‫ممم مممم مممممم ممم‬

Tunnel Construction

TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION

BY  Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Atty Gab-Allah  (Zagazig University)
1

Tunnel Construction

OUTLINE
1. INTRODUCTION. 2. TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS. 3. TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION IN EGYPT.

2

Tunnel Construction

1. INTRODUCTION
 Importance of tunnels.

 Objective:
 Review latest tunnel construction systems.

3

Tunnel Construction

2. TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS
(a) Cut and Cover System. (b) Pipe Jacking System (Micro Tunneling). (c) Shield Tunneling (TBM). (d) New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM). (e) Immersed-Tube Tunneling System.

4

(a) Cut and Cover System

Tunnel Construction

Sequence of Construction (Stages 1 to 3)

5

(a) Cut and Cover System

Tunnel Construction

Sequence of Construction (Stages 4 to 6)

6

Cut and Cover System Advantages:

Tunnel Construction

• • • • •

Economy for shallow depths (4 - 10 m) and for shorter applications. Un-sophisticated labor and equipment required. Adaptability to different conditions. Simple structural & geotechnical analyses required. Safe environment (ventilation and fire hazard). Possible disturbances to existing facilities. Practical limitations of depth. Unsuitability under buildings or water.
7

Disadvantages:

• • •

Soil Grouting Techniques

Tunnel Construction

Jet Grouting: Soil Replacement Process

8

Soil Grouting Techniques

Tunnel Construction

Slurry Wall Concept

9

Soil Grouting Techniques

Tunnel Construction

Ground Freezing Concept

10

Tunnel Construction

(b) Pipe Jacking System (Micro Tunneling)

Schematic Representation
11

Tunnel Construction

Preparation of Driving Shaft

Jacking Pipes Using Hydraulic Jacks
12

Guidance and Positioning Using Laser-Guided Steering System

Tunnel Construction

 

Laser Guide & Control Monitor

 

Screen Capture

 

13

Tunnel Construction

MTBM Break Through

Extraction of MTBM
14

Tunnel Construction

MTBM - Shields of Different Sizes

 

 

15

Tunnel Construction

MTBM - Different Shapes of Cutting Heads

 

 

Dirt cutter head (clay and silty sand)

Sand shelves

 

Carbide cutter head (soft to medium hard rock)
16

Pipe Jacking System (Micro Tunneling) Advantages:

Tunnel Construction

• • • • • • •

Suitability for almost all types of soil. Large depths with unlimited lengths of drive. High levels of accuracy and safety. Wide choice of pipe and joint materials. High construction rates. Reduced manpower requirements. Reduced environmental disturbance. Sophisticated equipment and highly skilled labor. Inability to make rapid changes in line or level. Very expensive corrective actions, if required.

Disadvantages:

• • •

17

(c) Shield Tunneling (TBM)

Tunnel Construction

Cutter Head

Tunnel Tube

18

Support Fluid Circulation System

Tunnel Construction

19

Construction Sequence

Tunnel Construction

20

Shield Tunneling (TBM) Advantages:

Tunnel Construction

• • • •

Suitability for almost all types of soil. Suitability for wide tunnels (highway, railway, etc.). Large depths ( > 10 m), with unlimited lengths of drive. Reducing environmental disturbance and utilities diversions. Sophisticated equipment and highly skilled labor. Inability to make rapid changes in line or level. Very expensive corrective actions, if required. Difficult structural and geotechnical analyses reqd.
21

Disadvantages:

• • • •

(d) NATM
Construction Sequence

Tunnel Construction

22

Advantages:

NATM

Tunnel Construction

• • • • •

Best alternative for non-circular roadway tunnels. Suitability for almost all stable to strong ground types, including rock. Suitability for a variety of soil conditions. Small thickness of tunnel lining, reducing the amount of excavation. Economy and speed of construction. Highly skilled workers and expert engineers. Safety measures for shotcrete application. Ground water freezing and/or soil strengthening (in case of water-bearing cohesionless soil).

Disadvantages:

• • •

23

(e) Immersed-Tube Tunneling System

Tunnel Construction

24

(e) Immersed-Tube Tunneling System Construction Sequence:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Tunnel Construction

Dredging the trench in river or sea bottom. Prefabrication of tunnel sections, and sealing ends with bulkheads. Floating the sections to the tunnel trench. Lowering the sections to seabed. Joining the sections together underwater. Removing the temporary bulkheads. Backfilling the trench.

25

Immersed-Tube Tunneling System Advantages:

Tunnel Construction

• • •

Economy (most economical alternative for any type of underwater tunnel crossing). High construction rates (particularly for steel tube tunnels). Wide variety of different conditions.

Disadvantages:

• • •

Casting basin (for concrete box tunnels). Highly skilled and experienced workers. Safety measures for underwater construction.
26

DEVELOPMENTS & FUTURE TRENDS IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION Conventional Tunneling:
                 

Tunnel Construction

 

Areas
Blast Tunneling Tunneling in Loose Sand Shotcrete Safety Measures General Equipment Developments Handling of Groundwater Final Lining in Concrete
 

Developments
• • • • • • • Drilling techniques. Blasting technology. Re-use of excavated material. Injection. High -pressure injection. Soil freezing. Special shotcretes without acce lerators that reduce concrete solidity. • Advances in diesel motor technology (less pollutants in exhausted gases). • Two -layer plastic sealing tracks (double water -pressure resistance). • Measures for protecting inner concrete 27 linings (to prevent tears).

DEVELOPMENTS & FUTURE TRENDS IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION Pipe Jacking (Micro Tunneling):

Tunnel Construction

• • • • •

Computerized laser guidance to reduce pipeline misalignment. Pipe jacking at great depths below the ground, and in unstable ground conditions. Pipe jacking over a very long distance. Lubrication to reduce jacking forces, enabling larger diameter pipes and longer tunneling lengths. Possibility of pushing pipes along a curved line.

28

DEVELOPMENTS & FUTURE TRENDS IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION Shield Tunneling (TBM):

Tunnel Construction

Design changes for TBMs to reduce damages to lining segments (due to impact of rear shield jacks):  Rollers attached to the segments that slide on rails attached to the sidewalls (enabling ideal load distribution, and reducing the wheel loads which impact on the newly placed ring). Convertible shield machine:  Working in soft rock as a shielded TBM, and  Working in soft ground as a compressed air shield.
29

DEVELOPMENTS & FUTURE TRENDS IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM):

Tunnel Construction

Heavy-duty Roadheader for constructing traffic tunnels through the rock.

30

Tunnel Construction

3. TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION IN EGYPT Major Tunnel Projects in Egypt
Sys. Cut and Cover (Diaphragm Walls) Major Applications
 Metro Line 1 (Running Tunnel).  Metro Line 1 (Stations).  Metro Line 2 (Stations).  Al-Galaa Tunnel.  Al-Thawra Tunnel.  Al-Oroba Tunnel.  Greater Cairo Wastewater  Pedestrian Tunnels.  Metro Line 2 (Running  Ahmed Hamdi Tunnel.

Length (m)
4,700* 144** 1740* 600 385 760

Width (or diam.) (m)
9.00 27.00 Variable 15.80 15.50 11.00

Pipe Jacking (Micro Tunneling) Shield Tunneling (TBM) NATM Immersed-Tube Tunneling

Tunnels.

Variable Variable Variable Variable 9,390 1,640 9.50 11.80

Tunnel).

Has Not Been Applied Has Not Been Applied

* Total length of cut and cover construction. ** Length of a typical station.

31

Tunnel Construction

Thank you for listening

32

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful