CE120-0

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CE120-0

© All Rights Reserved

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Types of error

1. Systematic error (cumulative error) effects can be eliminated by applying corrections.

2. Accidental errors - error w/c remain after mistakes and systematic errors have been eliminated.

SYSTEMATIC ERRORS

1.

General Rule:

Tape is Too Short :

Measuring distances : Subtract the correction

Measuring distances : Add the correction

MEASURING DISTANCES :

Standard Tape

B

100 m

100.2 m

Tape too short

by 0.2 m

B B

99.8 m

100 m

by 0.2 m

B B

100 m

Standard Tape

B

100 m

100.2 m

Tape too short by

0.2 m

B B

99.8 m

A

100 m

0.2 m

B B

2.

C T TL to be subtracted or added

where

T Ta Ts change in temperature

L length of the tape at standard temperature

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

3.

Cp

where

PL

to be added or subtracted

AE

P Pa Ps = change in pull

A = cross sectional area of tape

E = modulus of elasticity of the tape

L = length of the tape at standard pull

4.

C sg

where

w 2L3

___ to be subtracted only

24P 2

L = unsupported length of the tape

P = applied pull

5.

C sp

where

6.

h2

___ to subtracted only

2S

S

S'

R (R h)

where

S = level distance above sea level

R = earths radius (R =6400 km )

h = vertical distance at sea level

S

S

h

Mean

sea level

R

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

Problems

1.

Using a 100 m tape that is 0.02 m too short, the measured distance from A to B is 160.42m, what is the correct distance of line AB?

Given:

L = 100 m

* measure *

ML = 160.42 m

2.

Reqd:

T.L.

Soln:

160.42

TL ML C 160.42 0.02

100

TL 160.388 m

30-m steel tape, known to be 30.006 (under standard conditions) was used to record a measurement of 119.898m. What is the correct

distance for erroneous tape length?

Given:

Ltape = 30 m

True length (tape) = 30.006 m

C 0.006 m too long

ML 119.898

Soln:

119 .898

TL ML C 119 .898 0.006

30

TL 119.922 m

3.

The correct distance between two points is 220.45m. Using a 100m tape that is x m too long, the length to be laid on the ground should

be 220.406 m. Find the value of x?

Soln:

T.L. = 220.45

L.L. = 220.406

C = x m too long

L.L. T.L. C

220.45

220.406 220.45 x

100

x 0.02 m

4.

A tape has a standard length at 20o C. a line was measured at a temperature of 3oC. If the coefficient of thermal expansions is

0.0000116m/oC and its true horizontal length is 865.30.What is the measured length in meters?

Given:

Ts = 20oC

T.L. = 865.30

Read:

Ta = 3oC

11.6 10 6 m/ C

M.L.

Soln:

TL 11.6 10 6 3 20 L

1.972 10 4 L too short

TL ML C

ML

865.30 ML - 1 .972 10 4 L

L

ML 865.47 m

5.

A steel tape is 100 m long at a standard pull of 65 N. Compute the pull correction in mm if during measurement the applied pull is 40N.

The tape has a cross sectional of 3.18 mm2 and E=200GPa. If the measured length of the line is 865.30, what is the corrected distance?

Given:

L 100 m

Ps = 65 N

ML = 865.30

Pa = 40 N

A = 318 mm2

E = 200GPa

Reqd :

TL

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

Soln:

PL 40 65 1001000

AE

318200,000

3.93 mm too short

Cp

T.L 865.30 -

3.93 865.30

1000 100

T.L. 865.266

6.

A 50m steel tape weighing 1.75kg is constantly supported at mid- length and at its end points, and is used to measure a line AB with a

steady pull of 6.5kg. If the measured length of AB is 1349.60m, determine the correct length of line AB.

Given:

m = 1.75 kg

L = 50 m

1.75

kg

0.035

50

m

Pa = 6.5 kg

ML (AB) = 1,349.60 m

Supports at end point and midpoint, unsupported L = 25 m

For 25 m:

Csg

2L3

0.035 2 25 3

2

24P

246.5 2

1325

Csg 0.01888

1.0

25

For 24.6 m

Csg

0.035 2 24.6 3

246.5 2

1325

Csg 0.01888

0.018

25

TL 1349.60 1.018 1,348.582 m

7.

Find the correction for the horizontal distance of 20,000 m 10 km above sea level

Given:

S = 20,000

S=?

h = 10 km

Mean

sea level

R = 6400 km

Soln:

S'

S

20,000

S

Rh R

6.400 10 6400

S 19,968.8

Csl 20,000 19,968.8 31.20 m

8.

Slope distances AB and BC measures 450.60m and 1005.81m, respectively. The difference in elevation are 5.3m for points A and B and

3.6m for points B and C. Line AB has a rising slope and BC has a falling slope. Determine the horizontal distance from pt A to pt C

Given:

B

S1 = 450.6

S2 = 1,005.81

3.6 m

5.3 m

C

A

Reqd: AC

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

Soln:

AB' 450.6 2 5.3 2 450.569

B' C 1005.812 3.6 2 1005.803

AC AB'B' C 1,456.372 m

9.

A line was measured with a 50m tape. There were 2 tallies, 8 pins, and the distance from the last pin to the end was 2.25m. Find the

length of the line in meters.

Note:

1 tally = 1 pin

1 pin = 1 full tape

Given:

F.T.L. = 50 m

No. of tallies = 2

No. of excess pins = 8

Partial tape length = 2.25 m

Length of line 210 8 50 2.25

LL 1,402.25 m

10. A line 100m long was paced by a surveyor for four times with the following data 142, 145.5, 145 and 146. Then another line was paced for

four times again with 893,893.5,891 and 895 paces. Determine the length of the line.

tape dist.

ave. no. of paces

100

0.691 m / pace

144.625

For unknown length of line :

893 893.5 891 895

Ave. Pace

4

Ave. Pace 893.125 paces

LL 0.691893.125 617.149 m

PF

11. Two points A and B are established along the same direction from a theodolite station. If the subtended angle read on a subtense bar

held at A and B are 05520 and 02344 respectively. Find the distance between two points.

C

A

B

AC

SUBTENSE BAR

AB

1

124.253 m

0 55'20"

tan

2

1

CB

289.697 m

0 23'44"

tan

2

A B A C C B 165.444 m

AC

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

ACCIDENTAL ERRORS

Probable Error of Single Observation (PEs)

2

PEs 0.6745

(x x)

PEm 0.6745

( x x)

n 1

2

n(n 1)

MPV

(mean)

MPV

(x w )

(weighted mean)

where

1.

w KN ,

2.

w K(1/e2 )

3.

w 1/d

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

12. Number of measurements as tabulated in the table as shown.

DISTANCE

612.12

612.14

612.16

612.18

612.20

Determine the most probable error of the mean

x

x x 2

612.12

612.16

0 .04 2

612.14

612.16

0 .02 2

612.16

612.16

612.18

612.16

0 .02 2

612.20

612.16

0 . 04 2

2

x x

0.004

2

PE s 0.6745

x x

0.004

n 1

5 1

PE s 0.02

PE m 0.6745

612.16 0.01

0.004

55 1

0.01

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

13.

ELEVATION

DISTANCE (km)

62.12 m

2.8

62.85 m

3.8

63.16 m

3.0

Elev

w 1

D

x*W

62.12

2.8

0.3571

62.12(0.3571)

62.85

3.8

0.2632

62.85(0.2632)

63.16

3.0

0.3333

63.16(0.3333)

0.9536

59.7764

x MPV

x * W 59.7764

62.684

W

0.9536

DISTANCE

MEASUREMENTS

612.12

612.14

612.16

612.18

612.20

Determine the most probable value of the measurements having different values.

x

W=N

x*W

612.12

612.12(2)

612.14

612.14(4)

612.16

612.16(3)

612.18

612.18(5)

612.20

612.20(6)

20

12,243.38

x MPV

xW 12,243.38

612.169

W

20

DISTANCE

PROBABLE ERROR

612.12

0.2

612.14

0.4

612.16

0.3

612.18

0.5

612.20

0.6

Determine the most probable value of the measurements having different values.

x

w 1 2

e

x*W

612.12

0.2

25

612.12(25)

612.14

0.4

6.25

612.14(6.25)

612.16

0.3

11.11

612.16(11.11)

612.18

0.5

612.18(4)

612.20

0.6

2.78

612.20(2.78)

49.14

30,080.6086

MPV

x * W

612.14

W

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