England England Building Examples Building Examples Chiswick Hall/ Chiswick Hall/

Chiswick Hall/

Chiswick

Hall/ House

House

Lord Burlington

Lord

Burlington

Lord Burlington

Lord

Burlington had

new wave

new

wave of

antique.

antique.

His

had anticipated

anticipated the

the

for the

the

of enthusiasm

enthusiasm for

the antique

His knowledge

knowledge of

of the

antique isis

based onon Palladio's

based

Palladio's architecture

architecture and

and

of his antique. his codified codified and of the the antique.
of
his
antique.
his codified
codified and
of the
the antique.

and illuminated

illuminated drawings

drawings

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism England England Building Examples Building Examples Chiswick Hall/ Chiswick Hall/

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (c) (c) Germany Germany
  • (c) (c) Germany

Germany

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (c) (c) Germany Germany
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (c) (c) Germany Germany

Neoclassicism inin Germany

Neoclassicism

Germany

Architects

Architects inin Germany

Germany developed

developed aa severe

severe but

but

inventive style

inventive

style inin the

the 1790s

1790s that

that was

was indebted

indebted toto

Ledoux Ledoux..

AsAs well

well asas toto Winckelmann's

Winckelmann's call

call for

for aa return

return toto

the the The great the spirit spirit of The
the
the
The great
the spirit
spirit of
The

the Brandenburg

of ancient

ancient Greek

Greek architecture

architecture..

the Berlin

great monument

monument of

of the

Berlin school

school was

was

Brandenburg Gate

Gate (1789

(1789--93)

93) byby Langhans

Langhans

Neo--classicism

Neo

classicism (Germany)

(Germany)

Building Examples

Building

Examples

Gate (1789

(1789--93)

93)

Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (Germany) (Germany) Building Examples Building Examples Gate (1789 (1789 -
Neo - - classicism Neo classicism (Germany) (Germany) Building Examples Building Examples Gate (1789 (1789 -

Brandenburg Gate

Langhans

Langhans

Distantly

Distantly inspired

Brandenburg

inspired byby the

the

propylaea onon the

propylaea

the Acropolis

Acropolis inin

The Greek of the order. first of the first Athens, was the with the with the
The Greek
of the
order.
first of
the first
Athens,
was the
with the
with the
Prussian
virtues of
linked with
was linked
order.
ceremonial
imbued with
moral virtues
Greek revival
rise inin modern
ceremonial Doric
Athens,
itit was
rise
The
was
imbued
moral

of the

the

Doric gateways

gateways toto

modern Europe.

Europe.

revival inin Germany

Germany

the growth

growth of

of

Prussian nationalism

nationalism and

and

the supposed

supposed

the Doric

Doric

Karl Friedrich

Karl

Friedrich Schinkel

Schinkel

Karl Friedrich Karl Friedrich Schinkel Schinkel

Karl Friedrich

Karl

Friedrich Schinkel

Schinkel

of monuments Karl Friedrich but undemonstrative undemonstrative Ionic with aa series Berlin with Facade inin the
of monuments
Karl Friedrich
but undemonstrative
undemonstrative Ionic
with aa series
Berlin with
Facade inin the
monuments inin
of nineteen
open
transformed
with itsits
colonnade
colonnade
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colonnade
(1824--1828)
Museum (1824
Altes Museum
1828)
Altes
bays; with
aa rationalist
long
Facade
Berlin
Karl
form of
series of
long but
Greek style.
style.
nineteen bays;
of anan open
rationalist Greek
Friedrich Schinkel
Schinkel transformed
colonnade of
the form
Karl Friedrich Karl Friedrich Schinkel Schinkel of monuments Karl Friedrich but undemonstrative undemonstrative Ionic with aa

(2)

(2) THE

THE PICTURESQUE

PICTURESQUE

(2) (2) THE THE PICTURESQUE PICTURESQUE

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque

(1) The

(1)

The English

English Landscape

Landscape Garden

Garden

The

The new

new English

English garden:

formal gardens

garden: aa reaction

of the

the 17th

reaction against

17th century.

century.

against French

French

and Dutch

and

Dutch formal

gardens of

The

The architectural

architectural impact

impact of

of the

the Picturesque

Picturesque was

part of

was the

the

of anan

new emphasis

new

emphasis itit placed

placed onon architecture

architecture asas part

environment.

environment.

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque tradition

landscape garden

garden..

tradition of

of England

England created

created the

the

English landscape

English

example inin relation the effect capture of this Henry architecture. architecture. AA variety example of capture
example
inin relation
the effect
capture
of this
Henry
architecture.
architecture.
AA variety
example of
capture the
variety of
Henry Hoare's

of different

different kinds

kinds of

of structure

structure were

were plac

placeded

relation toto carefully

carefully composed

of aa painting

composed plantings

painting byby Claude

plantings inin order

Claude or

and garden

garden

order toto

effect of

or Poussin

Poussin..

Hoare's Stourhead

Stourhead was

was anan outstanding

outstanding

gardening and

this approach

approach toto gardening

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque

Stourhead

Stourhead House

House and

and Gardens,

Gardens, Stourton,

Stourton,

Warminster

Warminster

The Picturesque The Picturesque Stourhead House and Gardens, Stourton, Warminster Warminster
The Picturesque The Picturesque Stourhead House and Gardens, Stourton, Warminster Warminster

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque

Stourhead

Stourhead House

House and

and Gardens,

Gardens, Stourton,

Stourton,

Warminster

Warminster

The Picturesque The Picturesque Stourhead House and Gardens, Stourton, Warminster Warminster

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque

William Chambers

Chinese Pagoda,

Gardens, Surrey

Kew Gardens,

Pagoda, 1763

Sir William

Chambers

Chinese

Surrey

1763

Kew

Sir

The Picturesque The Picturesque Chambers Pagoda, Surrey Gardens, 1763 William Chinese Kew Sir
The Picturesque The Picturesque Chambers Pagoda, Surrey Gardens, 1763 William Chinese Kew Sir

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque

(2)

(2) The

The Concept

Concept of

of the

the Picturesque

Picturesque

Contemporary

Contemporary with

with neo

neo--classicism

classicism (England)

(England)

Intellectual

Intellectual underpinnings:

underpinnings: aa new

new concept

concept of

of

nature

(nature asas life;

nature (nature

genius loci

the genius

loci// spirit

spirit of

life; the

of the

the

place),

place),

modern concept nationalism. nationalism. new and of historical The modern Exoticism and about aesthetics and cultural
modern concept
nationalism.
nationalism.
new
and
of historical
The modern
Exoticism and
about aesthetics
and cultural
historical and
aesthetics,, aa new
The
appreciation
cultural diversity.
diversity.
style. Exoticism
of style.
new thinking
concept of
thinking about
appreciation of
new

The Picturesque

The

Picturesque

(3)

(3) Picturesque

Picturesque Associationism

Associationism

The

The transfer

transfer of

of picturesque

picturesque composition

composition from

from the

the

garden toto the

garden

the house

house and

and the

the invention

invention of

of anan

aesthetic theory

aesthetic

theory ((associationism

associationism)) toto account

account for

for

itsits appeal.

appeal.

James

Fonthill

Fonthill Abbey,

James Wyatt

Wyatt for

Abbey, Wiltshire,

for William

Wiltshire, Eng.,

Eng., 1795

1795--1807,

1807, byby

William Beckford.

Beckford.

(3) GOTHIC

(3)

GOTHIC REVIVAL

REVIVAL

(3) GOTHIC (3) GOTHIC REVIVAL REVIVAL

Gothic

Gothic Revival

Revival

Adaptation occurred after 1800 – approximately 1830’s

to 1850’s.

Style very particular to place and building typology.

From supposition that Gothic architecture was an

indigenous style of Northern Europe

Revivalism tendencies hinged on:

Style as development of Northern culture – patriotism

zone.
zone.

Style best suited to a northern climate and colder

New material of construction:

Gothic style – skeletal articulation and tensile

structure renders itself to be expressed in iron as the

new material in the industrial age.

Gothic

Gothic Revival

Revival

Contributions to modern thoughts of architecture

Free planning

Asymmetrical massing

Varied silhouettes

Plasticity of forms

Exploitation of colour and texture in use of indigenous

stones.

Gothic Gothic Revival Revival Contributions to modern thoughts of architecture Free planning Asymmetrical massing Varied silhouettes

Style kept alive a sense of craftsmanship at a time of

mass production was beginning to alter the age old

habits of the building industry.

Style more prevalent in England and America. To be

used in the design of churches and country houses.

Classical style for public buildings and mansions.

Lyndhurst

Tarrytown, New York

1838 and 1864-65

Lyndhurst Tarrytown, New York 1838 and 1864-65

Gothic

Gothic Revival

Revival

Gothic Gothic Revival Revival

Gothic

Gothic Revival

Revival

Sir Charles Barry assisted by A. W. N. Pugin House of Parliament, London Gothic Details 1835-67
Sir Charles Barry assisted by A. W. N. Pugin
House of Parliament, London
Gothic Details
1835-67

THE END

THE

END..

THE END THE END … … . .