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Nine Nations of North America to Succeed'

Nine Nations of North America to Succeed'

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Published by Theresa Collington

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Published by: Theresa Collington on Mar 06, 2010
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Nine Nations of North America to succeed' and in such Why should we be in such desperate-haste pace with his companion5' d;;;"'.;" enterprises? If a man does not keep step to the he hears a different dmmmer' Let him

;;il;;t";,-i;-L"'.u.,," '-"t1. which he hears, however measured

or far away'

ride in the swan.shape4 on a warm Summer day, when children p.alft Uout. in Bostonis Public Garden' and' in the evening' Boston Pops trr.rjr"a, gather on the Esplanade to hear a free across the echo words symphony concert, this New Englander's also true next 6 a salt marsh near Brunswick' i".u?"r. thi, i, cheaplv il;;;"t;-man tho*t "ff the house he built himself' ancient il ;rh great beautv, out of n]1|<s.salvaged tgt^ul Japonworld of the barn. And, of .or.r", "'"en in the high-decible i* itr""t rnights oi col""tbtts Hall' thoughts turn to him' his lesson' especially For New EnglanJ is continuing to learn Emerson was talking as it was stated UV nufpn Waldo-Emerson' Thoreau wrote the words about his friend U.nrybavid Thoreau' ,h"-t'"ks of walden Pond' out bevond what is ;;;;i^;;;;;" now Route Iz8. wants "He chose," said Emerson, "to be rich' by making his few."


ol towers clus"oh-ho say can.y,ou the hefty cranes up green Yith )-"-ki,',ssiror, Amid them ' inconDull of Bethlehem Steel ' tn"Tll.,'i"'*;r;":;;;;;d black yardarms of a threeter, sporting oruouslv, are nestleo,ii"'Uli.i. C uttot ion. irasted sailing shiP ' "'':;i"I;* pans the 'i't r"'t' purk' the eve srowrv harbor' the i""J e""'aing horizon. The park jJ, f"1"i "1 Ei u'i.t lmokestacks l rn" surrounds. i. #,.ri,i which ^.',i",i.i' harbor over to th'e white u"a uruti'*lt"''io*"t'' 1*9tt^irt" and


*'"/!i,::"*'t'" i':;"^';;;

Iert, a



tili;";;*;i1 i1"];:Lf 3'#il :f:il:'"; th er a "^':g1';J,f :: g'::: iT i .,iru# uo"''

like a monsrro"t 'i*ipu'tit;i;;;t the crab apple trees o[ Fort McHenry' "^:'w;; r1"i*"dty we hailed ' .' ' t|l.horizon' a closer exe examrna., , r.nriznn. over Actually, dozens ;'t;;;;slft-e una otyaotk vard tion reveals' rr," vr"j'vi""a tiliouuildi;; ;: H:to the right has r1;-r;r a nc i s ir' ",. "3 the 1H1' t'i"J'oss of steel''carriescoalScott Key eridge]"';;^'#t;iil" black' t*"r.v Baltimore Beltwav over the *ide wat-"-.Irr" b"lotgt to consolif";*;;' dust-coverea pi"ri,ittth;h; Yo^"". that trt" i"J"tttial b-ehemoth dated coal. r, rrud once helped fuel

i" tn"l*"i



direction' dwarfing





I'ff" lil"f;,';':



The Nine Nations of North America

-i n


was the envy of the world

industrial Ntrtheast. Now, the pier needs a lot of work' "At the twilight's last gleaming . ' '"

the gritty cities of North America's

The Continental soldiers march with great precision, in their blue swallowtailed coats with red trim and gold buttons. T6.i. pants and leggings are as white as the George Washington qi*, r.r.rd". their ttrree-cornered hats. Pennants are layered as thick is palm fronds over one of the flags they carry' The pennants sn, ihirrg. like ceNrml BURMA, 1945. Where and why, exactly, was the battle for central Burma? The wool costumes look hot in the bright June sun. The fireboat for the inner harbor fires tall jets of high-pressure water into the cloudless sky. Tarnished-red-and silvei tiailer boxes lie nearby like so many building blocks for n colossus, stacked and waiting for the containerized ocean freighter that is riding high in the water of the chesapeake Bay as it heaves to. "Oh say does tha-hat Star Spangled '" The crowd in the park listening to the contralto belt it out is an extremely diverse l,ot. Orientals. Blacks. Surprising number of redheads. Uncommon quantities of adults under five and a half feet tall, with pinched smiles and gnarled hands. virtually the entire history o1 the migrations that have made up North America is writt"n o.r their fices. The neighborhood just behind Fort McHenry is Locust Point' Surrounding the Locust Point Marine Terminal, it is the classic northeastern ethnic enclave' The front stoops of the row houses are polished white, gleaming from rep"ut.d scrubbings on hands and knees with soapy water and a stiff brush. "These Germans and Polacks here in Locust Point"' the mayor of Baltimore had said earlier, "they think they're independlnt of the city. They're not poor' They have a lot of pride' you do.t't do anything down here without asking them' It's a pain in the ass." "Ba-NER-herye-hetwa-ha-ha-have ." Over the star-shaped old squat brick fort' a replica of an old flag was being raised. In the Indian summer of r8r4, in retaliation for North Americans torching Toronto, British imperial forces ot had burned the White House in Washington, forty miles south industry of here, and were then zeroing in on the.t-,i.iuin.agling the port city of Baltimore. th" .o--.ndant of th"e foit that stood between the fleet and the city was casting about for a very spe"to cific symbol of defiance. "It is my desirei-' he wrote, archly' in will have no difficulty huu. a flag so large that the British

:"i11%it,^uv feet ,'"'- ^, two teet a eacrr r"--. ,^-.,

Jll'i:I e itf-Tf"1-v.-i:.r"ss,;,ir: l;[ffi"*,htfi,lx ;'"$ 11,1":T;; stripes' Its exact duplicate'
and fifteen

'Ji**:;"i,)i,li,ifliini enni ',' '" r ,,rree,, rt arways does " ':!::":;:t;; ;;"eches on tn" *-l'X,.a" tt'",'.." deal with #x! 5"H'{':"+ "' ;ff i :ffiii*"ni;:, *m ;n: "', ii;; *t li*':ffi;.,n"' N". i* 'l:-::'Pfi'i1il"'l;l,li, ,n" ;'i' ftii;;ili,'it" t,"lians' the Jamaicans' the Lithuanians


is one huge flag'

i;{{*#:';, n:*itq*. * this fine l'1n^,"^it) c"tti.-s.u"dina'ian
'\r'"'7t^^ Gorcet"j1;;;;;^of den, tg '1"-lll)-'^.i, u"i?rrir time

was bv for.tv.fgot serpent-brundishing .padded P"i19^t"n1::. their Vikine t ^^A'A scots' "t"il long DU4L' ethnic Finns attacked; ""i:;: "."Ia"r, N;t*;;i;"t' uti the warriors got thirstv' thev rrl^l.h 'Y?'1"'qn.l lIt5lr u werslr, 'lll^^.^l^ra. ^:il;;?;.'wh;; i-fort"a fiom England' Dotent pear wine

o field'of Swethey are ho,lorllts llurrr the yellow cross on the blue there .rr^r^- In fact' the^harbor -Lr!! r - c wul"'' r- fqct the harbor was -^-n.,ins ,.Le

dti *r ff.:ft'#





later in the lt r'uppJ'li'y^:n1::pit his city in the long green po'rt'ufa Schaefer toured addav, as William thut ti*pfy said uevon" In Fleetwood *ith th; ii;ri* oi"l"t
Bravery, u,
^Ar4v of aitt"ssion








;r1 1. uia. *no looked like an administrattv if'"t" on special detach*ut functioned as one, but who really int "q"lvalent of a SWAT Squad ment from Baltimore's Tac - tt"iit"pt"r branch' in which team. Form"rtv *'iif it" "rit" i-liit" th" safetv of the he had thrown ,o"ritri,L-'"it Li""t "ii;ttitom air, he to* t.uu"l"a 'i'itf' a '38 under hls'plaid-jacketedshoulder' city wades and the knowledge that the mayor o[ a northeastern into some fairly s-trange crowds' per se' It was Actually, tft" .on'u"r-ration was not about bravery about windows. Mencken' "the In the Union Square neighborhood' where H' L' th"t" is a "shop-steading" prosage of eultimo#i';;;i;;;, i'ho'nesteading" Bti;;o'"'' gram. Shopr,"ual'ng r,'"'rpr"-tif "f pr"". l.'""t.'tir?istern urban homesieading' gutted. a-ged townhuman life houses, which are in no conditio" tcl *o3rt"decent structurallv. sound that but whose sturdv i;t;k ;;ii;-ut" 'tiit-- sold bv the citv for a it seems u ,hu-J j;r;: ;;lilot" ,t'"*, "re
to h is driv e,:

il i;;;"i;


's executive. A copy is retained by an old Prussian, who a retired utility engineer. His job, for which he is paid next to nothing,l, largeiy to make sure that if an action memo demands. a response in two days, by the beard of St. Nicholas, a response is producg4 in two days. The habits this kind of system instills in city *o.k..i can be awesome to behold. At ten o'clock one Saturday morning a mayor's aide received a call from the organizers of a dedicatiJn ceremony at a neighborhood "multiservice" center. More people were showing up at the festivities than had been anticipated, an4 there were not enough fblding chairs. The aide made one call. At ro: 56, one yellow truck, number 2737, Department of Public Works, Bureau of Operations, showed up at that center on North Dukeland Street, two miles west of city hall, in the predominantly black Rosemont neighborhood. It had two workers in orange and yellow reflector vests, who worked with a will to unload and set up a hundred more blue folding chairs. In some northeastern cities on a weekend morning, you can't call 9rr and get the police to show up in fifty-six minutes flat, much less get a hundred folding chairs and a work crew' And, unlike some of the old-line mayors and Maryland politicians he admires, Schaefer has never been accused of corruption; moreover, he seems to exercise his capacity for repressive totalitarianism only on political allies, opponents, and newspaper reporters all of whom probably can be considered fair game' A.ror. the pillars of the rehabbed Rosemont neighborhood center marked by clean new plate glass, sandblasted and repointed turn-of-the-century brick, and marvelous old turrets, hung a banner whose -"ir.g" seemed to be heartfelt (in 1979, Schaefer ran without signi{rca-nt opposition). In the city's colors of black and yellow (not very diffiient from the black and orange of the city's beloved baseball team, the Orioles), it read: wELcoME MAYoR


The Nine Nations of North America





within the last rew vearsI it' one day i"-futt' when wei"i-Uo"gnt *"re firing gt'yt this all happened' ;;tk ;'th" but uta'iit"t" t*6 Heroin'' In fact' walked toward up' 'h; Deal 't'ooiing up right o.'t'id" tr'Jl;;;;,v"'' us ;;t;th; name New from board *cr"ra t"t allow gone the liquor Nt* ;J tompletelv to call it Two. Thev i,,'t *i-tli*tt'";t*" *"'t" goit'g



after attending the neighAnyway, this Saturday afternoon borhood multipurpose center dedication, the Celtic-Scandinavian festival, the Flag Duy ."."*onies at Fort McHenry, and yet other activities, such is the French ethnic festival, a rummage sale at the rz5-year-old Light Street Presbyterian Church, and a south Baltimore street faii in which he responded to a man who wanted to help keep the city clean by issuing an Executive Action Memo directing a city department to deliver the fellow a broom Schaefei had thoroughly exhausted the men twenty years his junior who had tried to keep up with his pace. Now, the mayor'

eutti"'otJ; the memory tf J;;;;;i" tvr""tten's books'" Heathen D"vr, .f;;;:;JJ otk' bar she and whitely pro,'ati''t'owed the *u'o'"ii"'io'tg in' Inf the fine brass her husband had discovered uta -*ou"a r"",. srt" discussed the rails on which the future would pr..l"'i",i oak ice box with beveled mirrors n:"::"TX"-lliijlS'.Xi; 3r'" p o i " t" d out the ; r f;,"il:"i'*" wail' and the care"amenities," Iike the fiieplace nutf*uu lp the liwh"t" else could fully carved wooden detail ulo''g 'hl""tini"" t*"**I;;t?t"#5t,reet r was.s\1d I #as traverwith his coning not alone, but with the mayor-;;JMitchltl' L'nch'" An cealed .18. There was a faded t',o- ;;"-iJ1;Bddi"'t. twirling glass i;' hi''g"'' its old barber .nJ "rr

;x;n,:"* ;::




I[] il;;;;ii


The Nine Nations of North America




"Not really." "Aren't you afraid of being raped?,, "No' I can't explain it, but-I r""t u.to."ness to this entire neigr. borhood. Union Square jr,y"ry .p".iui ,o me, becaus" *tr"r t *u, growing up I saw a neighboihood _ W.rt fuy"it"-S""", -- al., and I think within-^me t'1r.,*ur u psychological-""Jw".u* neighborhood go from a solid one u to a'ghettol e i"i-"iirr. families moved out after the war. tt became a tenant area. It integrated too quicklv; then the.srate and the city started .ond"-,rlnL erries for rhe exoans.ion of the o.oouniver'sirv-ri r*a"rvil"i.'""ira,"r, to be boarded up. ,tu.t"a ih"r" *u. .,o.._ "The crime rate increased. Everything started to falr apart. My father died on wesr Fayetre st.eei, ihe six hundred block, in nineteen sixry-six. The dlv --v father ai"a, it *", ;;b"h"i"fi", U"cause here was this liitle ho.r." trrui *u, set back with fie trees and roses in the front yard. e"a trr"" irr" ,*""."i;;'""-o today the new dentat ,.r,t"r ,;;;r;;r";;'ho_. .*


comp_letely smashed. Al's Billiard Supply was boarded sign^flaking. ciiywid. TV Sales & service sat there *itt-, itlY.^it, covered by grilles of steel. M. Hess Luncheonette was *"*' Drifters ambled past with no particular place to go." "b";;.;:1, "Doesn't this neighborhood ever scare you?,, v Jvu: I later asked r rater


,::tl1*i*ftd*t*f,:1if i$;i:#

-r,!"*f+'$**r:#"i{l'r":,,s*"'H[:',:,trui several miles
on Eist Jefferson in Detroit' Amori's Party Store dealit ut'o" the street from Renaissance Ford' adownsouth. Amori's of the new practically in the shadow ership that is, in turn' t-enier' which is supposed to typify the resurtown Renaissance Amori's ttui u lot of glass' too' only sence of downtown Detroit' und u half thick and bulletproof and inside r#;;i; ""'i".t, from the customers' the liquor store, separating the operators with that kind of secuiifi"'Jg.*a that he''d ,r"r,"i ,""r i bank bar outfitted similarly. ;;;;;|h;";h he allowed that he,d seen a just the.week His Second P..cirr.iiounge had been burglarized but the guns he-keeps b.fo.., and they'd gotten ,iot only his cash ftu"av. The day b.io.e that, his iottage up by the lake had been burned. Arson. And a lot of bars were closing around himin Hamtramck, now that tn" Cntytt"r Dodge Main plant next door had been shut down permarre.ttly, throwing thousands out.of,work' But OIko wasn't pessimistic Lbor'tt his future, and he said he felt he knew where Wttit"ty was coming from. "Yeah," he said' "You just gotta be tough." An-d tough is wiat defines North America's nation of northeastern gritty cities in a multitude of ways. Gary. South Bend. Flint. Toledo. Cleveland' Akron' Canton' Youngstown. Wheeling. Sudbury. London' Hamilton' Buffalo' SyraJuse. Schenectad"y. Pittsburgh. Bethlehem' Harrisburg' Wlkes-Barre. Wilmingion. Camden. Trenton. Newark' The litany of .ra-ef bring clear associations even to the most insulated residents of other iegions. These names mean one thing: jobs; heavy work with heavy -a.hir.r. Hard work for those with hard times for those without. When columnists speak of managing decline, this is the region




And now whiterv is in the middle of the west Baltimore street shopsteading u."u, attacking trr. *"^t bar in Baltimore with a crowbar' She paid considerJblv -"ri"irt"n the token g roo to the city for her building, b".u.rr",'u;';;.; as rhe cops might have wished it, the New Deal h"J her, up and down ,rr" ui".[";;L";;llou.,do.,.d. But a'around ."i;;;., and masons who had made such a dear were at work restoring storefionts that wourd soon become an ice cream parlor, u printing shop, a self_service iaundry, .rrrir"* hair salon, a ouickie ;ik_;;;;;;il;; r".ironr, sterer's operation, a delicatessen l" " i..frir".t,s office, a tax con_ sultant's, a constructions firm,s. In the course of c,

:::."X"i,:T time to time on West Balilm;; d.;.;. ,,I,m not afraid to live here," she said. "A lot of p"opl" .r" i that, but Balti_ more Street is the last frontie. ," t" ""a*stand out here. Until .orqr"."a 3altimore Street is turned around l; ;;._, of physical appear-



the seminal battles of tIuO. thev mean. wtren they speak-of here' When they write of tieii markers H;t";;:;'h "y ptu.. city political juggernauts, not for lfii nothiir""pp."it"g b"mocratic they call them machines, for this is where they humrned, t;e;

of North Ameica The Nine Nations



i#tri'ff ?ti tr: ifr ;;;;i :*""""'t:T# a*t? #if

then rusted. When television presents the concept "Archie Bunker," i1 1* cates his neighborhood here, for the four boroughs of New 1,q1tr that are not Manhattan are part of this nation. In a4 ironic way, this place is the real New South, for it received fhe vast internal migration of job-hungry blacks fleeing the once-overworked land of Dixie, and now it is the warehouse of their discontent. North America's Gulag Archipelago, it's been called; the continent's chain of urban prison camps' Its capital must be Detroit, the birthplace of the assembly line, but its spiritual center is bankrupt Cleveland. Its hope may be Baltimore, but its shame is Cicero, the northern town whose hatred broke the heart of Martin Luther King, Jr. This is the nation of the Foundry. A foundry, in which molten metal is cast into forms, historically represents one of the most basic and ancient technologies known to man. "If you want to use your imagination a bit," says Sheldon Wesson, of the American Iron and Steel Institute, "one would guess that the first foundry was born when primitive man saw this reddish crud melting around his campfire, and this hot stuff trickled down into the sand, and when it cooled, it assumed the shape of the area in the sand where it had trickled. It didn't take much of a leap for him to realize that he could produce a form to his own specifications. I've seen foundries today so primitive that yor, *orldn't believe it. Just wet sand on the floor of the factory.A guy comes along with a hand ladle and pours hot metal pretty much as it was done a million years ago." Well, not a million years ago, but in the case of copper, at least three millennia before the birth of Christ. Iron is mentioned in the Old Testament eighty-six times, and steel, three. And historically, the nation of the Foundry served as basic and time-honored a role in the development of North America as the facilities after which it is named. In fact, especially for the hundred years ending during World War II, North American industrial history and the history of the Foundry were close to being the same thing. But eve{ before that, during the r77os.' uro.r.rd the eastern Pennsylvania iron deposits, "iron plantations" were formed, the largest at Hopewell, Pennsylvania, with twelve


,, was

i**:ru'"9TT"1'.';.,T,"ff t,:i".i::*TllX1i;f :#X;':; closet t'.t:i- "T::::,:. tated its move
of' the mountains'


fto- "t


geoimportant because it freed the industry next to East Coast i"penden^ce on locations

iirrtJr,-*"t" in' or.west Itwasirrthemrdl8oosthatasystemwasinventedthatwould cheap that the much stronger ma-

,#;';;.;roduction of steel so terial could compet; *ith ito"-

the Bessemer process' In I864' than ten miles ;;fi;il;;t., rvri.nigu", "" th"_netroit River less the map half a put on would from rhe Dearborn ,fi;;H";.y Ford ih" nrrt North American commercial pour of Besi."i"tif*";, ingots, North America's first semer steel was made. From these the North Chicago Rollsteel railroad track was made in 1865' at ing Mill. the face of the Steel from the nation of the Foundry changed of felces in-the treecontinent. Barbed *i." utto*"d the buiiding into farmland less Breadbasket, ,.u"tio.-i"g it from rangeland On May ro' 1869 at Promand promoting the creation oito*ttt' and the ontory Point, Utah,-steJ.uit. ti"t"a the Central Pacific the coasts' The "Chicago Union Pacific ..il;;;d;, and thus look and school " of architecttrr" .f"tu"g"d the ways cities would in the r88os and r89os' f"""tio" Uv ffn."tittg the stJel skyscraper Meanwhile, ,t."t *-u, fhanging"the geography of the Foundry itself, the inierior of which Ior.ta ltself ideally situated in the middle of a triangle of the three resources basic to both iron and

the High-quality iron ore from northern Michigan -and' after locks linking Lake Superior completion of the Su.,tt Sui"te Marie and iake Huron in 1855, the Mesabi Range of Minnesota' coke ot ' Bituminous coal, io U" Uut"a into the high-heat-value mounthe entire eastern almost pure carbon, found in virtually




The Nine Nations of North America


Un ite

tain range, but mainly in the valleys of pennsylvania, West ginia, and Kentucky. V1 . Limestone, which is the shells of prehistoric crusl squeezed into rock, used to ."-ot" impurities in the i.,rlllun, steel' It can be found in deposits miles rong ."Jtn."r."i."lrlo deep all over the N_ortheast, especialiy in New yo.k, p".rrtt J.ur nsylva. nia,Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, urra O.riu.io. best of all, the waGr_rich Foundry was - -But laced with r ble waterways ranging from the G;;;; Lakes to the o6ro *iuuisa

lasl ' ' v vou can find presum- ,^Aq- ln the . _r^ of c?rta-- An, Toronto' and to t?tt :1 as nothing but an hrrp Y'--,t Founor'.,'1.ri, who view - ' -r 6rreL)eC -^ inl2rr* once agarn' 'rt" ""u*uy 1o !"'-^orvnoid w';:. ;;'r.;;; the French-sDeakers -ru oa,*- r^ nlnr ro scre.w,'i:.;:;';h"se cities would not have 2I{"'"" T?l',Jui, ih" point '"li'.'l::'d;i:';;i in"y ,,o, u""n

tw'"'; r-:-

"'T;",ff 'oTui""".1,","^"'J;3,1T";,?nft?;;;i.omrr'"vervdirt


duv';;;;is st'r th"

industrial tol

'h"upo; il"'Jl:

the Monongahela and Allegh""y .i""., merge to create the Ohio -il; River. (It's no accident that tne footbalr s;*I".r i.,'rr,.* Rivers Stadium.) cleveland is located,where the cuyahoga River-famous for once being so polluted that it bu.si into flames Erie-also famous for.once-being so polluted that meets Lake - it was inca. pable of sustaining marine life. Detroit is on the western edge of Lake Erie,ts is Toledo. Buffalo is on its eastern edgJ. You can still get from Buffalo to Albany via the rgz5 Erie Canal, and from there to New york City on the Hudson River. It was that barge canal,linking New yori -iiy u'a the Great Lakes, and along which the cities-of Utica, at;".", and built, which was the beginni"g'"iih;-end for Rochester were Boston and New l"g]"ll as the primary induJrial region. It transformed New York city from a second-clas, ,"upo.,'ro the East coast,s commercial center. It helped make New york the E_pi* Sr"i". f* dafs. Interstate 9o roughly parallels thut .u.rul. Chicago, Gary, and lrtil*urrk"" u.. on Lake Michigan. Toronto is on Lake Ontario, and as recently as ,"qSS, that was making an enormous politicaL urra difference in North America. Nineteen fifty-pine was the year ".orro,'ic the that st. ru*.".r.. Seaway was completed..As noted ubo.,r", it,s not that the Seaway connected the Lakes and the Atrantic for the fi.rt ti-". whlt tn" Seaway did rvas allow, all but- the largest oceangoing traffic (fbr example, supertankers) into the Lakels. prior tJ ,qis, O;6t".,, Montr6al was functionally the end of the line for f"igJ..iii not coincidentally, Montr6al was the financial ""a, and commercial

[ilH-i; h' i,i."tl$ ]li States, i, i".ut"J*r,... greatest headquarters city in the Jnited {'



;":i:::" ;'l,nHfl

:?,;;;";"- well position"d to :'i?;::;-'#:#i""T,?:'.;#i;'':',i,,lin?3lXtX?:il:lTlf'1" ious eartns ''l:i:-. There, they would.oe. I n:*^'tt:':'^'- -- ^- +'a I localru"o-' t"",.,''t basic nineteenth-century "l " il!;" ;, i,u., "a wave a *er i'#ifil#:;:*l :if :iH' ;li::I-"'

have the var-



Not ror uL.1,, ."."ntru'ih" Hispanics have p"ople pot-how -utty rrrcrr '-- r:r r,.prr rall it the Melting and condid tncv -iitr nothing f.ti.nl"l Tiut', a Foundry term rn tr ii-"ttirtg pots"

ptodYl]^i"runi'iuU".- first


*uu. of Europeans'

in the



class who cham^pion of the working Rivera was ia"uti,tic Marxist and iiliin; ffr th" sood of all ' when' in believed i,t indiuia'iai; iidutt'iui E"u"lopm"t't' fascinated uv "to'''l?',it';; Witiiu- Valentiner' then the curaabout California in r93o' i""*t-iit' to h"ut all that I knew ^itr" -rtagg"rit"tg cap i tal i st tor of that u.t i,t"il']'"':h;;*d *roa". comindustry in Detroit,i i'alent iner Rguee RiY:'' inairillil achievement of "the R;;;;;;- th5 one two-thouHe"re' within plex of Henry F*i'-l;;:tg""d t'i*' in one iron-laden earth came sand-acre industrial "city"' raw every other Ar;;;";;t the other' *ith uittttullv
end, and Model

industrial process

*i*'1n" uttio-olir" (the construc;;J!i i" between' "In all the glass, for ''pyramids' R"Ti"^::.ids and "*.r"pr*ii,i'"J*t"a tions of man's past," *rot" Rivera' nothing to equal these aqueducts, cathedrals and palaces' tt'""" it modu"d *"itti""tt ' ]th" best fskyscrapers, ,tp.;ig;;";'' and functional ern architects of our tg" u," finding tn# ""ttft"tfcmachineinspiration in iNortn-emericanl i"att'ttiut buildin^gs" of the ' ' gedesign, and engineering, the greatest expressions
nius of this New World." are y ard, wh ich J'X;

making of

qrt patron bctsel -Forq Qzu,oov- * ^'*,"" JT;i*.Tf !T:"|T"',T ffi Depression painted twenty-se\ - Rivera


il:: #:U"

"11* lffi "iu";*":t,;r::":i,?,? :'1T: ^1"# *i

panelS on the foUr



The Nine Nations of'North America



walls of the museum,s skylit, bungalow_sized the ancient Roman water_iolor_o.r_f?"rt _praster Garden Cour i\ fiesco t".h^,t,


::ffi:ili.Tlff 'Lli;,#"1i,J1#::?,T*.9:l;.#l"ilii,ll: ;fjJff :::,r'f:#ffi"jlk*:"-'"'"T:r:,"*;fi Til:jl,ll; :Tff ff*,T:""*';:Tri:'::"Til*i:','""TiJ:#:::?"|'i speck, way in the distanc" ,f* ilffi;;:::ffi,T fij::r
of far more concern to Rivera were the basic raw materials .men and earth. Looming ou". ih" b.rry ,.,o.th urrd ;;; panels that depict the guts oT the pi;;;. ire four qri"tl r".rinUg nudes - Caucasian,-Oriental, a_".i.u., Indian, urra N"g.o. fn their hands, they on"r, ,.rf".ii;;l;, l"-;,

ll' li+i1'ilxt: '',l.#;ff xtrl:;:i""t:;; i:s of the Rouge, Fo- po*.. :r"ii'J'fl y,"l'ffi ff T:f House N;. 'i, ';lt #"lTJoiJ:J,* foundry operations, and open-hearth .t""t milt nr.-^_-_, lace, ir#,:;::ili;i;i.1"1*'J":*#*"'i::'.Trl;iffi yd"ih

*:rlt*i lli"l;rt:;;l*i#1,:-:ili;l

,"{ii''tt,i**ff***f :;i*f *$**t*
#-#'+f*t*[,ft"'r'i"Ti::ff ]TFffi



illX"*i'; "l::'::Tilffi', "'i;,, fgt

,"r0, rron ore' and coar, the races and substances Rivera saw as anaro_ "in their . . quality ."fo. u"a historic lNorth Americanj functions.ii fo._,u, *"ti ur*Uv tt,.i. "f conventionar thinking ubo.,t th"'r'or.rd.y today combines an odd combina ti on of me"mory ;"d r rr,. Foundry once meant to Norih Americans. On the one hand, it,s possibl" i, i..go that to artists like Ri_ vera and Charlie Chaplin, who, in ttre ntm Modern Times (rn6), showed man becoming merely .rg-i" a societal machine, the Foundry was a metapior of tfr"" f,,rt-trre. a world i, *t i.fr .u".y_ thing that moved was measured in tons, and humans were dwarfed by their inventions, was the uttimate statement of both hope and despair. Detroit u.ra t'" .iii r'.. it were to their time what Houston, Los. Angeles, u"a tfr"'.ities of the MexAmerican --^ southwest are to this lenerario" amaze and appall. "iri"ns of wonder that both on the other hand, especially to residents of the Foundry itself, who, like ail North Ji,"*or"...rr,_ alism' sometimes memories or *hut ri^ are confused with what is. In the days of Ri1e1a,-the. F;;;;;as the linchpin of North American development. In fact, to irost, the Foundry _ ,,back east" - was North America. Th" u;;;J' a;;r* ;;;;iro,, of th" Foundry was the united stut"r. tiir oigur,,,',ore that the united States national anthem sings. H"rrry fora, who had his own air force of Ford Tri-molors, fi;;;';'j;"ot Lakes freighters, and certainly his own army of tens of'thorrr.rds of workers, was "."u,


v an ia' Mi chiIndiana, oh io, Pennsvl iron of :*uTl^|",, oroduced sixty-tour million tons n1e toti'" united States-Canadian sun' und T::I::":;';;""; 'i in rsl7, which was


virginiu' Dtl'ut*'ult,dustry's statistics duction the iron tr

jtff ',:*:Tiiimffifi

li-fii:,:}'};:: to
make difficult

the above six Similarly, if you take of the Foundry prothat in Ontario, yo'' ai'Jti"t tft"t 'portion zs percent ii ,i977' which *lt not countduced ro6 million to#; 'u*-'t""t totur' e"A'ihat's again whose
of the United ing leviatha,t'

throw states and this time

l1*i."^. "i'.rilur. J;;;

seciet' Nor does production i' to"'iiJt"i-'o*"tt'i"g-or'u*itude w;iftt' ptta"ter of the steel that include New Jersey's RoeblingBridse' ;;;;;'.J i" building the Brooklvnu"""iurv numbers for the apIf you .*u*"'"''Ji? u"d provinces' I'ou dispropriate portio"'"oi tl"'"1*"rt" "ut"t cover thar i,,e7J, for 64percent oi the United States-La'-*;r:;" factories that In that dtesn't reflect the component C*pu"v bolts together' in produce ,n" o"r,l',n"i ""a the Rouge Works In a walk alons the vast assembrii# "i the summe''r' i'i

"u':::'i;;;;; liktT"-s;;;;;;;t rtl*^"rt*

in Marvlan-{'


;:;iii:.s "l*;5 m ffil;l.i,i::

lill' :::fi

come togeth", once Capris bEing spit out gleaming, strongly hued Musta"gt u"J

'inli',rtii*ut"ty HIJiT;'illil;'ffi;i* h";k' or resulted in "i"'i *^rt'

^;"*; *i**:"1"#,:i:',f:t'l;ili:; grav me'|ar



The Nine Nations of North America

every forty_eight seconds. And I got q rvorurr r'tr rnqustriat ---- ^ b"L a lesson in industr. raphy.



ii ilJ "J,!$li ili il?i;*.T j[: i*: ;#y, y;t* p : fT "i on placed rhe srowry pu.ring t rilr, n"a __--.D 'qr,\J, r,du .rr*'i"irr.;.j:::\:r; Lrucs ro tnetr origin these:

For sure, the car doors hung in racks labeled ,,Return Bordeaux." France..The piecE -*.aur^J-h.;;;.'fr to Forcl transmissions was labeled ,,Lanfkarte. pallet "i T'u*. a"iil^tfr. veuse.".And carpets were labeled ,,Troy fl" Sui. Mills, 1.ror,
1q 11


Mine Worker is an emotional allegiance, Auto Worker, a Rubber Worker, a Steel



"Return to Warner Gear Division, Muncie, Indiana.,, "Kalamazoo Sra.mping and Die Co- Kulurnurooldi.hlgun, pro. o:fl'^ c1{ity di"' u,iJ -","i riJioir*r.,, 1i, ..-rne ARro Corp., Canton, Ohio.,, "Midwest Rubber, Deckerville, Michigan.,, "Federal Screw R.;"1;;, tdichigan.,, -k.|r, "Yale Rubber Manufacturi"g ;;.,';""dusky, Michigan.,, "RB & W Metal Forming oiirr-","rrrrentor, ohio.,, "Jim Robbins co., Blacfco;ii,;;"t, Troy, Michigan.,, "Manchester plas ti cs, Mu".h;;;;ior.r,irur,.,, "Rockwell Interna tion^l, Ch;i;;, nni.higu.,.,, "Rockwell International, Logansport, Indiana.,, "s&s products, wheet a;;;;il;bly, wyandotte, Michigan.,, "American Hose Corp., W_.h;r;;.,iraiu.,u.,, ptastics, st.'ctur.na;j;;;.,, bashaban products, Clarkston, i4i.higu.r.,, "Stant, a purolator Co., Connersuitt-", frraiurru.,, "Huron Tool & Manufacturtnj;;;: Industries company, and that makes a world of aiff"."rr.8,'i"ii.rgrorr, Michigan.,, Unqueslionabtv. the, rgr"arf ir;i;ii formidable place, one thar can make a"worrd of " i;;ili,""r.,X,11, ."rtinuing to view it as metaphor of the f.uture _ seeing it as the 1 only place in which North A-".i*,r'rrmorrows are being ham_ mered out. By the turn of tn" .".rt".r, ,, may not even be the most important segment of North a-ir.r. That role may well be assumed by the MexAmeric"" S.;;i;;est, all by itself. Already, poputation ir'srr]ir;;';; a southern and wesrern *:,::,1]l'.:nral maJonty' lrom northern and eastern] The largest uu.rt -in xorth 'in'California America is not in y".k i;k _ the gar.k of ,New America. If energy deposits a*ir"v, the Foundry,s future is by no means assured. Although "." coal'."."*", its are f.antast ic, they are deep beneath th".-oi.rJi";,;"J are mined uv _"r, ,ilil scarred by battles with exploir";; ;t; occurred








Foundry is zol North America, despite what the contimedi3.- most of which are headquartered there j,],.l"ud you to believe. The Foundry is the only one of the Nine "J"i"l-news '*iii"", that can be said to be on the decline. The other eight are, stable (for example, Qu6bec and New Eng"iLrrt, economically a plausible balance between quality of sense that La), in the iif" urra modest growth rate make for stability. And others are eenerating wealth and growth so fast that their biggest problem Is controlling the boom. This is not to say that other nations do not have problems. They do. Water is as crucial to Tucson's future as race relations are to Baltimore's. It is not even to say that the rest of the continent does not share some of the Foundry's problems. Many of Dixie's cities are at least as old as the Foundry's. Refitting steel mills and assembly lines to meet the challenges of Japan are concerns in the Breadbasket just in the Foundry. - even in Ecotopia - not The error, as this continent matures, is in our unquestioningly equating the igevitable decline in the Foundry's dominance with an inevitable decline in the world position of the United States or Canada. What's happening in the Foundry today is perhaps comParable to the wrenching realizations Europeans were subjected to ovel the last five centuries: not only doei the sun not revolve around the earth; the earth does not revolve around London. yet, to}"!o*, Western civilization survives even prospers. the borders of the Foundry - an exerciie in human, is -^P,"fit1ng rather than geophysical distinctions. Each of the nations of the thi Foundry, and Dixie is a mixture of agriculture attq tndustry. "n::a.db,asket, There is significant corn production in Oh]o, just as i: significant automobile production in Oklahoma. The view ;l:: llllflth:.Uew Jersey Turnpike is so appalling that Dixie planners ifl1,"-'l.ullt mention that itate u, *irut they don't *u.rt to ,"" ill'"1t,*?.tl become. Yet the largest stretch of wilderness in the ;Tt"l:.it. New Jersey - the pinJBarrens of the southern part of "rc Stote The Delaware River, along its west, is the biggeit wild







Nine Nations of North America



-r ---- ". r river in the East. The rural scenery twenty minutes north of T l0[. ton is breathtaking, and, by the same token, there 41s portions ^r wretched

ifi'"3'Elll'iii':li'1;i'"i"i#'il#ffi'#:l:';ff ?ll"i[:l Olett)
But this hardly means these nations are the same. There sharp differences in history, attitudes toward ttt" tuna, p..]l' dicei, economics, and futures among these nations, and it's ho,rv these differences come together that defines their boundaries. Thus, the Foundry, for example, is a place that is thoroughly 4.. scribed by man and what he's done to the mountains and rivers and plains in the course of trying to get ahead, more than it is by
mountains or rivers themselves.



Cities are the Foundry's dominant physical characteristic. There are lots of them. They're not terribly far apart, by the


standards of most of the continent, and they are crowded places. As a result, there is no trouble pointing to the Foundry's heart' land- its megalopolises. The boundaries are less distinct where the area is less urban. A tour around the border of the Foundry helps explain. ,q,s noted in the chapter on New England, the southwestern third of connecticut is part of the Foundry, because it is tied by television stations, commuting highways, and suburban values to New York. Manhattan itself is so unusual on this continent that it is dealt with separately in the next chapter. But its suburbs are not, and thus the border town betwe..t ih. Foundry and New England is New Haven. To the west of New Haven is Fairfield County, with its bedroom communities like Bridgeport, Darien, and New Canaan, which would shrivel up and die without New York. To its east is New London, which ii clearly part of New England. An important part of the New London-Grotbn-Uystic area is its relationship to the open Atlantic. Nuclear submarines, built at the Electric Boatworks, the Coast Guard's training vessels attached to its academy, and historic whaling tall ships all call eastern Connecticut
home. The line, therefore, must be drawn between these two different
a worlds, and New Haven is inviting. On the one hand, it has claim as a distinguished institution, Yale, on which to base its civilized place. On the otirer hand, it has very little else on which to base a claim as a civilized place. Providence is more charniing than New Haven.

*ii""" to P-.".1,".f."a up on the soutno-<-rtli.^* ",,,h : ry' 1'" !,q; a.adY needs ,."inl


:::j hi :.{ll:iil




tne ouor' ' ':,Iti::l;;,11fr:t'ffiT;,oj'-Jl)?"#."r",";,lnlTfl'",,^,, -^:l-lp to start admiring tow n' ;;F"'^:,'#l;:" rru::lliili" e, Ann apor s is,^ b:*'

;Jil i;]{

:'F: [' ffri l'il

ffi":;,3ft';Brllii."rut;,"r^qgq ''"131."6,,1 place, io the beautv itself is " ?:T;'.:;io-"a oldline Dixie. Annapolis to-".Tfiil;;;rrgia,

; : #:,i^ *'ffi i,t**,' *a goo:[ place to

tl:tt could love' walk around in, a town carolina' :: :"-1ff:f';J;;: seen so much i'r?"'i"'tn' South Marvland' But it's also the ft"*lf;T:l,ito,' root political corruptton iJ.i .rJ uig-citv Washclean by contrasl ixie line, we come.to rhat the FoundrY-O,. Moving *"r,-ulong ,o consumed uy.rrself i"ei"", ;.c., which, Iike Manhattan:,'..#;;. It should be noted'


ll"':,**l;{li:'J#'iiil:lill5:[**1"::*'l*ffi "'iliJlill trurt;;;;; with They're- certatnly
part of the Foundry. vre\ like Fairfax are viewedreprestate capital, Rfi;"J] "'ut"u',th";; tt""" "rr -u:"'"-: o[ awe and disbelief. The voters tp northern Virginia hensible Yankee notions' You can nft;;;i"-in

H1;.THl,'*f n'J,ily:[*;:J*'*"t'*fq'"'1""1:i11il; goes o Lok at anvthing that The majorit, 'iiil;'t; rook know whY'lhev

\lli::in:";[ifil#' l'?ffli;:i,""

The Nine Nations of North America


blue from a distance? They're so covered with trees that, in t6. course of photosynthesis, they exhale resinous hydrocarbons that create thelr own natural haze) is the Shenandoah Valley' Songwriter John Denver has it wrong when he sings about 16. Shenandoah Valley being in West Virginia, rather than Virginiu, but he was right about its being almost heaven, and it is not part of the Foundry. The pace of affairs at the Southern States Farry1ers Co-op is the tip-off : if you wish to buy a screwdriver, for e1ample, you first pause, mention the weather, remark on the price of seed, Soke with the girl behind the counter , and then ask for the tool . Brusquely and impersonally attempting to slap down money and leave with your merchandise marks you as an outsider' Even the industrialization is not what you'll find in the Foundry. This picturesque sheep-and-orchard valley is the sort of place that is offered clean, lucrative factories, like the Adolph Coors Company's eastern beer-brewing plant. This is the sort of job creation that planners will kill for, and it is a plum that is reserved only for places with a high quality of life. But this happened in far northern Dixie, and was received by the valley people with a skepticism unusual for the South. Being near the border of the Foundry, they have seen so much industrial devastation in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia that even the value of jobs like these are questioned, because of the change they'd bring. Morgantown, Parkersburg, WheelNorthern West Virginia northern panhandle, which follows the Ohio especially its ing River south from Pittsburgh, is clearly part of the Foundry. The Monongahela and the Ohio are loaded with industry that turns water strange colors and brings texture to the air. Coal-fired electric plants split the hills with high-tension lines. Steel, glass, and industrial chemical plants bring worrisorne jobs jobs that are not only dangerous and difficult, but are hit first in a slackening


and expensive-


ourn without causing pollution' It is often in w.ork of a lot of high-priced men which requires


t?l;l?1il?ll::'llff;,ff l;i:1,ru'*ilT::;i#'*:ff the surface, and can be strip-i coal is near the


It is at all times isolated by its mountains. Similar terrain in the Empty Quarter at least has the good grace not to be populated. Charleston, West Virginia, is by no means the most rugged part, yet its airport can inspire respect in good weather. In search of enough horizontal space for a runway, its planners sheared off the peak of a mountiin. that leaves no mirgin for pilot error. The grandly named West Virginia Turnpike, meanwhile, is two lanes, undivided' West Virginians typically have a very limited spacial horizon.It's common to find some who have never been to a town fifty miles

economy. Southeastern West Virginia is problematic.

generally on a slope so steep that the operation deholds that an in,ir"Vr'rfr. eirvironment. There's a theory that parts is connected of spring floods in these ;;; in the severity well i" ,irip--i"ing praciice.. hh" hills lust can't hold the rain as item Washington pushing coal as an export ;t;t"; used to. with t" g".rpt, coal may soon again be king here, despite all this' But if it is, ii will almost undoubtedly be accompanied by an increase in labor unrest. The UMW started off as a cause, dissolved into a racket offering its leaders cushy lives, and now, pathetically' the union's reformers seem incapable of leadership ' So much bad blood was tuilt up during this process' and so much good blood spilled, that unionization is a fiercely polarizing topic liere yet, long after labor and management in other parts of North America hire -a.ruged to confront the issues with other than a quasi-religious, gunfiie-punctuated fanaticism' This is why in "good" times this area is part of the Foundry In really bad times, when ihere isn't much work at all, the way folk hunker down i.r ih"i. hollows for the long haul is pure Dixie' After all the years of infusion of antipoverty money, the opportunities for education, health care, adequate diet, and having one's horizons expanded are better than they were. But it's still not something that has caused abandonment of a century-old pessimism about the inevitability of progress. There is still a devotion to the land here, no matter hourunyielding it is (and there is virtually no commercial farming in West Virginia). fol, From Huntington, West Viiginia, to Cincinnati, the borderhave lows the Kentu"ckv side of th; ohio River. Some scholars



The Nine Nations of North America



"national road" --.- i. contended that U.S. Route 4o- the old runs,from t'ii''j|i dividing line between Dixie and the Foundry,' It and on to Rich. ir,g, W""t, Virginia, to Ohio's capital' Columbus' traced subitantial differences in fbod' a1.6t. -3"a, tndiuni. Theyof towns, and music to either side of ti1i, i".,r-r.", the layout highway. ^-^il^, probably was once a useful distinction. There is still u Ohio. But the fnql taste of the culiure of old Dixie in southern instead of the Interstate itu, i, is referred to as the U.S. 4o line, old the idea is' Bot\ tells you how 7o line (7o now parallels 4o), ifrr po.rnarv u.rd Di*i" have gone through a lot of shanges in thg last fifty years. and pollutiol Be that as it may, the Ruhr-like industrialization is the fact that controls' Cinof ttr" upper Ohio River Valley now cinnati and layton are definiiely part of the Foundry' - p"V,"", ln fact, was referred io-in Richard Scammon and Ben city"' Wuti""U"tg's The Real Majority as "the typical American the Foundry is typical of nothWhile this chapter contenis that i"g .-c , itseli, lt's interesting to note thatThe Almanac of-Amerof Richard Nixon's ican Politic.s tells us that Day6n is the home voter: a housewife whose husthe typical United btut"' "f "irio"*ort t i" u factory and whose brother-in-law is a cop' DayUunJ population and ton is middle-sized ar,i middle class' It is losing growth has been in the subhas a black mayor. ft" "'U'tuntial as the Wright urbs. And it has gi; Uirth to suci phenomena "The Phil brothers, Erma e"*i".k (th" srrb.r.ban muse), and Donahue Show." imagtCincinnati, meanwhile, is so Germanic that it is beyond Reds become so undisciplined at a nation that some fan would g^-" ifr"i fre might throw a beer cup into the ou1field. Cincinnati to is the home of Frocter and Gamble, which is certainly next have you us,ed to Teutonic godliness. Cincinnati is so straight that to have I good time' The Beveriy to cross the river into ientucky ijiffr Srrpp". Club, until it burned in a tragic fire in ry^77' at' places' Covingtracted first-rate Las Vegas talent' It was in' of all just ,o,,ii' of Cincinnati' In fact' that part of Kenton, Kentucky, tucky had long b".n considered a mini-Vegas' in which illegil prostitution, gambling' and vice had also flour-

lffi #,}#



city rn :^ r-Aion2oolis, the largest

section of more interstate it u ptu." to be in


il;;.]i "'rni-';;,

und th" tn.'tr""a" And the line betweel-t-t".tt, and Gary' i"it"""otiit' t"9l"tlP"jt.ffius,ii is imPortant basket? Interstare 6s between the u'"u of a-majc

ii,"", a*.

one draw and Dixie? Perhaps

:X:;ileplace else' {o"l,y:in-"*rr lndiana between "n the I'neJ;i;;;i';.





boundaries As the Ohio River flows into Indiana' the national are the f'acts: get complicated. Here " Northlrn Indiana Fort Wayne, Elkhart, Gary are unques-

itff# l#ffil fr" **ffi ttqi -:'.',Tffi :::i'Jl?:: *: l;llll I :l* i:lL :u*:: #:"** i *1 ;: I'**fl:'a+t**+i+-th'ti:r't#'li*
who was ProPosed, were interests



The Nine Nations of North America




final location of the highway was an extraordina.ir"-.^"1-".u' cision that balanced force" like +L,i- against ^^^t- '.,t""tlcal thar forces liLp this ^^^:.^^+ against the forces that wished to get i direct .o"t" "u.rr "iri"i'lllulu T".,lttl interstate can be an eloquent statemenr ;iO;,U":lil

right were other interests with similar, if conflictins

LJi t\":",j,-:

!,q;"a':;[i"ilHi{#*li:h::*Ti,*i H;;;;';-pu"t.'' coach' vince Lombardi'

In northwestern Indiana, the spoor of the Foundry is not su ,1HY1::YlI:;Y",y."fee m;salo.nolis, rar ronger than the oou from Boston to washinston, t"rz' ifi" l";;;;;:;a"il'J^'ll
*tin. eries of Garv. The smell is the same u. 3ffi rrrui ;i'^d;"il Jersev. The iarticurate matter belched f;";;"".;.tTlill. N'mills r.vas once so great thar it affectJ ,i;:.*;d;;.;:::,r,fi1 laden clouds comini in from trt" *..i-*ould pick over Gary and become so heavy that they *orid- up;ii, ,,rff p."Jipiiui" uu, whatever they held a few doi.n which il ."rgfrfy -itl, where LaPorte lies. Laport" *u, ."g,rlu.rv "..t, trr. .ui"i".i * ."ii",.u place in Indiana. Welcome to Chicago. Richard J. Daley, Mayor. I know. He,s gone' But it will be a generation befor" irr. uiituou.ir^lqrutrng fhe,gitV with his prg f*. fade from the mind. tts sloga.,J ubout itself -th-e City of Broad Shoulders, tf," Wi"Jy"b;7;':r,..r, Foundry themes, like toughness. Chicago, "The Second City,,,a fundamentally eastern city compared to the real West, like Salt Lake City, is, in its relationship to New York, the Foundry model for the urban .o_p"iitio.r, on, sees all over North America. Tulsa-okrarr"-. ciivlT..^*r-prr. Dallas-Houston. Anchorage-Fairbanks. Montr6al_Toronto. The first city claims to be the '.-N"* yo.k;-of *h"."rr.. i, irln" -"* glamorous pacesetter. The other, p."rr"d, Urrt ,roi .uplfi, ,f airmissing the claim, _responds by iuggesting it is more down to earth, more "real." N,Iore i"to i"!?oney than making trends, perhaps. It will be a long time-ut before-Ct i.ugo lives down its fame as the "city that works.; . west of "chicagoland," as the radio stations like it were a.theme park, is the Breadbasket, where to call it,asif distances between major population centers begin to get excessive. Convetiently, and not coincidentaily, chicaio is Nolth America,s grearest transportation hub, linking the greai "out There" to its wJst with the industrial heartland tJits to trr" *orri ty'rair, "Irt,u.rJuoth pipeline,-ship,.and air (Chicago,s O,Hare,+irpori 1oad., is tfr" Uuy iest in the world). The spider webs"of trade router i" crticago are dense and impressive. ""ar"g

#"l,*fi *ffiT*3i#ii::.ii,.i:i+tT,tii*':'.H

#tdf .'t':xf ''l"'iili:ff li::"H3;ii|f;


rrv is tne

i*:il5;iffi:?it"";;;""i;'r.';J ril'.,

sla66v^^'.:;# t+-ll,t;*?*r"','rtm*1;59*1;11 trought so that they could
+L^ r ^La r{r,rnn is

l; fj[: *:*:*t";;;#.:xft.]l3; +::"1?5".lJtl T#f"il:"i#;'i' ; qr'!'tio"". that southern ottawa
It is the *o't [,i,ir^'"*",ry, the ao'"i"#i p'Jt {

a"t"Jty populated' most industrialized'





"onf"J"rated ;;ht;g like tlhe int"*ut power Washington Ut::lJn:.1tlj* be ;;;g North,q*"ri.u't nations canonlvseen with the greatdoes a.ritil;h;f th" 4eth pu'allel' Not 91"Yi environs of Alberta in the tiri O,reU"., but ihe Jnergy-rich their.own Quarter show repeated determination to, set colony with oil reserves to be r, refusing to be treateJ like a ted. TheJe provinces are separated by the. Breadb?tk:: |]all of Manitoba' , which includes *,r.h of Saslatchewan and by high-priced energy-and inwhich resents being rriai*ir"d Ecoto[al goods from its-partners to ttre east and west' And England-ish Maritime ProvBrit-ish Columbia, iike the New , are so different i** ttt" cential provinces that they lically and seriously debate whether confederation was a idea, Lfter uti- itrir is the implied threat behind Qu6bec sepism: Why stop there? eanwhile, southern Ottawa is so commingled with the United es portion of the Foundry that Windsor, for example' is ac"most lV to"tft of Detroit. The direct route between Detroit B"ff.i; *"iiv ittrough this portion of Canada' over the " r shote of Lake nrie, riot the ltng way around, by way of nd. C.nua.b auto industry, which is centered in southern

i"'.;'*lt"""n*"uJl;,'ff ?jjil':."{:".:"il; western democracv' ottawl



The Nine Nations of North America



I ontario, is inextricably linked to that of Detroit via the A,,n^ which is, in effect, a common market agreement tr,.i--ilt\ United States-Canadian boundary tranJp"r;;;;;;;; and finished prodlcts i"''*'hu.,g" i;;ui:,il "rl5q







Despite extensive cariadian attempts to exert sovereionr.. its economy, according toThe Finaicial pori ;",""* *f'lryqo one corporation in sares in canada *as G"r,e.aL irjr"a^ lTTbo ada., Ltd., headquartered in Oshawa, ;; il';;;; ;i;;i:,* perhaps eighty miles across Lake o",".i"-r-_ "s"f;ii""":,,{
snow flies. One hundred percent of



tion was Ford Motor companv cu"uJu, i" ci"r.trii", t.li',iT "r an hour west of Toronto ind- even croser to the u"tt"Jt,llll Eighty-eight percent of it is owned by fo.a i' n"u.bo.".ii*U,, Ltd., ro.o,,to. s"*,".,ty percent owned

ln*,*i i:: ff:Tt :'_Tffi Hf;H j*r,m::;l'"

is o*rr;d

;; ;ilT;".::




that when people to this experience


conversely, canadian firms are the rargest foreign U's' metals and machine manufact,r.ing. canadian investors in investmentin the United States ol.I{l h frieh.., p.; capita, than the oth.. *uy around. The New york Times Jstimated ,i. ,g791o,.i, #.., *A indirect, to be gzo billion. Foundry, then, finally ends north of Ottawa, at the O*awa River, on the other side of which i, unoth.r industrialized nation, but one that is unique in North America, in that most of its pop. does not spiak English: ttr.-.-".girrg and defianr narion "i1io.l of


Tfi.::Xfi ""*TI#m' es' +s4'u'Ii,,.,0"., and 648 homicides' e'o ;;iK;;t"ndant to alcoholisT: ?""r';;ii""ng from automo;,It.,ffi S''"S?;'il!:!lili{:H":il',':Jff l:,:xl:.'f rate rePorted stnc
;;;;;, ;#
kept. Six

this region what it is, and,fr.'f"""a.y,s future will be deterryined by the extent to which North Americans decide thel -^' should, or will, walk away f.o- tt ui. Questions of reindustriulirirrg aged facilities, revitali zing crurn bled cities, and recommitting political will to ease the ..r,rtrl^of racism, are all intertwined. For openers, the whole point of living in the Foundry is work. It has been argued that the protestu"l *o.t ethic never really caught on in North America to the gest. "*r.", that its p... *o.rld ,,rg-

The central issues in the Oorr"O.r, U.,f, i" human and financial terms, revolve around questions ;f investment. Enormous quantities of time, sweat, and money hu.r" U""r, invested in making

::::n;*tl':ii;,*rri ji:riJ:dti"?';m:1,tru:l ;; J' i' d"'' lf,:? I'f H :i. "#l lii'.'! iT l;-; ;ffi

n"ror"i "rra^-,*-"'',,y-fiu" o;i ; ;i;i, " "'ll U::' fi'"T An d,n" "'i"il t
?ff .


,rr""r""a p"rprg .*,":: ""t "f


fJii:: Hi';

e 4 m or

murders, and so


said ^.. o^.L,I sa And sure enough, as Oscar Paskal



to me in Solidarity

;il ; * :'n i?ii'"}: :"TJ'Tffil ;i t;;tt around and, appare"iiv, ?**g random
**T, i""ii,tli

o *515' al:u i " s "lt at children'

won't be lons before vlu get the standar["-ll-g""t-bcrserk' putttul -op"ns-fi r"- * i t r-tl#"?-tin " ricades-self-i-nsi de-hous", "'


;;#iJ i' J.iii""a slu MP'*"uo' "'


Detroit on the rront page "r NrAL rLLs' ll:. ME


The Nine Nations of North America



"Some stare silently for hours at walls," it read' "Others o,, o',o- rl-^, , "vtl. --^ ^ f^^l r i-^l ^^--r^*r1., eat or drink heavily. Some feel tired constantly, even thoug[ 1L'^r ,--^-- ^t^^- L^,,-All ^f fLo"o are cnmmrrn slmptoms o1 ''\) are common swrnntoho ^. "\J may sleep hours. All ofI these the rr. :, -,-,^ --^-.,:-^ number ^r depression among Michigan's growing '^,,-L^- of und: ployed - "Itr recent weeks, several newly unemployed p-ersons have bar. ricaded themselves with shotguns inside their homes. One side Detroiter, who lost his joi and his wife within ,h" ias1:ltl years, shot at two of his neighbors and then killed himself . " 'These are not mild cases of the blues,' " said Mel Ravitz,41. rector of the Detroit-Wayne County Community Mental Hsn115 Board in a colossal understatement. " 'Unemployment for a pro. longed period of time attacks the very core of a person's identity und r.li-p"rception. Their fmstration and feelings of worthlesiness in turn threaten the entire fabric of the f-amily' These people can't deal with all the problems and complications The very core of a person's identity and self-perception' Ask these people who they are, and before they say man, woman, Methodist, Catholic, American, Canadian, Democrat, Republican, black, white, or brown, they'll say, for example: steelworker. It,s this which brings the dry abstractions of the steel industry's bleats about foreign competition down to human scale' At the end of World War II, North America produced the ma' jority of the world's steel. The united States' share alone was 48 perclnt in the ry48_ t952 period, and its share of exports was 25 percent. By the -id-t"u".tties, the U.S. share of world production was down to a mere I8 percent, and its exports down to less than 5 percent. What was happening during that period was that every part of the world was recognling stJel proiuction as basic to its develis opment. Today, one-of the-first things an emerging nation does an gt looking foi a., international loan to build a steel mill' It's !lr"n -o.i" basic drive than that toward energy independence' And appropriate, too. The world's second largest iron-ore rer"*"t, fot example, after the Soviet Union, are in Brazil' Furthermore, war-ravaged industrialized countries, notably -Jato pan, were creating a vasiinternal market for new steel needed rebuild themselves. And they met that demand with the Jatest' most efficient technology. There are obvious advantages to bein9 forced to start again from scratch. .1,s In r948-r952, Japan produced less than 3 percent of the world

more -r"r had grown to r6 pe^rcent' Butthan percent in less 1975'tl1:.t':;;" of 5 fto* --r Bv -^-pd ll5 J -rcel' t)'^l^n-Jin"'"at':,-':"..;d's leading exporter' shipping over 35 per"*porti ItPa" ,^^.nm€ tfle w' tY""* ;'t -.eventies' , o1o to


the United States had begun illitv 'l:,T':::;;.'#ii-r."""ties, its steel more than Europe' '"'ni*;*n11";:l#;T;;;;;;;, of - what had hapways'

to'irnPort,":#"#,,imunist bloc' ln manv ttt"olli""a,. textile industry d".udlr earlier has been Ho.r'tttun to New !rr''-rs;d"/; steel. It was being tran^sferred ^onedlo t". f,^ipenine :l:.i#i;;;n.re the costs were lower' Steel-mak'oii"t put"--T;":;;r;-" 1".nnotogv. It doesn't begin to comine
is. no^

;l ;";i'; -u,,.,ru.i."" u n"d assemb v. pate \rt t"'1':::,;- j"ti."t. And that manufacturs' in 1u1n' will g n_n |o'-1l."t'ff 'I,?;j ei ;;' ;; gl n e eene t -en g n eer n "; ed of life-little forms of totll"il'."1,r.' its indusirial creation "iti dustry' *':l'- :-"-;-;r", tttut are custom-designed to eat copper ore tnicrobes, tof utstau' refined copper' '.-^lnsv of zs6K sem' una tpit out z56K semtconI


o[ semi i







U"f"te the technology It's going to be.a. *nii" comu"a genetically altered microbes are mysductor memory tn'pt is no .-the U"t in" manufacturine of steel monplace in nulgail ' Foundry's steel thai s.ome of i' tery there now' The*poi"t were drying up - being.le.tter served industry,s overseas ;;rk.i. industrializing nations il; ho;'";;.*n l''at"tty' And those newlv tt"a centers' in that they frehad an advantage ""i7tft"'.f;"t could invest in the most quently started t,"*-"tuittt' so they Th" Foundry' meanwhile' efficient n"* -"trrod. 1rt*-a"""rop"d' antiquated open' had an enormous iJu"'-*""t in' ior example' b""tt rapidlv scrapped hearth furnaces ,h#;:rh.p;'J;"lJ hurr" but weren't. less important for Moreover, a Foundry location was -becoming Some o[ the steel. Steel toduy ir".i"J"l" trtilV;n'"" U'S'itates' jacilities built in the United Iargest post-Worli w".-ri tl"el works of U'S' Steel' built in t953' States, such as th; F;li; Fairless were not built insiie ,tt. C."ut Lakes resources triangle' with a straight of Philadelphia' is in the Fo,r.td.''r. t"tliit ".tth vou can see whv: great mounds At Fairless, their characteristic of uu;i"; J"""i ii" about' inreddish-brown than colors. Venezuelan "i'irt. iron-laden dirt is more i.""-i"a"" O"Z[J atr,, which is more a glinting metallic grav' As ,ft" *i"i"T ;;;;ir.'r,*f-i"a"stry has" gro*ri, it has responded by rethinking its locations. :- -^ .L^tnan Th" ."il;?; t;;;i *itt ," open in North America in more

;*;T",#liiljiit.. ;rii."r



The Nine Nations of North America



a decade, the $r.z billion job at Nanticoke, Ontario, eightv rn,, west of Toronto, is owned by the Steel Company of Cunudu. i"'t' ically, even its Lake Erie locltion, directly u..o., f.""*i"nli}; towns like Youngstown, Ohio, reflects the new realities.;"el in the h.;;; u}p,T from the traditional reasons for locating Foundry, Stelco had new, more sophisticated imperative spokesman for the company admittei it didn't t"" u r..",i"i,, ,| the dirt-poor, thinly populated Atlantic Maritimes market n5 much of a bet. Neither was it eager to further its investmell 1n nationalistic, French-speaking Qu6bec. But at the same time, its growth market, according to company executives, is seen as 11.,. Empty Quarter environs of Alberta, which w_ill need everything from high-rise steel buildings to Stelco's wide-gauge steel pipei lines. If one assumes that a competitive steel mill must be built with access to cheap water transportation, then it comes down to the Great Lakes or the Pacific coast. Cheaper to ship west, across the flatlands of the Breadbasket, than try to lift this stuff east over the mountains from British Columbia, Stelco feels. The North American steel industry today says it has been dealt dirty by the governments of the United States, Canada, and Japan. The United States and Canada, the industry says, have slowed revitalization by forcing the corporations to invest billions of dollars in environmental equipment to clean the water billions that, they say, should have been and air of the Foundry productivity. The Japanese industry, by conspent on increasing trast, they say, is in bed with its government, which is tn-re' But the more serious charge is that Japanese and other exporters are shipping steel across the Pacific for less than they can dumping to make it in order to keep their furnaces blasting at full afford capacity and to retain advantages of scale and penetration of market. There are enormous arguments over this. Critics of North American steel companies say that they have simply made tremendous blunders in not modernizing more quickly. These coil' placent old leviathans, the critics chaige, *"." ttto.i interested in bu.k tft" billions of maintaining profit margins than in p[;;t dollars that would have been necessary to niaintain technological parity with Japan. But some part of this argument is moot. one steel mill after another has been shut down. Plans to build new ones have been indefinitely delayed, because the offending company concluded that steel is simply no longer a growth industrv in Nortn America.

weight of its cars'


" "' ;y #Ln*:; t',],', itseif is' as of :1,: I ,:,ji,?,:;' f: ri :, 31";' this a result. Meanwnuel'in"'""1t-obil;.in;;;try rates' toughened hign *i"t*' in u t""toi""ltii;";'

#iii! #

that'used to and decorative functions

supplies writing, uti unpredictable tuel with the credit availabititv, ;#;il*' affair" No'tiT;;i;;t ptou"'uiii "love all this continues not only And ".ta t;;;; ih" -uttitge ' car, but threaten demand for steel' the""; ;;t.i;" down
i est

Itwourdo".h"oJ;;:;1#;l'::1,t.".i;f,#:i#,a3ili,ff]'n'. ed nv u "T.1ff ,:il*Tt' h'n'T:il":S#i:?;; ;; n u' " ""
bTl-"""tvlvania border' about seventv Pittsburgh' Lake Erie il;"1'r;#1ffi;;" Cr"""ru"d a"d where well-meaning
Youngstown i, g;i;;'u.,J " would-be ro.,r*"R'

miles south of

dropping, and a metropolitan ut"u

th""'less burs ian *"tn" ii'ection of the I tal and i:i.; ;;i;;'' u ttry'poft'tuti"" of at the Holiday Inn.It ttut .r4o'ooo mila



of about half

YoungsIf it were located elsewhere, those numbers would put But in cities' trt"it ten largest town in rnort otn.l ;;;;;t;liit "r the Foundry, it's only number five inOhio' making of ii";;;ioi'io,rngrtown, traditio""riv' n"t been the nearbv asbv rron and ,,."r, -,llri:i;;i;i' h;u"* consumed GM plant at automated sociated

industrii] J;h;;h;



The Nine Nations of North America



Lordstown, a few miles west. (Lordstown once achieved a dt of notoriety as a result of studies that demonstrated "*,."*;*,liu els of boredom and alienation among its young workers' Lq.4,. town also served as the model for Fernwood in TV's "Mary gn.i man, Mary Hartman." But I digress.) Starting in ry77, three major steel mills in a row folded in Youngstown, starting with the Campbell Works of Youngstoqn Sheeiand Tube, foliowed by U.S' Steel's ohio Works, and i6 McDonald Works. They were just a few of the hundreds of major plants that have closed in the Foundry in the past decade as industries moved south or west, or were unable to meet foreign competition, s1 phased out obsolete facilities' Shortly before Youngstown's Black Monday, September i7, ,g77, *i"n the first miil closed, throwing four thousand out of *oit , Bethlehem Steel laid off thirty-five hundred workers in Lackawanna, New York, a suburb of Buffalo, and another thirtyfive hundred in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Bethlehem also halted work on a new steel mill in Johnstown. Three thousand workers were out of a job in conshohocken, New York, when another steei company deciared bankruptcy. In Akron, Ohio, twenty-one thouruttd iob. in the rubber industry have disappeared since I95o' twenty-five hundred of them in 1978 alone. New York state lost three iundred and twenty-seven thousand jobs in the first seven years of the seventies. Michigan figured that plant relocations ulon" .ort thirty thousand jobs in thut tt.t" between ry7o and cost it fifty thoury74, and Ohio figures that plant closings alone sand jobs between ry7o and ry77. '. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, gathering numbers that coVer what is basically the United States portions of the Foundry and New England, siys I.4 million industrial jobs have been lost there in the tf,irteen years'from ry66 to tg7g,-and clearly, the bulk of that impact has to have been in the Foundry. the elimination of nearly ten^ Youngstown's triple closings thousani high-skill, high-pay, high-status jobs, the holders of alone produced a ripple effect which have known .ro oth"r lfe that has ended up costing the taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars. The closings, in effect, were a manmade disaster equivalent to a killer hurricane or a tornado. The "ripples," in fact, were monstrous waves, touching every resident, from the department store clerk to the gas station attendant.



tn:19::"ril:1"fft?1""t:i::i argued Actuallv, it can be t\erj rhen' too' .oni.*uiiu"' For one thing' '"it' before the second "":1.:l';t,h's"r;nr,"r'. estimates of wh a'l do rix :':



\e,1:':;i;i;;; :T'li



;'ffi '#i.|i:;rn'5ffff

T :3




urban facilities that Youngstown i" ttt*s'of capital miles culated exactly *nut u cit! that 'i'" "iotoii"' dt';;;I;thools,'endlessart muinvestment. But Youngstown has municipal buildings' of sewers, roads and itreet lamps' of thousands
seums and sports

" l"::::'*::::r:riii"":"ff:tmentin No o"" has ever cal"




'ffi:'3'g*?n;?"'i maximizer-n,J,tH1r":.tli;i,#il3i1,:tH:,H;;:,.:lTli
mills, Iike Youngstown

fields-.not to m"niio'i'tindt"at act to u r'"e r.^'Yl*ms


"'i{: H:::;ttt:?t:::HiJ

S.T",i:," "' ;iln";' *;;';i;;

t, :ili;r';;o-,.,g -;? ,"gio,-ts for investcr 6s



ren e ct

s an

priced itserr out or the Foundrv has

83 8z

The Nine Nations of North America



of the more technologically sophisticated ways of making steel _ the electric-furnace method requires enormous quantities qf scrap as a basic item. Where would be a better place to put an electric-furnace mill, this argument goes, than on a rail line in the middle of more junkyards than any in the dreams of a mean dog: Youngstown? This analysis states that relatively cheap power can be generated from the region's coal, and that a savings of perhaps $4o a ton could ensue. Yet the reports have done little save give rise to a few headlines and then gather dust. One analyst cynically suggested that Youngstown will have to wait until the Japanese read these figures and locate a North American plant there. Meanwhile, the Foundry continues to decline. In Hamtramck, Michigan, an incorporated city completely surrounded by Detroit, United Auto Workers Local 3 is preparing to shut down. In r9ro, Hamtramck was a sleepy, German-American village of less than four thousand. But Chrysler changed all that. Dodge began car production in Hamtramck in ryr4, and thousands of workers moved into the sparsely settled town. Many were young men without families, living in overcrowded rooming houses and dingy hotels, where each bed did twenty-four-hour service. By r9zo, Hamtramck's population had bulged to forty-five thousand, making it the state's fastest-growing boom town. It became the Polish "capital" of Michigan, absorbing wave after wave of eastern Europeans and Ukrainians hungry for work. By r93o, 58 percent of Hamtramck's population was Polish-speaking. Ethnic pride found expression in organizations like the Polish

the market, with high-priced unionized labor, high land ", high energy costs, high pollution-control costs, und ,o f*i'o,,r, The liberal National Center for Economic AlternatiVes j1'oc" asks cerlain questions, however: Are we really going to J"',tl*, Are we,_really going to walk away from ,h; i';;;;"y ."tfirt"',, we really goi"! to iry to build them all over again i.r itl"*G, A,u and Dixiel Dolou have any idea of what thatis g"id;;'il;rt*, The center and its ideological soulmates have carried errl more extensive studies thatihow that Youngstown, t". ";;J;: should be an excellent place for heavy investment in certain kinds of steel facilities. In order to gain support for^1he granting of gov. ernment seed money for the revitalization of Youngstown's steel industry, they've trotted out analyses purporting to show thai Youngstown's location is an advantage, not a disadvantage. ens

. -- Locat-'", T:.:l 'li';f,:':T:'YiY'H*!'^il'i1[i; "; 'l:"? {"rli', ;teolrsf^"i.iv" :,1,': ffi i};.* t* ir ; f":ff lather 9ti": J,'ff ,bit^;;;r"r b{ ?" ll:-:',': iiir".i."egts1 to _.,nfluv'-, ^- A ltr4r" hu'^j."'utthough t' up next
{li.- rt pft{ir",r t;tlJr"a rf


$:li:i:t'"T #?; "|:::$'ifr I"I'i::

rooprool, lJ"*"j"."'lUou" th" rows of liquor """ sir tbar ti'.ryt,;5*":1Ti:'llii'l'

l?[f,;::.-Ju"u-"atu lini

"''n; i,';'t;:',sf i{.'s ;'ii:'":i

T:l';1 :;;:"f,"tiu'pi'rogiz migsem "^pluined'to.1e'

Y*'2::;' oft",r,gz'6o' Pieczen wteyr'1u1T"*-"rthe menu' Nales' "-*"'";;:; T*Sil: -- i; i' tr't most expenlS;it;?, Mai;lanka is but*T"tilt"";r,J costs $l'Ju' '"-.-i.rrn -iki
out Lv v- r lutn (rLrL to be prunt z powidtami

rried meat ;"i"*i',,"'tvpork dinner, roast


without much

;:iwarntii'i"'n;*tramck' : il,r'





iu" *lrion '0"1:"i::l; :l ."J:,::. ?S lrrdrt) -" I which used to prodttce -ands derelict' . , a year"no\v::"i:;; tnly a trickle of Dodse Aspen automobiles
""ff;h:"5;."luurtti.,n union hall ' thereol:,fi:;;
J,'J: |*:f"xtl'l-,r;Ir" heavYset a
James S. BrYant'


Jlfiil'',' it''o* e' n' : :;;

"?,?nJ"'"sii"ffi l"oot"

worK' facour "n;oiJ,. ou",.,' i: irl-""rr' Vorare

*xfof :i{-:'ffi a


;id retraining

about coming to

Del;l't'ii"tnou' "lf,g'"is*n

rers in his earry sixties, 9t^:!J:after the war' right

I was born and raised in Arabama'': g?t, t:.t^:'r-]rrti.g I .."aitions Back just outside of Birmingham' \r\hen t" a queslion "',oj:l'"rt had come up here. t, ..i,u, ffi;t.iJidn't g" 9.1tu I

":':l::liil: llli:: ii't;;"tlii:


nua u lou in rt'"'i"ilT']'l',l;;'t.'Jdvanc" mv'"I[' I it. I had a better opportlnitv here' it:l;ffi;."r,'in them times' vou see? I cot couldn't advance in Birmingham'




The Nine Nations of North America



know, because I was black. I was fixing the track for the switchin, bctter iob $ U\. gines. Maybe five or ciw years t could have ootten ^i-^- tr/l-.,}-- G.,- nr six rrprrs T cnrrld har/e gotten a hetter t^t au^'[' +ho-a hrrr T rrracn'r going ta ci2v there no wav- Yeah - there *"". *,luhrr onino to slay there, way. Yeah, there were miil;:l there, but I wasn't ^f, --^ ..,:+L rL^ same :l^^ I'm sure. t G-".-; I'r'l start out ql .-.,.r . "'ulS of us with the ^^*^ idea, I'- -,,-^ I figured I'd ctart nrrl at any1111f""qs t8.\p


L^-^ and ..,^-L mv *1v,lrl rrrhich T d'id I started off in tho c^here ^-l work -., l^il,i^] 'i?i'.*::t.::..'l:-t:""d1 Really hot job. Shaking dust off the castings. o'd j\.:" o..i the kind job. I would say so, yeah, that was *-1*_Ti of iobs bla.i It was a bad people would get. There weren't any white guys doing that job. 51 eight cents an hour, though, and that *u. g6oi -on"! U^.n"tft"r.. rlitln the Dodge Main plant finally closed, I was a paint repairer. If a car carne through the line and there was a scratch or something,I had to repairit before it went to final inspection. Paint repair, now, that's a good job. That's skilled. Almost top [pay1 scale. In my department that's almo51 the top job. Ain't no discrimination now.I got that because I had thirtythree years' seniority. You get the job you want, you just got no problems. Repairing paint is a good job because you don't work on every car, the way I see it. Sometimes you only get every third car' You don't have to brist your butt. Good job. Good pay. About eight dollars and something an hour. I've been out of work now six months. Longest I'd been out before was on strike, a hundred and five days. I been piddling around a lot. Painting, working around the house. Doing little odd jobs. The first month, it seemed like [model year plant] changeover. But after that, it gets on.vour nerves a bit. You just don't get used to it that quick. You work around hundreds and hundreds of friends, you don't get used to leaving them that quick. You can't just walk away from a group of friends of thirty years and you don't see them no more and you be happy about ir' The mill is just like your home.


#n:':^*"rownis.H??:i;f'"ilHi?;l;#;'"J"!13T"'u *,1rvtv hoTt'.:;"n lrom - r," -'^'^-r., .,n? .o"",y away lwa"a, rhar

- tot-:-: :::,:-"Til': #;;

t?l::1i?iii'",'; ;:il o":'Y:'T"H;;;Ji"' vears' J llli "Pl-"'"? b;;tt;' '*"'"v nitcrr'- r min€r. "".:-';;;.^ and u".o*irig'u coal-miner',Just '**.":?1i.^rirvttg t","i.::..:.o s lot here' and r came a '-"p "ii"ut g*J?;:tin;1 i1i"1t';:"'i:'r .--,*.. :^r- at Chry rr-' ' ' job -r chrvsrer's
hgqt:*-.- -nr establlsnuu r'ua enough ui4

coal,",Y"'^::i'";,;r-i"no*n"d lor its ;-5*ffY, ;;il";*n"" *Y *jl:;

:"llT,':i i" ? rJ monrhs,was to p]"i:' Il]'''::;,;eet-drive " K" cars Rov ;ssembly ren I ,' i:I:- ;,';;.w if I'll get the Jeffersol. i,']1", u .-all, fuel-el hc " on
its future

i"13;;i.'" o"t':-';i

to get a

r#rj."l"ii"rso.n,"-l.re '*",I|::i::*u' t",ri"e never.b:::,;;; i[ it works rhe same that chrYstc.'-".1L-"r". Ain't


rr anxiety.."Don t


t'ffi #;:f-ff 5;
est concentratlon



i' I" ffi i



*h f.trH:'

'sevenlv-three [h.e said]' r came over in




lii I n:*x,', :q' !:il one' Not
can't set

children back in

v""*"n. I supporr


{* ti : .T'i:; "u""? uu't. there. twiceil in

il:iTnJi:ht:!':.:Ttt ji ti} ;'T "l i:: :';'*,

The United Auto Workers' contract has a "thirty and out" clause, which allows men to retire after thirty years of service' Men who start work at eighteen, then, are eligible for a pension at forty-eight. Bryant hadln't planned on reti;ing Yet, but with Dodge Main shut down, he sees no choice for himself except to spent the rest of his days at home. "My wife," he adds with a gri.r, "*hat with me being retired, sometimes she says, 'I'll be glad when you go.' " Dominick Roy, in his early fifties, a pudgy white man, doesn't have Bryant's option of retiring. He'd worked at Dodge Main only since r953. "I was a miscellaneous sprayer when I was laid off. Putting the black-out in the front and ihe-back, and under the hood. The job wasn't too bad, but the paint can get to you. I was in the wheel room for twelve years until they shifted me into trim.I was lifting

tT*;ril.f'*" ;;:T1:;;?4fi"1^il tlliii*+:l,rx ,;:-* jt ;;: t:lt-" :, i::! i,fr llf iyl j,",ru:*: g' ", wes'l I " 'lhe ;;;6" xi::fi f:t;',$"T;i"t"T:i:;:lii:;' to California' boast.I

'l:i lik"'iii, no*, -uy.b".I go back


maYbe go

Kaid's siruation is similar

t:^lti:$ r#l:"":"JiJlt"iffii

to leave the securitv ol Detrotr " anew in a stranse .J"tli-'"ii:^ti^iJ onlv place .'l'*" ni-'"ii'uiJt trtuittt"




The Nine Nations of North America


When I asked him whether he'd thought of looking for ,,,^ , Houston or some other town much bett511ff_eco""*i.ufjilf depressed Detroit, he answered the question vaguely, wltlL"". mistakable lack of clarity about where Houston was. 1 w;s side his world, at any rate. Douglas Gulock, twenty-five, however, had discovered H' i ville; lie had already rp".ri ro-. time there. He was 0..";ilil:: grown up in Detroit, but he and his wife were gearing up to rnove to Alabama.
we build all the electrical parts for the chrysler corporation down there. Electrical ignition, the Icomputer-controlled],lean-burn engines, starting right from scratch. When I go down there, they're going to send rng 1q school for soldering. I figured in the Detroit area, I wasn't going any. where. I figure, you know, they're all going to move south. And to be in a newer plant there'd be more chance of the plant sticking around. I don't know a soul in Alabama. But after the first week, I really started liking it, and that was the turning point. The people are friendly. The work is a lot more interesting. There's more to it. More of a challenge. If you go to school you can really make a career down there. Move yourself up. They got a few trouble-shooter jobs there, and you gotta have two years of electronics. As soon as I get settled down there, I want to get into school, and, because it's job related, Chrysler will pay for part of it. I'll go to college at night . Couple more years and I'll at least be eligible for some kind of pension. I can just go down there and wait for the right job to open up.I don't think I'm going to miss Detroit. The only hard part is like my parents and my in-laws maybe. My whole family is up here. But when it comes down to missing Detroit


to other than Detroit was New y



$ffffi ffi ,'t:t*-"i:ffii{i#';*."rtiii;.t'*";


what I'm thinking'

signed up for transfer. They were lookitrg for other jobs in the Detroit area, "in steel mills, in meat-packing plants, whatever' "fiue, si*-dollars an hour'" and some had taken big pay slrfs "Everybody gets set irtheir old ways,'; Gulock said. "Even the young guys, although for some, it may have been their wives saY' got fairily here, and they don't want to uproot their i"g "6lrtt"ythink I've teen thinking ubo.rt the future more thart kids. But I -ih;;;; that if. they have. I have to make a living f.; ;Gi. Chrysler makes it, they're going to shut ii*; a b; of the old plants up here and move south."

Gulock said that the Chrysler Corporation had offered much of the Dodge Main work force the opportunity to move out of state to other Chrysler plants, but that many of his buddies hadn't even

m:il*ffitiuu*]Ii}fltt#,,'ffi ilili:T;t"ilr;t,'t
Pid losePh P. Elliott


it' s i ellenar

rerus he 'xPlained' in

soonti:t |,mli S;:,Hl :"th "

o-b e

'otf 'Hun:tlxl,?,i;.)'"l.l"il:.i[+ili:fr



in a house.


The Nine Nations of North America



I've seen cases down here when the wife doesn't even want r^ husband retire at sixty-two, sixty-five. Thely don't.want them h";:ti call, see if we can't keep the old man in the plant longer. Th" Iem is with the poor guy who had to retire when Dodge Lgi" "::;' "i"llOl had had a lot of kids, a lot of sickness, and never was ubl" tn *.1"\ thing up. He doesn't have a pot to piss t",^il:.y1"":'^::ltl"d. can't do nothing. Health probably gone. Soon he starts boo.in'j


Elliott himself wasn't sure what he wanted to $o.. He'd thougfu about writing a book about the union. "The politics, you kr just putting -do*r, my thoughts." He also mentio""d,"J;"dt: that he still had his papers as an able-bodied from whJn ^seaman, he worked on freighters, starting at the age of sixteen. "Freshwater and saltwater. They're almost forty years old now, but I Iike the sea. I used to go San Francisco to the [Hawaiian] Islands on the freighters. That's not hard work. Four hours on, four hours off." But he thought he was probably getting too old for that life. He wouldn't want long voyages away from his family. Meanwhile, across the street, David Olko, the part-owner of the Second Precinct Lounge mentioned earlier in this chapter, was surveying the traffic. "Last Friday night, we played ball outside. And at eleven o'clock on a Friday night, there were two cars that went by in fifteen minutes. Two cars in that period of time. It's like a ghost town. Then a bus went by with only two people in it. Listen now' You can hear what traffic there is. None. There used to be traffic all the time, and there were people walking by. It's a scary feel' ing."
At some point in working on this chapter, I began to wonder how much of ihe Foundry's d-ecline was sirictly log-ical, as opposed to emotional. One premise I start from is that hlistorical trends are finally realized ty millions of small, individual decisions taken over time. No corporation wakes up one morning and says, okaY' we're going to abandon South gend; San Diego, here we cofle' InsteaJ, individual decisions are made as questlons come up concerning markets, replacement costs, t"d ;;;;;;t*""lii"t pre' ies are-made of possible answers to narrow questions' and "stuasumably a logical decision is made .s to *h.i-the corporation's self-interest lies.Individuals operate the same way. Theie rnaybe a few people who just decide that they u.. tot going to live



****fi+*m*$*l,.tm il:i"ff :i'tT:ff;:
unso[iru:;t**g;;'sff :i,",'*,:*JT::]ii*l?;'"T.lt ilf i;;; decline represents more than an

l}?fff rv+*--icatedeconomrcu"'i;J';1"i"'ni;31,t1i:'-t:::;":5;; Ited economlc arlarysrr rtrsr a dilaPida' ted neighborhood energY even and ;il";;6 trrer rL ;;i ---' e b een n

seventies a sroup voung ;;::ili:^i:'-';;;';;;;;;iv ;;ii in itects facetio.rrly .u-'i' ;; "luuot"'"^tli: lT"lfi to sele ;t,;' i; ituolv"d setting-bonl*: :":t', -lorders .' ;;; ;;;;i, o' o'"Cu'-alrs. insi de "; 1'-i -11 ?.,;*fl w as ch Ii : fi t:l"J;tl; ff ;T;HYj :t'"'" "i it'"' w ar Lnus whi "' nsed to b. fortr,.omi;;h; washington nPly :l3'l* turied to the "problems

k row houses reptsssurD. )w hOuSeS r"o'"'""ii''"i; l;," ^"^Tt:tl:Tl -a conffOnted io stubborn, interrelated prob-lems th.at g:114"^:t:1:Tthan Savror-s ur Lrrs rvurrerJ nuther X-De saviors of the for,,tatv' the planners sim_ possibly be defeated by them , [t*.1""a ecided to t.y to obliterate them' Lf rrnrrno qr




money on Vietnam u"i^i*t"ua cities," that is, the FoundrY. arcfi^t^e-cj; rt would be left .r,". iri"'i.lio"g"a air raid' lhese to the way George ted, would b" u ,,"*''ir!",""'?*tored there on ngton knew it when tt"^I"i"tt"d the Hessians tmas Eve, r776. t"*11:"-t course, as Freud pointed out-, there l: ": idea is ihe rever or :t,:.]"f:i architectsr th"t" men were the ones 'ration it reflects.I" r;;;;;;;"nt',



The N ine Nations of North America

i il,'ili
t r,-e"


who labored mightily to restore beautiful old Vi"t^-:^ that had seen better days, and tried to revive tfr"--rl'-'jn downtown. What does this "plan" tell you


There are frequent newspaper headlines that susseqt -. that the Foundry has had first crack at some .f ,h-":;;"i' American mistakes - but the question is wheth". this news would help shed urrylight on the a".li"" ""'"L11-N9, o] ffiint and investment in the region. There are almost a hundred nuclear reactors on this for example, but only one went haywire, raising . cont. o.iij]".tt, emotional response fiom the *o.t,ilL.rd i, *". ii ,rr;'il:H*l Edi son's rhree Mi le Is land, jus t outsi d.H;tril;;

"'::-^t. ^ Ilo.", look pick ore-t",J;"iv;;;"n B.o*n, who u'orKs t'Il^ r.^. Ueen around. "Academl' "f"l??i"nt r thutl^]ffi ,ugg"stton, bla;'11iffi;;;;; lot or slums that are , !"',"l,2irripo'1, is glashmt*",, he insisteu. ""i - ', --* L,,t Academy Street t, p ;:.:a fi,Tl and sorr'" '., .t^"sn't ff l" ::,: ":' r"a'onublv 'ul"\|:t'',nn, come up to f

Tr{EFOUNDRY .. ^^:, ; 'olline iournalistic cotteieiel'^li|; starteo.fj'*""rli *rrettos in North Amenca ^-cwer, I -^ aq tr artt"'--*at' l ended up

*'l;4il'"q';jl ;ry ;J*T::,nli:lt"n*g; a".

rrjll',h;; ;" 'frf.f:"* ff;;



:tH;: ;;i ;?i,:*;5J*ffi11;i::it',nJ -o., anvthing I
- ,- "

-.rtarir-ir'in tr,, Fourrdry: Hooker Chemical's Love Canal, near Buffalo. .,stunt,,_architecture There are an untold number of flashy, high-rise buildings.in North America, but tire *"rt t;ili;;-"*urples "of fortress architecture, with no windows, or windo"ws that are mere slits, are in the Foundry. Even Detroit's Renaissance Center, with its all-glass cylindrical and hexagorrut to,"r.r, i, built behind thirty-foot-tali medieval earth embankments. It,s not easy to walk to the Renaissance Center. It clearly was meant to be arrived at by car, through checkpoints. All of North America has pollutio., p'-bl.-r, the Houston Ship Channel among the worst. But only t^he Cuyahoga River actually burst into flames; only Lake Erie ioyed -iif, afi"gl ir is mainly in^the Foundry that acid rain has rnud. dramatic iiroads, killing off mountain-stream fish populations. All of North America is confronting the energy crisis, but some of the most trenchant continental m6mories oidepr ivation came in $9_win-ters of '77 and'7g, when much of Ohi", p.rrrrryluunia and New York was immobilized by cold; the Ohio River was .-l"gg"d by ice, thwarting coal-barge shipments; and, on top 9t that, factories closed forlack of nJtural gas. How many people are there who wouldn't respond in a thought-association quizto the challenge "snow," withlhe city ,,Buffal,o.', And, of course, if racism is bred of fear, with what part of the continent does North America associate black ghettosi The question is how much of this is in the sli"ghtest rational? Ift

There are an estimated fifty thousand chemical dump sites North America, and some of the worst of them u." i"^6i*r", in Uu, the continental symbol of the revolt of the

l-'"''d+l#lni;*i*i+t+r*'n';tlff co'"" uP I'u
:tt if:il"m:T:;#;;

show You

Street." ..eak, and. good . *i"".^L' pliT" t] +hepasta, superlor restaur excellent Pi']T'"* ^, F.asr Coast's Juperior rcsta.umy -ttl'rlo* Jin"East tratn station' and per,o',-to the Trenton view his vrew across u.aott the street tr . cr-^^+ Inf{ee T'i"r;"t;;;,'"ff"" explained - blocks from Aci eight

to do"-wasf"*U^l;tLXl"il"t::tJ":; interested me, what I wanted expose *,tttlf^tl-ill,1tn" country-,.expose rtrysrrr ere rl€'re a foreign country' 'e the paper to let me


wrtn on Lrrar uee! *s is that the issues I deal to.irrr"*"rr" in the lives iit*i.i"v. What does the government {o point of viewi


,poor, and does it *"*'i;;;';''itittry'humanistic does? lri"ti"a'!' *l^t sovernment are individuals, lots tt'i'#' is lhat the ltoetat "'"'"i'iurg", a harmful imI think I've found t. ;:;1h;jiu"t'r. intentlon"not"*itLtiftl?tffil think government programs tend to t'tl":'blui,l rl on the peopte rh"y ur"' i;i;;-,;-n"' ?':: il with some aoat of academic training' are b,ell( r-^ +r^an nof ouite so Wrth SOme SOrt ol academlc lrarrrrr,6, s.' ":",*;:"il:rtr..1: qUite So mrrke them not rene somehow in the lives of the poor and Do the feds hand out ,ilii]Jr'""'i,iJ-a"uu'-u?"i: )o three-thousancl-oorrar-a-r;;i ih; child care of ,itar"n oi*orking *o*"n? Yes, thev d3 o,"o"t;:,li"ji^-tir o1a . fo. -ort ;;;kG *o*"n turns out to be.th-e turns out that the f"d.':;; mV way seeing' 3t" 1i11,',":^:l\::i: feds. to "r a useful social serey without any compelling argument that thr: is with a broad impact on society.





The Nine Nations of North America


Or, for example, look at foster care. Foster care is what n,,.*^

{ i

rHE Fou NDRr
_ .,,., in u


t' :,'"T::T:"'::*;:l*i::;1':^t",:.:*::Y'?:l"Xl:l:^:tuo"'il:J: vate homes, subsidized by the government. It has evolved ".*;;u pal nreans by which government intercedes b"".t ubatdon"al ceives to be in danger, because they've l"^:-..:::. *iil:T ii
neglected, or abused.

ryfl:it;; -but lfrl*

. .-:;;;,"d Private rlar:::Ilo^ -,,.h. because *. :'ir";;;n

raise kids have a littre

'".rt"."'".'^".:"'J:""tI iit'^li$i"[',*"*'j:"f, :Til-,,:t:::::]lJ,liil."I"Ti .n&"o i]^"1 *"t*u kid is ne

But what's commonly perceived as neglect is simply some middl" social worker labeling poverty as somehow a manifestatl"" of pu,


in the hospital who's severely injured. The doctor t.^;;.;:;il been parental abuse. I go to the apartment. It turns out the t ia f.fl'*'q the window.I call it paintal neglect, because,I'm tft" hvp,oth.t;"ff$
worker. After all, a decen! parent wouldn't allow his kid to be.*porud to the incredible danger of a rusted-through iron.railing five storie above the pavement, or whatever. But any practical person would say, "That's simply what slum housing is like, you stupid -lr;k>t*rc'xrr***."ri What the social-welfare industry likes to call parental neglect is just a fancy new way of justifiiing intervention by the state in the lives of the poor. What happens is that it is a way for a bunch of middle-class people with degrees in the social sciences to end up finding work. What happens to the poor? Their families live under the additional stress of having their families divided, and children shipped off to foster homes. What my examination of abuse and neglect in New Jersey has led me to, politically, is that it's turned me into an anarchist. I think that

Okay, say I'm a.social worker. I walk into a home because there,.


],j.,^,n* , :X?^l"T [T::,i:: l"t."tt1-ii*"ntion "r f',:;:;;i;ion by rh" r,.", t ir, ;: i,*"U",i'f ?t:'1 ": :: 1""- '-*t,rat"-class jthe t'l--,t e balance #l"l,U, " ".' peop iJ :T Tfi :"J: J I or' "'-obeen e, and,a;,: ; ";l"".iin g'r k " poo.. not corn "il



,"i^t th"




if we shut down the state agencies that intervene in cases of alleged abuse and neglect, infant-moitality rates in New Jersey would not be perceptibly *6..". The problem would be that the social workers would
be out of work.

ffg,ltW##ffi f*f
;n."'r':i:';*'ili"1";i'''':;'*[;nl;?;i"""tX';; ffi"::$?"f ;:ilffi lffi:il"'xli};,*"HTf

looking at specific cases. There's this one woman I met on Academy Street, when I-was trying to see what life was like in

I mean, I've been


the the slums. Over a period of some three years,I saw how her life and interven' lives of her children were really affected or unaffected by the tion of all these agencies. And on balance I can see no change whatever' doing They're still living in a lousy slum apartment; the children aie still sexual molestation poorly in school, are still subject to the a."g*t "u." "f lum' unsupervised 1n.,1 that accompany any situation where childr"r, ]". I penproletaiiat neighborhood. The p.ognori, "'tpi.t"a j:??t:tjtJ; rtl^ self-sufficiency is just as bad as it ever was. I mean, one cannot tttit o1f tangible improvement in the life of this f.-ii;;;';"s,r1t or att can see that intervention has led the woman io be completelY distn, ,'."


say' by pegpter::::'".t;" of bfussional manner, they tr?,;"J.i"r."Jdiscussion o[ slums onal

i*'il"":# *t*r'ru:. *l{:#*ri;*'T
is enjoying himsell

i;Tt[ :w'$ff:': i'"-'"\'x llY*lt *6 ;:




threat to her has been all along that if you don't cooperate yttl l".^"inrl veners, we will ship your kids off to ftster homes. And what Ylnrity. Sometimes these kids end up in foster care for the rest of their -'lj Uut It can be argued that growing up in a slum is fraught with danger'

:;ir''#:i;; *,::1'#

;#:iH:ll;'.T::.:i':'ff :?fr Jiii:|"*"n*mmt rpl o"i riiJttlly-out-of-focus lnanlhoJ?^^ *tth the monev li:r'T':"flt"tJ#'fi."l'il,"*li."nt*-""n;1".S'l;l and shot

r ._^^^lr rr" knocks on a door and 1111,.u. family. They me into the tidy apaitment of a Puerto T"?"f",ir;"servedl me the velvet map of Vietnam.' *h,"I"^ro], onnrher son, anct

lili?'XTitiY;"Tl*"i:f ;1'^;L;:1ol'iifll"l"i'iji A direction that |""ti';::3l'fff# :'#t il;i ii:*


*ukirrg workiniin the States'



The Nine Nations of North America

-'rq iu


gown another kid

will ""'


_, ,Joffee drags me out of that

be wearing to fiftl '".*:u'ns htth-grade *tu6qation




follow him. Ir's blocking tr," door'iJ il"':;j#"io^"ll:", *; -bath. They are, he savs urith g."u, tn"r he,uy,, *ith dra^+ p.ij":;#'JH"'i,ff1.il1 e, --:r^ _- r ,- -wuroolfl

s1erthe..";h;i;';ffi ;il;J*;,.i_:l,il,i,LXT:i?^,.!J.iT




f**:lt't'91 if":.tn :',iffiI i;; i'



y's horne'

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' leaves speckle


ffi :l*t+lJ,t*'w;ill{Jirfu #:t'rgif r*xxT$::i,"l"":nip{n'"{i.*

:.q:*xtlf ;::"'s;*-t"fl*"9":.'J*r';:*.a .r,i.t"n, iried chicken' corn 5."'l;Jtln*.",il"ffi;,.f i *^i1, l'l;I ilH,:"S'; and nsn \:u1L-:' 'ps .1t""r", collard greens'
At the-vestpocket park, which used to have an inflated don courts,.until the vandals put a fifteen_foot, i 3l,il"l*l*:,1"11 reparable hole into its side, ."orf,". ..i"iil;;'#;:; by arsorr..rh;,;;-;;ting it. rt,s a group *,'l*'l^r_:^.:1red neighborhood peopie *r,", tn"v Ju;;##''ffi irl'r',Jo3'"r, o', put"iio ii, r" -"re the park jnlo some :;1,+t1l"Tot{.:i1' "r thing. No, the li tu r,uJ i.,h;;,; d;;.,il; :'iiJili,i'iil. *",


if n:":';.'T:H:1"ii::^$F-3'z'::k:'k.Breakrast above' or Rfl ffi 'ffi ;;;':;;; pratetuI, -111i.1" racism' "You own ,er lunch, Joffee *"t:t"L"#*ittt,*v '.d;;;ii';;e, weren't You?" he asks'


,d yoo have

bein as scared as anyt"pable of violence there slum? They're :rrrt "t
up on Academy Street? And r'l'hen he tt,d""l-1iL:: ttia or a social worker "vi"g the PeoPle who rive i" doing a number on my "v'Jt"-"o*pi"i"lt st, and asking questions later. for ,, the reverse f.rt,. of fi'.r'J''". i perfectly reasonable

tl* ililng it, "It was scared"' .^,"." in a white Appar say' meanrng rL' *-i"^;;^.,L, . if you were ll

can the city do? lt i, too p;;;",";;;ce the nylon dome. As the salsa music plays, they show ;h;-;;g puerto Rican ilag rhey have painted on one wall, and ". ,fr" -.p they,ve made with paint and stones in the circle *f,"." . ,."" ,ir"j ;. J'faitld.It is clearly labeled: ARECTBo. cERoNrMo. puERro ;;;; Rrco. we stop by ,La Larefla caf6, which, l"if"l-is-delighted to see, someone is rebuilding- It used ,. roasted right out back on u rfit, urrtit tfr" fr"a".. terrific iork, rc the f,*"Jp."ua from the pig ba;k th.e building one night. 3f I ask who lives ii tfr. *fri1"-fraired lady,s rooming house, ar,d

_ 1':'*i iS he? 1".1i:ttrii:i!1.'l',r mean, look, how .orten :S, WhO :T:; :u, I Dllrster-. ure4rrr dot

*';.ii;g; ili.] ffi"J;i;#;;;';;?ilo

short answer is:

The Nine Nations of North America



rns Y*-i::*hly-lut?i.in"humm"t, on cooled to gray but came Pv niT',;::; un'a-*""g"a srabs lfrtt' i-:i:"?',

ft##HE{it[1,*'H,fuil"'lT'{'-:ii'-H ;;
it reallv is. A steer

lrg"r;;;,,:l:^tlT:,:i,"::i*i:if,:X",1}:f ff
Dave Hankins arld Jack Thompson l ignorant ,:1::.1'"-1", teachers. Tlo't"...?l ,n".uJii.. making steel. They were good Tirey still rr"iJrrr"i'i J^":l il awe, and rightly so. At the coke ovens, tt"." full of roaring hot coal being purified, they pointed -igtiVt called "Fairless rain." The coke is so hot thit when "";;li";,ff lt i. .,,,L^t^, in a valley of water, a cloud of steam erupts;_as it cools, ,.*.A thousand yards downwind, it turns into dloplets on a .". *ina. shield. It creates small ponds. The guides say they're clean. They are, in fact, being enjoyed by a host of wild water birds. A woman stands by the business end of the coke oven. At least, Hankins says it's a woman. There was enough roll to the hips of the worker's walk to make his statement plausible. But with the worker's helmet, face mask, heavy heat-resistant jacket and pants, and Li'l Abner steel-lined safety boots, it,s an open question. streams of yellow sulfur escape before the refractory bricks expand to seal the coke oven doors tight. At the blast furnace, where manmade winds of four-hundred miles an hour hold the ore, coke, and limestone being worked in midair, in defiance of gravity, flaming red molten iron pours out of the bottom constantly, like milk from a jug. _ The soul of the primitive open-hearth steel-making furnace can be viewed only through dari{ green smoked glass, "Hankins and Thompson say, as they hand oi". u rectangleif it. It's like look' ing into the sun. You'll sear your eyes from a hundred feet awat if you glance at it directly. As ove"rhead cranes maneuver giant hooks the size of battleship anchors, which hold the lvll6 carq' ing hundreds of tons t'h" r""ir"" .*m of the core of the earth' "f they give a machine operator a hand signal, and the de66 5win9' and there, an eerie green, through the lioking glass, areflarnesso intense that there ihould be a-nother *o.iflr them. If Datfie could have only seen this Much farther down the line is the forty-inch part of the



in the day,

iiit* irys#

r;ri]l,l":m:,*:ll*;1i,:l':,'fi l:*i:*jT'il:lJl; of mlsi'*-rr*.rrrr", r,','hich, tt.

:;ff;i J ouil i ::: ffi :3 t"tl':::i-ru"aur"a ts" matter i"J*'-ilffi i*-qi x; +.{ t"Ti:,i scrubbers. iate I th" envrrofirrrsrrrr"*"uJo*a and lines re cubisr. Theri work_ -i"'id" shadon"s' .1::-:i' con f-I? ;i;e skv' rh e air-conditioned :;";'"i ur "'t' sp nkl d H fftl'fitll srveat pouring off exclaims the reportel''*i'l $:'ltt,'" n".'JJ#lf i""t"'.T'" abore reet ffil:
n sides





is actually a_very


Fetv t'"rm"'' Jr"iv helmet, ll:: '"to green satetv*;;#;h"ii

,tau. ^ r r^_ +r'ah,v_ radiating z too deg-ree \'t'orKeu ru' "'"'.a"4, turns lho-ptott, 'who hasthem as :r'r,Y i; io'J."],H I to the rck. rhomp so,,, *no' ilii gri a r;;;.;il;;,v-t*o of ;'i=l';';;: roll uov^ smiles. of steer and smires' He tnrowb in lt:jl?3;t"l,ii'nll-i f steel a tropical sun, and as if basking snreads his arms, ln crucrltlr" t"-Juh"r" my paycheck there on the catwalk, in crucifor"illt-l;t^-o -.,' navcheck ils airt"r"." the.catwalK' says' "I love it' It's ' i"t" ,nrt-iteat," he

t"* a",* i':#::5,;"'i;i;; i:Tig:tJi:"l





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