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Name: Isaac Izekor 12DST

Core Practical Title: The effect of temperature on membranes


Specification statement:
5 Describe how membrane structure can be investigated practically, eg
by the effect of alcohol concentration or temperature on membrane
permeability.
Criteria to be assessed:
(a)(i) Handles apparatus and materials correctly and safely
b)(ii) Identifies and explains possible systematic or random errors in results
c)(i) Uses appropriate methods to analyse results, present data and identify trends or patterns
The sections of the criteria below in bold relate to that section of the report
Introduction
Scientific Background
The membrane of cells consists of a phospholipid bilayer made up of hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic
heads. Phospholipid hydrocarbon tails have natural kinks in them; these kinks prevent the
phospholipids from packing closely together and allow the constituents of the membrane to move as if
a fluid. This theory is summed up by the fluid mosaic model of cellular membranes. In essence if there
are more unsaturated phospholipids in the bilayer more movement is allowed and fluidity is increased.
The fluid mosaic model further expresses that like particles during diffusion, the individual constituents
of the membrane gain kinetic energy with increasing temperature and the membrane is therefore
more fluid with increasing temperature, allowing more of the pigment contained within the vacuole of
Beetroot cells to leak through the cell membrane.
Hypothesis
There will be no significant correlation between the temperature of the beetroot and the amount of
pigment that leaks from the beetroot.
There will be a significant correlation between the temperature of the beetroot and the amount of
pigment that leaks from the beetroot.
Method
Variables
Independent variable
Temperature of the Beetroot (degrees Celsius)
Dependent variable
Amount of pigment that leaks from the Beetroot (% Absorbance of pigment solution)
Control variables
Volume of water beetroot is left in
Volume of the Beetroot
Time the Beetroot is left in each water bath
The size of the cuvette
Volume of liquid placed in each cuvette

Equipment
Measuring cylinder
Beetroot
Knife
16*Boiling tubes
Stopwatch
Pipette
Cuvette
Distilled water
Colorimeter
Procedure
1 Cut eight 1cm pieces of Beetroot. Place them in a beaker of distilled water, and leave them
overnight to wash away excess dye.
2 Using a measuring cylinder pour 5cm of distilled water into each boiling tube,
3 and add one cube of beetroot to each.
4 Place each boiling tube in water baths at temperatures of 0C, 10C, 20C, 30C, 40C, 50C,
60C and 70C.
5 Start a stopwatch and time 30 minutes for each boiling tube.
6 When thirty minutes is up, remove the boiling tubes from the water baths and put them on a
boiling tube rack.
7 Decant the liquid into second boiling tubes and shake the solution to spread the pigment out
evenly in the water.
8 Use a pipette to transfer 2cm of distilled water into a cuvette , and place it in the colorimeter
(on the blue/green setting, set to % absorbance) to record 0% absorbance for clear water and
leave the setting for the whole experiment.
9 Use another pipette to transfer 2cm of the 0C dye solution into a cuvette. Use the colorimeter
to take a reading, and record it in a table.
10 Repeat step 9 for all temperatures.
11 Repeat the entire experiment twice more to generate 2 more sets of readings for each
temperature.
Reliability and validity
In order to maintain validity all control variables will be kept the same throughout the experiments.
This will ensure that the independent variable is the only variable which affects the dependent
variable.
Reliability will be ensured by repeating each concentration at least 3 times and generating an average
while also omitting any anomalous data from the average. Doing so will reduce the effect of any
systematic or random errors in the experiment while also making anomalous data easier to spot and
exclude from the end average
Reliability will be further maintained by my ensuring my experiment is repeatable and comparing
results with others. This will make sure that the results I obtained are obtainable by others using my
method and further give more data to be used to calculate a more accurate average.
Risk Assessment
1.) The use of glass boiling tubes holds the risk of glass shattering and injuring individuals through the
sharp shards left behind. To prevent this all glass items will be kept away from the sides of tables and
handled carefully. If shattering occurs glass should be cleaned up immediately with gloves to prevent
injury.
Severity = 4/10
Likelihood = 4/10
Risk = (Severity x Likelihood) 16

Temperature
Absorbance
(C)
1
3 another risk.Average
2.) Individuals accidently slipping on water
that spills 2unto the floor is
To prevent this all
water holding containers will be kept in the middle of tables, if a spillage takes place it will be
0
0.08
0.06
0.02
immediately cleaned
up to prevent any
accidents. 0.02
Severity = 3/10
10
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.02
Likelihood = 5/10
Risk = 15
20
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.03
3.) There is always
liquids around
electric equipment
To
30 a risk of the use of
0.02
0.02
0.04 causing electrocution.
0.03
prevent this water will be handled using pipettes and water holding containers will be kept away from
40
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.035
the microscope.
Severity = 7/10
50
0.11
0.07
0.02
0.09
Likelihood = 2/10
Risk = 14
60
0.26
0.36
0.33
0.32
All risks are below
is safe
70 20 so the overall experiment
1.27
1.98to carry out.
1.29

1.51

Results
Criteria
b)(ii) Identifies and explains possible systematic or random errors in results
c)(i) Uses appropriate methods to analyse results, present data and identify trends or patterns
Results Table

Graph

The effect of increasing temperature on the amount of pigment leaked from Beetroot
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
Absorbance

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Anomalies
Results which do not fit the pattern shown by the data. They can be caused by random errors or
mistakes during the practical. Any anomalous results I found are in bold and stricken from the table,
none of the anomalous data has been used to calculate an average for my results ensuring its validity.
Random Errors
Errors in measurements caused by factors which change from one experiment or measurement to the
next. These errors have been minimized by taking multiple readings and calculating an average.
Systematic Errors
Conclusion
Criteria
c)(i) Uses appropriate methods to analyse results, present data and identify trends or patterns
Trends and Patterns of data
There is an overall strong positive correlation between increasing temperature and the increase
Absorbance of the pigment solution created by the Beetroot at that particular point. This is shown as
when temperature increase from 0C to 20C the absorbance increased from 0.02 to 0.03. This trend
is further backed up by 70C giving the highest absorbance of 1.51 and 0C giving the lowest
absorbance of 0.02. This showed that the higher the temperature the more pigment that leaked from
the Beetroot.
Conclusions with scientific background
Increasing the temperature of the membrane of the Beetroot cells gives them a greater kinetic energy
and increases their fluidity. This shows the general uptrend of the graph from approximately 40C,
where the temperature becomes high enough to denature integrated proteins in the cells membrane.
This disrupts the membrane which enables more pigment to pass through the membrane; furthermore
integrated channel proteins become denatured and are no longer able to prevent the leakage of
pigment, this is shown by the sudden spike in Absorbance around 60C.

Teacher Use only

Criteria

(a)(i) Handles apparatus and materials correctly and


safely

b)(ii) Identifies and explains possible systematic or


random errors in results

c)(i) Uses appropriate methods to analyse results, present


data and identify trends or patterns

Overall Comments

Strengths

Targets

Achieved / Partially achieved / not


achieved