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Germanic personal names in Galicia

Germanic names, inherited from the Suevi which settled


Galicia and Northern Portugal in 409 CE, and also from
Visigoths, Vandals, Franks and other Germanic peoples,
were the most common names among Galician people
during the Early and High Middle Ages. This article deals
with the Germanic personal names recorded and used in
Galicia, Northern Portugal, and in adjoining regions, in
territories which belonged to the Suebic kingdom of Galicia, during the Early Middle Ages, since the settlement of
the Suevi in 409 CE, and up to the 12th century.

was usually a noun with the same gender of the bearer.


Others were hypocoristics, either directly formed from a
composite name, or derived from any of the themes usually found forming them.[5] Less frequently a name was
per se an appellative, a noun, either an adjective or a substantive.

While these names were transmitted among the Suevi following the usual Germanic rules of inheritance,[6] which
were variation (passing just one element of the name:
king Rechiar was son of king Rechila, who in turn was
son of king Hermeric) and alliteration (names beginning
with the same sound: king Maldras was the son of a no1 Germanic names
bleman named Masila) later on full names were transmitted from grandfather to grandson (commemoration), following a trend common up till now in most of Western
Main article: Germanic name
Germanic names were the most common personal names Europe.

1.1 Adaptations
Aside from the conversion of many Germanic endings
into Romance or Latin standards, these names suered
other major phonetic adaptations,[7] like the change on
the stress of the word from the rst to the penultimate
syllable, the conversion of most [] into [t] or [d], and
the conversion of [h] into [k] before a consonant, getting lost in most other instances. [W] was initially preserved, although noted as [u], or [oy], before becoming [gw], or less usually [b]. Later on these early inherited names suered most of the changes that took apart
Western Romance languages, and namely Galician, from
Latin, such as consonant lenition, diverse palatalizations,
Germanic personal names in a Galician medieval document from
961 CE: Mirellus, Viliefredus, Sedeges, Evenandus, Adolinus, Se- and the conversion of the vocalic system. All of these
doni, Victimirus, Ermoygus, and others, together with some Latin phenomenons contributed to the existence of a very large
number of variants for every recorded name: a single
and Christian names
name such as Ostrofredus, was in fact recorded in Galicia
in Galicia during the Early and High Middle Ages, sur- as Ortofredus, Ostofredo, Ostouredus, Ostrofedone, Stopassing Christian and Roman names in number and bredo, and Strofredo.[8]
popularity.[2] These names were mostly of East Germanic
tradition, the ones used by the Suebi, Goths, Vandals
and Burgundians, among other people. Together with 2 Names used by the Suevi
these names Galicians inherited also the Germanic onomastic system, so that a man or a woman was characThis is a relation of names used by the Suevi of Gallaecia
terized exclusively by a single name (or/and by a nickduring the 5th and 6th century, and which had been
name or alias), with no surname, and only occasionally
recorded in a few surviving chronicles, inscriptions, and
using also a patronymic. More than a thousand of such
in the acts of local ecclesiastical councils:
names have been preserved in local records[3] and in local
toponyms.[4]
Many of these Germanic names were composite, dithematic names, were the second element or deuterotheme

Hermericus, Heremigarius, Rechila, Rechiarius,


Agriulfum, Maldras, Massila, Framta,
1

THEMES

3 Themes
3.1 Protothemes
Here is a list of many of the rst themes which were used
for the formation of Germanic personal names in Galicia and NW Iberia. Many of them are related to war,
victory, fame, boldness, strength and war-like qualities
(bald-, funs-, hild-, gund-, nand-, rod-, seg-, send-),
totemic animals (ar-, wulf-, ber-, ebur-), and weapons
(brand-, bruni-, rand-, saru-), while many others refer
to knowledge, love, and other peaceful qualities (fred, leob-, mun-, ragi-, rad-, uin-). Some notable ones
refers to the condition of ruler or master (fro-, ric-,
vald-, Froya, Theodinus, Tructinus, Hendinus). Another group refers to the own tribe, nation or country
(conia-, fulc-, teod-, leod-, man-, truct-, gavi-, gogi, kend-); while other appear to make an explicit reference to Huns (Hun-), Suevi (Sav-), Goths (Gut-), Vandals (Vandal-), Celts (Vala-), Vendians/Slavs (Venet-),
Galindians/Balths (Galind-), Franks (Frank-), Saxons
(Sax-), Angles (Engl-), Danes (Dan-), and other Germanic and non Germanic peoples. Finally, while some
elements are identical to others found in Celtic anthroponymy (And-, Dag-, -mar, -riks) some others appear
to be adaptations of Latin words and names incorporated
in the Danube regions: Florens, Fortis, Crescens...
Forms marked with an asterisk are unrecorded, and hence
hypothetical. PGmc is a common abbreviation for ProtoGermanic.
ab-, to PGmc *abn[12] 'man': Abbelinus.
abr-, to PGmc *abraz 'huge, strong': Abragasia,
Abrecan, Abronilli.
Silver coin of king Rechiar (43855). The reverse reads IVSSV
RICHIARI REGES, Latin for by order of King Rechiar.

Frumarius, Rechimundus, Remismundus,


Veremundus, Chararici, Ariamirus, Ildericus, Theudomirus, Miro, Nitigisius, Uittimer,
Anila, Remisol, Adoric, Eboricus, Siseguntia
f, Audeca, Malaricus, Pantardus, Neula,
Hildemirus, Commundus, Ermaricus, Sunila,
Becilla, Gardingus, Argiovitus, Gomedei,
Rodomiro, Ermengontia f, Remisiwera f,
Thuresmuda f, Suinthiliuba f.

ad-, later a-, with no clear etymology: Adefonsus,


Adegundia, Adeqisio, Aderedus, Aderico, Adesindus,
Adica, Adiero, Adarius, Adila, Adileobo, Adileova,
Adimirus, Adolinus, Adosinda.
adal-, to PGmc *aalaz 'noble': Adala, Addalinus,
Adegaster, Adelasindo, Atalamondo.
agi-, egi-, later ei-, either to PGmc *agez 'fear'
or to *agj 'edge': Agimadus, Agio, Agiulfus,
Aidio, Egeredus, Egica, Egila, Agila, Egildus, Agildus, Egilo, Ailo, Eigonza, Eileuva, Eilleus, Eimirus,
Eindu, Eirigu, Eisindus, Haginus.
agr-, having no evident etymology: Agrivulfum,
Agromirus.
aist-, to PGmc *aistn 'to pay reverence': Aistando.

Many of these names, used by notable kings such as Miro,


Reckila and Theudemirus, were extraordinarily popular during posterior centuries, and have originated also
large number of local toponyms: Mirn, to Miro;[9] Requin, Requis, Requis, Rece to Reckila;[10] Tuimil,
Toimil, to Theudemirus.[11]

ala-, to PGmc *ala 'all, wholly': Alaguntia, Alamiro,


Alaricus, Alarius, Alatrudia, Alobrida, Aloindo,
Aloitus, Alvarus.
alb-, to PGmc *albaz 'elf': Albiaster, Alvaricus, Alvatus.

3.1

Protothemes

ald-, to PGmc *aldaz 'old': Aldemirus, Aldereto,


Aldericus, Aldia, Aldinus.
aldr-, to Proto-Germani *aldran 'age, life': Aldras,
Aldroitus.
ali-, to PGmc *aljaz 'other': Alia, Alio, Aliaricus,
Alifreda, Aliulfus, Aliverga, Alivergo, Aliverko, Aliverta, Alivertus, Alliefredus
am-, eim-, em-, en-, to PGmc *haimaz 'dear':
Amingus, Eimoricus, Emila, Emilo, Emiso, Enaredus, Engildus, Entrudi.
amal-, to PGmc *amal- 'valiant, brave': Amalilli.
amed-, to PGmc *amitaz 'continuous: Amedon,
Amedeiro.
an-, to PGmc *an- 'forefather': Anagildus, Analsus,
Anila, Anilo, Anualdus, Anulfo.
and-, ant-, to PGmc *anda 'throughout': Andeatus,
Andericus, Andiarius, Andifonso, Andila, Andilevo,
Andilo, Anditio, Ando, Andosindus, Andulfus, Antemirus.
ans-, to PGmc *ansuz 'god': Ansedeus, Ansemarus, Ansemirus, Ansemondus, Anseredo, Ansericus, Ansetrudia, Ansila, Ansileova, Ansilo, Ansiulphus, Ansiunda, Ansobrida, Ansoi, Anson, Ansuallo,
Ansuario, Ansueto, Ansuildi, Ansvertus.

3
ast-, to PGmc *astaz 'branch' or *austaz 'East':
Astaguerra, Asterigo, Astileuva, Astredo, Astualdu,
Astulfus.
astr-, ostr-, obstr-, stor-, to PGmc *austraz 'East':
Astragis, Astragundia, Astramondus, Astratus, Astremarus, Astriverga, Astrogoto, Astruara, Astruario,
Astruedu, Astruildi, Astrulfus, Obstrisinda, Ostamalus, Ostosia, Ostrofreda, Ostrofredo, Ostromirus,
Astromirus, Estromirus, Storesindo.
at-, later ad- to PGmc *hauz 'war': Ataulfus, Atarius, Atericus, Aton.
atan-, tan-, to PGmc *anaz 'year': Atanagildus,
Atanaricus, Atanus, Tanina, Tanino, Atanitus, Tano,
Tanoi, Tenildi.
att-, to PGmc *attn 'father': Atauldus, Attan, Attila,
Attina.
aud-, od-, to PGmc *audaz 'wealth': Audeca, Audesinda, Audila, Audinus, Audibertus, Audofredo,
Audugus, Ausendus, Oda, Odemundus, Odamirus,
Odericus, Odisclus, Odorica, Odoynus, Oduarius,
Otualdo.
aur-, or-, to PGmc *auraz 'sand, sea': Auresindus,
Aurilli, Orosinda.
aus-, os-, to PGmc *aus- 'shinning': Osoarius, Osobredus, Osmundo, Osoredo, Osorico, Ausarigus,
Osoy, Ossila, Ozandus.

aquis-, to PGmc *akwesiz 'axe': Aquisilde

bad-, later ba-, to PGmc *badw 'battle':


Badamundus, Bademirus, Badila, Badosindus.

ar-, to PGmc *arnn 'eagle' or to *arwaz 'swift,


ready': Aragunti, Arosinda, Arosindus, Arualdus,
Aruildi, Arumundo.

bait-, to PGmc *baitaz 'ship, boat': Baitus.

ard-, to PGmc *harduz 'hard' or to *arduz


'land': Ardabastus, Ardericus, Ardaldus, Ardesendus, Ardilo, Ardulfus, Artemiro, Erdebredo.
ari-, argi-, to PGmc *harjaz 'army': Arebuldo, Argeberto, Argefonsus, Argemirus, Argemondo, Argenilli, Argeredus, Argericus, Argesindus,
Argeva, Argevadus, Argevitus, Argifonsa, Argifredus, Argileuva, Argilo, Argioi, Argiuolus, Argivastro,
Ariulfus.
aria-, to PGmc arjaz 'noble': Arias, Ariastre.
arn-, to PGmc *arnuz 'eagle': Arnadius, Arnaldus,
Arnulfo.
asc-, to PGmc *askaz 'ash-tree': Ascarigus, Ascarius, Asculfo.
ase-, to PGmc *haswaz 'grey': Asemondus, Asileva,
Asinoy, Asiulfus, Asofuda, Asoi, Asoredus.
asp-, to PGmc *aspn 'aspen': Asparigus.

bald-, balt-, to PGmc *balaz 'bold': Baldemarius, Baldemirus, Balderedo, Balderico, Baldesindo,
Baldila, Baldoi, Baldoigius, Baltarius, Baltino,
Balto.
bar-, to PGmc *baraz 'man': Barilli, Barsilli, Baron,
Baroncellus, Baronza, Barvaldus.
bat-, to PGmc *bataz 'good': Bati, Batinus, Baton.
baud-, to PGmc *baudiz 'ruler':
Baudesindus.

Baudemirus,

baz-, to PGmc *bazaz 'naked': Bazarius


beg-, bag-, bec-, bac-, to PGmc *bgaz 'contest, quarrel': Baga, Bega, Becilla, Bagesindus, Becosindo, Bagina, Bagino, Baquina, Baquino, Begica,
Pegito.
ber-, to PGmc *bern 'bear': Bera, Bergundi,
Berila, Berildi, Berosildi, Berilo, Berina, Berinus,
Beroi, Berosindus, Berulfus.
berg-, verg-, to PGmc *bergaz 'shelter': Bergas,
Bergila, Vergilli, Vergina, Virgia.

3
bern-, to PGmc *bernuz 'bear': Bernaldus.
bert-, vert-, to PGmc *berhtaz 'bright': Berta,
Bertamirus, Bertarius, Bertinus, Berto, Bertosinda,
Bertuara, Betrulfus, Bretenandus, Vertila.

THEMES

dan-, da-, to PGmc *daniz 'Dane': Damiro, Damondus, Danila.


dest-, test-, maybe to Latin dexter 'right, skilful':
Destoy, Destericus, Desteilli.

bett-, bitt-, with no clear etymology: Betellus, Betericus, Bitilo, Bitto.

doc-, duc-, to PGmc *dgiz 'day': Docemiro,


Ducila.

bid-, to PGmc *bid 'request, prayer': Biddi, Bidualdus.

dod-, with no clear etymology: Dodo, Doda.

bil-, bel-, to PGmc *bilaz 'good' or *blan 'axe':


Bela, Belavrida, Belesarius, Belestrio, Belfonsus,
Bellengo, Bellerto, Bello, Belloy, Belmirus, Billa.
bland-, with no clear etymology: Blandila.

dulc-, dolc-, to PGmc *dulgan 'enmity', *dulgaz


'law, debt': Dulcemirus, Dolcemondus.
ebr-, ebur-, evor-, to *eburaz 'boar': Ebragundia,
Ebreguldus, Ebregulfus, Ebrildi, Eburicus, Evorinus.

bliv-, to PGmc *blwaz 'blue': Bliviaricus.


bon-, to PGmc *bniz 'prayer, petition': Bonesindus, Bonilde, Bonimiro, Boninus, Boniza, Bonoi.
bot-, but-, to PGmc *bt 'good, prot': Botan, Butila.
brand-, to PGmc *brandaz 're, sword': Brandericus, Brandila, Brandinus, Brandiulfus, Brandon.
brun-, to PGmc *brunjn 'breastplate': Brunildi.
burgal-, to *Bulgar- '? Bulgarian': Burgala.

elp-, to PGmc *help 'help': Elperico.


elpand-, to Germanic *elpandus 'elephant': Elpandus.
engl-, to PGmc *angilaz 'Angles: Engladius.
engo-, to PGmc *Ingwaz 'a god': Engomirus, Engoredus, Engorigus.
ens-, maybe to Latin ensis 'sword': Ensalde, Iensericus.
er-, her-, to PGmc *heruz 'sword': Erifonsus,
Eroigius, Eruulfus, Herus.

ca-, to PGmc *ga- 'with': Camundus.


canut-, to PGmc *kntaz 'bold': Canuto.
car-, kar-, to PGmc *kar 'care': Karmirus.
carl-, to PGmc *karlaz 'man': Carlo.
cart-, kart-, to PGmc *krattaz 'cart, wagon': Cartinus, Cartemirus.
cen-, to PGmc *kwenn 'woman':
Cenusenda.

dom-, to PGmc *dmaz 'judgement, ruling':


Domerigo.

Cenabrida,

cend-, kend-, zend-, quint-, to PGmc *kenan


'child': Cendamiro, Cendas, Cendon, Kenderedus, Kendulfus, Kindiverga, Quintila, Quintilo, Zendasindo.

erm-, herm-, to PGmc *ermenaz 'great': Ermaldus, Ermedrudia, Ermefara, Ermefreda, Ermefredo,
Ermegildus, Ermegis, Ermego, Ermegoto, Ermegotus, Ermegundia, Ermelindus, Ermemirus, Ermericus, Ermerote, Ermesinda, Ermiarius, Ermila, Ermildi, Ermileuva, Ermitus, Ermoleo, Ermosindus,
Ermoygius, Ermulfo, Heremigarium, Hermecisclus,
Hermellus.
evo-, to PGmc *ehwaz 'horse': Euvenandus, Eva,
Evorido, Evosindo, Ivolicus, Ibilli.
faf-, to PGmc *fa-, maybe related to IndoEuropean *papp- 'dad': Fala, Faa.

cens-, zens-, maybe to PGmc *zinz 'tribute', or to


*kwniz 'woman': Censerigus, Censoi, Zenzitus.

fag-, to PGmc *fagenaz 'glad, joyful': Fagila, Fagildus, Fagilo, Faginus.

conia-, to PGmc *kunjan 'tribe, nation': Coniaricus.

fald-, to PGmc *faldiz 'fold, cloak': Falderedo, Falgildus, Fardulfus.

cresc-, maybe
Crescemirus.

to

Latin

crescens

'thrive':

criz-, to PGmc *krs 'dainty, food': Crizila.


dad-, ded-, to PGmc *ddiz 'deed': Dada, Dadila,
Dadilo, Dadinus, Dado, Dede.
dag-, dac-, to PGmc *dagaz 'day': Dacamiro, Dacoi, Dagadrudia, Dacaredus, Dago, Daildus.

fand-, to PGmc *fanjn 'infantryman': Fandila,


Fandina, Fandinus, Fannus.
faq-, fak-, to PGmc *fah- 'glad, joyful': Facalo,
Facco, Fakino, Faquilo.
far-, to PGmc *faran 'journey, ship': Faregia,
Farella, Farino, Farita, Farnus, Framiro, Fraredus,
Frarigo, Fregulfus, Ferildi.

3.1

Protothemes

fat-, to PGmc *fatan 'cloth; vessel': Fatu, Fateredus.


fel-, l-, to PGmc *felu 'much, very': Felellus, Felgirus, Felmiro, Filisteus, Filivertus, Filon.
or-, to PGmc *raz 'oor' or to Latin orens
'blooming, prosperous: Floresindus
fof-, with no clear etymology: Fofo, Fonus, Fofellus.
fons-, funs-, to PGmc *funsaz 'eager, ready': Fonso,
Fonsa, Fonsinus, Fonsellus.
fradi-, to PGmc *fran 'ecacy': Fradegundia,
Fradila, Fradiulfus.
fram-, to PGmc *framaz 'forward;
Framila, Framilli, Framtan, Framuldo.

valiant':

frank-, franc-, to PGmc *frankn 'javelin; Frank:


Francellus, Francemirus, Franco, Francoi, Francolino, Frankila, Frankilo.
fred-, frid-, to PGmc *friuz 'peace' or to *frdaz
'fair, beautiful': Freda, Fredamundus, Fredario, Fredegundia, Fredemiro, Fredenanda, Fredenandus,
Fredericus, Fredesinda, Fredilli, Fredisclus, Fredoaldus, Fredoindus, Fredosindus, Freduarius, Fredulfus, Fredus, Fridiverto.
froa-, frau-, frog-, froy-, fron-, to PGmc
*frawjn 'lord, master': Froarengus, Fralenko, Frogeva, Frogildi, Frogina, Frogiulfo, Froiellus, Froila,
Froilo, Froiloba, Froisenda, Froisendus, Fronildi,
Fronosili, Fronuldo, Froya, Froyo, Froyslo, Fruaricus, Frugildus, Fruginus, Frauino, Frumirus,
Frunilo.
frum-, from-, to PGmc *frumn 'foremost, rst'
and *frumistaz 'rst': Fromista, Fremosilli, Fromaldus, Fromaricus, Fromildus, Fromosinda, Fromosindus, Fruma, Frumarius, Frumellus, Frumildi.
fulc-, to PGmc *fulkan 'crow, army': Fulcaredus.
gad-, gat-, to PGmc *gadn 'comrade': Gademiro,
Gadenanda, Gaton.
gael-, gel-, to PGmc *gailaz 'merry':
Gelmiro, Geloira.

Gaella,

gaf-, gef-, geb-, to PGmc *geb 'gift': Gao, Gebuldus, Gefera.


gaid-, to PGmc *gaid 'spearhead, arrowhead':
Gaidus.
gaif-, to PGmc *waibjanan 'to surround': Gaifar.
galind-, kalend-, to PGmc *galind- 'Galindian (a
Baltic people)': Galindus / Kalendus.
gan-, maybe to Germanic gan 'enchantment':[13]
Ganati, Ganilli, Ganiti, Ganoi.

gand-, to PGmc *gandaz 'wand, sta': Gandila,


Gandinus, Gandulfo, Gandus.
gard-, to PGmc *gardaz 'house, enclosure':
Gardingus, Gardulfus.
gas-, ges-, gis-, ger-, gir-, to PGmc *gaizaz 'spear':
Gasuildi, Gera, Gesa, Gero, Geserigus, Gesmira,
Germira, Gesmiro, Gesulfus, Ierulfus, Giraldus, Gismundus, Germundus, Gisovredus, Gisvado.
gast-, to PGmc *gastiz 'guest': Gastre.
gaud-, caud-, with no clear etymology, maybe
*gaut- 'Goth', or to Latin gaudeo 'rejoice':
Caudemirus, Gauderigus, Gaudesindo, Gaudilani,
Gaudilli, Gaudinas.
gav-, gau-, gogi-, cogi-, gagi-, cagi-, kegi-, to
PGmc *gaujan 'district': Cagildo, Cagita, Cagitus,
Gagica, Gaufredus, Gaulfus, Gavila, Gavina, Gavinus, Gega, Gegitus, Gigelus, Gogia, Gogilli, Gogina,
Gogitus, Gogius, Goymundus, Guimundus, Guginus, Gugivertus, Guimirus, Guiricus, Guisenda, Goysenda, Guisindus, Kagilda, Keila.
geld-, gild-, kelt-, to PGmc *geldan 'tribute, recompensa': Geldemirus, Gildaricus, Gildo, Keltoi.
gen-, ian-, ion-, to PGmc *gennan 'beginning': Genildi, Ionilde, Genlo, Genobreda, Gemundus, Ianardo, Ionarico.
gend-, of unclear meaning: Gendo, Gendina.
get-, git-, 'glory': Geda, Getericus, Getilli, Getina,
Getoy, Gidiberto, Gitarius, Gitesindus, Gitio.
gisl-, viscl-, cisl-, to PGmc *gslaz 'hostage': Cisla,
Viclavara, Viscaverga, Visclafredo, Visclamirus,
Visclamundus, Visclario.
givel-, to PGmc *geb(e)ln 'skull, gable': Givellan.
glad-, to PGmc *gladaz 'bright, glad': Gladila.
god-, gud-, later go-, gu-, to PGmc *gdaz
'good': Godefredus, Godegildus, Godella, Godellus,
Godemiro, Godenanda, Godesinda, Godoigia,
Godomundus, Gudenandus, Guderedus, Guderigo, Gudesindus, Gudesteus, Gudigeba, Gudila,
Gudileuva, Gudilo, Gudilulfo,Gudiverga.
gol-, to PGmc *gljanan 'to greet', glaz 'pride':
Golinus, Gollo.
gom-, gum-, to PGmc *gumn 'man': Gomadus,
Gomaldo, Gomaredus, Gomarigus, Gomesindo,
Gomita, Gomulfus, Gomundus, Guma, Gumarius,
Gumellus, Gumila, Gumito.
gram-, to PGmc *gramaz 'furious: Gramila.
gran-, to PGmc *grannaz 'slim, slender' or to
*gran 'moustache': Granilo.

3
grim-, to PGmc *grmn 'mask, helmet': Grima,
Grimaldus.
gris-, to PGmc *grsanan 'to dread', or to *grsaz
'grey': Grisulfus, Gresomarus.
guald-, to PGmc *waldaz 'powerful, mighty': Gualdarius, Gualdeo.
guandal-, to PGmc *wandilaz 'Vandal': Guandalisco, Guandalar.
guld-, to PGmc *wuluz 'splendour': Goldegildo,
Goldredo, Guldarius, Gulderigus.
guldr-, goltr-, to PGmc *wulraz 'wonderful, precious: Goldregodo, Gulderes, Gualdramirus.
gulf-, golf-, to PGmc *wulfaz 'wolf': Golfarico,
Gulfarius, Gulfemirus.
gund-, gunt-, gunz-, cunt-, gond-, to PGmc
*gunthz 'ght': Gonceria, Gondella, Gondenanda,
Gonso, Gonta, Gontemondus, Gontere, Gonderes,
Gontoi, Gontualdo, Gonza, Guncitus, Gundarius, Gundebredo, Gundebrida, Gundelinus, Gundemarus, Gunderamnus, Gunderedo, Gunderigus,
Gunderona, Gundertia, Gundesindus, Gundifortis,
Gundigeva, Gundila, Gundilo, Gundisalva, Gundisalvus, Gundiscalcus, Gundivadus, Gundivaldo, Gundivera, Gundiverga, Gundon, Gundulfo, Guntato,
Guntedrudia, Guntellus, Guntemirus, Gunterotis,
Gunti, Guntiesclo, Guntigio, Guntilli, Gundesilli,
Guntina, Guntinus, Guntuigia.
gut-, later god-, to PGmc *gutn 'Goth': Gotesendus, Goto, Gota, Goton, Gudegisus, Gutellus,
Gutemirus, Gutemondo, Gutilli, Gutilo, Gutina, Gutinus, Guto, Guta, Gutumarus.
hend-, ind-, hand-, probably related to Burgundian
hendinus 'king': Endulfus, Hamdino, Indisclus.

THEMES

lal-, lel-, lil-, with no clear etymology: Lalla, Lalli,


Lallina, Lallinus, Lallus, Lelino, Leliola, Lilliola,
Lelli, Lilla, Lilli, Lillo, Lilla.
leo-, to PGmc *hlewaz 'glory, renown': Leomirus.
leode-, leude-, to PGmc *leudiz 'man, people': Ledla, Leodarius, Leodefredus, Leodegasti,
Leodegisius, Leodegundia, Leodemiro, Leodemundo, Leoderigus, Leodesindo, Leodeuigus, Leodo,
Leodulfus.
leov-, leub-, to PGmc *leubaz 'beloved': Leovaldo, Leovegildus, Leovegoto, Leoveredus, Leoverigus, Leoverona, Leoverto, Leovesenda, Leovesindus,
Leovilli, Leovus, Leuba, Leubegutus, Liuvilo, Lovoi,
Lubellus, Lubila, Lubinus.
lot-, to PGmc *hludaz 'famous: Lotarius.
mact-, later meit-, to PGmc *mahtiz 'power, might':
Meitinus, Matericus, Mectubrida, Meitilli, Meitulfus.
mag-, to PGmc *magenan 'might, power': Magan,
Magila, Magitus, Maniaricus, Maniarius, Magnitus,
Maniulfus, Megildus.
mal-, with unclear etymology, maybe related to
PGmc *malanan 'to grind': Malaricus, Malaredus.
malasc-, maybe to PGmc *malskaz 'proud':
Malasco.
maldr-, maybe to PGmc *maldriz 'our': Maldras.
man-, later ma-, to PGmc *manan 'fellow':
Manildi, Manusildi, Manileuva, Manilla, Maninus,
Manosenda, Manosindus, Manualdus, Manulfus,
Menegundia.
mand-, mant-, to PGmc *manaz 'kind': Mandila,
Mandinus, Mandulfo, Mantellus.

hild-, ild-, eld-, ald-, to PGmc *heldj 'battle':


Alderedus, Alduarius, Eldan, Eldebona, Eldegeses,
Eldegotus, Eldegundia, Eldemirus, Eldemundus, Eldesinda, Eldesindus, Eldigia, Eldinus, Eldivercus, Eldivertus, Eldo, Eldoigius, Elleca, Ildebredus, Ildefonsus, Ilderigus, Ildiverga, Ildoi, Ildoncia, Ildras, Ilduara, Ildulfus.

mann-, later man-, to PGmc *mannz 'man': Manitus, Manna, Mannello, Manni, Manno, Manoim,
Mansuara.

ik-, eq-, ig-, maybe to PGmc *eka 'I': Igo, Ika, Ikila.

matl-, matr-, to PGmc *malan 'assembly': Matrosindus, Matrinus, Matroi.

it-, id-, with no clear etymology: Idiverto, Itila, Itilo,


Itimondo, Itaultus.
iuv-, iub-, with no clear etymology: Iovellinus, Iubarius, Iubinus, Iuuisclus, Iuvatus, Iuvericus,
Iuvila, Iuvitus.
ket-, qued-, quid-, to PGmc *kweanan 'to
say': Kedisilo, Ketemera, Ketenando, Keti, Ketoi,
Quedesendo, Quedulfus, Quidemirus, Quidericus,
Quitarius, Quitoi.

marc-, to PGmc *mark 'region, border' or to *marhaz 'horse': Marco, Marcosendus, Marcitus.
mart-, maybe to PGmc *maruz 'marten': Martila.

maur-, later mour-, maybe to PGmc *mauraz 'ant'


or to Latin maurus 'Moor': Mauran, Maurentan,
Maurican, Mauron.
medum-, later meom-, to PGmc *medumaz 'middling, moderate': Meduma.
mer-, mir-, mar-, to PGmc *mrjaz 'famous:
Margilli, Merila, Meroildi, Mervigius, Mira, Mirella,
Mirellus, Miro, Mirosinda, Mirualdo.

3.1

Protothemes

mod-, mud-, to PGmc *mdaz 'anger, wrath':


Modericus, Moderido, Modildus, Modilli, Mudario,
Mudila.

rand-, rant-, to PGmc *randaz 'shield': Randemirus, Randili, Randinus, Rando, Randuarius,
Randulfus, Rendericus.

mun-, mon-, to PGmc *muniz 'thought': Monefonsus, Monobredo, Munisclus.

raup-, to PGmc *raupjanan 'to plunder, to spoil':


Rauparius.

mund-, mond-, to PGmc *mund 'protection':


Monderico, Mondoi, Mundellus, Mundila, Mundildus, Mundinus, Mundus.
nand-, nant-, to PGmc *nanaz 'bold, courageous: Nandamundus, Nandaricus, Nandinus, Nandoi, Nandulfo, Nandus, Nantemiro, Nantildo.

rec-, req-, ric-, to PGmc *rkjaz 'mighty, noble': Recaredus, Reccafredus, Recebrida, Recedrudia, Recelli, Recemera, Recemirus, Recemundus,
Recesenda, Recesindus, Recesuinda, Recesuindus,
Rechiarius, Recilli, Requilli, Recinus, Recualdus, Regaulfus, Reicionda, Rekeritus, Requefonsus, Rezevera, Ricardo, Riquila, Riquilo, Riquilodo, Riquoi.

naust-, with not clear etymology: Naustus, Naustila.

ref-, to PGmc *hrabnaz 'crow': Refulfo.

neu-, nu-, to PGmc *neujaz 'new': Nuilla, Nuillo,


Neula.

rem-, to PGmc *remez 'rest, calmness: Remegildus,


Remesario, Remesilli, Remesindus, Remestro, Remismundus, Remisol, Rimionda.

nit-, to PGmc *naz 'hatred' or *nijaz 'kinsman':


Nitigisius.
not-, to PGmc *nauthiz 'need': Notarius.
of-, to PGmc *ubjn 'abundance': Oa, Ola, Olo.
old-, to PGmc *hulaz 'kind, clement': Olda, Oldaricus.

rest-, to PGmc *ristiz 'rising up': Restericus.


rod-, rud-, to PGmc *hraz 'fame': Rodemirus,
Rodevertus, Rodosildi, Rodougus, Roelindus, Rouvredo, Rudericus, Rudesindus, Rudila, Rudilo.
rom-, rum-, to PGmc *hrmaz 'fame': Romarigus,
Romila, Rumario.

opp-, maybe to PGmc *bjanan 'to celebrate


solemnly', related to Latin opus 'work': Oppa, Oppila.

sala-, later sa-, to PGmc *salaz 'hall, dwelling':


Salamirus, Salamarus, Salla.

osd-, to PGmc *huzdan 'treasure': Osdulfus.

sand-, sant-, to PGmc *sanaz 'truth, justice':


Sandinus, Sando, Santimirus.

pant-, to PGmc *pandan 'pledge' or *banti 'district':


Pantardus, Panto, Pantinus.

sar-, to PGmc *sarwan 'arm, armament': Saroi,


Saruilli.

pap-, pep-, with no clear etymology: Papellus, Papitus, Pappinus, Pappo, Pepi, Pipericus, Pipinus.

sax-, later seix-, to PGmc *sahsan 'knife' and


*sahxn 'Saxon': Saxo, Seixomir.

penn-, pen-, with not known etymology: Penetrudia, Penus, Pennino.

scap-, to PGmc *skapan 'vessel': Scapa.

rad-, rat-, to PGmc *rdaz 'advice': Rademirus,


Rademundus, Radesindus, Radulfus, Ratario, Retericus.

scer-, to PGmc *skriz 'pure': Scerinus.

ragi-, ragn-, later rei-, to PGmc *raginab 'advice,


decision': Ragesenda, Ragesindus, Ragian, Ragifredo, Ragimiru, Ragito, Ragolfus, Raiola, Raiolo,
Reginaldus, Reimondus, Reirigus.
rak-, to PGmc *rakan 'reason, talk' or *wrakaz 'pursuer': Rakericus.
ram-, to PGmc *rammaz 'strong; ram': Ramila, Ramon, Ramulo.
rana-, rani-, later ra-, probably to PGmc *rannjanan 'to run': Ranarius, Ranemira, Ranemirus, Ranemundus, Ranilo, Ranisclus, Raniverga,
Raniverta, Ranivertus, Ranosenda, Ranosindus,
Ranualdus, Ranulfus

scarc-, to PGmc *skalkaz 'servant; sword': Scarcila.

sed-, to PGmc *seduz 'custom': Sedino.


sedeg-, to PGmc *sedgaz 'well-bred, wellbehaved': Sedeges.
seg-, sag-, sig-, later se-, si-, to PGmc *segez 'victory': Sagatus, Sagildo, Sagulfus, Segemundus, Segesindo, Segestro, Segga, Segika, Segimarus, Segioi,
Segomirus, Seguinus, Sigeberto, Sigefrida, Sigeredus,
Sigericus, Sigesgundia, Sigesinda, Sigila, Sigu, Segio.
sel-, to PGmc *sliz 'good, kind': Selmirus, Seloi.
selv-, to PGmc *selbaz 'Self': Selvas, Selvatus.
sen-, sin-, to PGmc *senaz 'ever, old': Senatrudia,
Seniberta, Senildi, Senuita, Senuldo, Sinerta, Sinifredus.

3
send-, sent-, to PGmc *senaz 'companion' or
*swenaz 'strong': Senda, Sendamirus, Sendello,
Sendericus, Senderiga, Sendina, Sendinus, Sendoi,
Sendon, Sendredus, Senduitu, Sendulfus, Senta,
Sentarius, Sindamundus, Sindi, Sindigis, Sindila,
Sindileuba, Sindilo, Sindiverga, Sindo, Sinduara.
ser-, to PGmc *swraz 'valued, honoured': Seririgo,
Serulfus, Servaldus.
sigunt-, to PGmc *sebunn 'seventh': Sigunterigo.
sis-, ses-, maybe related to Old High German sisu
'funerary song, ritual': Sescutus, Sesericus, Sesina,
Sesmiro, Sesmundo, Sesoi, Sesuito, Sisa, Sisebutus,
Sisegundia, Sisellus, Sisildus, Sisileova, Sisilli, Sisilu,
Sisinus, Sisiverta, Sisiverto, Sisivigia, Sisnandus, Sisualdo, Sisuita, Sisuldus, Sisulfus, Zisila.
sit-, to PGmc *setan 'seat': Sitagellus, Siti, Sitividis.
smer-, to PGmc *smerwn 'fat': Smerlo.
sontr-, suntr-, to PGmc *sunrjaz 'southern': Sontrilli, Suntria.
span-, to PGmc *spananan 'to lead': Spanaricu,
Spanarius, Spanilo, Spanosendo, Spanubrida.
spand-, maybe to *spannanan 'to join': Spandaricus.
spar-, to PGmc *sparwaz 'sparrow':
Sparuildi.

Espallo,

speraut-, to PGmc *spreutanan 'to sprout': Sperautan.


spint-, to PGmc *spena 'fat': Spintilo, Spintino.
spod-, later espo-, with not clear etymology:
Spodemiro, Spoderigo.
stan-, to PGmc *stainaz 'stone': Stanildi.
stod-, with not clear etymology: Stodildi.
strouc-, to PGmc *streukanan 'to stroke': Strouco.
suab-, sab-, sav-, sev-, to PGmc *swbaz 'Suebian': Sabaredus, Sabegoto, Sabila, Sabita, Sabitus, Savaracus, Savaricus, Savegodus, Savildi, Savoy,
Sevegildo, Suabas, Suavar.
sue-, to PGmc *swe- 'own': Sueredus, Suimirus.
sund-, sunt-, to PGmc *suniz 'South':
demirus, Suntarius.

Sun-

suni-, seni-, sani-, soni-, to PGmc *sunj


'truth': Sanigia, Seniaredus, Seniulfus, Sonegildus,
Songimera, Soniaricus, Sonifreda, Sonita, Suniagisclus, Suniarius, Suniemirus, Sunila, Sunildi, Sunilo,
Sunitus.

THEMES

sunn-, to PGmc *sunnan 'Sun': Sonna.


tanc-, to PGmc *ankaz 'favor, grace': Tancila,
Tancinus, Tancus, Tanquilli.
tanth-, to PGmc *tanz 'tooth': Tandus.
tat-, zaz-, to PGmc *tat-, with no clear etymology:
Tata, Tatina, Zazitus, Zazo.
teg-, to PGmc *egnaz 'thane, freeman': Tegila, Tegino, Tegio, Tegitus.
teq-, with no clear etymology: Tequilo, Texilli.
teud-, teod-, tod-, ted-, later teo-, to PGmc *eud
'nation' and *eudanaz 'king': Teadario, Tederona,
Tedoy, Teobaldus, Teoda, Teodefredo, Teodegildo,
Teodegondia, Teodemirus, Teodemundus, Teodenandus, Teoderados, Teoderago, Teoderedus,
Teodericus, Teodesinda, Teodesindus, Teodeverga,
Teodiberta, Teodila, Teodildi, Teodilo, Teodinus,
Teodisclus, Teodiu, Teodoriga, Teodulfus, Teton,
Teudecutus, Teudisila, Theodivertus, Tiotevadus,
Todegia, Todegogia, Toduldo, Tota, Tudiscaisum.
tit-, tet-, to PGmc *taitn 'little boy': Tetina, Titila.
tors-, turis-, to PGmc *ursaz 'giant': Torsario,
Turisulfus.
trad-, to PGmc rdaz 'quick': Tradus, Tradinus.
tras-, to PGmc *ras 'move, ght': Tracinus, Trasaricus, Trasarius, Trasavara, Trasendus,
Trasido, Trasilli, Trasiuadus, Trasmira, Trasmiro,
Trasmondo, Trasoi, Trassemutus, Trasuarius, Trasuinda, Trasulfus.
trast-, to PGmc *rafstiz 'confort' or *traustaz
'strong': Trastalo, Trastelus, Trastemiro, Trastidia,
Trastina, Trastulfus, Trastivigia.
trevu-, to PGmc *trewwaz 'faithful': Trevuleus.
truct-, later troit-, to *druhtiz 'people, army',
and druhtnaz 'lord, master': Tructinus, Tructa,
Tructemiro, Tructemondo, Tructericus, Tructesinda,
Tructesindus, Tructilli, Tructus, Truitellus, Truitero.
trud-, to PGmc *drdaz 'friend, beloved': Truda,
Trudigildus, Trudildi, Trudilo, Trudina, Trudinus,
Trudulfus
tund-, tunt-, to PGmc *tunuz 'tooth': Tumtuldo,
Tundulfus, Tuntila.
un-, on-, to PGmc *hnaz 'cub' and 'Hun': Uniscus,
Unisco, Onaredus, Onegilda, Onegildo, Onemirus,
Onesindus, Onildi, Unilli, Onoricus, Onosinda, Unemundus, Unileus, Unilla.
vad-, guad-, later gua-, ga-, to PGmc *wadaz
'ford':
Guadla, Uaduuara, Vadamundus,
Vademirus.

3.2

Feminine deuterothemes

vala-, guala-, quala-, to PGmc *walaz 'the


slain, battleeld', or *walhaz 'Celt': Gualamarius,
Gualamira, Gualamirus, Qualatrudia, Qualavara,
Valarius.
vamb-, to PGmc *wamb 'belly': Vamba.
vand-, guand-, to PGmc *wanduz 'wand, rod':
Guanadildi, Guandila, Guandilo, Guantaldus,
Vandino, Vuanda.

9
vitt-, vict, later vit-, to PGmc *witjan 'comprehension': Uiti, Uittina, Victemirus, Victericus, Vitarius,
Vitas, Vitila, Vitildus, Vitiza, Vittimero.
viv, oyv-, to PGmc *wban 'wife, woman': Oyeuio,
Vivildus.
viz-, quiz-, with unclear etymology: Quizino, Viza,
Vizamundus, Vizila, Vizoi.

ven-, guin-, to PGmc *weniz 'friend': Guina, 3.2


Guinilli, Uenildi, Guinus.

Feminine deuterothemes

Elements commonly found as second element of feminine


venet-, guend-, vened-, genit-, to PGmc *wenedaz
names include:
'Vendian, Slav': Genitigia, Guendo, Venedario, Venetricus.
-berta, -verta, to PGmc *berht 'bright': Aliverta,
ver-, to PGmc *wr 'pledge; true': Vera, VerRaniverta, Sisiverta, Teodiverta.
mundus, Veremudus.
-berga, -verga, to PGmc *berg 'shelter': Aliv via-, maybe to PGmc *whan 'temple': Viaricus, Vierga, Astriverga, Gundiverga, Ildiverga, Kindiamundus.
verga, Raniverga, Sindiverga, Teodeverga, Viscaverga, Vistiberga.
vidr-, vedr-, quitr-, to PGmc *wira 'against':
Quitre, Vederoi, Vedragese, Vedrailli, Vidragildus,
-drudia/-trudia, later -druia, to PGmc *drd-j
Vidraldus, Vidramirus.
'friend, beloved: Alatrudia, Aniedrudia, Ansetru vidub-, to PGmc *widuwaz 'widowed': Vidubas.
vig-, veg-, to PGmc *wgaz 'ghter': Uegitus, Vigila,
Vigilli, Vigilo, Vigiltu, Vigoy.
vil-, guil-, quil-, to PGmc *weljn 'will': Guiliberto, Quella, Uiliaredus, Uilloi, Gilloi, Vilesinda,
Viliamirus, Vilian, Viliaricu, Viliarius, Viliatus,
Viliefredus, Vilifonsus, Viligus, Vilitro, Viliulfus,
Vilivado, Villavaria, Villelmus, Villisendo, Villo.
vim-, with unclear etymology: Guimarigus, Uimaredus, Viman, Vimara.
vinc-, to PGmc *wenkjanan 'to move sidewards, to
avoid': Venze, Vincila.
vis-, ius-, to PGmc *wesuz 'good': Iusuandus,
Uisulfus, Usegildus, Visaldus, Visaridus, Visellu.
visand-, to PGmc *wisundaz 'bison': Visandus.
vist-, iust-, to PGmc *westan 'West': Iusterigo, Iustiarius, Iustila, Vistemundo, Vistesinda, Iustesenda,
Vistiberga, Vistisclo, Vistivara, Wistiz.
vistr-, iustr-, to PGmc *westraz 'westwards: Iustri, Uistrello, Uistrileuba, Vestregoti, Visterla, Visterlo, Vistragildus, Vistramundi, Vistraricus, Vistrarius, Vistravara, Vistravarius, Vistregia, Vistremiro,
Vistresindus, Vistrevius, Vistrildi, Vistresilli, Vistroi.
vit-, later vid-, to PGmc *witan 'knowledge': Uita,
Vidila, Vitinus, Vitisclus.

dia, Cenabrida, Dagadrudia, Entrudi, Ermedrudia,


Guntedrudia, Penetrudia, Qualatrudia, Recedrudia,
Senatrudia.
-fara, to PGmc *far 'journey': Ermefara.
-freda/-breda/-brida/-vrida, to PGmc *fri-
'peace': Alifreda, Alobrida, Ansobrida, Belavrida,
Genobreda, Gundebrida, Mectubrida, Recebrida,
Sigefrida, Sonifreda, Spanubrida.
-fonsa, to PGmc *funs- 'eager, ready': Argifonsa.
-go, from PGmc *gauj- 'region, district': Ermego.
-geba/-geva, later -eva, to PGmc *geb 'gift':
Argeva, Frogeva, Gudigeba, Gundigeva.
-gelda, to PGmc *geld- 'reward':
Onegilda.

Kagilda,

-isila, to -gsl- 'hostage, sprout': Teudisila.


-goto/-godo to PGmc *gaut- 'Goth woman': Astrogoto, Ermegoto, Goldregodo, Leovegoto, Sabegoto,
Vestregoti.
-cuntia/-cundia/-guntia/-gundia/-gunza/-onda,
to PGmc *gun-j 'ght': Adegundia, Alaguntia, Ansiunda, Aragunti, Astragundia, Bergundi,
Ebragundia, Eigonza, Eldegundia, Ermegundia,
Fradegundia, Helaguntia, Ildoncia, Leodegundia,
Menegundia, Reicionda, Rimionda, Sigesgundia,
Siseguntia, Teodogoncia, Treitegundia.

10

THEMES

-ildi, -illi, to PGmc *heldiz 'battle': Abronilli,


'-vita, -vidis,' probably related to PGmc *witjan
Amalilli, Ansuildi, Argenilli, Aruildi, Astruildi, Au'knowledge, comprehension': :Senuita, Sisuita, Sitirilli, Barsilli, Barilli, Berildi, Berosildi, Bonilde,
vidis.
Brunildi, Desteilli, Donadildi, Ebrildi, Ebrailli,
Ermildi, Framilli, Fremosilli, Frogildi, Fronildi,
As for the suxes used for deriving hypocoristic feminine
Fronosili, Frumildi, Ganilli, Gasuildi, Gaudilli, Genames, they include:
nildi, Ionilde, Getilli, Gogilli, Guanadildi, Guananildi, Guinilli, Uenildi, Guntilli, Gundesilli, Gutilli,
-alo: Facalo, Trastalo.
Ibilli, Leovilli, Manildi, Manusildi, Margilli, Meitilli,
Meroildi, Modilli, Onildi, Unilli, Randili, Recilli, Re -ilo, later -io: Acilo, Andilo, Anilo, Ansilo, Ardilo,
quilli, Remesilli, Rodosildi, Saruilli, Sarilli, Savildi,
Argilo, Berilo, Bitilo, Cisilo, Dadilo, Egilo, Ailo,
Senildi, Sisilli, Sontrilli, Sparuildi, Stanildi, Stodildi,
Emilo, Esmerlo, Espallo, Fagilo, Faquilo, Frankilo,
Sunildi, Tanquilli, Tenildi, Teodildi, Texilli, Trasilli,
Froilo, Frunilo, Genilo, Genlo, Geodilo, Gracilo,
Trasuildi, Tructilli, Trudildi, Vedrailli, Vergilli, VigGranilo, Guandilo, Gudilo, Gundilo, Gutilo, Itilo,
illi, Vistrildi, Vistresilli.
Liuvilo, Nisilo, Nuillo, Nunnilo, Quintilo, Ranilo,
Riquilo, Rudilo, Sindilo, Sisilu, Spanilo, Spintilo,
-leuba, -leova, to PGmc *leub- 'beloved':
Sunilo, Tala, Teodilo, Tequilo, Trudilo, Vigilo, VisAdileova, Ansileova, Argileuva, Asileva, Astileuva,
terlo.
Eileuva,
Ermileuva,
Froiloba,
Gudileuva,
Manileuva, Sindileuba, Sisileova, Uistrileuba.
-ina: Bagina, Baquina, Berina, Fandina, Frogina,
-mira, -mera, to PGmc *mr- 'famous, excellent':
Gavina, Gendina, Getina, Gogina, Guntina, Gutina,
Gesmira, Germira, Giudimira, Gualamira, KeteLallina, Nunnina, Sendina, Sesina, Tanina, Tidina,
mera, Ranemira, Recemera, Songimera, Trasmira.
Tetina, Trastina, Trudina, Vergina, Zanina.
-nanda, later -anda, to PGmc *nan- 'bold,
courageous: Fredenanda, Gadenanda, Godenanda,
Gondenanda.
-rica, later -riga, to PGmc *rk- 'ruler': Odorica,
Senderiga, Teodoriga.
-rotis, to PGmc *rt-iz 'glad, cheerful': Gunterotis.

-ita, later -ida: Acita, Cagita, Farita, Gomita, Nunnita, Sabita, Sonita.
-ella: Farella, Gondella, Mirella, Nunella.

3.3 Masculine deuterothemes

-rona, to PGmc *rn 'mystery, secret': Gun- Elements commonly found as second element of masculine names include:
derona, Leoverona, Tederona.
-senda, -sinda, to PGmc *sen- 'companion' or to
*swen- 'strong': Adosinda, Arosinda, Audesinda,
Bertosinda, Cenusenda, Eldesinda, Ermesinda,
Eudisinda, Fredesinda, Froisenda, Fromosinda,
Godesinda, Guisenda, Goysenda, Leovesenda,
Manosenda, Mirosinda, Obstrisinda, Onosinda,
Orosinda, Peruisenda, Ragesenda, Ranosenda,
Recesenda, Sigesinda, Teodesinda, Tructesinda,
Vilesinda, Vistesinda, Iustesenda.
-suenda, -suinda, to PGmc *swen- 'strong': Recesuinda, Trasuinda.
-vara, to PGmc *war 'care, attention; possession':
Astruara, Bertuara, Ilduara, Mansuara, Qualavara,
Rezevera, Sinduara, Trasavara, Uaduuara, Visclavara, Villavaria, Vistivara, Vistravara.
-vera to PGmc *wr 'pledge, plight': Gelvira, Gundivera.
-vigia, -igia, to PGmc *wg-j 'ghter': Genitigia,
Godoigia, Guntuigia, Sanigia, Sisivigia, Trastivigia,
Vistregia.

-badus, -vadus, to PGmc *badw 'ght':


Argevadus, Gisvado, Gundivadus, Tiotevadus,
Trasiuadus, Vilivado.
-baldus, -valdus, to PGmc *balaz 'bold': Gundivaldo, Teobaldus.
-bertus, -vertus, to PGmc *berhtaz 'bright': Alivertus, Ansvertus, Argeberto, Audibertus, Eldivertus,
Filivertus, Fridiverto, Geodevertus, Gidiberto, Gugivertus, Guiliberto, Idiverto, Leoverto, Ranivertus,
Rodevertus, Sigeberto, Sisiverto, Theodivertus.
-butus, to PGmc *bt 'prot, usefulness: Sisebutus.
-fredus, -fridus, -bredus, -vredus, later -vreu,
to PGmc *friuz 'peace': Alliefredus, Argifredus, Audofredo, Erdebredo, Ermefredo, Geodefredo, Gisovredus, Godefredus, Gundebredo, Ildebredus, Leodefredus, Monobredo, Osobredus, Ostrofredo, Ragifredo, Reccafredus, Rouvredo, Sinifredus, Teodefredo, Viliefredus, Visclafredo.

3.3

Masculine deuterothemes

11

-funsus, -fonsus, -bonsus, to Proto *funsaz 'eager,


ready': Adefonsus, Andifonso, Argefonsus, Belfonsus, Erifonsus, Ildefonsus, Monefonsus, Requefonsus, Vilifonsus.

-leus, to PGmc *hlewaz 'renown': Eilleus, Trevuleus, Unileus.

-fortis, probably to Latin fortis 'strong': Gundifortis.

-ringus, -lenco, to PGmc *hrengaz 'ring':


Froaringus, Fralenko.

-gis, -ges, -geses, -garius, to PGmc *gaizaz 'spear':


Adeqisio, Astragis, Eldegeses, Ermegis, Felgirus,
Gudegisus, Heremigarium, Leodegisius, Nitigisius,
Sindigis, Tudiscaisum, Vedragese.

-licus, to PGmc *laikaz 'dance, game, battle': Ivolicus.

-gaster, -bastus to PGmc *gastiz 'guest': Adegaster,


Albiaster, Algaster, Ardabastus, Argivastro, Donagastro, Leodegasti.
-gotus, -godus, to PGmc *gautaz 'Goth': Eldegotus,
Ermegotus, Leubegutus, Savegodus, Sescutus, Teudecutus, Visigotus.
-gogia, to PGmc *gaujan 'district': Todegogia.
-gildus, -ildus, to PGmc *geld-az 'reward': Anagildus, Aquisildus, Atanagildus, Cagildo, Daildus,
Donegildus, Egildus, Agildus, Engildus, Ermegildus,
Fagildus, Falgildus, Fredilli, Fromildus, Frugildus,
Gaudilti, Geodegildus, Goldegildo, Leovegildus,
Megildus, Modildus, Mundildus, Nantildo, Onegildo,
Pabregildus, Pederagildu, Remegildus, Sagildo,
Sevegildo, Sisildus, Sitagellus, Sonegildus, Tarildus,
Teodegildo, Tudeildus, Trenelldus, Trudigildus, Uanagildi, Usegildus, Vidragildus, Vigiltu, Vistragildus,
Vitildus, Vivildus.
-gisclus, -isclus, to -gslaz 'hostage, sprout': Fredisclus, Guntiesclo, Hermecisclus, Indisclus, Iuuisclus,
Kedisilo, Munisclus, Odisclus, Ranisclus, Suniagisclus, Teodisclus, Vistisclo, Vitisclus.
-ardus, to PGmc *harduz 'hard': Ianardo, Pantardus, Ricardo.
-arius, later -eiro, to PGmc *harjaz 'army, host':
Adarius, Agarius, Alarius, Amedeiro, Andiarius, Ascarius, Atarius, Aunarius, Baltarius, Bazarius, Belesarius, Bertarius, Cufarius, Donazarius, Ermiarius, Fredario, Frumarius, Gaifarius, Gitarius, Gualdarius, Guldarius, Gulfarius, Gumarius, Gundarius, Iubarius, Iustiarius, Leodarius, Lotarius, Magnarius, Mudario, Notarius, Olcarius, Quitarius, Ranarius, Ratario, Rauparius, Rechiarius, Remesario,
Rumario, Sentarius, Spanarius, Suavarius, Suniarius, Suntarius, Teadario, Torsario, Trasarius, Truitero, Uandalarius, Valarius, Venedario, Viliarius,
Visclario, Vistrarius, Vitarius.
-atus, later -ado, to PGmc *hauz 'war': Alvatus,
Andeatus, Astratus, Eugienadus, Ganati, Gomadus,
Guanatus, Guntato, Iuvatus, Sagatus, Selvatus, Viliatus.
-elmus, to PGmc *helmaz 'helm': Villelmus.

-ramnus, to PGmc *hrabnaz 'crow': Gunderamnus.

-lindus, to PGmc *lenaz 'gentle, mild': Ermelindus, Roelindus, Teodelindus.


-leobo, -levo, to PGmc *leubaz 'dear': Adileobo,
Andilevo.
-marius, -marus, later -meiro, to PGmc mrjaz
'great, famous: Ansemarus, Astremarus, Baldemarius, Gresumarus, Gualamarius, Gundemarus, Gutumarus, Leudemarus, Salamarus, Segimarus, Zamarius.
-madus, to PGmc *ma- 'good': Agimadus.
-mirus, -mero, to PGmc *mrjaz 'famous,
excellent':
Acimiro, Adimirus, Agromirus,
Alamiro, Aldemirus, Ansemirus, Antemirus,
Ariamiro, Argemirus, Artemiro, Aumiro, Bademirus,
Baldemirus, Baudemirus, Belmirus, Bertamirus,
Bonimiro, Cartemiro, Caudemirus, Cendamiro,
Crescemirus, Crodemirus, Dacamiro, Damiro, Docemiro, Dulcemirus, Eimirus, Eldemirus, Engomirus,
Ermemirus, Felmiro, Framiro, Francemirus,
Franomiro, Fredemiro, Frumirus, Gademiro,
Geldemirus, Gelmiro, Geodemirus, Gesmiro,
Godemiro, Gualamirus, Guimirus, Guldremirus,
Gulfemirus, Guntemirus, Gutemirus, Karmirus,
Leodemiro, Leomirus, Nantemiro, Odamirus,
Onemirus, Ostromirus, Astromirus, Estromirus,
Quidemirus, Rademirus, Ragimiru, Randemirus,
Ranemirus, Recemirus, Rodemirus, Salamirus,
Santimirus, Saxomirus, Segomirus, Selmirus,
Sendamirus, Sesmiro, Spodemirus, Suimirus,
Sulfemirus, Sundemirus, Suniemirus, Teodemirus,
Trasmiro, Trastemiro, Tructemiro, Vademirus,
Victemirus, Vidramirus, Viliamirus, Visclamirus,
Vistremiro, Vittimero.
-modus, to PGmc *mdaz 'courage, anger, wrath':
Trassemutus, Vermudus.
-mundus, later -mondo, to *mundaz 'protection, guardianship': Ansemondus, Argemondo,
Arumundo, Asemondus, Astramondus, Atalamondo, Badamundus, Camundus, Damondus,
Dolcemondus, Eldemundus, Fredamundus, Gemundus, Geodemondo, Gismundus, Germundus,
Godomundus, Gomundus, Gontemondus, Goymundus, Guimundus, Gutemondo, Hermundus,
Itimondo, Keremondus, Leodemundo, Nandamundus, Odemundus, Olemundus, Rademundus,

12

3
Ranemundus, Recemundus, Reimondus, Remismundus, Rosamundus, Segemundus, Sesmundo,
Sindamundus, Teodemundus, Trasmondo, Tructemondo, Unemundus, Vadamundus, Viamundus,
Visclamundus, Vistemundo, Vistramundi, Vizamundus, Zamondo.

-nandus, later -ando, to PGmc *nan-az 'bold,


courageous: Bretenandus, Ermenandus, Euvenandus, Fredenandus, Gudenandus, Ketenando, Reinantus, Riquinandus, Sisnandus, Teodenandus, Vittinandus.
-redus, -radus, -ridus, later -reu, to PGmc *rdaz
'advice': Aderedus, Alderedus, Anseredo, Argeredus,
Asoredus, Astredo, Balderedo, Dagaredus, Egeredus,
Enaredus, Engoredus, Evorido, Falderedo, Fateredus, Fraredus, Fulcaredus, Goldredo, Gomaredus, Guderedus, Gunderedo, Kenderedus, Leoveredus, Malaredus, Moderido, Onaredus, Osoredo,
Provaredo, Recaredus, Sabaredus, Sendredus, Seniaredus, Sigeredus, Sueredus, Teoderedus, Uiliaredus, Uimaredus, Visaridus.
-ricus, later -rigo, to PGmc *rkz 'ruler, lord':
Accaricus, Aderico, Alaricus, Aldericus, Aliaricus,
Alvaricus, Andericus, Ansericus, Ardericus, Argericus, Ascarigus, Asparigus, Asterigo, Atanaricus,
Atericus, Balderico, Betericus, Bliviaricus, Brandericus, Censerigus, Iensericus, Coniaricus, Desterigus,
Domerigo, Eburicus, Eimericus, Eirigu, Elperico, Engorigus, Ermericus, Fredericus, Fromaricus, Fruaricus, Gauderigus, Geserigus, Getericus, Gildaricus,
Golfarico, Gomarigus, Guderigo, Guimarigus, Guiricus, Gulderigus, Gunderigus, Ilderigus, Ionarico, Iusterigo, Iuvericus, Leoderigus, Leoverigus, Magnaricus, Malaricus, Matericus, Modericus, Monderico,
Nandaricus, Odericus, Onoricus, Osorico, Ausarigus, Pipericus, Quidericus, Rakericus, Reirigus, Rendericus, Restericus, Retericus, Romarigus, Rudericus, Savaricus, Sendericus, Seririgo, Sesericus, Sigericus, Sigunterigo, Soniaricus, Spanaricu, Spandaricus, Spoderigo, Teodericus, Trasaricus, Tructericus, Turpericus, Venetricus, Vendericus, Genitrigus,
Viaricus, Victericus, Viliaricu, Vistraricus.
-racus, later -rago, to PGmc *rakaz 'straight':
Savaracus, Teoderago.
-rote, to PGmc *rtaz 'glad': Ermerote.
-sendus, -sindus, to PGmc *senaz 'companion'
or to *swenaz 'strong': Adelasindo, Adesindus,
Andosindus, Ardesendus, Argesindus, Arosindus,
Auresindus, Ausendus, Badosindus, Bagesindus,
Becosindo, Baldesindo, Baudesindus, Berosindus,
Bonesindus, Eisindus, Eldesindus, Ermosindus,
Evosindo, Floresindus, Fortesindus, Fredosindus, Froisendus, Fromosindus, Gaudesindo,
Geodesindus, Gitesindus, Gomesindo, Gotesendus,

THEMES

Gudesindus, Guisindus, Gundesindus, Leodesindo,


Leovesindus, Manosindus, Marcosendus, Onesindus,
Quedesendo, Kedesendo, Radesindus, Ragesindus,
Ranosindus, Recesindus, Remesindus, Rudesindus,
Segesindo, Spanosendo, Storesindo, Teodesindus,
Trasendus, Tructesindus, Villisendo, Vistresindus,
Zendasindo.
-scalcus, to PGmc *skalkaz 'servant': Gundiscalcus.
-suendo, -suindo, to PGmc *swenaz 'strong': Reccesuindus.
-teus, -deus, -dius, to PGmc *ewaz 'servant':
Ansedeus, Arnadius, Engladius, Filisteus, Gudesteus.
-ualdus, -aldus, -gualdus, -allo, to PGmc *waldaz 'ruler, mighty': Ansuallo, Anualdus, Ardaldus, Arnaldus, Arualdus, Astualdu, Avaldus, Barvaldus, Bernaldus, Bidualdus, Ensaldus, Ermaldus, Fredoaldus, Fromaldus, Giraldus, Gomaldo,
Gontualdo, Grimaldus, Guantaldus, Leovaldo, Manualdus, Mirualdo, Otualdo, Ranualdus, Recualdus,
Reginaldus, Servaldus, Sisualdo, Trasoldi, Vidraldus, Visaldus.
-uarius, -oarius, to PGmc *warjaz 'inhabitant, defender': Alduarius, Ansuario, Astruario, Freduarius,
Oduarius, Osoarius, Randuarius, Trasuarius, Vistravarius.
-oindus, to PGmc *wendaz 'wind': Aloindo, Eindu,
Fredoindus.
-oynus, to PGmc *weniz 'friend': Odoynus
-uerco, related to PGmc *werkan 'work': Aliverko,
Eldivercus.
-uigio, -uigus, to PGmc *wgaz 'ghter': Audugus,
Baldoigius, Eldoigius, Ermoygius, Eroigius, Erigio,
Guntigio, Leodeuigus, Mervigius, Rodougus, Viligus,
Vistrevius.
-oytus, -vitus, probably related to PGmc *witn
'wise': Aldroitus, Aloitus, Argevitus, Senduitu,
Sesuito.
-ulfus, -gulfus, to PGmc *wulfaz 'wolf': Adaulfus,
Ataulfus, Agiulfus, Agrivulfum, Aliulfus, Andulfus,
Ansiulphus, Anulfo, Ardulfus, Ariulfus, Arnulfo,
Asarulfo, Asculfo, Asiulfus, Astrulfus, Astulfus, Aulfus, Berulfus, Betrulfus, Brandiulfus, Ebregulfus,
Endulfus, Ermulfo, Eruulfus, Fardulfus, Fradiulfus,
Fredulfus, Fregulfus, Frogiulfo, Gandulfo, Gardulfus, Gaulfus, Geodulfus, Gesulfus, Ierulfus, Gigulfo,
Gomulfus, Gresulfo, Gudilulfo, Gundulfo, Ildulfus,
Kendulfus, Leodulfus, Mandulfo, Maniulfus, Manulfus, Meitulfus, Nandulfo, Osdulfus, Quedulfus,
Radulfus, Ragolfus, Randulfus, Ranulfus, Refulfo,
Regaulfus, Sagulfus, Sendulfus, Seniulfus, Serulfus,

13
Sisulfus, Teodulfus, Trastulfus, Trasulfus, Trudulfus, Tundulfus, Turisulfus, Uisulfus, Venariu, Viliulfus.
-uldus, -guldus, to PGmc *wuluz 'splendor': Arebuldo, Atauldus, Ebreguldus, Framuldo, Frineguldus, Fronuldo, Gebuldus, Itaultus, Senuldo, Sisuldus,
Toduldo, Tumtuldo.

-ellus, later -elo: Betellus, Felellus, Francellus,


Froiellus, Frumellus, Gigelus, Gumellus, Guntellus,
Gutellus, Hermellus, Lubellus, Mannello, Mantellus, Mirellus, Mundellus, Nonellus, Papellus, Recelli,
Sendello, Sisellus, Trastelus, Truitellus, Uistrello,
Visellu, Zanellus.

Superlative and comparative suxes were also used for


the formation of personal names: -iza: Boniza, Wittiza.
As for the suxes used to derivate hippocoristic mascu- -istaz: Ariastre, Belestrio, Fromesta, Remestro, Segestro.
line names:
Other suxes imply origin of a person, or some other
kind of relation:
-eca / -ica, later -ega: Abrecan, Adica, Audeca, Begica, Egica, Elleca, Gagica, Segika.
-ingaz: Amingus, Bellengus, Gardingus.
-ila, later -ia: Adila, Andila, Anila, Ansila, Attila,
Audila, Azilane, Badila, Baldila, Becilla, Bergila,
Berila, Blandila, Brandila, Butila, Cixila, Crizila,
Cutella, Dadila, Danila, Ducila, Egila, Agila, Emila,
Ermila, Fala, Faa, Fagila, Fandila, Favila,
Fradila, Framila, Frankila, Froila, Gandila, Gaudilani, Gavila, Gladila, Gramila, Guadla, Guandila,
Gudila, Gulla, Gumila, Gundila, Ikila, Itila, Iudila,
Iustila, Iuvila, Keila, Kinquila, Ledla, Lubila, Magila, Manilla, Mantila, Martila, Massila, Mellilla,
Merila, Mudila, Mugila, Mumila, Mundila, Naustila,
Nuilla, Neula, Nunnila, Ola, Oila, Opila, Ossila,
Quintila, Ramila, Riquila, Romila, Rudila, Sabila,
Scarcila, Sigila, Sindila, Sunila, Tancila, Tegila,
Teodila, Titila, Tuntila, Unilla, Vertila, Vidila, Vigila, Vincila, Visterla, Vitila, Vizila, Zisila.

-iskaz: Vandaliscus 'Vandal (man)', Huniscus 'Hun


(man)'
-isk: Hunisco 'Hun (woman)'

4 Toponyms

Many of these names have also originated local place


names (towns, parishes, villages, hamlets and elds), usually in the form of a Latin or Germanic genitive of the
name of the proprietor, sometimes preceded by the type
of property, a Galician word of Latin, Germanic or preLatin origin: vila (meaning 'villa, palace, state'), vilar
('hamlet') castro ('castle'), casa ('house'), porta ('pass,
ford'), agro ('eld'), sa (to Germanic sala 'hall, house'),
-inus, later -ino: Addalinus, Aldinus, Bagino, busto ('dairy'), cabana ('cabin'), lama ('pastures), fonte
Baltino, Baquino, Batinus, Berinus, Bertinus, Bland- ('well, spring'), pena ('fort'), pumar ('orchard'), val ('valinus, Boninus, Brandinus, Cartinus, Crescino, Dad- ley'), among others. As an example, some 5% of the
inus, Dalinus, Eldinus, Evorinus, Fandinus, Farino, names of the 315 municipalities of Galicia have this kind
Favino, Fono, Fonsinus, Fruginus, Frauino, Gand- of origin:
inus, Gaudinas, Gavinus, Gentino, Gendinus, Goli Allariz, to Aliarici, genitive of Aliaricus.[14]
nus, Guginus, Gulnus, Gultinus, Guntinus, Gutinus, Haginus, Hamdino, Iubinus, Karinus, Lalli Baltar, to Baltarii, genitive of Baltharius.[15]
nus, Lelino, Lubinus, Mandinus, Maninus, Matlinus,
Muginus, Mundinus, Nandinus, Naninus, Nunninus,
Beariz, to Viarici, genitive of Viaricus.
Odinus, Audinus, Pantinus, Pappinus, Pennino, Pipi Calvos de Randn, to Randini, genitive of
nus, Quizino, Randinus, Recinus, Sandinus, Scerinus,
Randinus.[16]
Sedino, Sendinus, Sisinus, Spintino, Suni, Tancinus, Tanino, Tatina, Tetina, Tegino, Teodinus, Traci Forcarei, to Fulcaredi, genitive of Fulkaredus.
nus, Tradinus, Tructinus, Trudinus, Uittina, Uittinus,
Vandino, Goandinus, Vitinus, Zanino.
Friol, to Fredoaldi, genitive of Fredoaldus.
-linus, -llinus: Abbelino, Adolinus, Francolino,
Gundelinus, Iovellinus.

Gomesende,
to
Gumesindus.[17]

Gumesindi,

genitive

of

-itus, later -ido: Cagitus, Carito, Crescitu, Donnitus,


Froritum, Ganiti, Gegitus, Gogitus, Gumito, Guncitus, Iuvitus, Magitus, Magnitus, Manitus, Marcitus,
Maxitus, Nannitus, Nonnitu, Papitus, Pegito, Pinnitus, Ragito, Sabitus, Sunitus, Sonnito, Tanitus, Atanitus, Tegitus, Trasido, Uegitus, Zanitus, Zazitus, Zenzitus.

Gondomar,
to
Gundemarus.[18]

Gundemari,

genitive

of

Guntn, to Guntini, genitive of Guntinus.[19]


Guitiriz, to Uitterici, genitive of Uittericus.[20]
Laln, to Lallini, genitive of Lallinus.[21]

14

7 LITERATURE

Mondariz, to Munderici, genitive of Mundericus.[22]

[14] Piel (1933) p. 225.

Rairiz de Veiga, to Ragerici, genitive of Ragericus.

[15] Sachs (1932) p. 40-41.

Ramirs, to Ranamiranis, Germanized genitive of


Ranemirus.[23]

[16] Sachs (1932) p. 81.

Sandis, to Sindilanis, Germanic or Germanized


genitive of Sindila.[24]
Vilasantar, to
Sentarius.[25]

Villa

Sentarii,

genitive

of

[17] Sachs (1932) p. 58.


[18] Sachs (1932) p. 60-61.
[19] Sachs (1932) p. 59-61.
[20] Sachs (1932) p. 101.

Several thousand of such toponyms are known in Galicia,


Northern Portugal, Western Asturias, and other territo- [21] Sachs (1932) p. 73.
ries which belonged to the Suebi kingdom.
[22] Sachs (1932) p. 78.

See also

[23] Sachs (1932) p. 80-81.

Germanic name

[24] But Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 86, who interprets it as derived


from Sandila.

Suevi

[25] Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 86.

Visigoths
Vandals
Kingdom of Galicia

7 Literature
7.1 Proto-Germanic reconstruction

Notes

[1] In Coleccin Diplomtica de Galicia Histrica. Santiago


(1901), p. 225-226.
[2] Boulln Agrelo (1999) p. 81-83.

Orel, Vladimir (2003). Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Leiden: Brill, 2003. ISBN 978-90-0412875-0.
Kbler, Gerhard. (2007). Germanisches Wrterbuch. On-line .

[3] Cf. Boulln Agrelo (1999) p. 98-101.


[4] A few thousand Galician and Portuguese toponyms derive
from the genitive form of a Germanic anthroponym. Cf.
Sachs (1932).

Kroonen, Guus. (2013). Etymological Dictionary of


Proto-Germanic. Leiden: Brill, 2013. ISBN 9789004183407.

[5] Cf. Searle (1897). p. xii-xiv.


[6] Cf. George T. Flom (1917) Alliteration and Variation in
Old Germanic Name-Giving, in Modern Language Notes
Vol. 32, No. 1 (Jan., 1917), pp. 7-17
[7] Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 14-23.
[8] Cf. Boulln Agrelo (1999) p. 342; and Rivas Quintas
(1991) p. 242.
[9] Piel (1937) p. 48.
[10] Piel (1939) p. 79.

7.2 Germanic personal names


Frstemanm, Ernst (1900). Altdeutsches Namenbuch. P. Hanstein: Bonn, 1900.
Fossner, Thorvald (1916). Continental-Germanic
personal names in England in Old and Middle English times. Uppsala, 1916.
Redin, Mats (1919). Studies on uncompounded personal names in old English. Uppsala, 1919.

[11] Sachs (1932) p. 95-96.


[12] For this and other Proto-Germanic reconstructions: V.
Orel (2003) A Handbook of Germanic Etymology; and G.
Kbler (2007) Germanisches Wrterbuch.
[13] Boulln Agrelo (1999) s.v. Ganildi.

Schnfeld, M. (1911). Wrterbuch der Altgermanischen Personen und Vlkernamen. Heidelberg, 1911.
Searle, W. G. (1897).
Onomasticon AngloSaxonicum. Cambridge: 1897.

7.4

7.3

Germanic toponymy in Galicia

Galician Medieval onomastics

Rivas Quintas, Elixio (1991) Onomstica persoal do


noroeste hispano. Alvarellos: Lugo, 1991. ISBN
84-85311-93-0.
Boulln Agrelo, Ana I. (1999). Antroponimia medieval galega (ss. VIII-XII). Tbingen: Niemeyer,
1999. ISBN 978-3-484-55512-9.

7.4

Germanic toponymy in Galicia

Sachs, Georg (1932) Die germanischen Ortsnamen


in Spanien und Portugal. Jena: Leipzig, 1932.
Piel, J. (1933-1940) Os nomes germnicos na toponmia portuguesa. In Boletim Portugus de
Filologia vol. II-VII: Lisboa.

15

16

8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

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8.2

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