About a decade ago, Scientist at Roslin Institute from Scotland surprised the entire world when the announced

that they have cloned an adult sheep on February 22, 1997, “Dolly”, (Dudley 9). Scientists shocked the world because many believed that it was impossible to produce a clone from a donor cell taken from an adult rather than an, embryo, many resulting embryos had died before (Dudley 11). Dolly was created because, scientist at the Roslin Institute wanted to research on the reliable reproduction of animals genetically modified to produce therapeutic proteins in their milk.Researchers want to clone humans simply because; scientists believe by the cloning of humans, they believe that they will be able to find many cures to human disease (Dudley 11). Human cloning is banned in the U.S simply because President George W. Bush and his White House staff said, “unequivocally opposed to the cloning of human beings ether for reproduction or for research”, it also stated that “The moral and ethical issues posed by human cloning are profound and can not be ignored in the quest for scientific discovery”.This made them pass many laws such as, The Human Cloning and Stem Research Act of 2003, which banned all of human cloning a research. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing, or previously existing, human being or clone tissue from that individual. There are different types of human cloning are recombinant DNA technology, or DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning (Dudley 7). Recombinant DNA technology (DNA Cloning) is the transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as bacterial plasmid.Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously No one knows what type of and how much cloning is allowed. Many people believe that cloning is unrestricted and scientists can attempt it as often as they would like. In addition, the publics' lacks of knowledge is kept high due to scientists' fear to share the outcomes of any cloning experiments. Scientists are hesitant to share their outcomes because they think that it will scare the public. To them, the more afraid the public is, the less likely they are to tolerate it (Gibbs, 48). Some pro-life lawmakers do not want fears about cloning to stop other kinds of stem-cell research that do not entail the manufacturing of embryos. Therefore, lawmakers want stem-cell research, but do not want whole cloning. Again this makes laws too broad, unrestricted, and not able to understand. If lawmakers cannot decide whether cloning is right or wrong, who will? At the present date, there are only three proposed bills that federally restrict certain forms of cloning. Along with Illinois, seven other states have proposed a bill to ban the cloning of an entire individual, regardless of funding sources. A substantial amount of cloning controversies come to what types of cloning should be allowed. Lawmakers fear banning cloning because then they would have to face the decision to include stem-cell research or not. This problem has put lawmakers' decisions on cloning at a halt, causing the public to be unsure and to believe that cloning is unrestricted. What are both positive and negative effects on human cloning? In the past few years, the topic of cloning has been in the news a lot. It is a very controversial issue, with many opposing viewpoints. While some find it acceptable, others object for religious reasons. A big concern is the possibility of abuse of this new

technology. One of the big questions is "Where will we stop?" We may start by just experimenting and studying, but then what? Manufacturing human bodies for spare parts? No one can be sure where it will stop. The Supreme court says that everyone has the right to make their own reproductive decisions without government interference, but now it is proposing bans on human cloning. These bans prevent the very research needed to make cloning safe (Eibert). So, it seems that the government is not giving human cloning a chance. There are many benefits to cloning in the fields of fertility, organ transplants, and fighting disease. Although there are many benefits, the possible effects and moral considerations are too great for us to continue experimentation. Benefits One of the major benefits of cloning technology is improvement in the field of fertility. In vitro fertilization only has a success rate of about 10%. To improve effectiveness, doctors could clone embryos, and the success rate could drastically increase (Masci 413). Another benefit in the field of fertility is that parents unable to conceive naturally, even with in vitro, or people too old to conceive, could still have a genetically related child (Masci 413-414). With cloning, egg and sperm would not be necessary for reproduction, because any body cell would work (Eibert). The resulting offspring would actually be a replica of one parent (Masci 413-414). Other benefits to using cloning come in the field of fighting disease. When genes are not in use, they become dormant. In order for cloning to take place, all genes must be active. Discovering how genes are turned on and off could lead to treatment for different cancers (Masci 414). Human cloning is possible but also dangerous to society. One day during an assembly in March 1977, a heated debate began over the topic of human cloning. Both sides were getting very involved in the argument. Suddenly a group of protestors stormed the stage. They were protesting human cloning while chanting, "We shall not be cloned!" During the protest the group held up a sign that said: "We will create the perfect race – Adolf Hitler" (Lester and Hefley 55). The group was right in protesting, human cloning will negatively affect society. The background of human cloning goes back many years. First, people tried to just clone plants. Once that was accomplished scientist started to clone small animals such as rodents and insects. The first cloned animal was a mouse. The scientist took the egg of a white mouse and joined it with the sperm of a black mouse and then put the egg into the womb of a brown mouse. This was a breakthrough in the advancement of cloning. Scientist kept experimenting and eventually were coming up with new ways to clone and also cloning different types of animals. The political background of human cloning is intriguing. Heated debates have taken place over the time. Politicians and even regular people have argued whether we should or should not clone human beings. Often times these debates will go on for hours on end. There are good points to both sides of the story but more often than not the people on the side of banning human cloning win. George Bush, along with many other political leaders is against the cloning of humans. They have even banned it in the United States of America.

The disadvantages to human cloning are certainly clear. Not to mention that the number of disadvantages far out numbers the advantages. One of the most noticeable is that the cloned child will have the parent clone's medical history. As we have seen,cloning is a wonderfull leap in sciece and mankind,but there are too many issues associated with the cloning of complex beings which indicates it may never be actually done.But,one things is for sure,cloning might not have any more potential,but stem cells and molecular cloning might prove to be something we all someday might relay on.Cloning might come back,it doesn’t seem well it ever will.

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