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1. WHAT IS AI?

Turing Test requirements:


1. natural language processing
2. knowledge representation
3. automated reasoning - use the stored data to answer questions and dra
w new conclusions
4. machine learning - adapting, detecting patterns
A rational agent is one that acts so as to achieve the best outcome, or where th
ere is uncertanity, the best
expected outcome.
In any formal theory, there are true statements that have no proof within the th
eory.
Satisficing - making decisions that are good enough.
Three key-steps of a knowledge-based agent:
1. the stimulus must be translated into an internal representation
2. the representation is manipulated by cognitive processes to derive ne
w internal representations
3. these are retranslated back into action
Understanding language requires an understanding of the subject matter and conte
xt.
They proposed a model of artificial neurons
in which each neuron is characterized as being on or off, with a switch to on
g
in response to stimulation by a sufficient number of neighboring neurons.
Instead of trying to produce a programme to simulate the adult
mind, why not rather try to produce one which simulated the child s?
it is useful to have a formal, explicit representation of the world and its work
ings and to be
able to manipulate that representation with deductive processes.
a large number of elements could
collectively represent an individual concept
robust language understanding would require general knowledge about the world an
d a general method for
using that knowledge.
2. INTELLIGENT AGENTS
An agent is anything that can be ENVIRONMENT viewed as perceiving its environmen
t through sensors acting upon that environment through actuators.
An agent s choice of action at any given instant can depend on the entire percept
sequence observed to date, but not on anything it hasn t perceived.
This sequence of actions causes the environment to go through a sequence of stat
es. If the sequence is desirable, then the agent
has performed well.
As a general rule, it is better to design performance measures according to what
one actually
wants in the environment, rather than according to how one thinks the agent shou

occurrin

ld behave.
For each possible percept sequence, a rational agent should select an action tha
t is expected
to maximize its performance measure, given the evidence provided by the percept
sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has.
Rationality maximizes expected performance, while perfection maximizes actual pe
rformance.