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ME 521

Intermediate Fluid
Mechanics
Lecture 1
Fall 2015

Instructors Profile
Summary

Ways of Studying Fluid Mechanics

Shear force on a Solid & Fluid


Any substance that is continuously deformed
when subjected to shear force is called a
fluid.

Solid
(Stress is proportional to
strain)

Fluid

F

A

F
V

A
h

(Stress is proportional to
strain rate)
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Continuum Hypothesis
Fluid is not continuous and have large
spaces between its molecules.
In principle, it is discontinuous or discrete at
microscopic level.
However, we can assume it to be continuous
when interested in its gross behavior.
For example,
Distance between water molecules <<<
width

of

the

River

{ Continuum}
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Distance between molecules > width of

Structure of Fluids

Average distance that a molecule can travel


without colliding with the other molecule.

M.F.P for standard atmospheric air is 5

avg.F
P
A

Mean Free Path

M.F.P= f (density, temp, pressure and dia


of molecules)
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Continuum Criterion
A fluid is said to be continuous if

Size of flow system >> M.F.P


MFP

Kn

Ch. Length Scale L


If Kn<<1

Continuum

Fluid as a Continuum (definition)


The variation in the fluid properties is
assumed to be smooth.
Hence Differential calculus can be utilized
to find out the variation in analyzing a
problem.
Continuum Properties
Scalar: Pressure , density, viscosity,
temperature, enthalpy
Vectors: Velocity, Vorticity, Force, Area
Tensors: Stress, Strain Rate

Transport Phenomenon
1. Mass Transfer (mass flux)
2. Heat Transfer (heat flux)
3. Momentum Transfer (Momentum Flux)