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Sprinter 2.

7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
COURSE OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
MODULE 1

COMPONENT LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

ENGINE DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
ACTIVITY 1: COMPONENT LOCATION WALKAROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TASK 1: UNDER THE HOOD COMPONENTS (GROUP 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TASK 2: COMPONENTS UNDER VEHICLE (GROUP 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
MODULE 2

FUEL SYSTEM MECHANICAL COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
FUEL FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
LOW-PRESSURE FUEL CIRCUIT COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
FUEL TANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
FUEL COOLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
PRESSURE COMPENSATION/VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
FUEL TANK MODULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
FUEL FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
PREHEATING VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
FUEL LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
LOW PRESSURE FUEL LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
LOW PRESSURE PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
ACTIVITY 2.1 LOW FUEL PRESSURE PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL CIRCUIT COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
FUEL RAIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
FUEL INJECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
MODULE 3

ECM INPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


POSITION SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CKP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
INJECTION TIMING SYNCHRONIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
ACTIVITY 3.1

CAM AND CRANK SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

ACTIVITY 3.2

ACCELERATOR PEDAL ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

PRESSURE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
BAROMETRIC SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
FUEL RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
LOW FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
TEMPERATURE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR (IAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
ENGINE OIL SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
SWITCH INPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
KICK-DOWN SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
SPEED CONTROL SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR(MAF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
WATER IN FUEL SENSOR (WIF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
GLOW PLUG MODULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
ACM ENHANCED ACCIDENT RESPONSE INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
INDIRECT INPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
CAN BUS INPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
ACTIVITY 3.3

ENGINE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 3.4
MODULE 4

CRUISE CONTROL SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

ECM CONTROL AND OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77


OPERATION/CONTROL STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
ECM OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
RELAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
GLOW PLUG MODULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
FUEL OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
INJECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
FUEL PRESSURE SOLENOID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
ACTIVITY 4.1 SHOP DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL RELATED OUTPUTS . . . . . 96
INTAKE/EXHAUST OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
BOOST PRESSURE SOLENOID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
EGR VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
MIL LAMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
DATA LINK CONNECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
CAN BUS OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
ACTIVITY 4.2 ACTIVATIONS OF INTAKE/EXHAUST DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . 103
MODULE 5

ENGINE DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

SIX-STEP DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


TYPES OF EXHAUST SMOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
NO DTC DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
HIGH-PRESSURE DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
DIAGNOSIS WITH RELATED FAULT CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
COMMON POINT ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
DIAGNOSIS WITHOUT RELATED FAULT CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
COMPLAINT: ROUGH IDLE/ENGINE KNOCKS AT IDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
COMPLAINT: ENGINE CRANKS, BUT DOESN'T START . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COMPLAINT: POWER LOSS/ENGINE DIES UNDER LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
COMPLAINT: BLACK SMOKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
COMPLAINT: ENGINE RPM DROPS INTERMITTENTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
ACTIVITY 5.1 : TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEMS ON VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . 119
TASK 1 (GROUP 1) LOW POWER AND ENGINE RUNNING ROUGH . . . . . . . . 119
TASK 1 (GROUP 2) ENGINE RUNNING ROUGH AND LOW POWER . . . . . . . 120
TASK 2 (GROUP 1) ENGINE WONT RUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
TASK 2 (GROUP 2) ENGINE WONT RUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
OSCILLOSCOPE PATTERNS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
SENSOR REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
RETROFITTING SPEED CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
The following is a list of acronyms used throughout this course:
ACM
ATC
CAB
CAN
CKP
CMP
DLC
DRBIII
DTC
ECM
ECT
EEPROM
IAT
IC
K-Line
LCD
MAF
MIL
NTC
OBDII
PTC
RAM
SCI
SKREEM
SLA
SRS
TCM
TERMINAL
TERMINAL
TERMINAL
TERMINAL
WIF

15
30
58
D+

Airbag Control Module


Automatic Temperature Control
Controller Antilock Brakes (ABS)
Controller Area Network
Crank Position Sensor
Cam Position Sensor
Data Link Connector
Diagnostic Readout Box Third Generation
Diagnostic Trouble Code
Engine Control Module
Engine Coolant Temperature
Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
Instrument Cluster
Serial Communications Line for Diagnostics
Liquid Crystal Display
Mass Air Flow Sensor
Malfunction Indicator Lamp
Negative Temperature Coefficient (Thermistor)
On Board Diagnostics Second Generation
Positive Temperature Coefficient
Random Access Memory
Serial Communications Interface (K-Line may also be used)
Sentry Key Remote (Electronic) Entry Module
Shift Lever Assembly
Supplemental Restraint System
Transmission Control Module
Ignition Powered Circuit
Battery Powered Circuit
Circuit That is Powered When Parking Lights are ON
Circuit That is Powered When The Engine is Running
Water-in-Fuel Sensor

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COURSE OBJECTIVES
This course is intended to provide the experienced Dodge diesel technician with the
knowledge and skills necessary to service the Sprinter Van common rail fuel system.
The course will provide a system overview, component description and location, and
system and component diagnosis.
After completing this course, you should be able to:
Identify and locate all fuel system components
Describe the fuel flow of the Sprinter common-rail system
Identify the operation of fuel system components
Identify the inputs, control and outputs of the fuel system
Diagnose fuel system failures with the DRB IIII diagnostic tool
Perform tests using special tools as specified in the service information

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MODULE 1

COMPONENT LOCATION

ENGINE DESCRIPTION
The Sprinter 2.7 liter diesel engine utilizes the following major systems:
Electronic direct injection
Four-valve per cylinder technology
Symmetrical combustion chambers with the injectors positioned in the center
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation
Variable Geometry Turbocharging
Intercooling

Figure 1 Sprinter 2.7 L Diesel Engine


Common rail direct injection stores fuel in a fuel rail under high pressure. Injection is
cylinder-selective and delivered as required. Advantages include:
Reduction in fuel consumption
High torque at low engine speeds
Reduction in noise emissions

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The Sprinter 2.7 L Diesel Engine has the following fuel system components:
Fuel tank
Fuel cooler
Fuel lines
Fuel filter
Low pressure pump
High pressure pump
Fuel rail
Fuel injectors

8
1

3
4

6
7

Fuel Rail

Fuel Filter

High Pressure Pump

Fuel Cooler

Fuel Lines

Fuel Tank

Low Pressure Pump

Fuel Injector

Figure 2 Fuel System Components


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 1: COMPONENT LOCATION WALKAROUND
The purpose of this activity is to familiarize the technician with the location of the fuel
system components.
TASK 1: UNDER THE HOOD COMPONENTS (GROUP 1)
Using service information, locate the following components in the engine compartment. Mark the position of the components on the drawings below using the numbers
from this list.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fuel filter
Low pressure pump
High pressure pump
Fuel common rail
Fuel injectors
Fuel return line, including leak port lines from injectors

Figure 3 Under the hood components


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


TASK 2: COMPONENTS UNDER VEHICLE (GROUP 2)
Locate the following components under the vehicle using the service information. Mark
the position of the components on the drawings below using the numbers from this
list.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Fuel tank
Fuel tank sending unit
Roll-over valves
Pressure control valve
Fuel Supply line
Fuel Return line
Heater booster line
Fuel cooler

Figure 4 Under the vehicle components


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MODULE 2

FUEL SYSTEM MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

SAFETY
Safety is important when working on high-pressure fuel systems. The fuel is under
high-pressure and can penetrate the skin. When working on the fuel system, always
follow all cautions, warnings and safety instructions listed in the service literature and
on the engine compartment labels.

Figure 5 Safety Warning Label


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This section will cover the mechanical components of the common-rail fuel system.
The common-rail fuel system for the Sprinter is comprised of the low-pressure fuel circuit and the high-pressure fuel circuit. The low-pressure circuit incorporates:
Fuel tank
Fuel filter
Low pressure pump
Low-pressure fuel lines
The high-pressure circuit incorporates the following components:
High pressure pump
Fuel rail
Injectors (although a mechanical part of the high pressure system, they are considered an ECM output and covered in that section)

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 6 Common Rail Fuel Circuits


FUEL FLOW
Fuel Supply
The fuel flows from the fuel tank, through the fuel filter to the low pressure pump.
From the low pressure pump, the fuel flows to the inlet side of the high pressure
pump.
High Pressure Circuit
Fuel flows from the outlet side of the high pressure pump to the common rail to the
injectors
Fuel Return
Return fuel from the injectors (control fuel), the pressure control valve and high pressure fuel pump flows into the fuel return system and is returned to the fuel filter or the
fuel tank (depending on the temperature of the returned fuel).
Approximately 70% to 80% of the fuel supplied to the high pressure system is
returned. The main function of this fuel is to cool and lubricate the fuel system components.
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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


LOW-PRESSURE FUEL CIRCUIT COMPONENTS
FUEL TANK
A plastic fuel tank with a capacity of 25 gallons is mounted under the left/center side
of the vehicle. The tank contains a serviceable fuel tank module (Figure 8) equipped
with 2 fuel lines: a fuel supply line and a fuel return line. A section of the fuel return
line is coiled at the rear section of the tank, and functions as a fuel cooler. An additional fuel supply line is installed on vehicles equipped with the optional heater
booster/auxiliary heater.
1
2

Fuel Tank Module

Pressure Control Valve

Rollover Valves

Fuel Cooler

Figure 7 Fuel Tank


FUEL COOLER
To avoid damage to plastic parts in the fuel tank, an aluminum fuel cooler coil is
installed behind the tank to help drop the temperature of fuel returning to the tank.
Hot fuel also results in low power output of the engine.
PRESSURE COMPENSATION/VENTILATION
A roll-over valve installed in each of the two vent valves helps to prevent fuel leakage
when the tank is tilted or turned. Pressure compensation is carried out by a separate
pressure control valve in the common vent line.

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL TANK MODULE
The fuel level sensor module is installed in the top of the fuel tank. It contains the following components:
Fuel gauge sending unit
Fuel supply/return pick-up tubes
Fuel reservoir/baffle
Suction jet pump

5
3

TOP VIEW

SIDE VIEW

Fuel Level Sending Unit Float

Heater Booster Pick-Up (Option)

Fuel Level Variable Resistor

Fuel Outlet (Inlet to Fuel System)

Suction Jet Pump

Fuel Return

Figure 8 Fuel Tank Module

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Suction Jet Pump
The suction jet pump (Figure 9) helps fill the fuel tank module reservoir with fuel up to
a certain level. When cornering with a low fuel level in the fuel tank the reservoir prevents the system from drawing in air. The nozzle (2) in the suction jet pump (1) accelerates the returning fuel (4). The fuel jet produces a differential pressure, which
increases the fuel supply to the reservoir (6).

Suction Jet Pump

Return Fuel

Nozzle

Fuel in Tank

Return Pick-Up Tube

Tank Module Reservoir

Figure 9 Suction Jet Pump


FUEL FILTER
The fuel filter is mounted on top of the left engine mount bracket. The filter has the
task of cleaning the fuel before it is fed through the fuel supply pump to the high-pressure system and ultimately to the injector nozzles. The fuel filter incorporates the following components:
5 micron fuel filter element
Water separator
Bleed screw
Water drain valve
Preheating valve
WIF sensor
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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


1

Preheating Valve

Water Drain Valve

Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor

Bleed Screw

Figure 10 Fuel Filter


Fuel flows from the outside surface to the inside (Figure 11). Fuel filtering is critical in
common-rail systems. Small amounts of impurities may damage the precision
mechanical components over time. Water entering the injection system can also lead
to damage. Consult the service information for the fuel filter element service interval.

Figure 11 Fuel Filter Flow


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Water Drain Valve
A water reservoir is located at the bottom of the filter to collect any water contained in
the fuel. A drain valve is mounted on the side of the filter housing. A hose can be
installed to avoid spilling fuel. The bleed screw must also be opened when draining
water. The filter should be drained if the WIF light is illuminated.
Bleeding the system
The fuel system is bled automatically during engine start. Do not interrupt start operation.
PREHEATING VALVE
A fuel preheating valve is mounted on top of the fuel filter housing to ensure proper
operation in colder weather. The preheating valve is a bimetal controlled valve that
directs return fuel to either the fuel filter, at fuel temperature below 30C (86F), or the
fuel cooler, at fuel temperatures above 30C (86F).
Preheating (A)
If the fuel temperature is less than about 30C (86 F), the bimetal plate (2) shuts off
the return passage to the fuel tank (b). The fuel from the rail (a) flows into the fuel filter
(c), which in turn causes the ball (3) to be pressed off its seat and opens the passage in
the direction of the fuel filter.
If air is present in the fuel system, for example if the fuel tank has been run empty, the
ball (3) shuts off the passage in the direction of the fuel filter (c) and the air is directed
along the bypass (1) to the fuel tank.
No preheating (B)
If the fuel temperature is greater than about 30C (86 F), the bimetal plate (2) shuts
off the passage to the fuel filter (c). The fuel from the rail (a) now flows into the return
line to the fuel tank (b).

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

B
b

Bypass

No Preheating

Bimetal Plate

Fuel Return From Rail

Ball

Fuel Return To Fuel Tank

Preheating Stage

Connection To To Fuel Filter

Figure 12 Preheating Valve


FUEL LINES
The fuel lines connect the components of the common rail fuel system together to form
a closed fuel system. The clear plastic line fittings are not individually replaceable.
LOW PRESSURE FUEL LINES
The fuel feed and return lines installed in the chassis are made of steel. The underhood low pressure fuel lines (Figure 13) are made of the following materials:
PA12 (Polyamide 12) clear tubingUsed in the high-pressure pump return line,
the filter to low-pressure pump supply line, and the low-pressure pump to highpressure pump supply line. The fittings and locking clips are not replaceable.
HNBR (Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) hoseUsed in the fuel return
banjo fitting to the fuel temperature sensor housing and the return line from fuel
temperature sensor housing to the preheating valve. Standard clamps are used.
Braided rubber hoseUsed in the fuel return line from the injectors.

14

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Braided Rubber Hose

HNBR Rubber Hose

PA12 (Nylon) Clear Tubing

Figure 13 Low Pressure Fuel Lines


LOW PRESSURE PUMP
The low pressure pump is located at the right-hand side of the engine block above the
high pressure pump. The low pressure pump draws the fuel out of the fuel tank
through the fuel filter, and pumps it to the high pressure pump.

Figure 14 Low Pressure Pump


15

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The low pressure gear pump is driven by the intake camshaft. There is a partial vacuum of -0.2 to -0.4 bar (5.905 to 11.8 in.Hg) on its inlet side, and a low fuel pressure
on its delivery side.
1

A
B

Outlet Side

Driven Gear

Inlet Side

Fuel Delivery Pressure

Driving Gear

Partial Vacuum

Figure 15 Low Pressure Pump Components


During cranking, the output pressure is 0.4 to 1.5 bar (6 to 22 psi), at idle it is 2.0 to
2.5 bar (29 to 36 psi), and normal engine running pressure is limited to a maximum of
3.5 0.5 bar (51 7 psi) by the pressure relief valve.

Figure 16 Low Pressure Pump Relief Valve


If the tank has been run empty, the fuel supply pump may have to be primed with fuel
so that it can draw fuel again.
16

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 2.1 LOW FUEL PRESSURE PUMP
The purpose of this activity is to discuss diagnosis of the low-pressure fuel pump.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Using service information, connect the fuel pressure gauge to the low-pressure
fuel system.
Connect the DRB III and multiplexer to the DLC.
Navigate to the Engine System Test and activate the Compression test.
Monitor the fuel pressure on the gauge while the engine is cranking.
What is the pressure reading with the engine cranking?

6.
7.
8.
9.

Page back on DRB III and select sensors.


Locate the Fuel Low Pressure sensor reading.
Start the engine and allow it to idle.
What is the pressure reading with the engine running at idle?

10.

Compare the reading on the gauge to the reading under the sensors screen on
DRB III.
11. Does the reading on the DRB III match the gauge reading?
12.
13.

Increase engine speed to maximum.


What is the pressure reading with the engine running at full speed?

14.

Does the reading on the DRB III match the gauge reading?

15.

Does the vehicle you are testing meet the specifications published in the service
manual?

16.

If the readings were lower than the published specifications, what could be the
possible cause?

17.

What part of the six step diagnosis process would you connect the low pressure
fuel gauge?

18.
19.

Remove the fuel pressure gauge and reassemble the van.


Start the van and check for fuel leaks. Correct any leakage you find.

17

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL CIRCUIT COMPONENTS
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
The high pressure pump is mounted to the front of the cylinder head. The pump is
driven at about 1.3 times the speed of the camshaft and requires no timing. Fuel that
enters the high-pressure pump is pressurized between 200-1350 bar (2900 - 20,000
psi). The pressurized fuel is then supplied to the fuel rail.
The high pressure pump is a radial piston pump with three pistons arranged at an
angle of 120 and a shutdown solenoid located in one of the elements to assist with
fuel temperature regulation.

1
2
3

High Pressure Pump Housing

Fuel Shutdown Solenoid

O-Ring

High Pressure Port

Drive Plate

Direction Of Rotation

Figure 17 High Pressure Pump

18

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Operation
Low Pressure Side
The fuel supplied by the low pressure pump flows through the fuel feed (1) to the
throttle valve (5). Any air entrained by the fuel is directed through the throttle valve
restrictor to the return flow (4). The throttle valve opens against the force of the spring
at a pressure of approximately 0.4 bar (6 psi) and the fuel is able to flow along a ring
line to the individual pistons (2). The eccentric shaft (3) with its eccentric plate moves
the pistons up and down against the piston spring of the three pump elements. The
leak fuel from the pistons flows along the return flow (4) to the fuel tank. The fuel flowing out of the throttle valve, also flows off along the return flow (4).

2
3
4

B
5
1

Fuel Feed

Throttle Valve

Piston

Throttle Valve Closed

Eccentric Shaft

Throttle Valve Opened

Return Flow
Figure 18 Low Pressure Circuit

19

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


High Pressure Side
Filling the piston The piston (4) is moved down as a result of the piston spring. The
fuel supplied by the fuel delivery pump flows along the ring passage of the fuel feed (6),
the valve disk and spring (1) into the cylinder. The ball valve (2) prevents the fuel from
being able to flow back from the high pressure passage (3).
Producing high pressure The piston is moved up by the rising eccentric shaft (5)
and the fuel is thus compressed. The valve disk shuts off the delivery volume to the
fuel feed (6). Once the fuel pressure in the cylinder rises beyond the pressure which
exists in the high pressure circuit, the ball valve (2) opens and the fuel is pumped into
the high pressure circuit (3).
Fuel temperature regulation To reduce the fuel temperature the ECM interrupts
the fuel high pressure delivery of one of the pump elements. The pump element is
switched off if the fuel temperature is above 136C (278F). The ECM will shut the element off only at engine speeds above 2000 RPM.

2
3

SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW (B)

FRONT VIEW (A)


1

Valve Disk And Spring

Eccentric Shaft

Check Ball

Fuel Feed

High Pressure Passage

Induction Phase

Piston

Compression Phase

Figure 19 High Pressure Circuit


20

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Fuel shutdown solenoid
The fuel shutdown solenoid is mounted to the high pressure pump. The solenoid interrupts the fuel high pressure delivery of a pump element in the partial load range to
reduce the fuel temperature.
Operation
When the coil (2) is activated, the pin (3) attached to the armature (1) pushes the valve
disk (7) of the inlet valve down. The piston (5) no longer supplies pressurized fuel into
the high pressure port (4) but forces it back during the upward stroke into the fuel
feed (6). The pressure increase of the high pressure pump is limited.

2
3
4
7

Armature

Fuel Feed

Coil

Valve Disk

Pin

De-Energized State

High Pressure Passage

Energized State

Piston
Figure 20 Pump Element Shutoff Valve
21

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL RAIL
The rail is located below the intake manifold. The fuel pressure solenoid, fuel pressure
sensor, high pressure line and return line are attached to the rail. The rail acts as a
high pressure fuel storage device for the injectors.
The stored volume also acts as a damper for pressure fluctuations resulting from the
pulsating of the high pressure pump and the brief, large extraction of fuel by the injectors during injection. The constant pressure in the rail enables the ECM to accurately
control the injected quantity.

Figure 21 Fuel Rail

22

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL INJECTORS
Five electronically-controlled fuel injectors are positioned on top of the cylinder head,
under the engine cover (Figure 22). The injectors must be able to generate a fine fuel
atomization at injection pressures up to 1,350 bar (19,580 psi) and small injection
rates (approx 1.5 mm3/stroke).

Figure 22 Fuel Injectors


High grade steel lines carry the high-pressure fuel from the fuel rail to the injectors.
The short-length fuel lines have thick walls to be able to withstand the maximum system pressures and high frequency pressure waves. The outside diameter of the lines is
6 mm (0.236 in.) and the inside diameter is 2.4 mm (0.094 in.).
Each injector is held in its recess by a tensioning claw and a retaining stretch bolt
(Figure 23). A seal ring is located on the injector tip to seal off the injector to the combustion chamber. When removing the injectors, the seals and retaining stretch bolts
must always be replaced.
23

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

1
2

Tensioning Claw

Retaining Stretch Bolt

Figure 23 Fuel Injector Position


An edge filter is mounted in the injector high pressure connector to filter impurities
and dirt upstream of the injector nozzle (Figure 24). Edge filters are effective to filter
particles in the fuel or particles created by machining of components and/or from the
high pressure fuel flow. The edge filter has a flat front face with three V-shaped openings leading to V-shaped channels.
1
2

TOP VIEW

High Pressure Connector

Edge Filter

Figure 24 High Pressure Connector With Edge Filter


24

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The injector operation can be subdivided into four operating states with the engine
running and the high-pressure pump generating pressure:
Injector Closed (At-Rest State)
Refer to Figure 25. The fuel coming from the rail is present at the fuel inlet (2) in the
valve control chamber (8) and in the chamber volume (4). The rail pressure builds up
in both areas (8) and (4).
The surface difference of the valve control chamber (8) compared to the chamber volume (4) and the additionally acting force of the nozzle spring (6), prevent the nozzle
needle (5) from opening. This condition exists when the start phase begins or if the
vehicle is in the deceleration mode (engine running and high pressure pump delivering).
Injector Opens (Start of Injection)
When the solenoid valve (11) is energized, the check ball (10) is attracted and overcomes the force of the valve spring. The check ball now opens the valve control chamber (8) and the controlled quantity of fuel is able to flow along the fuel return (1) back
to the fuel tank. As a result of the pressure drop in the valve control chamber (8) the
nozzle needle (5) is raised by virtue of the difference in pressure. The rate of opening of
the nozzle needle depends on the cross-section of the bleed orifice (9) above the valve
control chamber (8) and the feed orifice (3) positioned between high pressure feed (2)
and valve control chamber.
Injector Opened Fully
The control plunger (7) reaches its upper stop where it remains supported by a cushion of fuel, which is generated by the flow of fuel between the bleed and feed orifices.
The injector nozzle has now opened fully, and the fuel is injected into the combustion
chamber at a pressure almost equal to that in the fuel rail.
Injector Closes (End of injection)
After the solenoid valve current is switched off, the valve spring pushes the check ball
(10) back onto the valve seat. The bleed orifice is closed as a consequence of this and
the pressure in the valve control chamber (8) rises to the level of the system pressure.
The closing force which is active in the valve control chamber (8), is greater than that
in the chamber volume (4), as a result of which the nozzle needle (5) closes.

25

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

11

10
9
8

3
7

6
4

Fuel Return

Control Plunger

Fuel Inlet

Valve Control Chamber

Feed Orifice

Bleed Orifice

Chamber Volume

10

Check Ball

Nozzle Needle

11

Solenoid Valve

Nozzle Spring
Figure 25 Fuel Injector Cutaway
26

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MODULE 3

ECM INPUTS

ECM output decisions are based on the inputs to the ECM. As the ECM inputs
change, the ECM will change the fuel curve for optimum performance.
POWER SUPPLIES AND GROUNDS
The ECM receives a timer-controlled battery power input and three timer-controlled
ignition power inputs. Timer-controlled power enables the ECM to perform key OFF
diagnostics, store DTCs and reduce the vehicles overall current draw.
Battery voltage is supplied to the Timer Module within Fuse Block No.1 through the
ignition switch when the ignition is in the START or RUN position. This ignition sense
circuit is used by the Timer Module to "wake up" the ECM and also to delay the ECM
power-off function.
Ground is provided to the ECM through three pins of connector No.1 to chassis
ground.
It is important that the ECM have good power and ground circuits to ensure proper
operation of the engine. When diagnosing an electronic control malfunction on the
common rail diesel engine, it is important that the integrity of all fuses, relays, connectors, and grounds are checked and proper connections are made.

Figure 26 ECM Power Supplies and Grounds


27

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Crankshaft Position

Camshaft Position

ECM

Accelerator Pedal Position

Boost Pressure

Fuel Rail Pressure

Low Fuel Pressure

Intake Air Temperature

Coolant Temperature

Fuel Temperature

Atmospheric
Pressure

Oil Temperature/Level/
Quality
Kickdown

Cruise Control

Mass Air Flow

Water in Fuel

Glow Plug Circuit

Enhanced Accident Response

CAN Bus

Diagnosis (K-Line)

Figure 27 Block Diagram ECM Inputs

28

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


POSITION SENSORS
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CKP)
The crankshaft position sensor (CKP) is located opposite the teeth on the flywheel and
uses a non contact method to record the position of the crankshaft. When the crankshaft is rotating, an alternating current signal is produced. The leading edges of each
tooth on the flywheel generate a positive current signal in the position sensor, while
the trailing edges generate a negative current signal. The period or frequency of the
signal is the time required by the crankshaft to turn through the gap between two flywheel teeth.

Figure 28 Crankshaft Position Sensor


OPERATION
The clearance between the CKP and the flywheel are fixed by the installation position.
The flywheel toothed ring has 58 teeth, which are evenly spaced every 6. Two teeth on
the flywheel are missing (the 59th and 60th). The resulting gap is used by the ECM to
detect TDC of cylinder number one. The angle between the gap and TDC of cylinder
number one is 108, or 18 teeth. The crankshaft position is calculated so that the start
and end of injection can occur at the right moment. The engine speed signal is also
processed by the ECM from the CKP. This signal is then broadcast to other control
modules over the CAN bus.
The loss of CKP signal will cause the ECM to stop triggering the injectors. The engine
shuts down and will not restart.

29

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 29 Crankshaft Position Sensor and Flywheel Toothed Ring


When the crankshaft rotates, an alternating voltage is generated (Figure 30) in the
CKP by the flywheel teeth. The front edge of a tooth generates a positive voltage pulse
and the rear edge a negative voltage pulse. The distance from the positive to the negative voltage peak corresponds to the length of a tooth.
The gap produced by 2 missing teeth results in no voltage being generated in the CKP.
This is used to detect the position of cylinder number one.

Figure 30 CKP Signal


30

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the CKP and stores fault codes related to the following conditions:
Crankshaft sensor plausibility 1
Crankshaft sensor plausibility 2
Crankshaft sensor over speed detection
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - flow limiter activated
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - no crankshaft signal
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - plausibility
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - main injection correction is
faulty
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR (CMP)
The Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor is located on top of the exhaust camshaft, at the
rear of the engine near injector number 5. The CMP utilizes a non contact method on
one segment of the camshaft to record the camshaft position. When the ECM receives
the signal from the CMP, it can then detect TDC of cylinder number one. The signal
from the camshaft sensor is only required during engine starting for synchronizing
injection timing.

Figure 31 Camshaft Position Sensor


31

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


OPERATION
The CMP sensor consists of a Hall-effect integrated circuit, flexible printed circuit
board, capacitors and a magnet (Figure 32).

Figure 32 Camshaft Position Sensor


The CMP is a 12 volt Hall-effect type sensor, with a return signal that switches from 0
to 5 volts depending on the position of the segment machined into the exhaust camshaft.

Figure 33 Camshaft Position Sensor Schematic

32

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The signal wire of the CMP sensor is normally switched high (approximately 5 volts).
When the segment machined into the exhaust camshaft is positioned opposite the
CMP, the camshaft signal switches to low (approximately 0V). A low signal is used for
detecting ignition TDC of cylinder 1 by the engine control module (ECM). If no signal is
supplied by the camshaft position sensor, the vehicle will not start because cylinder
order can not be detected (Figure 34).

CAM
SEGMENT

Figure 34 CMP Sensor Signal


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the CMP and stores fault codes related to the following conditions:
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - no camshaft signal
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - flow limiter activated
Synchronization between crankshaft and camshaft - camshaft frequency signal
too high
33

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


INJECTION TIMING SYNCHRONIZATION
The injection timing is synchronized by means of the signals supplied by the crankshaft position sensor (CKP) and the camshaft position sensor (CMP). The ECM analyzes both signals to detect the TDC position of cylinder number one. When the ECM
detects the voltage gap resulting from the two missing teeth on the flywheel, it must
also detect the low signal from the segment on the exhaust camshaft. The simultaneous voltage gaps are an indication to the ECM that the engine is 108 BTDC of cylinder number one.

Crankshaft Angle / Firing Order

CKP Signal

Offset Angle Cylinder No. 1

CMP Signal

Figure 35 Injection Timing Synchronization

34

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 3.1

CAM AND CRANK SENSORS

The purpose of this activity is to familiarize the students with the engine's behavior
resulting from various Cam and Crank sensor failures.
1.

With the engine running, disconnect the Crank sensor and observe the result.

2.

Are there any DTCs present?


YES __________________________________________________________________
NO

3.

What is the status of the MIL lamp?


ON
OFF

4.

With the sensor still disconnected attempt to start the engine. Does the engine
start?
YES
NO

5.

Are there any DTCs present?


YES __________________________________________________________________
NO

6.

What is the status of the MIL lamp?


ON
OFF

7.
8.

Reconnect the Crank sensor and clear DTCs.


With the engine running, disconnect the Cam sensor and observe the result.

9.

Are there any DTCs present?


YES __________________________________________________________________
NO

10.

What is the status of the MIL lamp?


ON
OFF

35

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


11.

With the sensor still disconnected attempt to start the engine. Does it start?
YES
NO

12.

Are there any DTCs present?


YES __________________________________________________________________
NO

13.

What is the status of the MIL lamp?


ON
OFF

14.

Explain the results of steps 1 through 13.

15.

Using the appropriate service manual, determine the color and position of the
Cam and Crank sensor wires at the ECM.

16.

Connect a dual trace lab scope to the Cam and Crank sensor signal wires at the
ECM connector and observe the relation of the two patterns with the engine running.

17.

With the engine running and the scope connected as in step 16, short the Cam
sensor signal wire to ground and observe the results. Will the engine start under
these circumstances?
YES
NO

18.

Connect a dual trace lab scope to the Crank sensor signal and ground wires at
the ECM connector and observe the patterns.

36

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


19.

Perform the following tests (with the engine running) and explain the results:
Short the sensor signal wire to ground.

Short the sensor ground wire to ground.

Short the sensor ground wire to 12 Volts.

Short the sensor signal wire to 12 Volts.

Short the sensor signal and sensor ground wire together.

37

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
The accelerator pedal position sensor is located within the accelerator pedal assembly.
The driver supplies the torque requirements for the engine by operating the accelerator pedal in accordance with the desired speed or acceleration. The pedal sensor converts the mechanical operation of the pedal into an electrical signal and sends the
information to the ECM. The ECM adjusts the quantity of the fuel that is injected into
the engine.
The accelerator pedal position sensor is serviced as an assembly with the pedal assembly.

Figure 36 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor


Operation
The Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor is comprised of two variable resistors (sensors 1 and 2) that provide the ECM with redundant voltage signals (Figure 37). As the
position of the accelerator pedal changes, the resistance of the sensor changes. The
ECM sends a 5 volt reference signal to the APP sensor and the APP sensor returns two
variable voltage signals. The voltage signal increases in direct proportion to the
depressing of the pedal. The voltage signal from sensor 2 is always half the value of
sensor 1 (Figure 38). The signal of sensor 1 ranges from 0.2 to 4.7 volts, while the sensor 2 signal ranges from 0.1 to 2.4 volts.
The voltage value cannot be read with the DRB III scan tool. The APP value is displayed in percentage (0-100%).

38

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 37 APP Sensor Schematic


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the APP and stores fault codes related to the following conditions:
Sensor
Sensor
Sensor
Sensor
Sensor

1
1
1
1
1

signal voltage too low


signal voltage too high
supply voltage too high or too low
plausibility 1
plausibility 2

Sensor
Sensor
Sensor
Sensor
Sensor

1
2
2
2
2

plausibility 3
signal voltage too low
signal voltage too high
supply voltage too high or too low
circuit implausibility, potentiometer 1 and 2

Substitute Values
An APP value of 0% will be displayed under the following circumstances, regardless of
the pedal position:
Short circuit to ground of the signal wire
Open circuit in the signal wire
Short circuit to ground of the 5V supply

39

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Open circuit of the 5V supply
If there is an open circuit of the ground wire, the actual value displayed is 100%

VOLTS
5
4.5

APP1

4
3.5
3
2.5

APP2

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0%

THROTTLE POSITION
Figure 38 APP Sensor Signal (Approximate Values)

40

100%

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 3.2

ACCELERATOR PEDAL ACTIVITY

The purpose of this activity is to gain an understanding of the accelerator pedal position sensor and kickdown switch.
ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR
1.
2.

Connect DRB III to vehicle and access engine, sensors.


What information is available for display with regards to the accelerator pedal
position sensors?

3.

With the key on engine off slowly press the accelerator pedal to W.O.T. What do
you notice about the percentages shown for APP1 and APP2 on the DRB III versus
pedal feel and physical position?

4.

Compared to pedal travel when do both APPs reach 100%?

5.

How many circuits are there on the APP's and what are their functions? List
below.

6.

Using the proper service information locate the two signal wires on the APP sensor
and backprobe.
With the key on engine off what is the voltage range throughout APP's pedal
travel?
APP1: WOT ________
Idle ________
APP2: WOT ________
Idle ________
Is there a procedure to adjust the APP's?

7.

8.

KICKDOWN SWITCH
1.

Connect the DRB III to the vehicle and access Transmission, inputs/outputs.
41

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


2.

What information is available for display regarding the kick down switch? Record
below.

3.

What is this input used for?

4.

Is there a procedure to adjust the KDS?

42

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


PRESSURE SENSORS
BOOST PRESSURE SENSOR
The boost pressure sensor is mounted to the charge air pipe (Figure 39). The sensor
allows the ECM to monitor intake air downstream of the turbocharger.

Figure 39 Boost Pressure Sensor Location


The boost pressure sensor is a three-wire sensor with a sensing pressure port on the
bottom. The pressure port is inserted into the charge air pipe through an access hole.
An O-ring provides the sealing once the sensor is mounted to the charge air pipe (Figure 40). The ECM uses boost pressure combined with intake air temperature to determine the volume of air entering the engine.

Figure 40 Boost Pressure Sensor


43

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


OPERATION
The boost pressure sensor consists of piezoresistive elements attached to a measuring
diaphragm. The resistance value changes when stress is applied to the diaphragm.
The resistors form a measuring bridge, so that when the diaphragm moves the bridge
balance is changed. The bridge voltage is a measure for the boost presssure.
The sensor receives a 5-volt reference from the ECM. Sensor ground is also provided
by the ECM. The bridge voltage varies from 0.5 to 4.5 volts depending on boost pressure.

Figure 41 Boost Pressure Sensor Schematic


As boost pressure increases, the boost signal voltage also increases. If the engine is
not running, the value sent to the ECM is equal to the atmospheric
pressure. The boost pressure operating range is from 0 to 2.5 bar (0 to 36.25 psi).

44

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

VOLTS

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.2

(2.9)

(14.5)

2.5

(36.2)

BOOST PRESSURE IN BAR (PSI)


Figure 42 Boost Pressure Sensor Signal (Approximate Values)
Failure Modes
If the boost pressure sensor fails, the ECM records a DTC into memory and continues
to operate the engine in limp-in mode. When the ECM is operating in this mode, a loss
of power will be present, as if the turbocharger was not operating.
The ECM monitors the operation of the boost pressure sensor and stores fault codes
related to the following conditions:
Signal voltage too low
Signal voltage too high
Supply voltage too high or too low
Substitute Values
If the sensor ground wire has an open circuit, the actual value displayed is 38.29
psi
If the signal wire has a short circuit to ground or open circuit, the substitute
value is 2.90 psi
If the 5-volt power supply has a short circuit to ground or open circuit, the substitute value is 2.90 psi
45

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


BAROMETRIC SENSOR
The barometric sensor is located in the ECM. The pressure range of the sensor is from
950 to 1100 mbar (13.78 to 15.95 psi). This pressure value can be verified with the
DRB III scan tool.

Barometric Sensor
Figure 43 Internal View of ECM, Barometric Sensor Location

Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the barometric sensor and stores fault codes under
any of the following conditions:
Signal voltage too high
Signal voltage too low
FUEL RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR
The fuel rail pressure sensor is mounted on the fuel rail under the EGR valve housing.
The sensor provides an output voltage to the ECM that corresponds to the applied
pressure.

46

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 44 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor


OPERATION
The fuel rail pressure sensor consists of a high-grade spring steel diaphragm with an
attached strain gage. The deflection of the diaphragm changes the resistance of the
strain gage. The sensor measures the current fuel rail pressure and sends a voltage
signal to the ECM. The ECM then actuates the fuel rail pressure solenoid until the
desired rail pressure is achieved. If the rail pressure sensor fails, the engine will run in
limp-in mode. The pressure actual value ranges from 200 to 1350 bar (2,900 to 20,000
psi).

Figure 45 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Construction


47

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The ECM uses the fuel rail pressure input to control the output of the fuel pressure
solenoid. The ECM sends a 5 volt supply to the fuel rail pressure sensor. Depending on
the fuel rail pressure, the sensor output signal varies from 0.5 to 4.5 volts (Figure 47).

FUEL RAIL

FUEL RAIL

Figure 46 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Schematic


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the fuel rail pressure sensor and stores fault codes
under any of the following conditions:
Voltage too high
Voltage too low
Voltage too high or too low
Plausibility between fuel rail pressure sensor and fuel pressure solenoid
Maximum pressure has been exceeded
Rail pressure too low
No pressure build up. Fuel pressure solenoid open
Fuel pressure solenoid stuck in closed position
Fuel pressure leakage detected
Control deviation engine speed too high
Substitute Values
If the sensor signal wire has a short circuit to ground, the actual value displayed
is 0.000 psi
If the sensor 5V supply wire has a short circuit to ground, the actual value displayed is 228.9 bar (3321.233 psi)
If the sensor has an open circuit in a wire, the actual value displayed is 1499.9
bar (21754.799 psi)
48

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


VOLTS

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

250

500

(3,626)

(7,252)

1000

(14,504)

1500

(21,755)

RAIL PRESSURE IN BAR (PSI)


Figure 47 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Signal (Approximate Values)
LOW FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR
The low fuel pressure sensor is located on the bottom side of runner No. 2 of the intake
manifold (Figure 48). The low fuel pressure sensor measures the pressure at the inlet
of the high pressure injection pump.

Figure 48 Low Fuel Pressure Sensor


49

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Operation
The ECM sends a 5 volt supply to the low fuel pressure sensor. Depending on the fuel
pressure, the sensor output signal varies from 0.5 to 3.5 volts.

LOW FUEL
PRESSURE SIGNAL

LOW FUEL
PRESSURE SENSOR

Figure 49 Low Fuel Pressure Sensor Schematic


When the engine is idling, the low fuel pressure is approximately 2.5 bar (36.26 psi).
Once the engine reaches governed speed the pressure is between 3.5 and 4 bar (50.76
and 58.01 psi).
VOLTS

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

2.8
(40.5)

2.9
3.0
3.1
(42.5)
(44.5)
(45)
FUEL PRESSURE IN BAR (PSI)

3.7
(53)

Figure 50 Low Fuel Pressure Sensor Signal (Approximate Values)


50

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the low fuel pressure sensor and stores fault codes
under any of the following conditions:
Signal voltage too low
Signal voltage too high
Plausibility
Fuel delivery pressure too small
Actual pressure differs from the specified pressure (delivery plausibility)
Minimum pressure at engine start not reached
Fuel filter restriction
If the ECM detects a restriction in the fuel filter, it will transmit a signal to the instrument cluster via the CAN bus. The instrument cluster illuminates the fuel filter
clogged indicator lamp to alert the driver (Figure 51).

Figure 51 Filter Clogged Indicator Lamp

51

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


TEMPERATURE SENSORS
INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR (IAT)
The inlet air temperature (IAT) sensor is mounted to the charge air pipe. The IAT is a
two-pin sensor, which consists of an NTC resistor in a plastic housing. The IAT is
locked in place by two retaining clips and sealed with an O-Ring (Figure 52).

Figure 52 Inlet Air Temperature Sensor


Operation
The NTC resistor located within the IAT changes its resistance in line with the charge
air temperature. The ECM sends 5 volts to the NTC resistor and grounds it through
the sensor return line. The ECM interprets the voltage as air temperature.

52

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 53 IAT Sensor Schematic


The IAT temperature value ranges from -40C to 150C (-40F to 302F). If the engine
is cold, the IAT actual value equals the ambient temperature.
OHMS 7000

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

20
(68)

60
90
(140)
(194)
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE IN C (F)

Figure 54 IAT Sensor Resistance Chart (Approximate Values)


53

120
(248)

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the inlet air temperature sensor and stores fault
codes under any of the following conditions:
Signal voltage too high
Signal voltage too low
Substitute Values
If the signal wire is shorted to ground, the actual value displayed is 150C
(302F)
If the signal wire is shorted to positive, the actual value displayed is -40 and the
fuel temperature displayed is also -40
If the signal wire has an open circuit, the actual value displayed is -40
COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The engine coolant temperature sensor (ECT) is a two-pin sensor located in the thermostat housing. The sensor consists of a plastic housing, which contains an NTC
resistor. The ETC is locked in place by a locking spring and sealed with an O-Ring.

Figure 55 Coolant Temperature Sensor


Operation
The ECM sends 5 volts to the NTC resistor and grounds it through the sensor return
line. The ECM determines the coolant temperature based on the voltage drop within
the sensor circuit and changes the fuel supply accordingly.

54

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

TEMPERATURE (ECT)

Figure 56 ECT Sensor Schematic


If the engine is cold, the ECT actual value is equal to the ambient temperature.
Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the coolant temperature sensor and stores fault
codes under any of the following conditions:
Signal voltage too high
Signal voltage too low
Operating temperature not reached
Substitute Values
If the signal wire is shorted to ground, the actual value displayed is 130C
(266F)
If the signal wire is shorted to positive, the actual value displayed is -40
If a wire has an open circuit, the actual value displayed is -40

55

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

OHMS 3500

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

20
(68)

40
(104)

60
(140)

80
(176)

100
(212)

COOLANT TEMPERATURE IN C (F)

Figure 57 ECT Sensor Resistance Chart (Approximate Values)


FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The fuel temperature sensor is located in the fuel return line directly downstream of
the fuel pressure solenoid (Figure 58). The sensor measures the temperature of the
fuel in the return pipe between the fuel rail and the pre-heating valve.

Figure 58 Fuel Temperature Sensor


56

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The sensor ranges from - 40C (-40F ) to 140C (284F). If the engine is cold, the
actual value sent will read ambient temperature. The value rises after the engine has
been started. A pumping element of the high pressure fuel injection pump is switched
of if fuel temperature has reached approximately 110C (230F) and engine speed is
above 2000 RPM.
OHMS 3500

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

20
(68)

40
(104)

60
(140)

80
(176)

100
(212)

FUEL TEMPERATURE IN C (F)

Figure 59 Fuel Temperature Sensor Resistance Chart (Approximate Values)


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the fuel temperature sensor and stores fault codes
under any of the following conditions:
Signal voltage too high
Signal voltage too low
Substitute Values
If the signal wire is shorted to ground, the actual value displayed is 140C
(284F)
If the signal wire is shorted to positive, the actual value displayed is -40. The
intake temperature value displayed is also -40
If a wire has an open circuit, the actual value displayed is -40
57

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ENGINE OIL SENSOR
The engine oil sensor is a three-wire sensor located on the left side of the oil pan, near
the oil drain plug (Figure 60). The oil sensor detects oil temperature, oil level and oil
quality. The sensor operates on the capacitance principle and an integrated electronic
circuit analyzes the three signals.

Figure 60 Engine Oil Sensor


Operation
The engine oil sensor consists of a platinum temperature element (Pt 1000), two cylindrical measuring capacitors and integrated electronics (Figure 61). The platinum element measures the oil temperature. One of the capacitors measures the oil quality,
and is totally immersed in oil. The second capacitor measures the oil level and is positioned between the expected minimum and maximum oil levels. The measured values
are transmitted as pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signals to the ECM.
The oil level sensor has a measuring range of 80 mm (3.15 in.). The minimum measuring limit for the oil level is approximately 40 mm (1.57 in.) The maximum measuring
limit is approximately 120 mm (4.72 in.). The accuracy of the oil level measurement is
approximately 3 mm (0.118 in.).
The oil quality is used to determine oil change intervals. The engine oil condition measurement is based on the dielectric properties of the oil (dielectrics: does not conduct
electricity). As engine oil breaks down and additives are depleted, the dielectric properties gradually increase. The oil quality sensor determines the dielectric constant number of the oil in a scale from 1 to 6. An oil quality number between 1 and 4 is good. A
number between 5 and 6 indicates poor oil quality.

58

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

80m m
(3.15 in
)

4
2

40mm
(1.57 in
)

Oil Level Sensor

Electronic Circuit

Oil Quality Sensor

Start of Measuring Range

Oil Temperature Sensor

End of Measuring Range

Electrical Connector
Figure 61 Engine Oil Sensor

The engine oil sensor constantly supplies data to the ECM in the form of information
blocks (Figure 62). Each information block consists of three successive square wave
signals of 100 ms each, followed by a synchronization pause of 1 second + 200 ms. A
measured variable is assigned to each square-wave signal (A, B, C). The values are
determined by the ON/OFF ratio, which ranges from 19 to 81%.
Refer to the examples shown in Figure 62. The first information block (1) contains
square wave signals which fall between the 20-80% window. The values for oil temperature (60%), oil level (50%) and oil quality (30%) are in order.
The second information block (2) contains square wave signals with ON/OFF ratios
above 80%. The oil temperature signal (81%) indicates a temperature higher than
160C (320F), the oil level signal (80%) indicates an oil level higher than 80 mm (3.15
in.), and the oil quality (81%) indicates good oil quality.
The third information block (3) contains square wave signals with ON/OFF ratios
below 20%. The oil temperature signal (19%) indicates a temperature lower than 40C, the oil level signal (19%) indicates an oil level lower than 0 mm, and the oil quality (15%) indicates poor oil quality.

59

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Oil Temperature Signal

On/Off Ratio Between 20-80%

Oil Level Signal

On/Off Ratio > 80%

Oil Quality Signal

On/Off Ratio < 20%

Time Period
Figure 62 Engine Oil Sensor Information Block

If the engine is cold, the oil temperature actual value is equal to the ambient temperature actual value. The actual value rises after the engine has been started.
Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the oil sensor and stores fault codes under any of
the following conditions:
Synchronization pause error
Wire open or shorted to ground
Supply voltage too high or too low
Timing error
Oil level plausibility
Oil quality plausibility
Water contamination

60

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Substitute Values
An oil temperature actual value of 70C (158F) will be displayed under the following
circumstances:
Signal wire is shorted to ground
5-volt supply wire is shorted to ground
Open circuit in any wire
An oil quality actual value of 2550000 will be displayed under the following circumstances:
Signal wire is shorted to ground
5-volt supply wire is shorted to ground
Open circuit in any wire
An oil level actual value of 254999 mm (100393.50 in.) will be displayed under the following circumstances:
Signal wire is shorted to ground
5-volt supply wire is shorted to ground
Open circuit in any wire

61

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


SWITCH INPUTS
KICK-DOWN SWITCH
The kickdown switch is located on the accelerator pedal assembly and consists of a
spring loaded electric switching contact. The switch influences the shift program of the
electronic transmission control.
When the kickdown switch is actuated via the accelerator pedal, a CAN bus signal is
sent from the ECM to the TCM. The TCM processes the information and controls the
downshifting of the automatic transmission.

Figure 63 Kick-Down Switch


SPEED CONTROL SWITCH
The speed control switch is located behind the steering wheel. At vehicle speeds above
25 MPH, the switch activates the speed control function integrated in the ECM. The
ECM is supplied with the following inputs for speed control operation:
Vehicle speed signal from the CAB module
Park/Neutral signal from the TCM
Stop lamp switch

62

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 64 Speed Control Switch Location


The speed control lever can be moved in four different directions (up/down and forward/back) to select the desired setting. The lever knob is labeled to identify the speed
control functions (Figure 65).

Set/Accelerate Speed

Off

Set/Decelerate Speed

Resume Set Speed

Figure 65 Speed Control Switch


63

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Operation
The speed control lever is comprised of five sets of contacts. Two switch contacts operate simultaneously when the cruise control lever is actuated. One contact provides the
actual input while a safety contact provides a verification input to the ECM. The safety
contact must close at the same time for the selected input to be accepted by the ECM
and recognized as an intentional action on the part of the driver (Figure 66).

E NG INE
C ONT R OL
MODUL E
(E C M)

SPEED
C ONT R OL
S WIT C H

12 V OL T S UP P L Y

R E S UME S IG NA L

DE C E L /S E T S IG NA L
A C C E L /S E T S IG NA L

ON/OF F S IG NA L

V E R IF IC A T ION S IG NA L

Figure 66 Speed Control Switch Schematic


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the speed control switch and stores fault codes
under any of the following conditions:
Negative acceleration deviation
Positive acceleration deviation
Control contact alone
No verification contact
Speed control signals through CAN are implausible
Operating unit has contact short (two contacts synchronous)

64

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR(MAF)
The Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor is located in the air intake duct between the air filter
and the turbocharger (Figure 67). The MAF sensor uses semiconductor technology
throughout, and is used to calculate the air mass flowing past it per time unit.

Figure 67 MAF Location


OPERATION
The ECM uses the mass air flow (MAF) sensor to measure air density. Refer to Figure
68. The temperature resistor (2) located at the front of the MAF sensor measures the
temperature of the inlet air. By varying the voltage, the electronic circuit regulates the
temperature of the heating resistor (1) in the rear so that it is 160C (320F) higher
than the temperature of the intake air. The temperature at the heating resistor is measured by a sensing resistor in-between (3).
Because the incoming air has a cooling effect, the greater the amount of air that flows
in, then the higher the voltage of the heating resistor (1). The heating resistor is therefore a measure of mass of air flowing past.
If a temperature change occurs as a result of an increase or reduction of air flow, the
ECM corrects the voltage at the heating resistor until the temperature difference is
again achieved. This control voltage is use by the ECM as a unit measure for metered
air mass.

65

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Heating Resistor

Temperature Resistor

Sensing Resistor

Figure 68 Mass Air Flow Sensor


The ECM supplies the MAF sensor with two separate voltage levels. One circuit provides 12 volts and the other 5 volts. The ECM also provides the ground to the MAF.

Figure 69 MAF Sensor Schematic


66

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The measured air mass value is sent to the ECM as a control voltage that ranges from
approximately 1 to 4.5 volts (Figure 70).
VOLTS

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

15

60
MASS AIR FLOW IN KG/HR

370

480

Figure 70 MAF Sensor Signal (Approximate Values)


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the MAF sensor and stores fault codes under any
of the following conditions:
Signal voltage too low
Signal voltage too high
Supply voltage too high or too low
Plausibility
WATER IN FUEL SENSOR (WIF)
The WIF sensor is located on the bottom of the fuel filter. The WIF is a three-wire sensor within a plastic housing. The sensor is inserted into the access hole and turned 90
degrees to lock it in place. An O-Ring seals the sensor housing in the filter.

67

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 71 Water in Fuel Sensor


Operation
Diesel fuel does not provide any electrical contact between the sensor probes. Battery
voltage is present in the WIF sensing circuit when the ignition is ON. When water is
present in the system, the conducting properties of the water allow the sensor probes
to close the electrical circuit. The digital integrated circuit senses the ground and pulls
the WIF sensing circuit down to 0 volts after a time delay of approximately 9 seconds.
12V
S E NS OR
G R OUND

40K

12V S UP P L Y

WIF
S IG NA L

E NG INE
C ONT R OL
MODUL E
(E C M)

WA T E R
IN F UE L (WIF )
S E NS OR

Figure 72 WIF Sensor Schematic


When the ECM senses 0 volts in the WIF signal circuit, it signals the instrument cluster via the CAN bus to illuminate the WATER IN FUEL indicator lamp.
68

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 73 WIF Indicator Lamp


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the WIF sensor signal and stores a single fault code, which could
indicate any of the following conditions:
Water in fuel filter, or sensor malfunction, or short to ground, or short to positive, or open circuit in any of the wires
GLOW PLUG MODULE
The glow plug module is located in the engine compartment under the battery tray.
The module integrates diagnostics and an electronic system that processes the input
signals from the ECM for glow plug activation.

Figure 74 Glow Plug Module


69

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The glow plug module monitors the operation of the glow plugs and continuously
informs the ECM via a PWM signal about the operating state (glow plugs ON/OFF),
and the presence of any system faults.

Glow Plug

Relay

Voltage Comparator

Shunt Resistors

Figure 75 Glow Plug Module Schematic


A voltage comparator circuit monitors the PTC properties of the glow plugs and compares it to the voltage drop across the shunt resistors for diagnostic purposes. A short
or open circuit at the glow plugs affects the voltage drop in the resistor circuit. The
comparator triggers a signal if a threshold voltage of 8 mV is exceeded.
70

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Fault Recognition
The following faults are recognized by the glow plug module and transmitted to the
ECM:
Open circuit at one or more glow plugs
Short circuit in a glow plug circuit
Internal relay fault
The ECM stores a fault code when it receives an open glow plug circuit message from
the glow plug module. The ECM will also activate the preglow indicator lamp in the
instrument cluster for about one minute once the engine is running. If the message
received by the ECM is related to a short circuit, or a communication fault, it will store
a fault code and immediately activate the preglow indicator lamp. The lamp will
remain activated until the fault is no longer current or the ignition is switched off.
ACM ENHANCED ACCIDENT RESPONSE INPUT
The ACM enhanced accident response input is received by the ECM in the event of an
accident where the airbags have deployed. A hardwire signal from the ACM is sent to
the ECM and CTM simultaneously (Figure 76).

A IR B A G
C ONT R OL
MODUL E
(A C M)

50 ms
P UL S E

E NG INE
S HUT DOWN
C OMMA ND

E NG INE
C ONT R OL
MODUL E
(E C M)

DOOR S
UNL OC K E D
C OMMA ND

C E NT R A L
T IME R
MODUL E
(C T M)

Figure 76 ACM Enhanced Accident Response Input


The enhanced accident response input signal consists of a 12 volt, 50 millisecond
pulse generated by the ACM during airbag deployment. Upon receipt of this input, the
ECM shuts the engine down. The engine can be restarted again if necessary.
71

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

12 VOLTS
(BATTERY)

50ms

Figure 77 Enhanced Accident Response ACM Input Signal

72

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


INDIRECT INPUTS
CAN BUS INPUTS
In addition to the hardwired inputs, the ECM receives data from other control modules
through the CAN bus.

Transmit Answer - Valid Transponder


Start Enable

A/C Compressor Switched ON


Refrigerant Pressure

Circuit 61 (D+)
Air Conditioning Installed
MPH Instead of KM/HR
Speedometer Calibration
Ambient Air Temperature

Figure 78 CAN Inputs


73

ECM Control Module

SKREEM

CAB
SLA

Shift Lever Position

ATC

Requested Engine Torque


Torque Converter Clutch Status
Limp Home Mode
Engine Emergency Shutdown
Kickdown Acknowledge
Excess Transmission Temperature

IC

Brake Light Switch


Wheel Speeds
Reduction of Engine Specified Torque
Cruise Control OFF

TCM

INFORMATION INPUT - CAN BUS

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 3.3

ENGINE SENSORS

The purpose of this activity is to familiarize the students with the engine's behavior
resulting from various sensor failures
1.

Disconnect the following sensors and observe the details as indicated.


Fuel Temp Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________
Coolant Temp Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________
Low Fuel Pressure Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________
Oil Temp Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________
74

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Intake Air Temp Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________
Boost Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________
MAF Sensor:
Does the engine run?

YES

NO

Is the MIL lamp ON ?

YES

NO

Engine maximum RPM: _____________________________________________________


DTCs: _______________________________________________________________________
Value displayed on DRB: ____________________________________________________

75

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 3.4

CRUISE CONTROL SWITCH

The purpose of this activity is to gain an understanding of the operation of the cruise
control switch.
1.
2.

3.

Connect DRB III to vehicle and access Engine.


Actuate/Press the cruise control stalk. Record your findings below.
Position: _______
ACC: _______
Safety Contact: _______
Position: _______
DEC: _______
Safety Contact: _______
Position: _______
RES: _______
Safety Contact: _______
Position: _______
OFF: _______
Safety Contact: _______
How does the ECM determine a fault, or an unintentional actuation?

76

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MODULE 4

ECM CONTROL AND OUTPUTS

ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM)


The engine control module (ECM) is located on the left hand side, under the instrument panel (Figure 79).

Figure 79 ECM Control Module Location


The ECM has a metal housing. The inputs, outputs, power supply and grounds are
connected to the ECM through five plug-in connectors. The ECM provides different reference voltage levels to input and output components through two regulated 5-volt
power supplies and a 12-volt power supply (Figure 80).
A microprocessor uses control algorithms to process the input signals and calculates
the injected fuel based on stored maps. The microprocessor triggers the driver stages
for switching the output components.
The ECM contains the following data storage elements:
Flash EPROMstores engine-specific curves, engine-management maps, and
variant coding (engine and equipment options).
EEPROMstores SKREEM data, calibration and manufacturing data, adaptation
values, operational faults and variant coding.
RAMstores variable data such as calculations data and input values.

77

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


12-VOLT SUPPLY

ENGINE
CONTROL
MODULE
(ECM)

12-VOLT
SENSOR
FEED

5-VOLT
SENSOR
FEED

5-Volt
Ref. A
Voltage
Regulation

5-VOLT
SENSOR
FEED

12-VOLT
OUTPUT
FEED

5-Volt
Ref. B

Signal
Processing

Microprocessor

Driver
Stages

Flash
EPROM
INPUTS

OUTPUTS

EEPROM
RAM

K-LINE

CAN BUS

Figure 80 ECM Internal Block Diagram


OPERATION/CONTROL STRATEGIES
Total quantity control function
The ECM will calculate each cylinders pre-injection and the main injection quantities.
The following parameters are calculated for computing the correct injected quantity:
Rail specified pressure
Start of injector actuation
Duration of actuation
In addition, individual functions are used for total quantity control:
Start quantity control
Idle speed control 650 rpm
Full load quantity control (reduction of injected quantity)
Smooth engine running control
Limiting maximum engine speed 4200 rpm
Inertia fuel shutoff (interruption of fuel injection at engine speed greater than
1500 rpm and accelerator pedal not operated). This function will provide engine
braking.
78

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The start of injection and the duration of injection are defined during the calculation of
preinjection and main injection quantity.
Injection pressure control
The fuel pressure solenoid is used for controlling rail pressure based on the signal on/
off ratio supplied by the ECM. The control loop is completed at the ECM with the aid
of the rail pressure sensor, which supplies the actual rail pressure. A set value is
determined on the basis of the operating point, this being adjusted by the atmospheric
pressure, coolant temperature and intake air temperature.
Start quantity control
Start of fuel injection is enabled after the ECM has completed synchronization of the
injection timing based on cam and crank position. The injected quantity at engine
speeds less than 600 rpm is controlled by the start quantity control regardless of the
accelerator pedal position. The coolant temperature sensor plays the most important
part within this range: the higher the coolant temperature, the smaller the start fuel
quantity.
Smooth engine running control
Irregularities in engine speed are corrected by varying the quantities injected at the
specific cylinders, ensuring smooth engine running with minimum vibration. The
smooth engine running control is switched off at engine speeds greater than 1500
rpm.
Injector correction quantity
The ECM compensates for dynamic injector variation by reducing or increasing the
injected quantity by approximately 0.5 cubic centimeters per stroke. The injector correction quantity is only active up to engine speeds of 1500 rpm.
Ignition ON strategy
The ECM supplies the signal for preglowing to the glow plug relay and initiates data
interchange with the SKREEM module for drive authorization.
Starter control strategy
For starter operation the following conditions must be met:
Drive authorization system released
Key moved briefly into start position
Engine speed: 0 rpm
Selector lever position: P or N
79

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Idle speed control strategy
The following signals are required for the idle speed control:
Crankshaft position sensor
Coolant temperature sensor
Control and operating module automatic air conditioning
Pedal value sensor
Rail pressure sensor
The idle speed is dependent on the ambient temperature and the atmospheric
pressure.
Example:
idle speed at 20C (68F) and 1000 mbar (29.5 inHg) = 680 rpm
idle speed at -30C (-22F) and 700 mbar (20.7 inHg) = 1100 rpm
Engine stop control strategy
When turning the ignition key in the OFF position, the ECM identifies a voltage drop at
circuit 15 (ignition ON). The ECM will then no longer actuate the injectors. The function of the fuel pressure solenoid is checked by briefly opening the fuel pressure solenoid when the engine is switched off. The pressure in the rail must drop or a
corresponding error message is set in the DTC memory. The M relay will supply the
ECM with voltage for approximately 6 seconds to conduct administrative tasks.
Limiting full load injected quantity control strategy
The ECM limits the injected quantity during full load operation by means of the fuel
pressure solenoid and injector pulse width to minimize smoke. In addition, the full
load injected quantity is reduced if faults occur at the following components and subsystems:
Exhaust gas recirculation EGR
Charge pressure control
Rail pressure control
Limiting maximum engine speed control strategy
The ECM limits the maximum engine speed by reducing the injected quantity. The
engine speed is normally limited to a no load speed of 4200 rpm. In emergency running mode, the engine speed is limited to 3200 rpm by the ECM.
Deceleration mode control strategy
The injectors are not actuated in the deceleration mode at an engine speed less than
1500 rpm and accelerator pedal not depressed.
80

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


A/C compressor shutoff control strategy
The ATC receives a signal from the ECM, which switches the A/C compressor off or on
depending on the load and engine speed. The A/C compressor will be switched off at
engine load greater than 90% and engine speed less than 1050 rpm. The A/C compressor will be switched back on at engine load less than 90% and engine speed
greater than 2500 rpm.
External quantity control strategy
CAN bus signals may be transmitted to the ECM by the TCM or CAB modules to
request a reduction in engine power. A hardwired signal may be transmitted by the
ACM requesting engine shutdown in the event of an airbag deployment.
Overheating protection control strategy
Depending upon the coolant temperature and the vehicle speed, the injected quantity
is reduced according to the performance maps stored in the ECM. In case the coolant
temperature sensor breaks down, the temperature signal from the engine oil sensor is
taken as a substitute value for engine running strategy.
Note: in the event of a coolant temperature sensor failure the ECM will broadcast
125C (257F).
The ATC module is constantly monitoring coolant temperature via the CAN bus. Coolant temperature conditions of 105C (221F) will result in the ATC module turning on
the auxiliary electric fan. If the coolant temperature continues to rise, the ATC module
will turn off the A/C compressor clutch as well.
DTC memory
The engine control unit verifies the plausibility of its inputs and outputs and detects
any possible faults. The recognition of faults and their storage is differentiated as follows:
Current faults
Stored faults
Fault recognition
Signals above or below the limit value (open circuits, short circuits, faulty sensors)
Frequency duration of fault
Rationality fault
Fault messages over CAN bus

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ECM OUTPUTS

Engine Electronics Relay

ECM

Starter Motor Relay

Glow Plug Module

Injectors

Fuel Pressure Solenoid

Pump Fuel Shutoff Valve

Boost Pressure Solenoid

EGR Valve

MIL Lamp

CAN Bus

Diagnosis (K-Line)

Figure 81 ECM Outputs


RELAYS
The ECM has control of the following relays (Figure 82):
Engine electronics (M) relay
Starter relay

82

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 82 Schematic of ECM Controlled Relays


GLOW PLUG MODULE
The glow plug module activates the glow plugs to preheat the combustion chambers.
Two relays within the module provide power to the glow plugs. With the ignition ON, a
control signal is transmitted by the ECM to the glow plug module. If no data transfer
takes place with the ECM, preglowing is switched off after two seconds.
The operation of the glow plugs is divided into three phases (Figure 83):
Preglow phase
Glow phase
Afterglow phase

83

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

IGNITION

WTS LAMP

STARTER
PREGLOW

AFTERGLOW

GLOW

GLOW PHASE

Figure 83 Glow Phases


Preglow Phase
The combustion chambers are preheated in order to achieve the ignition temperature
required for burning of the air/fuel mixture. With the ignition on, the glow plug module and the preglow indicator lamp in the instrument cluster are activated by the ECM
depending on coolant temperature. The glow plug module supplies the current
required to activate the glow plugs.
TIME (SEC)

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

-40
(-40)

-20
(-4)

0
(32)

20
(68)

40
(104)

TEMPERATURE IN C (F)

Figure 84 Preglow Phase


84

60
(140)

80
(176)

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Glow Phase
The glow phase starts by turning the ignition switch to the start position. A start signal is supplied to the glow plug module by the ECM, and the glow plugs continue to be
supplied with current.
Afterglow Phase
The ECM determines the afterglow period after engine start depending on coolant temperature. Afterglow is activated for 30 seconds in the event that no signal is received
from the coolant temperature sensor.
TIME (SEC)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-40
(-40)

-30
(-22)

-20
(-4)

-10
(14)

0
(32)

10
(50)

20
(68)

TEMPERATURE IN C (F)

Figure 85 Afterglow Phase


Afterglow provides the following benefits:
Improves engine warm-up
Prevents exhaust smoke after a cold start
Stabilizes the cold start speed
Glow Plugs
The glow plugs are located in the combustion chamber. The glow plug consists of a
housing with a threaded fitting and an interference-fit glow tube. The glow tube contains the heating element. The heating elements is comprised of the heating winding
and control winding, which are connected in series (Figure 86).
85

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Heating Winding

Control Winding

Figure 86 Glow Plug Heating Element


Operation
When the preglow system is activated, a current of approximately 30 A flows through
each glow plug. The heating winding (1) heats up the glow plug. The control winding
(2) increases its resistance as the temperature rises, and limits the current to about 15
to 25 A. The glow plugs are protected this way from overloads.
The glow plugs reach the temperature needed for ignition of 850C (1562F) in 4 seconds. The glow plug temperature is also limited to a non-critical level to allow activation for up to 3 minutes following engine start.
TEMP IN C (F)
1,050 (1,922)

950 (1,742)

850 (1,562)

750 (1,382)
650 (1,202)
0

20

10

30

40

TIME (SEC)

Figure 87 Glow Plug Temperature vs. Time


86

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL OUTPUTS
INJECTORS
The ECM controls the injection process separately for each cylinder and each crankshaft revolution. The injectors incorporate fast-switching solenoid valves required for
high-speed activation.

ENGINE
CONTROL
MODULE
(ECM)

LOW SIDE
(GROUND CONTROL)

CYL 1

LOW SIDE
(GROUND CONTROL)

CYL 3

LOW SIDE
(GROUND CONTROL)

CYL 4
HIGH SIDE

FILM
CAPACITOR
15uF/100 V

B+

HIGH SIDE

CYL 2

LOW SIDE (GND.CTL)

CYL 5

LOW SIDE
(GROUND CONTROL)

Figure 88 Injector Circuit Schematic


The fuel injectors are arranged in two groups (Figure 88). Injectors 1, 3 and 4 connect
to a common high side terminal and injectors 2 and 5 share the other high side terminal. The ECM activates the injectors by controlling the ground side of each injector
solenoid via metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETS). The high
side circuit produces the peak voltage required to activate the solenoids quickly.
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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


High Voltage Drive Circuit
In order to inject small pilot quantities of approximately 0.0015 cm/stroke under high
pressure conditions, the injector solenoid valves must switch quickly and reliably
within 200 microseconds . To achieve this, the injector coil must be triggered with
steep current flanks. This requires high voltages being made available in the ECM.
The ECM contains a special 4-pin metallized polyester film capacitor to ensure the fast
switching of the fuel injector solenoid valves. The capacitor has a rated capacitance of
15 F and a nominal voltage of 100V. At operating temperatures of up to 105 C (221
F), the capacitor supplies the necessary current to energize the solenoids. Current
peaks of up to 30 A at high frequencies (kilohertz range) are produced during the
unloading and charging phases of the capacitor.

1
2

Injector Ground Control Driver Stage

Film Capacitor

Figure 89 ECM Printed Circuit Board Layout


By delivering the energy from the capacitor to the injector coil, the control current
required to open the injector is reached within a few microseconds. Afterwards the
voltage drops approximately to the electrical system level and the current flow is maintained by the vehicles battery.
88

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The high voltage induced in the solenoid (Figure 90) is used to charge the capacitor.
The capacitor is recharged with approximately 80 volts during the periods in which the
solenoid is switched off (for most of the duration of the working, exhaust and compression strokes).

2
4

Injector Coil is Energized For Pilot Injection

Injector Coil is De-Energized (Inductive Kick is Produced, Charging Capacitor)

Injector Coil is Energized For Main Injection

Injector Coil is De-Energized (Inductive Kick is Produced, Charging Capacitor)


Figure 90 Voltage Waveform, Injector Activation

Capacitor Unload/Charge Phases


See Figures 91 and 92 for the current waveform and solenoid activation phases. The
low side (ground control) MOSFET is switched off and the injector solenoid is in the deenergized state (a).
In the pilot injection stage (1), the ECM switches on the low side MOSFET, which completes the solenoid path to ground (b). The capacitor unloads producing a steep rise in
current (b).

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The injector break-away starting phase (c) follows as current from the vehicles electrical system (B+) flows into the solenoid. During this phase, a two-step action circuit
holds the current to a value (approximately 20 A), which guarantees a safe opening of
the injector.
As the pilot injection ends, the capacitor charge phase begins (d). The low side MOSFET is switched off, interrupting the flow of current to the injector solenoid. A highvoltage inductive kick is produced in the solenoid with reverse polarity. Current flows
back through the diode and charges the capacitor.
After the brief solenoid de-energized state (a), the low side MOSFET is switched on for
the main injection phase. The capacitor unloads its current (b), followed by the injector break-away starting current (c).
Once the injector is stably open, the current level is lowered (d) for the duration of the
injector holding current phase (approximately 12 A). During this phase, the current
continues to switch alternately between two levels, which is sufficient to hold the solenoid open (this is possible due to the magnetic air gap now being smaller) but not
waste electric power. The current level is reduced to lower system energy requirements
and to speed the flux decay when the ECM is turned off.

Current (A)

20

12

Time (ms)
a

b c d

b c d

Pilot Injection

Injector Break-Away Starting Current

Main Injection

Capacitor Charge Phase

Injector De-Energized State

Injector Holding Current

Capacitor Unload Current


Figure 91 Current Waveform, Injector Activation
90

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

B+

B+

ON

ON

b. Capacitor Unload Current

c. Injector Break-Away Starting Current


HOLDING
CURRENT

B+

OFF

ON

d. Capacitor Charge Phase

e. Injector Solenoid Holding Current

Figure 92 Injector Solenoid Activation Phases

91

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Pilot Injection
With pilot injection, a small amount of diesel fuel is injected into the cylinder to reduce
combustion noise and exhaust emission levels. Pilot injection is used throughout the
entire operating range, up to an engine speed of approximately 3500 rpm. The ECM
controls pilot injection by adjusting the following:
Start of pilot injectionbased on the engine operating point, last start of actuation of main injection and coolant temperature
Duration of pilot injectionbased on the engine operating point, rail pressure,
coolant temperature, atmospheric pressure and intake air temperature
Main Injection
The engine's torque and power are produced from the main injection phase. To control
the main injected quantity, the ECM adjusts the following:
Start of main injectionbased on the engine operating point, atmospheric pressure, coolant temperature, intake air temperature and pilot injection actuation
Duration of main injectionbased on rail pressure, the main injection duration is
the difference of the total specified quantity and pilot injected quantity
Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the injectors and stores fault codes related to the
following conditions:
Excess current on injector control or return wires
Open or short circuits

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL PRESSURE SOLENOID
The fuel rail pressure solenoid is attached to the rear of the common rail (Figure 93).

Figure 93 Fuel Pressure Solenoid


Two wires connect the fuel pressure solenoid to the Engine Control Module (ECM). The
ECM grounds one end of the solenoid and sends a PWM signal through the other end.
The ECM controls and maintains the rail pressure by means of the PWM signal.
E NG INE
C ONT R OL
MODUL E
(E C M)
S IG NA L
R E T UR N

P WM
S IG NA L

F UE L
P R E S S UR E
S OL E NOID

Figure 94 Fuel Rail Pressure Solenoid Schematic


The fuel pressure solenoid has the task of regulating the fuel pressure in the common
rail to levels of up to 1350 bar (approximately 20,000 PSI). The desired value calculated by the engine control unit determines the target pressure to be achieved. The fuel
pressure sensor measures the actual pressure in the rail. Therefore, the fuel pressure
solenoid, common rail, fuel pressure sensor and ECM together form a control loop.

93

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


1

Magnetic Coil

Ball And Seat

Spring

High Pressure Fuel Supply

Figure 95 Fuel Pressure Solenoid


Operation
When deactivated, the fuel pressure solenoid is closed, due to the spring force pressing
the ball into the seat (Figure 95). The spring pressure maintains a minimum pressure
of about 60 bar (870 PSI). When operating, the ECM regulates the PWM signal (Figure
96) and the fuel pressure solenoid opens to a greater or lesser degree. At idle the control value is approximately 18%. The pressure of the fluid counteracts the force of the
magnet coil and the spring force. A minimum fuel pressure of 200 bar (2900 PSI) must
be achieved in order to start the engine.

Figure 96 Fuel Pressure Solenoid PWM Signal


94

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the fuel pressure solenoid and stores fault codes
related to the following conditions:
Wire shorted to positive or shorted to ground
Open circuit
Plausibility
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE
The high pressure fuel injection pump has a integrated shut off valve for one of the
high pressure pump elements. The ECM monitors the fuel temperature and will switch
off the element if the fuel temperature reaches above 136C (278F) with the engine
speed above 2200 rpm. The shutoff valve is not serviced separately.

Figure 97 Fuel Shutoff Valve


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the fuel shutoff valve and stores fault codes related
to the following conditions:
Wire shorted to positive or shorted to ground
Open circuit

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 4.1 SHOP DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL RELATED OUTPUTS
The purpose of this activity is to familiarize the students with the glow system components and related function tests.
1.

Locate the C2 connector at the glow plug control module, check resistance
through each glow plug to ground.
Resistance
Wire Size/Color
Glow Plug #1: _______________________________________________
Glow Plug #2: _______________________________________________
Glow Plug #3: _______________________________________________
Glow Plug #4: _______________________________________________
Glow Plug #5: _______________________________________________

2.

What would incorrect resistance values indicate?

3.

Are their any special tools associated with the Sprinter glow plugs?

4.

Disconnect #1 glow plug. Check for DTCs and list below.

5.

List any other DTCs related to the glow plug system.

6.

How does the glow plug control module communicate with the ECM + DRBIII?
List wire color, connector, and PIN.

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


INTAKE/EXHAUST OUTPUTS
BOOST PRESSURE SOLENOID
The boost pressure solenoid is located under the air filter housing and is responsible
for turbo-charger boost pressure control. It controls vacuum in response to a PWM
signal from the ECM. The vacuum signal is regulated by mixing the system vacuum
(from the vacuum pump) with atmospheric pressure. The resulting vacuum is sent to
the actuator unit at the turbocharger.

Figure 98 Boost Pressure Solenoid


OPERATION
When deactivated, the boost pressure solenoid is open to atmospheric pressure. The
OUT port, which leads to the turbocharger vacuum valve is fully vented through the
ATM port (Figure 99). The turbocharger vanes are in the open position (low boost).
When operating, the PWM control signal from the ECM modulates the opening of the
VAC port and the closing of the ATM port, which allows vacuum to be mixed with
atmospheric pressure. The resulting vacuum goes out through the OUT connection to
the turbocharger vacuum unit.
When the engine is at idle, the PWM control value is approximately 85%. The PWM
control value decreases as the accelerator pedal is depressed.

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


2

OUT

VAC

OUT

ATM

VAC

ATM

Solenoid Deactivated State

Solenoid Activated State

Figure 99 Boost Pressure Solenoid Operating States


Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the boost pressure solenoid and stores fault codes
related to the following conditions:
Wire shorted to positive or wire shorted to ground/open circuit
Boost pressure is too low or too high
Activation On/Off ratio is too high
EGR VALVE
The EGR valve housing is mounted between the charge air cooler hose and the intake
manifold (Figure 100).

Figure 100 EGR Valve


98

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) is a method for reducing the emissions of NOx. With
EGR, a portion of the exhaust gases are diverted into the intake during part-load operation. Not only is the oxygen content reduced, but also the rate of combustion and the
peak temperature at the flame front, which results in lower NOx emissions.
If too much exhaust gas is recirculated (exceeding 40% of the intake air volume), the
particulates, CO, and HC emissions, as well as the fuel consumption rise due to the
lack of oxygen.

Figure 101 EGR Valve Location


OPERATION
The mass of the air supplied to the cylinders per stroke is the decisive factor for determining the optimum quantity of exhaust gas for the operating condition. The optimum
quantity is calculated from the Mass Air Flow sensor information. The ECM evaluates
this signal as well as that from the Boost Pressure sensor, and outputs a PWM signal
in accordance with one of the maps stored in it. The signal is sent to the exhaust gas
recirculation valve. The map is formulated to keep the NOx as low as possible. The
EGR valve is actuated by an electric positioning motor (Figure 102).

99

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

1
5
2

Valve and Valve Seat

EGR Motor

EGR Inlet Passage (From Exhaust)

Cam & Roller Mechanism

EGR Outlet Passage (To Engine)


Figure 102 EGR Valve Rear View

Failure Modes
The ECM monitors the operation of the EGR valve and stores fault codes related to the
following conditions:
Open circuit
Wire shorted to positive or shorted to ground
Exhaust gas recirculation rate too high
Exhaust gas recirculation rate too low
Exhaust gas recirculation flow check
MIL LAMP
The engine malfunction indicator lamp is activated prior to the engine being started,
with ignition ON (bulb check) and goes out after engine starts provided no fault exists.
An emission-related fault may cause the lamp to stay illuminated. Not all failures
ensure the illumination or the MIL lamp however.

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 103 MIL Lamp


DATA LINK CONNECTOR
The Data Link Connector (DLC) is located under the instrument panel, on the left side
of the drivers leg room area. When connected to the DLC, the DRB III scan tool is able
to establish communication with various control modules through individual diagnostic lines (K-Lines). A K-Line is a single wire that allows bi-directional data to be transmitted between control modules and a scan tool.

Figure 104 DLC Connector

101

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


The K-Line wiring is not connected to the CAN data bus. The K-Line is used for diagnostic and monitoring functions, while the CAN data bus is a communications link
used exclusively for control module data exchange.
CAN BUS OUTPUTS
The ECM transmits information via the CAN bus to various control modules.

TCM

Engine Torque
Engine Speed
Limp-Home Mode
Cruise Control Active
ABS Input Torque
Coolant Temperature
Engine Temperature

Request by ECM
Engine is Enabled

ATC

SKREEM

Engine Torque
Engine Speed
Driver Input Torque (Pedal Position)

A/C Compressor OFF (Full Load)


Engine Speed
Coolant Temperature

IC

ECM Control Module

CAB

INFORMATION OUTPUT - CAN BUS

MIL Lamp
Start Error
Preglow Indicator Lamp
Engine Control Module Faulty
Oil Temperature
Oil Level
Oil Quality
Engine Speed
Coolant Temperature

Figure 105 CAN Bus Outputs


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 4.2 ACTIVATIONS OF INTAKE/EXHAUST DEVICES
The purpose of this activity is to familiarize the student with injector open circuit
faults and performing the EGR valve actuation test with the DRB III scan tool.
TASK 1
1.

Simulate an open circuit by disconnecting an injector with the ignition OFF.


Attempt to start the engine after disconnecting the injector and record your findings in the chart below.
MIL lamp ON
(YES/NO)

2.

Limp-In Mode
(YES/NO)

Engine Does Start


(YES/NO)

Engine Stalls
(YES/NO)

Reconnect the injector.

TASK 2
1.

Start engine and view MAF sensor reading at idle. Record your reading below.

2.

What is the MAF spec? Record your reading below.

3.

Unplug MAF. What is the status of the engine light?

4.

Are there any associated codes?

5.

6.

Reconnect the MAF. With the engine running. Perform EGR actuator test and
record results below.
____________
%
____________ mg/strk
(OPEN)
____________
%
____________ mg/strk
(CLOSED)
Of the above readings, which of the two is introducing the most exhaust gas?

7.

Shut off engine

INSTRUCTOR LEAD
8.

What code(s) are set when the EGR valve is held close?

103

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


9.

What code(s) are set when the EGR valve is held open?

10.

What code(s) are set when the actuator arm is dislocated from the valve?

11.

Describe the relationship between the EGR valve and MAF sensor.

104

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MODULE 5

ENGINE DIAGNOSIS

Start

1. Verify the complaint

2. Determine related
symptoms

3. Analyze symptoms

4. Isolate the problem

5. Repair isolated problem

6. Verify for proper operation

End
Figure 106 Flow Chart, Six-Step Diagnostic Process
105

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


SIX-STEP DIAGNOSTIC PROCESS
Step 1: Verify the Customer Concern
Verifying the customer concern is the first step in the Six-Step Diagnostic Process.
This step actually begins with the Service Writer/Advisor. The Service Writer/Advisor
must get as much information as possible from the customer. It is important to know
if the condition is constant or varies with road speed, is weather or temperature
dependent (happens when cold or when raining, etc.), or only occurs when certain
equipment is being used such as the air conditioning or radio with power booster.
As a technician, the first thing you must do is accurately interpret the information.
This may require talking to the customer and Service Writer/Advisor. Always duplicate the concern before attempting to correct it. Understanding and duplicating the
symptom is important. It may be necessary to have the customer's help in duplicating
the concern.
Step 2: Determine Related Symptoms
The next step in the Six-Step Diagnostic Process is troubleshooting the problem to
determine if there are any related symptoms. The goal of this step is to gather information and associate the concern with a specific component.
Once the primary symptom is identified, check to see if there are other customer concerns which may be related. Check the vehicle's service history to determine if any
other repairs were performed for similar symptoms. Review any Technical Service Bulletins (TSBs) to determine if any relate to the symptoms described by the customer.
Perform a thorough visual inspection, including checking for non-factory installed
accessories that may be causing the concern. Road testing a vehicle also may be necessary.
Step 3: Analyze the Symptoms
The next step in the Six-Step Diagnostic Process is to analyze the symptoms. The goal
of this step is to justify the customer's claim and to classify the symptoms.
Confirming that the vehicle has a problem is important. Attempting to repair a normal
condition can convince the customer that a true problem exists when it doesn't.
Knowing correct system operation helps to satisfy the customer when the condition is
normal.
Step 4: Isolate the Concern
The next step in the Six-Step Diagnostic Process is to isolate the concern. The goal of
this step is to use the results of the road and in-shop tests to help identify the actual
cause and location of the customer concern.
Isolating components from each other to determine which component is the cause of a
vehicle concern is the basis of most diagnostic tests. Isolation may be as simple as lis-

106

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


tening to a suspect component with a mechanic's stethoscope, or running the vehicle
with the suspect component removed.
Use the Diagnosis Charts in the Service Manual to develop an action plan to determine
which checks to make. Document any additional problems with the customer's vehicle. Pay particular attention to other concerns and problems that can cause an unsafe
condition.
Step 5: Repair the Concern
The fifth step in the Six-Step Diagnostic Process is to make the necessary adjustments
and repairs to correct the problem. The Service Manual may help when performing
these operations.
Always look for the cause of component damage. If you replace the component that is
causing the symptom but do not try to determine what caused that component to fail,
the failure is likely to recur.
Step 6: Verify Proper Operation
The last step in the Six-Step Diagnostic Process is to verify that the vehicle operates
properly. Eliminating or isolating the problem is the optimal goal. If the customer
must tolerate the concern, thoroughly explain to the customer why the condition
exists. It is possible that fixing one concern may reveal another. Take the time to road
test and verify that no further problems exist. Studies show that almost one out of
three service visits requires a return visit to fully correct the problem.
TYPES OF EXHAUST SMOKE
The High-Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) diesel engine should emit very little smoke.
White smoke is not considered normal. The different types of exhaust smoke indicate
different problems. Following is a brief discussion of black, blue, and white exhaust
smoke.
Black Smoke
Black smoke is created by incomplete combustion. The reason for the fuel being only
partially burned often relates to one of the following problems:
Excess fuel in the combustion chamber
Insufficient air supply (clogged air filter, kinked hoses, faulty turbo)
Advanced injection timing due to poor diesel fuel quality not recommended being
used in the vehicle
Black smoke is caused by too much fuel or poor fuel quality and not enough air or
time to burn the fuel. Black smoke is not considered normal and is often related to low
power or poor fuel economy problems.

107

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Blue Smoke
Blue smoke is an indication of engine oil burning in the combustion chamber. Blue
smoke is usually accompanied by excessive oil consumption. Any of the following conditions can cause excessive oil consumption:
Overfilled crankcase
Worn piston rings
Failed valve stem seals
Failed turbocharger seals
White Smoke
White smoke is caused by particles of fuel passing through the combustion chamber
without burning and exiting with the exhaust gas. Fuel not burning is often related to
low combustion chamber temperature. At light loads, the temperature in the combustion chamber may drop to 260C (500F). The lower temperature delays combustion,
causing some fuel to be partially burned and blown out with the exhaust gas.
NO DTC DIAGNOSIS
When diagnosing diesel driveability concerns in the absence of codes, use the symptom-based diagnostic tables in the Service Information. Always follow the Six-Step
Diagnostic Process when diagnosing a customer concern.
HIGH-PRESSURE DIAGNOSIS
The high-pressure fuel system can be diagnosed using a DRBIII. The DRBIII will show
the fuel pressure setpoint and the actual pressure. If the actual pressure and the fuel
pressure setpoint values are about the same, a concern with the high-pressure fuel
system may not be present. If a small leak is suspected in the high-pressure lines,
check them by using the cardboard test.
WARNING: THE HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL PUMP SUPPLIES FUEL WITH PRESSURES
AS HIGH AS 1350 BAR (20,000 PSI) TO EACH INJECTOR THROUGH THE HIGHPRESSURE LINES. FUEL UNDER THIS AMOUNT OF PRESSURE CAN PENETRATE
THE SKIN AND CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY. WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES AND ADEQUATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND AVOID CONTACT WITH FUEL SPRAY WHEN
CHECKING HIGH-PRESSURE LINES FOR LEAKS
DIAGNOSIS WITH RELATED FAULT CODES
The ECM stores diagnostic information in the EEPROM. When fault codes are present,
follow the proper diagnostic steps in the service information.

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COMMON POINT ANALYSIS
Certain failures can affect several circuits, causing multiple fault codes, which can
lead to excessive diagnosis time. These types of faults should be treated as a whole,
instead of individually. First, find if the faults displayed share a common circuit. For
example, a customer complains his engine doesnt start (Start Error) and the horn
doesnt work. If properly diagnosed, these complaints can be quickly narrowed down
to a burnt fuse which supplies power to these components.

Figure 107 Common Point Analysis


ECM Internal Power and Ground Distribution
When diagnosing the common rail fuel system, the internal power supply and ground
structure of the ECM must be taken into account. The ECM uses the power supply
and distributes it among various inputs and outputs, both 12 volts and 5 volts. The
ECM incorporates the following circuits:
12-volt power supply distribution
Reference A, 5-volt power supply distribution
Reference B, 5-volt power supply distribution
Ground distribution
109

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Internal Common Point Analysis, 12-Volt Power Supply Distribution

Cruise Control Switch 12 V Supply

Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor 12 V Supply

Charge Pressure Transducer 12 V Supply

Water in Fuel (WIF) Sensor 12 V Supply

Pump Element Shutoff Valve 12 V Supply


Figure 108 ECM, 12 Volt Supply

110

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Internal Common Point Analysis, 5 Volt Reference A

Not Used

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (APP) 5 V Supply

Mass Air Flow Sensor (MAF) 5 V Supply

Not Used

Oil Sensor 5 V Supply


Figure 109 ECM, 5 Volt Supply (A)

111

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Internal Common Point Analysis, 5 Volt Reference B

Not Used

Boost Pressure Sensor 5 V Supply

Not Used

Low Fuel Pressure Sensor 5 V Supply

Rail Pressure Sensor 5 V Supply


Figure 110 ECM, 5 Volt Supply (B)

112

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Internal Common Point Analysis, Grounds

Kick Down Switch Ground

Rail Pressure Sensor Ground

Fuel Low Pressure Sensor Ground

Camshaft Position Sensor Ground

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve and Engine Oil Sensor Ground

Fuel Temperature Sensor Ground

Coolant Temperature Sensor Ground


Figure 111 ECM, Ground
113

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


DIAGNOSIS WITHOUT RELATED FAULT CODES
Following a systematic routine is essential when dealing with driveability complaints
that have no related fault codes. The six-step diagnostic process allows the technician
to remain focused and eliminates unnecessary work.
The following are examples of complaints without related fault codes.
COMPLAINT: ROUGH IDLE/ENGINE KNOCKS AT IDLE
Possible cause: injector malfunction
Troubleshooting Steps

Start

Connect the DRB III Scan Tool to


The Vehicle

Perform Injector Correction


Quantity Test

Perform Smooth Engine Running


Test

Isolate the Malfunction (Injector)

Repair the Isolated Problem

End

Figure 112 Rough Idle/Engine Knock


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COMPLAINT: ENGINE CRANKS, BUT DOESN'T START
Possible causes:
Insufficient fuel pressure low or high pressure circuits
Insufficient Low pressure pump output
Fuel pressure sensor malfunction
Fuel pressure solenoid malfunction
Leaking injector
High pressure pump failure
CPS pulse ring or flex plate damage
Troubleshooting Steps

Start

Check Fuel Pressure Values with DRB. Confirm if Necessary

Perform Fuel Pressure Sensor Check

Voltage to Pressure Comparison

Perform Fuel Pressure Solenoid Check

Check Pulse Width of Fuel Pressure Solenoid

Verify Condition of Flex Plate with DRB III Scope

Injector Leakage Check

Repair the Isolated Problem

End

Figure 113 Engine Does Not Start


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COMPLAINT: POWER LOSS/ENGINE DIES UNDER LOAD
Possible causes:
Injector malfunction
Fuel pressure solenoid malfunction
High pressure pump fluctuates under load
Troubleshooting Steps

Start

Connect the DRB III Scan Tool to


The Vehicle

Perform Injector Correction


Quantity Test

Perform Fuel Pressure Solenoid


Check

Check High Pressure Pump for


Pressure Fluctuations

Repair the Isolated Problem

End

Figure 114 Power Loss/Engine Dies


116

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COMPLAINT: BLACK SMOKE
(Smoke diagnosis review)
Possible cause: rail pressure sensor malfunction
Troubleshooting Step

Start

Smoke Diagnosis Review

Connect the DRB III Scan Tool to


The Vehicle

Perform Rail Pressure Sensor


Check

Repair the Isolated Problem

End

Figure 115 Black Smoke

117

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


COMPLAINT: ENGINE RPM DROPS INTERMITTENTLY
Possible cause: stop lamp switch misadjusted/malfunction
Troubleshooting step

Start

Connect the DRB III Scan Tool to


The Vehicle

Check Operation of Brake Switch


Dual Contacts

Check Brake Switch Adjustment

Repair the Isolated Problem

End

Figure 116 Engine RPM Drop

118

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ACTIVITY 5.1 : TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEMS ON VEHICLE
The purpose of this activity is to allow the students to perform driveability troubleshooting procedures using the DRB III scan tool and the six-step diagnostic process.
TASK 1 (GROUP 1) LOW POWER AND ENGINE RUNNING ROUGH
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Go to the shop vehicle assigned by your instructor. The hood is to remain closed
during the analysis.
Connect the DRB III Scan Tool and perform an engine compression test.
What are the required conditions for the engine compression test?
Record the engine compression readings in the spaces below:
Cylinder 1: __________________________________________
Cylinder 2: __________________________________________
Cylinder 3: __________________________________________
Cylinder 4: __________________________________________
Cylinder 5: __________________________________________
Is the cylinder compression within specifications?
YES

NO

_______________________________________________________

6.
7.

Perform an injector correction quantity test.


What are the required conditions for the injector correction quantity test?

8.

Record the injector correction quantity readings in the spaces below:


Cylinder 1: __________________________________________
Cylinder 2: __________________________________________
Cylinder 3: __________________________________________
Cylinder 4: __________________________________________
Cylinder 5: __________________________________________
Are the injector correction quantities within specifications?

9.

YES
10.
11.

NO

________________________________________________________

Perform a smooth running test.


What are the required conditions for the smooth running test?

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


12.

Record the smooth running test readings in the spaces below:


Cylinder 1: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 2: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 3: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 4: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 5: ___________________________________________
13. Are the smooth running test values within specifications?
YES
14.

NO

What is the possible root cause of this driveability complaint?

TASK 1 (GROUP 2) ENGINE RUNNING ROUGH AND LOW POWER


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Go to the shop vehicle assigned by your instructor. The hood is to remain closed
during the analysis.
Connect the DRB III Scan Tool and perform an engine compression test.
What are the required conditions for the engine compression test?
Record the engine compression readings in the spaces below:
Cylinder 1: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 2: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 3: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 4: ___________________________________________
Cylinder 5: ___________________________________________
Is the cylinder compression within specifications?
YES

NO

6.
7.

Perform an injector correction quantity test.


What are the required conditions for the injector correction quantity test?

8.

Record the
Cylinder 1:
Cylinder 2:
Cylinder 3:
Cylinder 4:
Cylinder 5:

injector correction quantity readings in the spaces below:


___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


9.

Are the injector correction quantities within specifications?


YES

10.
11.

NO

Perform a smooth running test.


What are the required conditions for the smooth running test?

12.

Record the smooth running test readings in the spaces below:


Cylinder 1: ____________________________________________
Cylinder 2: ____________________________________________
Cylinder 3: ____________________________________________
Cylinder 4: ____________________________________________
Cylinder 5: ____________________________________________
13. Are the smooth running test values within specifications?
YES
14.

NO

What is the possible root cause of this driveability complaint?

TASK 2 (GROUP 1) ENGINE WONT RUN


1.
2.
3.

Go to the shop vehicle assigned by your instructor. The hood is to remain closed
during the analysis.
Connect the DRB III Scan Tool and go into the Inputs/Outputs screen.
Observe the I/O values. What are your findings?

4.

What is the possible root cause of this driveability complaint?

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


TASK 2 (GROUP 2) ENGINE WONT RUN
1.
2.

Go to the shop vehicle assigned by your instructor. The hood is to remain closed
during the analysis.
Write down a detailed diagnostic step procedure for troubleshooting this condition

3.

What is the possible root cause of this driveability complaint?

4.

Inform your instructor of the results of your troubleshooting procedure


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


APPENDIX
OSCILLOSCOPE PATTERNS
CRANK AND CAM SIGNALS
Figure 117 shows the pattern of the crankshaft position sensor (CKP)at idle speed.
Notice the voltage gap resulting from the two missing teeth on the flywheel.
2ms/Div

v
20
10
0
-10
-20
Figure 117 Crankshaft Position Sensor Signal
Figure 118 shows the pattern of the camshaft position sensor at idle speed. The 5-volt
signal switches to a low voltage level when the segment for identification of cylinder
No.1 is detected.
50ms/Div

v
6

4
2
0
Figure 118 Camshaft Position Sensor Signal
123

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Figure 119 shows the relationship between the CKP and CMP sensor signals

Figure 119 Crank (CKP) and Cam (CMP) Signals


Figure 120 shows the normal pattern of the CMP (Channel 1) and CKP (Channel 2) signals at idle.

Figure 120 Crank and Cam Signals


124

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Figure 121 shows the normal pattern of the CKP sensor (wires 1 and 2).

Figure 121 Crank (CKP) Sensor Signal


Figure 122 shows the Crank (CKP) Sensor pattern. Channel 2 shows the sensor wire
No. 1 is shorted to ground.

Figure 122 Shorted Crank Signal


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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


MASS AIR FLOW (MAF) SENSOR SIGNAL
Figure 123 shows the pattern of the signal of the mass air flow sensor (MAF) at idle
speed and under acceleration (observe the voltage rise).
2s/Div

v
4
3
2
1
0
Figure 123 Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor Signal
FUEL RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR SIGNAL
Figure 124 shows the pattern of the rail pressure sensor signal at different stages:
ignition off, ignition on, idle speed and snapping the throttle.
1s/Div

v
4

Throttle Snap

3
2

Idle

1
0

Ign.ON
Ign.OFF

Figure 124 Rail Pressure Sensor Signal


126

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


FUEL INJECTOR PATTERN
Figure 125 shows the pattern of an injector at idle speed. The first voltage spike indicates the pilot injection phase. The second voltage spike indicates the main injection
phase.
2ms/Div

v
40

30
20
10
0
-10
-20
Figure 125 Fuel Injector Signal
FUEL PRESSURE SOLENOID
Figure 126 shows the pattern of the fuel pressure solenoid at idle speed.
500us/Div

v
30

20
10
0
-10
Figure 126 Fuel Pressure Solenoid Signal at Idle
127

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Figure 127 shows the pattern of the fuel pressure solenoid at full load.
500us/Div

v
30
20
10
0
-10

Figure 127 Fuel Pressure Solenoid Signal at Full Load


Figure 128 shows the pattern of the fuel pressure solenoid during the ECM power-off
phase.

Figure 128 Fuel Pressure Solenoid Signal, ECM Power-Off Phase

128

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


EGR VALVE
Figure 129 shows the PWM signal to the EGR valve with the engine off/key on.

Figure 129 EGR Valve PWM Signal, Engine OFF/Key ON


Figure 130 shows the EGR valve signal with the engine at idle.

Figure 130 EGR Valve PWM Signal at Idle

129

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Figure 131 shows the EGR valve signal with the engine under acceleration.

Figure 131 EGR Valve PWM Signal Under Acceleration


BOOST PRESSURE SOLENOID
Figure 132 shows the PWM signal to the Boost Pressure Solenoid with the engine off/
key on.

Figure 132 Boost Pressure Solenoid PWM Signal, Engine OFF/Key ON


130

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Figure 133 shows the Boost Pressure Solenoid signal with the engine at idle.

Figure 133 Boost Pressure Solenoid PWM Signal at Idle


Figure 134 shows the Boost Pressure Solenoid signal with the engine under acceleration.

Figure 134 Boost Pressure Solenoid PWM Signal Under Acceleration

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


ENGINE OIL SENSOR
Figure 135 shows the pattern of the oil sensor. The first waveform (1) represents the oil
temperature. The duty-cycle lower limit is 20%, which indicates an oil temperature of 40. The upper limit is 80%, which indicates an oil temperature above 160C.
The second waveform (2) represents the oil level value. The duty-cycle lower limit is
20%, which indicates an oil level of 0. The upper limit is 80%, which indicates an oil
level of 80mm.
The third waveform (3) represents the dielectric number of the oil. The duty-cycle lower
limit is 20%, which indicates a dielectric number of 1. The upper limit is 80%, which
indicates a dielectric number of 6. The typical value is around 40%, indicating an oil
quality of 2.7.

Oil Temperature Waveform

Oil Level Waveform

Dielectric Number of Oil Waveform (Oil Quality)


Figure 135 Oil Sensor Signal

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Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


GLOW PLUG MODULE
Figure 136 shows the digital pattern (PWM) in the signal wire between the glow plug
module and the engine control module (ECM).

Figure 136 Glow Plug Module Signal

133

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


SENSOR REFERENCE
Also with 4-13 shorted hi
3-19 MAF shorted hi/lo
APP 5v shorted hi/lo
Reference: A High
P0100 maf supply hi/lo
P1611 sensor ref A volts too hi
P1192 EOS supply hi/lo (shorted HI)
P1222 APP1 supply hi/lo
P1234 APP2 supply hi/lo

Reference: B High
P0190 fuel pressure volts hi
P0190 supply too hi/lo (shorted HI)
P0105 BPS supply too hi/lo
P2306 ref B too hi

Reference: A Low
P0100 maf supply hi/lo
P1611
P1192 EOS supply hi/lo (Shorted low)
P1192 EOS open/short ground
P1222 APP1 supply voltage hi/lo
P1234 APP2 supply voltage hi/lo

Reference: B Low
P0190 fuel pressure volts hi (check)
P0190 supply too hi/lo (shorted low)
P0105 BPS supply too hi/lo
P2306 ref B too lo

NO MIL STARTS AND RUNS

MIL NO CRANK

1 1 engine relay output if open


P0100 maf volt lo
P1403 egr sol open
P1470 boost sol open or stg short to ground
P1188 fuel shut down sol open
Drop 12v outputs

1-7 engine relay output if open


P0615 starter relay open
P1615 ecm voltage too lo
P1190 fuel pressure sol too lo
Drops 12v output to starter and fuel
pressure sol

1-8 engine relay output if open


anyone of the injector over current hi side
if you crank with 1-8 open
P1192 EOS open/ground get a sync error 1 (with engine running)
Injector shorted hi/lo by shorting one it could read out any of the injectors
Common driver open or shorted P1661 compactor code - replace ecm check injectors first
Hi fuel pressure sensor shorted hi or open stayed running with a loping engine

134

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


Jumper 3-46 engine control relay control to ground
You can measure relay output at 1-1, 1-7, 1-8 will confirm the entire circuit
Cruise control switch open accel, decel, or resume set positive acceleration deviation

135

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


RETROFITTING SPEED CONTROL
This retrofit consists of installing a speed control switch in the steering column
and changing the version coding of the engine control module (ECM) to enable the
speed control feature.
PARTS REQUIRED
Following is the list of parts. The electrical wires listed must be purchased locally. It is
strongly recommended to adhere to the color coding of the wires. It simplifies service
procedures, troubleshooting of the electrical system, and is consistent with shop documentation and electrical wiring schematics.
MB Part Number

Description

Qty.

A 001 540 14 45

Speed control switch

N007985 003129

Screw

A 655 545 02 28

Six-pin connector

A 011 545 81 26

Electrical terminal

A 008 545 63 26

Electrical terminal, ECM connector

- purchase locally -

Red electrical wire, 18 AWG

1 ft.

- purchase locally -

Black electrical wire, 18 AWG

1 ft.

- purchase locally -

Blue electrical wire, 18 AWG

1 ft.

- purchase locally -

Yellow electrical wire, 18 AWG

1 ft.

- purchase locally -

Dark green electrical wire, 18 AWG

1 ft.

- purchase locally -

Gray electrical wire, 18 AWG

1 ft.

Table 1 Parts List


PROCEDURE
1.
2.

Disconnect the cable from the negative battery post.


Remove fuse panel cover (1) by turning slotted screw 90 from position A to B (Figure 137).

136

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 137 Removal of Fuse Panel Cover


3.

Unscrew Phillips screws and nut (Figure 138). Remove steering column cover.
Remove M relay for better access to steering column bracket.

Figure 138 Removal of steering column cover and relay M

137

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


4.

Unscrew both Phillips screws and remove upper cover (Figure 139).

Figure 139 Removal of Phillips Screws and Upper Cover


5.

Remove steering column bracket bolts (Figure 140).

Figure 140 Removing Steering Column Bracket Bolts

138

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


6.

Gently lower steering column about 6 inches (Figure 141).

Figure 141 Lowering The Steering Column


7.

Locate the speed control switch mounting base (arrow) on the back of the combination switch (Figure 142).

Figure 142 Location of speed control switch mounting base

139

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


8.

Slide the speed control switch, part A 001 540 14 45 into its mounting base.
Secure the switch with holding screw, part N007985 003129 (Figure 143).

Switch Mounting Screw

Switch Mounting Base

Figure 143 Speed Control Switch Installation


9.

Ensure all connectors on the back of Fuse Block No.1 are tight. Gently raise the
steering column and reinstall the column bracket bolts (Figure 144). Tighten the
bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb.ft).

Figure 144 Raising the Steering Column and Reinstalling Bracket Bolts
10.

Route the speed control switch cable down the steering column towards the
engine control module (ECM). See Figure 145.
140

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 145 Routing of the speed control switch harness


11.

Locate the engine control module (ECM) below the left knee protection next to
the steering column (Figure 146). Pull the ECM down at the connection side until
it releases. Pull it forward and out of the mounting bracket. Remove all five connectors from the ECM.

Figure 146 Location of the engine control module (ECM)


141

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


12.

The ECM connectors (with male terminals) are numbered 1 through 5. Locate
the harness end connector No. 2 (black 24-pin connector) and gently remove its
cover to expose the wire insertion end of the connector.

Figure 147 Harness Connector No. 2


13.

Assemble an extension harness with the color-coded wires described in the parts
list (Figure 148). Cut one piece out of each wire color, 12 inches long, and strip
both ends of wire. Install six terminals, part A 011 545 81 26, to one end of the
wires, and six terminals, part A 008 545 63 26, to the other end.
Insert the terminals, part A 011 545 81 26, into the cavities of the six-pin connector, part A 655 545 02 28 as follows: gray wire into cavity #1; black wire into cavity #2; blue wire into cavity #3; yellow wire into cavity #4; green wire into cavity
#5, and red wire into cavity #6. Insert the wires until they click into place. Gently
tug on the wires to make sure they are secure.
Now insert the other end of the wires with terminals, part A 008 545 63 26, into
the cavities of the 24-pin connector of the engine control module (ECM) as follows:
gray wire into cavity #22; black wire into cavity #21; blue wire into cavity #20; yellow wire into cavity #16; green wire into cavity #14, and red wire into cavity #19.
Insert the wires until they click into place. Gently tug on the wires to make sure
they are secure.

142

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 148 Assembling the extension harness to the engine control module
14.

Check the wires and cavities for proper position with the wiring diagram below
(Figure 149). Plug the six-pin connector to the speed control switch connector.
Install the cover onto the 24-pin connector. Install all five connectors back to the
engine control module (ECM) and push the module back into its mounting
bracket. Ensure the ECM is properly held in place by means of the tensioning
spring clips.

E NG INE
C ONT R OL
MODUL E
(E C M)

12 V OL T S UP P L Y

19

RED

C2

R E S UME S IG NA L

20
C2

B L UE

DE C E L /S E T S IG NA L

14
C2

GR E E N

16

Y E L L OW

GR AY

B LACK

A C C E L /S E T S IG NA L

ON/OF F S IG NA L

V E R IF IC A T ION S IG NA L

C2
22
C2
21
C2

Figure 149 Wiring diagram, speed control circuit


143

SPEED
C ONT R OL
S WIT C H

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis


15.

Reinstall the upper and lower steering column covers (Figure 150). The upper
cover has a slot on the back (arrow) for the speed control switch lever. Reinstall
the M relay and the fuse block locking cover.

Figure 150 Reinstalling the upper and lower steering column covers
16.

Reconnect the battery and connect the DRB III scan tool to the vehicle. Choose
Engine in the System Select screen, and Miscellaneous Functions in the Select
Function screen (Figure 151).

Figure 151 Selecting Engine and Miscellaneous Functions


17.

In the Miscellaneous Functions screen select Configuration (Figure 152).


144

Sprinter 2.7L Diesel Fuel Injection Diagnosis

Figure 152 Selecting Configuration


18.

When asked, select Cruise Control Installed (Figure 152).

Figure 153 Key Off and Progress Bar Screens


19.

Switch the ignition OFF and wait for the progress bar to indicate the completion
of the configuration process (Figure 153).
20. Switch the ignition ON (Figure 154). The speed control installation is now complete.

Figure 154 Key ON Screen


145