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Physical chemistry

General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept;
Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept)
involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions;
Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.
Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from
ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most
probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour
pressure; Diffusion of gases.
Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum
numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative
quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic
configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion
principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d
orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond;
Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of
molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal,
trigonalbipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).
Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work;
Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of
thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.
Chemical equilibrium:Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect
of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔG0 in chemical
equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases
(Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.
Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst
equation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of
electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s
law; Concentration cells.
Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order
reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).
Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b,
c, α, β, γ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest
neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

general characteristics. Oxides. Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide. Properties of α. magnesium and calcium. copper. oxidation states and their stabilities. silver nitrate. . potassium dichromate. surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples). square planar and octahedral). sulphur and halogens. aluminium chloride and alums. β and γ rays. oxyacids and ammonia. bicarbonates. Colloids: types. tetrahedral. colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment. Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded). Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions. Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars. Phosphorus: oxides. Transition elements (3d series): Definition. bleaching powder. silver thiosulphate. phosphorus. aluminium. Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio.Solutions: Raoult’s law. elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point. Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms). silver oxide. Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. oxygen. Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid). Boron: diborane. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides. Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron. Aluminium: alumina. Inorganic Chemistry Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron. chlorides and sulphates of sodium. Elementary ideas of emulsions. cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms. sulphurous acid. Xenon fluorides. oxides. Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure. oxyacids (phosphorus acid. nitrogen. Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite). boric acid and borax. potassium. Nitrogen: oxides. Halogens: hydrohalic acids. hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear. Potassium permanganate. carbonates. Cu2+ and Zn2+. sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead. zinc and silver. tin. carbon dating. lead. silicon. phosphorus and sulphur. silicates and silicon carbide. peroxides. oxides and oxyacids of chlorine. chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+. phosphoric acid) and phosphine. hydroxides. Silicon: silicones. magnesium. methods of preparation and general properties.

Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage. Structural and geometrical isomerism. IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons. Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2. Ca2+. Ba2+. Cyanide process (silver and gold). nitration and sulphonation). Nitrate. Reduction of alkenes and alkynes. Pb2+. Metal acetylides. Carbon reduction method (iron and tin). Formation. electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation. Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium). structure and stability of carbocations. properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points.Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded). Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres. Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination). Grignard reactions. Kolbe reaction. HX. Resonance and hyperconjugation. Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions. Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity. Mn2+ and Mg2+). properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series. Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases. mono-functional and bi-functional compounds). Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method). Self reduction method (copper and lead). density and dipole moments). Preparation. Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone. sulphonation. (R. nucleophilic substitution . Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation. Cu2+. Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. Preparation.S and E. Zn2+. σ and π-bonds.Z nomenclature excluded). Organic Chemistry Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon. nitration. Phenols: Acidity. Keto-enol tautomerism. mand p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes. Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation. Hg2+. carbanions and free radicals. Acidity of alkynes. Bi3+. halides (excluding fluoride). Shapes of simple organic molecules. Cr3+. Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+. sulphate and sulphide. Fe3+. boiling points and density). Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions. Al3+. Reimer-Tieman reaction. physical properties of alkanes (melting points. Combustion and halogenation of alkanes. HOX and H2O (X=halogen). Effect of o-. Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides. Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections). Addition reactions of alkynes.

addition. ZnCl2/concentrated HCl. Carboxylic acids: formation of esters. Perkin reaction. Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties. Quadratic equations with real coefficients. halogens). carboxyl. conjugation. geometric and harmonic progressions. Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures. aldol condensation. infinite geometric series. dehydration and oxidation. Arithmetic. amino and nitro. ester hydrolysis. azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines. carbylamine reaction. teflon and PVC. geometric interpretations. triangle inequality. multiplication. Algebra Algebra of complex numbers. symmetric functions of roots. Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation. oxime and hydrazone formation. nylon. cellulose. mono. Permutations and combinations. reduction.reactions. sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers. properties of modulus and principal argument. carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone). phosphorus halides. Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N. cube roots of unity. Cannizzaro reaction. reduction. Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic). acid chlorides and amides. Carbohydrates: Classification. polar representation.Logarithms and their properties. Alcohols: esterification. preparation from nitro compounds. geometric and harmonic means. Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution). reaction with sodium. conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones. relations between roots and coefficients. .and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose). properties of binomial coefficients. sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. arithmetic. Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines. S. formation of quadratic equations with given roots. Ethers: Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis. Oxidation. Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index. Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber. haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition). reaction with nitrous acid. glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only). Equations of a parabola. determinant of a square matrix of order up to three. angle between two lines. diagonal. shift of origin. Addition and multiplication rules of probability. addition. independence of events. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . inverse of a square matrix of order up to three. computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations. equations of tangent and normal.Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers. Centroid. their periodicity and graphs. directrices and eccentricity. Parametric equations of a circle. Relations between sides and angles of a triangle. equations of tangent. symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties. formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles. normal and chord. Bayes Theorem. their foci. half-angle formula and the area of a triangle. equality of matrices. addition and subtraction formulae. transpose of a matrix. multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices. equation of a plane. ellipse and hyperbola in standard form. sine rule. incentre and circumcentre of a triangle. Equation of a circle in various forms. cosine rule. parametric equations. section formulae. distance of a point from a line. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates. Trigonometry Trigonometric functions. intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle. distance between two points. distance of a point from a plane. equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines. conditional probability. general solution of trigonometric equations. equation of a straight line in space. concurrency of lines. Equation of a straight line in various forms. equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line. properties of these matrix operations. Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines. Locus Problems. orthocentre. solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables. Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios.

difference. trigonometric. GENERAL Units and dimensions. polynomial. limit and continuity of the sum. rational. significant figures. definite integrals and their properties. Derivative of a function. least count. scalar multiplication. dot and cross products. Speed of sound . difference. continuity of composite functions. Integration by parts. maximum and minimum values of a function. Determination of g using simple pendulum. geometrical interpretation of the derivative. exponential and logarithmic functions. composite functions. rational. Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter. tangents and normals. product and quotient of two functions. exponential and logarithmic functions. derivatives up to order two. dimensional analysis. Formation of ordinary differential equations. Limit and continuity of a function. product and quotient of two functions. difference. L’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions. chain rule. integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions. Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus. scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations. separation of variables method. product and quotient of two functions. onto and one-to-one functions. Young’s modulus by Searle’s method. application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves. linear first order differential equations. Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem. Derivatives of implicit functions. into. INTEGRAL CALCULUS Integration as the inverse process of differentiation. VECTORS Addition of vectors. indefinite integrals of standard functions. Even and odd functions. inverse of a function. solution of homogeneous differential equations. focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method. derivative of the sum.Real valued functions of a real variable. derivatives of polynomial. trigonometric. intermediate value property of continuous functions. inverse trigonometric. absolute value. sum. Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using Verniercalipers and screw gauge (micrometer). increasing and decreasing functions.

Torque. Linear and angular simple harmonic motions. Static and dynamic friction. Streamline flow. Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits. THERMAL PHYSICS Thermal expansion of solids. Law of gravitation. Calorimetry. Work and power. Pressure in a fluid. Impulse. . First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases). Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference. Speed of sound in gases. latent heat. Elementary concepts of convection and radiation. Uniform Circular motion.using resonance column. Heat conduction in one dimension. Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation. Terminal velocity. Pascal’s law. Equivalence of heat and work. moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes. Progressive and stationary waves. Verification of Ohm’s law using voltmeter and ammeter. Escape velocity. Gravitational potential and field. Stefan’s law. Relative velocity. projectiles. Kirchhoff’s law. Newton’s law of cooling. Centre of mass and its motion. moment of inertia. Resonance. superposition of waves. Stoke’s law. Buoyancy. Beats. Hooke’s law. cylinders and spheres. Viscosity (Poiseuille’s equation excluded). Equilibrium of rigid bodies. equation of continuity. bulk modulus of gases. Acceleration due to gravity. Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases). Vibration of strings and air columns. Doppler effect (in sound). Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers. and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box. Wien’s displacement law. Ideal gas laws. Surface energy and surface tension. capillary rise. Young’s modulus. Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy. Wave motion (plane waves only). Rolling without slipping of rings. Conservation of angular momentum. Kinetic and potential energy. parallel and perpendicular axes theorems. longitudinal and transverse waves. Collision of point masses with rigid bodies. liquids and gases. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Rigid body. Systems of particles. Newton’s laws of motion. Angular momentum. MECHANICS Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only). Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

sources. Half-life and mean life. Biot–Savart’s law and Ampere’s law. Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces. Optics Rectilinear propagation of light. Flux of electric field. Electric current. Self and mutual inductance. along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid. Magnetic moment of a current loop. uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. voltmeter. Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses. Wave nature of light: Huygen’s principle. Fission and fusion processes. Law of radioactive decay. Magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire. β and γ radiations. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law. LR and LC circuits with d. Capacitance. Electric field and potential. Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics. ammeter and their conversions. Ohm’s law. Magnification.c. Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells. Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism. Force on a moving charge and on a currentcarrying wire in a uniform magnetic field. such as. Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases. Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field. Thin lenses.ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Coulomb’s law. Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop. Lenz’s law. interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment. Energy calculation in these processes. and a. Total internal reflection. Modern physics Atomic nucleus.c. . Capacitors in series and parallel. to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. Electric field lines. Decay constant. Moving coil galvanometer. RC. Heating effect of current. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Energy stored in a capacitor. Binding energy and its calculation. α.

Photoelectric effect. Characteristic and continuous X-rays. Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves . Moseley’s law.