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Forest ecology:

Forest and energy


Kalev Jgiste

Energy fluxes within and over


forest
Fluxes between forests and
their surroundings
Short wave radiation

Long wave radiation


Turbulent heat fluxes
Transfer of sensible and latent heat

!!! Laminar boundary layer of every forest element


Surface

The study of the energy


relationships (inputs, storage,
transfer, and outputs) of
ecosystems is called
ecological energetics
Kimmins 1987

Energy: physical character


Energy: chemical character
Energy: ecological idea

Energy: physical character


Energy: chemical character
Energy: ecological idea

Heat fluxes change the heat storage of the


forest, that is, the temperature of forest
element
If the sum of fluxes is 0, then the temperature does
not change
Energy balance is an important tool in the studies
of temperature in forest

Hari, Helivaara, Kulmala (eds.) 2013

Most input of the energy is from the Sun


Most of the energy at the wave band 100 5000
nm (0.1 5.0 m)
Energy balance is an important tool in the studies
of temperature in forest

Hari, Helivaara, Kulmala (eds.) 2013

Earths surface and atmosphere also emit


long-wave energy
Invisible (thermal) infrared wave-lenghts 4000
25000 nm (4 25 m)
Maximum emission at wavelength 9.7 m

Hari, Helivaara, Kulmala (eds.) 2013

The forest ecosystem dynamics is usually


based on structural measurements

FLUX: can be described by its dynamic


characteristics (differential equations, dynamic
models, simulation)
Equilibrium is also dynamic: equilibrium and flux
are understood as structure and processes, this
relations are the basis for modern ecology, land
use, nature conservation and other disciplines
(Perry 1994:4).

The energy fluxes change the energy


storage Q and consequently in the forest

ENERGY BALANCE

The net radiation in the equation above is defined


positive towards the surface and the other fluxes
positive away from the surface (H, LE, G) or
positive when consuming energy by
photosynthesis (Qp).

Largest terms of the fluxes are Rn, H and LE.


Qp only few percent of net radiation

Diurnal variation of energy balance


components Energy fluxes

Hari, Helivaara, Kulmala (eds.) 2013

Annual variation of energy balance components

Hari, Helivaara,
Kulmala (eds.) 2013

Energy: physical character


Energy: chemical character
Energy: ecological idea

Photosythesis

Reductionism is a philosophical position


which holds that a complex system is nothing
but the sum of its parts
+ (plus)

- (minus)

Cause - effect

Non-emergent

Physical interactions

No probability

Deterministic view

No stochastic component

Holistic approach

Deterministic vs. Probabilistic (stochastic):


A deterministic model is one in which every set of
variable states is uniquely determined by parameters in the
model and by sets of previous states of these variables.
Therefore, deterministic models perform the same way for
a given set of initial conditions. Conversely, in
a stochastic model, randomness is present, and variable
states are not described by unique values, but rather
by probability distributions.

Flux of mass and energy


Reductionist approach aims at determining the
velocity of processes and dependence of the
processes on the related factors. The physical nature
of processes assumes proper measurements. The data
on the processes gives the basis to find the functions
(models) of the processes

Energy: physical character


Energy: chemical character
Energy: ecological idea

Trophic levels
The productivity of the ecosystem (i.e., the sum of
the productivities of the component trophic levels) is
determined by the efficiency with which energy
enters and is passed through the trophic web
Detritus food web
Grazing food web

ATTENTION!

Trophic cascades
Video

http://sfglobe.com/?id=14064&src=share_fb_new_14064