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ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

SURVEYING - art of determining and measuring distance, direction, and elevation.


Types of error
1. Systematic error (cumulative error) effects can be eliminated by applying corrections.
2. Accidental errors - error w/c remain after mistakes and systematic errors have been eliminated.

SYSTEMATIC ERRORS
1.

Correction due to tape too long or too short

General Rule:
Tape is Too Short :

Laying out distances : Add the correction


Measuring distances : Subtract the correction

Tape is Too Long :

Laying out distances : Subtract the correction


Measuring distances : Add the correction

MEASURING DISTANCES :
Standard Tape

B
100 m
100.2 m
Tape too short
by 0.2 m

B B

99.8 m
100 m

Tape too long


by 0.2 m

B B

LAYING OUT DISTANCES:


100 m
Standard Tape
B

100 m
100.2 m
Tape too short by
0.2 m
B B

99.8 m
A

100 m

Tape too long by


0.2 m
B B

2.

Correction due to change in Temperature


C T TL to be subtracted or added
where

11.6 x10 6 m..per .. deg ree..C

6.45 x10 6 ft..per .. deg ree..F

T Ta Ts change in temperature
L length of the tape at standard temperature

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
3.

Correction due to change in Pull

Cp

where

PL
to be added or subtracted
AE

P Pa Ps = change in pull
A = cross sectional area of tape
E = modulus of elasticity of the tape
L = length of the tape at standard pull

4.

Correction due to sag

C sg

where

w 2L3
___ to be subtracted only
24P 2

w = weight per linear meter


L = unsupported length of the tape
P = applied pull

5.

Correction due to Slope

C sp

where
6.

h2
___ to subtracted only
2S

h = difference in elevation ; S = slope distance

Correction due to reduction to sea level


S
S'

R (R h)

where

S = level distance at sea level


S = level distance above sea level
R = earths radius (R =6400 km )
h = vertical distance at sea level

S
S
h

Mean
sea level
R

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
Problems
1.

Using a 100 m tape that is 0.02 m too short, the measured distance from A to B is 160.42m, what is the correct distance of line AB?
Given:

L = 100 m

* measure *

C = 0.02 m too short


ML = 160.42 m

2.

Reqd:

T.L.

Soln:

160.42
TL ML C 160.42 0.02

100
TL 160.388 m

30-m steel tape, known to be 30.006 (under standard conditions) was used to record a measurement of 119.898m. What is the correct
distance for erroneous tape length?
Given:

Ltape = 30 m
True length (tape) = 30.006 m
C 0.006 m too long
ML 119.898

Soln:
119 .898
TL ML C 119 .898 0.006

30
TL 119.922 m

3.

The correct distance between two points is 220.45m. Using a 100m tape that is x m too long, the length to be laid on the ground should
be 220.406 m. Find the value of x?
Soln:

T.L. = 220.45

L.L. = 220.406

C = x m too long
L.L. T.L. C
220.45
220.406 220.45 x

100
x 0.02 m

4.

A tape has a standard length at 20o C. a line was measured at a temperature of 3oC. If the coefficient of thermal expansions is
0.0000116m/oC and its true horizontal length is 865.30.What is the measured length in meters?
Given:

Ts = 20oC
T.L. = 865.30

Read:

Ta = 3oC
11.6 10 6 m/ C

M.L.

Soln:
TL 11.6 10 6 3 20 L
1.972 10 4 L too short
TL ML C
ML
865.30 ML - 1 .972 10 4 L

L
ML 865.47 m

5.

A steel tape is 100 m long at a standard pull of 65 N. Compute the pull correction in mm if during measurement the applied pull is 40N.
The tape has a cross sectional of 3.18 mm2 and E=200GPa. If the measured length of the line is 865.30, what is the corrected distance?
Given:

L 100 m
Ps = 65 N
ML = 865.30
Pa = 40 N
A = 318 mm2
E = 200GPa

Reqd :

TL

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
Soln:
PL 40 65 1001000

AE
318200,000
3.93 mm too short

Cp

T.L 865.30 -

3.93 865.30
1000 100

T.L. 865.266

6.

A 50m steel tape weighing 1.75kg is constantly supported at mid- length and at its end points, and is used to measure a line AB with a
steady pull of 6.5kg. If the measured length of AB is 1349.60m, determine the correct length of line AB.
Given:

m = 1.75 kg

L = 50 m

1.75
kg
0.035
50
m

Pa = 6.5 kg

ML (AB) = 1,349.60 m
Supports at end point and midpoint, unsupported L = 25 m
For 25 m:
Csg

2L3
0.035 2 25 3

2
24P
246.5 2

1325
Csg 0.01888
1.0
25

For 24.6 m
Csg

0.035 2 24.6 3
246.5 2

1325
Csg 0.01888
0.018
25
TL 1349.60 1.018 1,348.582 m

7.

Find the correction for the horizontal distance of 20,000 m 10 km above sea level
Given:
S = 20,000
S=?
h = 10 km

Mean
sea level

R = 6400 km

Soln:
S'
S
20,000
S

Rh R
6.400 10 6400
S 19,968.8
Csl 20,000 19,968.8 31.20 m

8.

Slope distances AB and BC measures 450.60m and 1005.81m, respectively. The difference in elevation are 5.3m for points A and B and
3.6m for points B and C. Line AB has a rising slope and BC has a falling slope. Determine the horizontal distance from pt A to pt C
Given:
B

S1 = 450.6

S2 = 1,005.81

3.6 m
5.3 m
C
A

Reqd: AC

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
Soln:
AB' 450.6 2 5.3 2 450.569
B' C 1005.812 3.6 2 1005.803
AC AB'B' C 1,456.372 m

9.

A line was measured with a 50m tape. There were 2 tallies, 8 pins, and the distance from the last pin to the end was 2.25m. Find the
length of the line in meters.
Note:

1 tally = 1 pin
1 pin = 1 full tape

Given:

F.T.L. = 50 m
No. of tallies = 2
No. of excess pins = 8
Partial tape length = 2.25 m
Length of line 210 8 50 2.25
LL 1,402.25 m

10. A line 100m long was paced by a surveyor for four times with the following data 142, 145.5, 145 and 146. Then another line was paced for

four times again with 893,893.5,891 and 895 paces. Determine the length of the line.

Pace Factor (PF)

tape dist.
ave. no. of paces

100
0.691 m / pace
144.625
For unknown length of line :
893 893.5 891 895
Ave. Pace
4
Ave. Pace 893.125 paces
LL 0.691893.125 617.149 m
PF

11. Two points A and B are established along the same direction from a theodolite station. If the subtended angle read on a subtense bar

held at A and B are 05520 and 02344 respectively. Find the distance between two points.

C
A

B
AC
SUBTENSE BAR

AB

1
124.253 m
0 55'20"
tan
2
1
CB
289.697 m
0 23'44"
tan
2
A B A C C B 165.444 m
AC

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
ACCIDENTAL ERRORS
Probable Error of Single Observation (PEs)
2

PEs 0.6745

(x x)

PEm 0.6745

( x x)

n 1

Probable Error of the Mean (PEm)


2

n(n 1)

Most Probable Value (MPV)

MPV

(mean)

MPV

(x w )

(weighted mean)

where
1.

w KN ,

(weight of observation is directly proportional to no. of observation)

2.

w K(1/e2 )

(weight of observation is inversely proportional to the square of the probable error)

3.

w 1/d

(weight of observation is inversely proportional to the distance where measurement is taken)

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
12. Number of measurements as tabulated in the table as shown.

DISTANCE
612.12
612.14
612.16
612.18
612.20
Determine the most probable error of the mean
x

x x 2

612.12

612.16

0 .04 2

612.14

612.16

0 .02 2

612.16

612.16

612.18

612.16

0 .02 2

612.20

612.16

0 . 04 2
2

x x

0.004
2

PE s 0.6745

x x
0.004

n 1
5 1

PE s 0.02
PE m 0.6745
612.16 0.01

0.004
55 1

0.01

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
13.

ELEVATION

DISTANCE (km)

62.12 m

2.8

62.85 m

3.8

63.16 m

3.0

Determine the most probable value in the difference in elevation


Elev

w 1
D

x*W

62.12

2.8

0.3571

62.12(0.3571)

62.85

3.8

0.2632

62.85(0.2632)

63.16

3.0

0.3333

63.16(0.3333)

0.9536

59.7764

x MPV

x * W 59.7764

62.684
W
0.9536

14. Number of measurements as tabulated in the table as shown.

DISTANCE

MEASUREMENTS

612.12

612.14

612.16

612.18

612.20

Determine the most probable value of the measurements having different values.
x

W=N

x*W

612.12

612.12(2)

612.14

612.14(4)

612.16

612.16(3)

612.18

612.18(5)

612.20

612.20(6)

20

12,243.38

x MPV

xW 12,243.38

612.169
W
20

15. Number of measurements as tabulated in the table as shown.

DISTANCE

PROBABLE ERROR

612.12

0.2

612.14

0.4

612.16

0.3

612.18

0.5

612.20

0.6

Determine the most probable value of the measurements having different values.
x

w 1 2
e

x*W

612.12

0.2

25

612.12(25)

612.14

0.4

6.25

612.14(6.25)

612.16

0.3

11.11

612.16(11.11)

612.18

0.5

612.18(4)

612.20

0.6

2.78

612.20(2.78)

49.14

30,080.6086

MPV

x * W
612.14
W