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M. Rades - Finite Element Analysis

M. Rades - Finite Element Analysis

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2D finite elemet analysis. Displacement method. Direct stiffness method. Bars. Beams and frames. Linear elasticity. Energy methods. 2D elements. Isoparametric elements. Plate bending elements.
2D finite elemet analysis. Displacement method. Direct stiffness method. Bars. Beams and frames. Linear elasticity. Energy methods. 2D elements. Isoparametric elements. Plate bending elements.

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12/07/2015

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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given
to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now
F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992.
It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the
Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and
integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the
28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured
along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of
BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element
analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist
students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in
the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where
students are supposed to use commercial programs.
In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a)
understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite
element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages
and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and
(e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors.
The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems.
It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts.
Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by
frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves
approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane
frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements.
Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students
have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing
stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems,
(c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work
equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the
need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear
equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of
equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions.
As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to
reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts.

November 2006

Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor
anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la
Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992.
Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de
la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de
includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa
cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost
structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din
Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în
analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip
de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu
se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ
de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii
aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă.
La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor
studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura
programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze
programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e)
să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor.
Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare
bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în
două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu
zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului
de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente
patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii
să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de
rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea
folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic
virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea
integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice
liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de
ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită.
Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba
engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai
acestei limbi.

Noiembrie 2006

Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface

i

Contents

iii

1. Introduction

1

1.1 Object of FEA

1

1.2 Finite element displacement method

3

1.3 Historical view

4

1.4 Stages of FEA

5

2. Displacement Method

9

2.1 Equilibrium equations

9

2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility

10

2.3 Force/elongation relations

11

2.4 Boundary conditions

12

2.5 Solving for displacements

12

2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

13

3. Direct Stiffness Method

17

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element

17

3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

19

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation

19

3.2.2 Force transformation

20

3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates

21

3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

22

3.3 Link’s truss

25

3.4 Direct method

26

3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements

28

3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix

29

3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

30

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations

31

3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix

33

3.10 Reactions and internal forces

35

3.11 Thermal loads and stresses

36

3.12 Node numbering

37

Exercises

41

4. Bars and shafts

47

4.1 Plane bar elements

47

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium

47

4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions

48

4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends

49

4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates

51

4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends

52

4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces

55

4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector

56

4.1.8 Initial strain effects

59

4.2 Plane shaft elements

60

Exercises

63

5. Beams, frames and grids

79

5.1 Finite element discretization

79

5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam

81

5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

83

5.3.1 Shape functions

84

5.3.2 Stiffness matrix

86

5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

88

5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends

89

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces

89

5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions

92

5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

95

5.5 Basic convergence requirements

96

5.6 Frame element

97

5.6.1 Axial effects

97

5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

98

CONTENTS

v

5.6.3 Coordinate transformation

98

5.6.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates

100

5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix

100

5.8 Grids

111

5.9 Deep beam bending element

116

5.9.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam

117

5.9.2 Shape functions

118

5.9.3 Stiffness matrix

121

6. Linear elasticity

123

6.1 Matrix notation for loads, stresses and strain

123

6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V

125

6.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface

σ

S

126

6.4 Strain-displacement relations

127

6.5 Stress-strain relations

128

6.6 Temperature effects

130

6.7 Strain energy

130

7. Energy methods

131

7.1 Principle of virtual work

131

7.1.1 Virtual displacements

131

7.1.2 Virtual work of external forces

133

7.1.3 Virtual work of internal forces

133

7.1.4 Principle of virtual displacements

134

7.1.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations

137

7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy

139

7.2.1 Strain energy

139

7.2.2 External potential energy

140

7.2.3 Total potential energy

140

7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method

143

7.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method

148

7.4.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics

148

7.4.2 Discretization

149

7.4.3 Principle of virtual displacements

149

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

vi

7.4.4 Approximating functions for the element

149

7.4.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements

150

7.4.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector

151

7.4.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector

151

7.4.8 Solution and back-substitution

152

8 Two-dimensional elements

153

8.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST)

153

8.1.1. Discretization of structure

153

8.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field

154

8.1.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field

155

8.1.4 The matrix [ ]

B

158

8.1.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector

159

8.1.6 Remarks

160

8.2 Rectangular elements

176

8.2.1 The four-node rectangle (linear)

176

8.2.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic)

178

8.3 Triangular elements

180

8.3.1 Area coordinates

180

8.3.2 Linear strain triangle (LST)

182

8.3.3 Quadratic strain triangle

185

8.4 Equilibrium, convergence and compatibility

187

8.4.1 Equilibrium vs. compatibility

187

8.4.2 Convergence and compatibility

188

9 Isoparametric elements

191

9.1 Linear quadrilateral element

191

9.1.1 Natural coordinates

192

9.1.2 Shape functions

193

9.1.3 The displacement field

194

9.1.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates

195

9.1.5 Element stiffness matrix

198

9.1.6 Element load vectors

199

9.2 Numerical integration

200

9.2.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature

200

CONTENTS

vii

9.2.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature

203

9.2.3 Stiffness integration

204

9.2.4 Stress calculations

207

9.3 Eight-node quadrilateral

208

9.3.1 Shape functions

209

9.3.2 Shape function derivatives

210

9.3.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix

211

9.3.4 Element stiffness matrix

211

9.3.5 Stress calculation

213

9.3.6 Consistent nodal forces

214

9.4 Nine-node quadrilateral

219

9.5 Six-node triangle

221

9.6 Jacobian positiveness

223

10 Plate bending

225

10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff)

225

10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin)

229

10.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements

232

10.3.1 ACM element (non-conforming)

232

10.3.2 BFS element (conforming)

238

10.3.3 HTK thick rectangular element

239

10.4 Triangular plate-bending elements

244

10.4.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming)

245

10.4.2 Thick triangular element (conforming)

248

10.4.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT)

250

References

257

Index

265

1.

INTRODUCTION

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a
multidisciplinary technique, based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural
Mechanics, encompassing elasticity, strength of materials, dynamics, plasticity, etc,
(2) Numerical Analysis, involving approximation methods, solving linear sets of
equations, eigenproblems, etc, and (3) Applied Computer Science, dealing with the
development and maintenance of large computer codes.
FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. Its task is to model
and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. The
procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stress-
strain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like
coordinates) distributed through the structure. This requires a matrix notation. The
tools are the computers, able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them.

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