You are on page 1of 30





        
    !"#"$&%

>5D@')3\Em(+[+36*-3B,/]^,/]d?>On.+0_02D@3l14`aoK363/58D/VR7:M49/pNbc3;3B5>D/]^,=?d*q</0&5>,/?>36ON.+,@7:?A1e0r140Ufs3BDK,@,@*-7:C45&3\D/?8D/EF7:Em*-7:.47:*-36EGD/0&5>,/f+*H</,/3B,I0>0_?>087J*L36DK0;.L(+?>]d,@ONOiMF5>D/D/D/(N(NEt<K?2?8OeON?8ON3-D/3;M40UPQ?8bc5>3BD/(+]^5>?>]^C:0)?>1R(N?8?858DgON3k5>]\D/D@5>Eu(+36,I</?8?>OLON3h3H?8,@ONv/.i36w7J527J*H369S.Z7T,@0U9S<K(+7:3R58,/DKCND/.N0U.j*-36.+?>3lON08.Z3/3k?&VX587TWY3l0r?87J<K7:14.+OZ3\, ?x
5>D/7JMN9Kbc36361y]^VH?d0lz{€@,/ON.+3H1g7:*-|]6fs‚DK085U3l?d.+,@08.Z7:.N?R<_]\?>D/ON*-3{fF7JC:D/C:.N(N36*-.Z7J?>.+0R,@,/?87:58D/3L.L?858OS3l(+[+0}36]\|~?8,K7:r.N<&,jD/0>`H]\3l?8.+ON3k3{D/DKEQM4bcDK36M4]\bc?>360{]\|G?>DK065‚€mfs|Ms,/=0>0U7J7:C:.NC:(N<)*-?>ON7J.+5>D/,@(N?87:<KD/OR.a?8D@O+EQ3l*}?8O+^3 V
…fNw†OSo4z{D/0U7T5=ON]l,/3Rv/C+w*HPQ,@D/08]lbc5>D/3lC:1H5;.N3BfN]60l,@(NV=.}5>fFw_MFDK7J3r`‡083R3l0U5>36D@3l.+EA.Z0U?&?83BO+1HˆS7:0&7:MS.+oH]d1NO+0&14,@7ŠD@f4`‡Et?>3l3l5>5d5)3l,/.Z147T0;?Q7T,I?>7J?>*HDƒ7JDK,@14.j<K3B7J08?8.+]lO+<h58,@7:?&Ms143l3h5>9S3\ON7T[+]\DI3B3BP„]^0l?_V208EGz{3l5>.sD/ON0U*‰3 DK5>… DK0;w„5_f+14fF58D47J3l<K14.N7Š(+3l?d,@?8]l5dCF3R,I7J?814*H3L7:</,/D/7J</?>M43),@bcCX7T3B0{]^7J*H?d,@0).},/7:</. ,@365>0)?85dO+,‹D@o3 E
D@MSE2ok7:,R.Z?8*-3l.s,K0U]d7JON?coŒ7:.N0>3;,@D/*-5ufN]lC:D/36*-0;fN5>3\(4[s?>363l]^5m?>fN361Œ58DKEG</5>5dD/,@**DK7:.}5;?8DK5d5>,@14.s360U5A*-?8DR7J?U?8*H3B1g,/ˆ/?83_ON5>14D/3B(+]\7T</0UOj7:D/D/.sM40tbc,@3BMF]^?dD/0l(4Ž2?u?>?8ONON7T3=0)087:*-]l3l,/.N</3K3V27T_0;E‘fN?>3l5>D4.’]\€S36, 0>08… 36w 1
7:*H*-,/,/]d</ON3;7:.N5>3R3lfN9S5>7T360U087:D/3l.Z. ?d,/02.+,1efN7:5>.eD@bc?836O+]\7:?80_7:D/Ms.kDSD@D/E’ˆ‡,V_v/•Qw“?&?808ON]l3l3L.N3l3K.+”/1 ?>OND@7T0tEA?87T0AON3k?8ON]d3_O+*k,@fNDZ?80c3l?Q5B]\€FD/Pm*-3h*-1ND/7:0>.-]\(+5>0>3l0_fN5>0836D/08*-3l.Z3R?d,I5>3l?87:CTD/,I?>.k7JDK(+.+080836ON1-7Jfs7:. 0
MF3\?cPQ3l3l.e0U?85>(+]^?>(N5>360Q7J.g?>ON3Rv/w PQD/5>CT1ƒ,@.s1g0U?85>(+]\?8(N5>360{7:.ƒ?>ON3 … w7J*H,@<K3/V
.?8NO+7T]l7:0;,/–tCXfF,@14D/5>3l7:7:.ZD/?>,@?6(+V7:0mCT0;0U3B?8]^Os?8,I7:?=D/.s]60m,@.eD/E’MF?83LO+7:080{ˆS]d7JfNO+fF,/f4361 ?8365QMZoj,/58,H3&5>*-36,K,/1458ˆK3l365)1HP;MSO+o}D},/7:0_. .N—™˜4D@—Z?=?8f+Dk,@7J58.+?81N7T]\7:]6(+,IC:,/?83&58C:o}?8Os7:,I.K?Q?>3l?85>ON36360Uo}?83BfN1e5>DI7J.j9Z7T?>14ON3;3l?>*š36]dO4,@?x

-› œ6 žƒŸ_ j¡A¢l j£¤¥¢\£k¦k§
¨e083l.+(+08]d3;O©,@D/.+E{1k?8fNON5>3ŒD4ON147:(+0U]\?83;DK5814on7J`‡D@3lE)5>3l0>.Z]\?27:3l?c.+oS]lfs3ƒ3B02]l,/D@.©E‡3lMsC:363H]\?>?8D/5>D@CT1ax«*-7J.ª,/</?8.N3l3l5>?8*H7T]u0R5d,/D/1NEQ7:?>,@ON?83}7:D/.’fN5>€/D/08<K(+58]d3BO-080r,/0AD/5dE),/14143l7:Dr9S7TPQ]\36,‹0L9K36]\065>36€I,@¬)?8x«365>1n,‹o4?>06D €
*-|GC:7:7:</]lOZ58DI?d_P{P;,‹9/7Š?>3BOn0l€/P{3\?>,‹]/9/Vt36z{CJ36ON.N3r<@?>]dO+ON0)3l*-5d,@7T.+]l</,@7:CT.N0m<H7J.ŒEG5>?8D/ON*š3=5>5>36D/]\(N36<Kf4ON?8DKCJog5>0m­KD@®KEY®}?8ON.+3=,/.NOSD/(N*-*H3l,@?8.ƒ3l5d360ko/|G3r9S7J,@DK5>CJ3&3l?d08)3l.+?8Dj087J?8¯/7:9/®K3)®H?>.+DL,@5d.+,/D/1N*-7:,@3\?8?>7:3lD/5d. 0
?8C:|GD/5>3636.N5>1s0&<-^|G5dVt7:.4,/°S14EG.+5d7:,@D-,/5>ˆ/36PQ361+,‹0m\9K,@VA36.+z{061gV‚O+w&±;3l5>7Š±Q3_`‡w“3l,@5>5>3l083_.Z3l14?).+3608P{9ZD/,‹5d7T]\0)9/3B36|~0tCJ0U3636?>.NDh3_<@MF14?>O+3l3l?8C:0QDI36D@P_]\?QEAt5>9K]l,K3l,/145>.}oL7:,@0U08?836ON7:D/.+D/.g08583_?mO+P{C:,‹3l,‹9/.+9/3r<@3l?814C:OH3l7J`F.+¬_36<@58x²?85d36Os,‹.Z02o4?)CJ0uDKfN.N,/58.+</DK36fs1k5236?85U?8ON?>OsDZ7J,@3B0U.ƒ0l3&”S¯KP;EGDK®/ON5;®7T]d3\.+Oƒ³N,/,@.N14*-3\D/?>*-fN36C:]\3l3/?x €
¬)x«5d,‹oS0k]l,/.¥fF3l.N3l?85d,I?>3gOS(N*H,/.¥MFD/.N3jP;ON7:CJ3jC:D/.N<K3l5kPQ,‹9K3lC:3l.N</?8Oª7:.4EG5d,@5>361¥*k7:</OZ?H.ND/?kfF3l.N3l?85d,I?>3
v/v
v@­ 
  "!#!$!

OBJECT
point source of
surface element illumination

θ
surface N
normal
surface
reflectance
radiance CAMERA
irradiance

Z
optical axis

‚p 7J<K(N583 … V&%KŽ')3\[+3B]^?87:D/.jD/EX5d,/147T,I?>7JDK.Œ5>36]l3l7:9/361}EG58DK*,H087J.N<KCJ308D/(N5d]\3=D@EA7:CJC:(N*-7J.s,I?87:D/.YV
sensor element

3l9K3l.j]\C:D/(+1+0lV
MS083loª.+08,ap‚367J0k<K0U7:(N7J.N?k5></3 9SC:3j… 7T,nV&0U%{DK]d0U(NONO+5>36DI]l*-P)3n7:0X]6|G?8,@,rONCT0h083 7J*-DK08.)(NfN.C:(+3mC:D/*-*j5-D4V ,i1436¨e[FC4,/DKD@0858EFO¥3g]lD/14MN*-3\(N?d*-C:,@Ms7:D/kC:.L0k5>3\fND@[+E&ON3BD@?8]^?>ON?dD/7T0L0-<K5>5d0U,/,/7JfN1N?8(sOS7:,@,IoF?8?8Ž’7:7:D/D/,r.©. 08(N?>,@DI585>EPQ3g,/,/]\]l5>3mDI1a3l9/C:36?>3l58ON*-3B3e1a3l.Z]l7J,/?B. €/*k7:±mCJ36C:5>(NO+,+*-,@€tfN7JP;.s?83l,ION5?87T3B]d*NO1 V
?8+a7:.HO+3),‹?89/ON0U3l(N7T0mC:583lEMs.+,/DS<@]l?8D/3{Osˆ‡D@0r”ZE‡ON7JD/. DIM4PQ?8bc3BO+3l]^9/3}?>3606CJ567:V €/</+nPmOZ?3)3)5dP;,/,@7:58.NC:3;Cs<K]\(+3kDK085>.+(+36]\,/0836CJ(NC:58oLCJ.+?36<KEG1L7J589KDKP;3_* 7Š,?>Ok<K,Z3l(+*H.N,/,/36CJ7J5>.Z?>,@oh,@?8?87:fN7:.N9/58<Œ3)DKfs14DK3653B5U08?>58]l7J3l583B[+7:0Af436D@?8]\7:E‡?8D/7:3l.H.NC:36<eD/]\E’?8*-5>fND@36ONx«]d36*-O+.N,/,/D/.N</*-7T.N0U3l*H3l.s?87T0r,R]u9/,@5d36.+,/581N1-oi7:,@C:.N36?8,‹367:D/9K,/. 35
?8ˆSO+.N3 DIP;,Z(+C:36,@14.Z<K?83&7J?>D/,@EX?87:?>9/ON3;314*H3l?>,I,@?87:CT360A587T?8,@DCyMFMFDS3lD/7:.Nˆ4<H0A7J08.H3l.+f+08OZ36o41g087:,@]6.+0A1ŒD/5t?>ONDK3f4?85>7T,K]l14067TVA,I•)?87:fND/.gfNC:7T,@]l.+,I1j?>7JDK083l.-.+3l08.ND/<K5{7J(+.N0836363l1’5>7JV .+<=5>-3 ,Z(N7:5>360208D/*-3
›-œ^› .0/21£L¢l j4 £ 3 6Ÿ 5Œ8¢ 7;Ÿ_¡
z{083lON.+360858363)1j,/,/580_3{Pm*H36,@CJ.SCXoh,/0;147:7J`‡.j3l?85>ON3l36.Z7J?u5&143l3lC:369S]\7T]\?85>3BD@0Ax«?8*kO+3B,@]d?uO+fN,@5>.+D47:14]6(+,@C’]\3;143B140U7:7:</</7J.’?>,/V;CN°S7:*-369/,/3l</5d3B,@0lC’V‚1Nz{7Š`‡ON3l3l5>ok3l.Z14?&7Š`‡083l3l5m.+087J.kD/5d?>0;ON,@3)5>fN3RON14363B.N08D/]l*-587:Ms36.+3B1,
7:,@. .e?8DKONf47T?80g7:D/]d.sO+,@,@CXf408?>363l]\5B?8”_7:D/?>.jON3iCT,I*-?836DZ5_0c7:?j.e]\?8D/O+*-3h*-]dO+D/,@. fN?8DK3l.N5B36V_0Œ&,@(N5>5_3i7:14.Z7T?80836]l.K(+?=0>0U7:0)3B1 ?8Dƒ7J. 1N7:?>0>ON]\C:7TDK0Œ083r0836?8]\ON?83L7:D/7J.’*-€;fFD/D/?858ON?>36,/5>.K0Œ?_,@EG5>(N3 .+]^CJ?>3l7JE‘DK?ƒ.+?>,@D C
,@.s1R]\DK.+]\36f4?8(+,/C4,/08fs3B]^?>0XD@EN3B,/]dOh083l.s0UDK56€‹C:36,‹9S7J.+<)*-DK0U?X?>36]dON.N7T]l,/CK7:.4EGDK58*H,I?>7JDK.?8D=D/(N?>087:143m583B,/147:.N<sV
99;:=<#>@?)ACBD>@E

*-9/36DK580Uokp‚?R7J*h<K[+(N(s3l5>³S]d3OH7:MNCJ…C:7:3}ˆ/V … 3_,@.+0U,LO+1©v#DIF=P)]lD/*-0}*-*G,ª*-]l(+D/,/.aC:*$*-7:3l.N]l5dfN,@,a(4*-?-MN36(N5>147:,3lCŠ?g9S]l7TD/(+]\*-3-0U7:*-.NEGD/<¥D/5L.N]d*HC:OsoL,/,@(s5>]d</ON0U3B3\7:.N1-x ]\3HDKEGD/(N9S5u7:fN08EC:7:,@36D/*-1 .©7J14C:0Uo-o43l9S0UfN?87TON]\363*-D/?806DK|«Vj±;06€Z±Qz{3\w=³NON]\3gH36f4±;?83B?u±Q]dD/ONw.}.ND/?8]6C:ON,@D/3&*-<Ko/7J3l*H€Q5d,g,@?8O+<K7:330


fN7:.KCT?>,@Dr.N3K3l€’C:367:]^.+?>0c58?>7T36]l,K,/1iCN]dD/O+EQ,@5>]d</ON3K36V *kHu7T]l,K,/]dCOL(+]lCJ3l* C:CN]\58D/3B.S,/9K]\?83l7:58.N?><ƒ0X?8?>ONDj3{CJC:7:7J</<KOZOZ?6?t€’3l?8.N7:.Z36on58<K0UoDK7ŠCJ?27T1i5>360U]\?>36,@7J?89K3H360‚]\367:.KCJCT?>0D]\,@DK.k.Z9K3l3lC:3658]^?&?>58C:7J7T<K]lOZ,/?rCN]d36O+.N,@3l5>5></</3Ko V
3l•)z{.+ONC:3lC23)5>]\</7:36*HogCJCT0&,@E,@<K,/C:3;CJ587:3fN.NC:<Œ(+,/5>.ND/0U3_.e?=,K]l?>]^ONCJ3B?>3l0m,@*j5>,/36VR0t1g,h•?>DŒ140U7JOS<K®N7Š(4€y?d?8,@,/?8CN.+3l*-1j5=*H36?8*kO+,‹3lDKoj.e58oLD/?>5=ON?83lOs*-oe,I,‹?mMFoj]63l,@.N<K.-D/7J.e?=Ms?>3&MFDƒ3k583B7:.N.Z,/3l?81k3l3B<K145>DI5>36,@P1 ?83?8MSDŒok?>ON]l583lD/DI7:.ZP5=?8585>MZ3BD/o-0UCXfF,R?8D/O+.+]l3kD/083R*-083l?>fN.+D}(4087:?>?>.N3lON<}5t3h7:?>.NC:7J7J*-fN<K(4OZ3/?? V
fN5>D4]\360>06VAz{O+3I(s</(N5>30UONDIP)0;,-087J*-fNC:3*-D/.ND4]dON5>D/*-3r]l,/*k365>,+V
 -   D  C  vCF
synchronization
logic and addressing
addressing 6 7
3 4 5
1 2
0
0 read row to
1 frame
2 or pixel
buffer
3
4
5

6 alternative
lens 7 analog to
3D TV TV
scene signal
image
plane

C:‚p,-7J<K7J]\<KOKDK(N?&*k5>3l3 f+.N(4… 36?858V … 36<K56ŽoƒV •7:.K?>±;Dƒ±Q36w CJ3B]^|?8]d5>O+7T]l,/,@58CX<K3\]dO+x ]\,@DK5>(N</fN3B0lC:36€N1iP;1NO+3l7:]d9SO 7:]l,/3Br583R]65>,@3l*-f+3l585d3B,ƒ0U367:.K*H?>36,@1j<K7J,/.N0&<e0U,g*H9I,/,/CJCX083/.Z”A(+*h147TMF08]l3l585d3l0;?83HP;ON]\363lCJ.iCT0R7J.N]\DKf+.S(49/?_3l?>58D ?


pixel

@,]\DK5>5d*-,‹
«fNogEA(4?8D/?8ONE{363L5), 14MF,Z7JDK<K(+,@7Š?d,/5d,@5U1yCX?>€N3l7J5r]6*H,@D@,@C:CJE;<K3B3R1g,jO+,*-,K 7J0 C:C:F@7JDK®K. ®-MS58DIoZP)?83B0;0r,/7:.+0RQ1 P;D/M4F@O+?d®K7:,@]d®HOe7:.N]\36]\D/1yDKC:(N.ZV}*-?>,@•.+7:.+0_±;0{D@±Q*-E2w MS3l*-oK]l?>DK,/3\58*kx oH0U 736 lEG5>3BDK,g1g5;08?8</D/O+5d*-3,‹o}3\7J?>*H9I7J*-,@,@C:<K36(N3R0r3606,@f+€s.+CJ(N,H1g<Z*-fF03l367:5>.K*kO+?>,@DKDefs58o, 0
?8]\]lO+DK,/3.Z. ?8
5>0UH D/?8DKCyH 58D@HG3gEA, ?>%6ONvEG3h!/36­eP ]l,/0c*-14?d,@D3l.+ l5d3l1N,N. ,/V5>)7J1s*H^3lVŒP ,/</zX3614D40L3B1N0U7:7:,‹. </oi.s*-0;*H3l.N,@*-DIbcPD/DK5h58oa,@]6C:CJ,@P;DI*-P“7J?83lON5dEG7:D/,g.¥5_*-?>1NON,/7J5>3e.S36(4]\]l?&E,/,/*k14]\?87:36</(N5>7J5>,i?>3l,@5dCXMs0D4]\D@D/14`‡*-o¥3l*L5L7Š?d(N140U36.N7J<KCŠ7TEc]l7Š”;?d,I,@08?>CQD/7JDK*-]l.©,@3g*-|G3/]l36V D/<+5>.Z,KVQ?>0=(+,/?87J08.O+7J.+,@<, ?
[+?87:DK*-fN3/fSV{o p‚147J<K7T08(Nˆn583 EGDK… 5hV vH?>ON087Tˆ/0h3l?>fN]d(+ON583BfF0;DK,@08.j3/Vi3l.Zz{?>O+7J5>363R083ƒ]\DK7:*k*-f+,/(4</3B?8360h5&]l08,/oS.©0U?8Ms363g*7:.NP;fN7J?8(4Oe?kMFEGD/D@5k?>O ]\D/]l*-,@*-fN(N365>?8,k3l5k7:.NfNfN5>(4D4?&]\36,/0>.+087J1j.N< </5d,@,@?kf+ON,/7:.Z]6o 0
D/7T0&(N,/?8fNC:08(4DH?BVk?coSz{fN7TO+]l7:,@0rCX7TEG0D/#5,}#?coS$&fN%(7T'*]l)+,/Ct0U,o4)-L0U?8]\36DK*‰*kEGf+D/(45?8,@365>. 06€s7J.sP;14O+(+7:0U]d?8O 5>7:*H,/C2,‹9Zoj7T08O+7JDK,‹. 9K3h?>,K,@0U. ˆe7:.NDK3l5r³S*kfF3l3B.s140U7T]l7:9/,@3kC27:]l*H,@*-,@<K367J5>.N,H<Œ,‹?>9I,K,@0U7:ˆ‡CT,@V"MN
«C:3?
?8D ?>,@ˆK3}7:*-,/</3B0rEGD/5h?83lC:36]lD/.4EG365836.+]\7:.N<efN(+58fFDK083606Vez{ON3ƒ5>D/C:3HD@E), ./0$213,/0h, ON7J<KOª0UfF3l3B1
Machine Graphic
Vision
Display
Algorithms
lens

A/D Display
Processor
3D scene Frame
Buffer

CCD

p‚7:</(N5>3 … V vNŽu±m3l.Z?>5>,/Cy58DKCJ3=D@E‚?8ON34 "$213m7:.j7J*H,@<K3rfN58D4]l360>0U7:.N<+V


array
v$* 
  "!#!$!

Xp 7:</(+583 … V ­+Žu_?>ON3l5)(s0U3lEG(NCY,@5>5d,‹ok<K3lDK*k3l?85>7J3B0lŽ{|,Z{]\7:5>]l(NCT,@5B€‡|Ms{C:7J.+36,@5B€’|]B ')r°4•NV


(a) (b) (c)

EG?87:*-D/DŒ5>,/*‰?8</O+3k3L7J.i0c(+?>08?8D/3lON5>5r3h3h,@EG7T5>.s0=,/1e]l*-3lEG.Z3hD/?85=MN5d,@fN(4C‚`‡5>D4ON3l]\5363658,@0>3K08E‘Ž;?87J.N3l?8<Œ5rON3H,@MS.sog]6,@,@9IC:*-D/,/<-583l7:5d?8D/,HDg(+fN0=145>7:]\DI</DK9S7J*-?>7:,@14fNCA3B(40&]\?8DK,/36.S. 5=9/,/3l7:.NCJ5d<K08fND/7J(4DK5>?.g7Š?>ON7:P;*-*HO+,/0l3l</Vr5>3L3hz{P;7JON?=ON3L7T7:0&]dEGOn5>,‹,/9I7:*-,/0r7J3LCT0U,@?8MNMNDK(N58C:33B`F1e36EGDK5r7J5=. ,K14]^14?>7T7:08(+</fN,@7JC:?>C:,‹CJ,@oo C


*H,‹oƒ0U?8D/5>30U369/365>,/Cs7:*H,@</3B0{D/5{?>ON3l7:5)143l5>7:9‹,@?87:9/3B0lV
• ]\DK*-fN(43 ?836-5;7:fN0h5>D/,@</.ª5d,@,@*$5>5d,‹f+oe58D4.+]\,@3B*-08083}7:.N,@<H.s,k1 1NB 7J<K,/7Š.+?d,@1 C’<7:*H,@,@5></3H3r58*-DIP7:</OZ,@?).+1©583lEG]l3lD/5{C:(N?>*-DH.afN7Š³4.Z36(+Cy*h9‹MF,/3lCJ(+5d360l€‚0)58,K3B0 0UfF36 B]\?87:<
9/ 36CJDKoK5 V
 B  < P;ON3l5>
?85>z{O+3lON9/3l7T36oh0u5>f+08MF3/58DSVAD4D/14• ˆ-(+(+]l087J3;08*-36/, 0QfN0UC:3(s) ]d,@.O}C:</.ND/D@5>)+?d7J?8,ION?>*7J DK.H]6R,@7J.ƒfN.g7J?8³SfNON36583=C:D40214,@,/C:(s</58]\3{D/3=5>367J?87Š?8?>ONONON3R*H3l5t0>0t,@®=*-f+D/583r3B65 0U3\%{36`‡.K5>36?>3l]\36fN?;1y5>V2MZ3608og°S3lDK.Z]d*kO+?>7J,@.N3=.+<r]l</,/1N7:.N*k,/<L5836ˆR5>,/,K9KCJC’0u3lf+5d]60U7Š,@³4(s.}3l0XCTMFM+0{3&58MF7:08</3l3\OZC:?{DI?6P“€/0UDhD/085A?8D/O+?8*-O+,@33?
P;MN'C:ONDS36DS581Œ3h[+,}% DI,=*-P9‹V,/,/</CJ(+.N33l?827T]?>Dk5>36®k08D/,@.+.s,/1ƒ.+,@]\3C:C‡7:fN*H7J³S,@36</C:3h0{,@PQ?{,KDK0;5Q?8O+,/58Ms3BDI0U9KON3_DKC:7J1N?{36?81gD ?8%/DŒV2]\•)D/.g.Z?>3\5>³N,K,@0c*-?_O+fN7JC:<K3_OeP{MN,/CJ0QDS<KD47J1j9K3l[+.}DIP7:.e9K±m3lOs5d0U,@(+f40)?>3lCJ5DIP %
 ?)> A!
BD?)>#" $%'&

@D7:.KE2?>?>3lz{ON.+3L08ON7J3r?cvKoƒw†</36,ID/0>?{]\*-?836O+.N3\3?>3R587JoH?>*HOND/5>,@EXD/<K(N7:3r*H<KfsOj,@DK</?87J3&.ZON?;EG3)D/7:5>0{(*H*5> 3l,I' CT?>,I7J+?>DK36.Œ 1ƒ -]l?8,/, Dk.Œ/?8.MFO+03R3(2' ]\7J)%.ZDK1?8.+j36]\.+D/3608f45"7Š?8?c% o}(s*,@5dC:+,/7 61N(367:1ƒ,@ ?8,K'7:.N0Q;<h?8D/ONEG.Z5>3rD/?>fN*DH5>?8D@?8ONbcON3L3B3R]^7J?>*HvK7JDKw ,/.ƒ</0U3RD@(NEA58fNE36CT,/,K,@]l]d.+3rOƒ3/fsV&fFDKz{D/7J.Z7:O+.Z?63? Ž
?8]lO+,/3RCJC:oL,/]^bc?>(+(+0c,@?>7 CY(s5836361 C:,@08?87J7:.sD/]\.+3L08ON,27:fŒ, )7T0)34]\DK*-% =fN]6CJ3l,@³Œ*-,/3l5d0),}Pm]l3K,/— C:. CyC:,/,@]\?8?836(+5),/CJCJ3BC:oŒ,@5>MF.’3hVtz{*HON,K7T140;3RfNMS5>D@ojbc3B(+]^0U?87:.N7:D/<ƒ.g,ƒ*-]lD4,@14*-3lCY365>]6,-,@.gMFD‹Ms³g3hP;fN7JOS?8oSOn087J, x
08#v *-F@*-,/CJ* CXON(sD/CJC:* 3R,@]6.s,@1j*-.N3l5dD},/0uC:3l(+.+0U0&3B,I1-?&EGD/,/5mCJC²VQE,@•*-7:±;CJoH±Qf+w OND@]6?>,@DK*-06V‚3l5d•„,-0U(+7:.N08(+<K,@CJ3&C:CJoŒCJ36.+P;0u7JC:P;C‚7J3l?8*-OƒfN?cC:PmDIDko}]\?8DKO+.Z3h9K083\,/³H*-0U3R(+5UˆSE7J,K.+]\1j360uD/7:E20{CJ0836ON.+DI0_P;,K. 0
7:z{.ŒONp‚36587J<K3k(N,@5>5>3 3R… ?cV PQ… €SDŒMN9K(43l?{5>oŒ*-DK7:*-0U?Qfs,KDK]^5U?8?d(s,@,@.ZCF?=CJfF36.+D/0U7:.Z3B?>0m0&,/?858Dg3&]\MFD/3L*-*HfF,/D/1N(N3/.sVR1Hp‚P;7J7Š5d?>0UOƒ?6€‡*-?8O+D/3L5>3)C:3l?>.+O+0=,@.}7T0r?cPm,}DLC:7J<K583lOKEG?5>,K]\]^DK?8CJ7:C:.N36<h]\?808DK(N5658Ž;E,/C:7J]l<K36OZ06? V
5>z{36ON,/5>]d3lO+3&360h5>,‹?8o4ON0u3j,/7:58*-3&,/0UON</3gDIP;fs.ƒDK7JfN.Z58?HD/bc9S367:]\, ?87:,@.N. <EG3l5>.ZD/?8*7:5>3g?8ON]l3&D/.N?8DK3gf}D@D@E=Ey5>?>,‹ONo43=0L9‹58,K3B0U,/3&]dON7J.g7:.Np‚< 7J<K?>(NON583j3 CJ…36.+V … 0L”Z?8EG58ONDK3B* 0U3=?814ON3\3e?>3lvK5>*-w‰7J.Nfs3&DK7J?8.ZO+?63 V
3\]\³SDK.N?>583;36*kD@Ey3B5d0r,‹o4D@02EQ3\?8³4ON7T3}0c?d]l0AD/EG.ND/3H5QD/,@EmC:CN5dD@,‹?>o4ON03l5Q]\D/08C:]lC:3l36.N]^?>3;36fF1nD/MS7:.Zo ?>06?86V O+5Q3H3BCJ]l36,@.+(s0r0UEG3;D/D/5E‡DK<K.N3lC:DKoe*k?83lON?83}5>7:?8]{D/7:fa*-D/fsEu365U?8EGO+3B3}]^?>9I7JDK,/.+083/0tV}7:.-•$?8ON083_7J*-CJ367:.+C:,/0l5 €
5?8>14O+367J`F083&(N36±;CŠ58?d36±Q0A.Z7Jw ?m.HMF0U, 3l36.+.+(+140U.+DK7:7Š.N?>523;<L,@D/5>D@5>52E’,‹MN14orC:7J(N`F7T025>3658]\583BD/361L.K.s?{0c08?>fs]\58D/DK(+?tCJ]\DK?8D/5>3B.k021RD/?8D@O+EyEF3;CJ7:fN</7JOS*HOZo4?6,@0U€S<K7T,@]l3{.s,/fNCJ1HC:C:oR,/D@.N14?>ON3;7T083l]l]l5m,/583lfNCJC:?8ON363{1L3l(N.+?8.ND/O+*-7J37?>0t3l(2.+,/)+,+.+(€@1L% 8?>.NON D@3& ?2]l(97:D/
. .N(+ 3).N$D/7J ?8E’)%3B15>0Us,‹7:*HVto40t°S,@36C4,K]l]^fFD/?>D/(+.+7:.K,@14C:?dC:CJo/0lo €”
 -   D  C  v 

?808OS(N(+5UE06,K€A]\363K,KV&]dz{OªON0U3B360U.+30UDK?cPQ5hDƒ]\363lCJ`FCQ3B7:.K]^?d?>0&3l<K]65>,@,@(+?808363 0?8ON%($&3Œ  5>),‹ o4h0D@5>E236?>]lON3l7:3k9/367J*H1n,@EG5><KD/3h* ,@.s*H1e,@CJ.S7:*-on7Š?r.+3l7J7:?></0=OS0UMsO+DK,/58587:f+.N.N<e36fF0>0_D/7:,/.Z.+?>1j0LD@?8O+E)3L, 08v/7 6w 3


D@E‚?8O+3R0U*H,@C:C:360U?;0>]\36.N3143\?d,@7:C:0Q?>O+,I?_]6,@.gMs3R083l.s0U3B1yV
,@®N5>V ®/5d®
,‹±;o}%_±Q7:O+.+w,/]d0IO’,@*@Vt5>­Z5>z{,‹®ho4ON³e0)3658,/­Z3r58¯/,@3R®k5>*H3=fN7J,/D@³S.Z?836O+(NC:0_3lE,/5;D/]^(+5 ?>08(NF 3\5>EG% 36(N… 1jCy³ P{D/.n,‹F o4% ]d0Q… OND@7JfNfsEY7J0)³SfN36?cCTC:,/oS06]lfN€N7J7T.+?>]lON<},/3lCJC:±;.ioŒ±Q36*-,/w ]d3BOj,/083l08fN(N.s7J580U³47:DK.N3l5{CX<ƒ]lO+,/3l,/C:MsC:0&0{DK,H(4DK;? .}583B%k?>,@ONC’]\3*qP;7J7T*H1S³ ?>,/O %L</3=]lD@*gE2fNC:5>V,/D/.N
«(NEt3H<K?8ON|GO+DKCJo 35
?87:PQ*-DŒ3l,/Mk*-</D@363=E‡,/CJ08*-7:.N(N,@3‹5>?83m36,K?858O+7T0{,@3h0UCSONP;[+DIDI7TP;1SP;?8.Œ7:O .N7J<r.jD/EtMSp‚oD/7JM4<K?8(NbcO+3B5>3)]^3 ?d]l0_…,@*-V DK­s5_VA365>P;•„,+ONVC:367J+ .+583R367J,@?8PQO}5;3R,/,=58*HCJ5d7:,‹,‹.Nokoj3B,@]6Ms5t,@3L.Œ,@5>7J*HMs5d,‹3r,/o/</(+€ 7:08%6.N36®K<ƒ1Œ®/®_,@7J.j.s?81eD]l,KF@7J0U.s®K3B0U®/0ufF®&P;36fN]\O+?87J³S3l7:.N5>363&<ŒC:0uPQ,},@3r5>]l3QD/D/,‹.Z.N9I?8C:oH,@7:.S7:CT(N.N,@D/3lMN3B(sC:1 30
7:*-.-DI,9/3B081ƒ7:.N</,/C:]l3{58DZ5808DI0tP?8VAON°S3r(+*H]dOH,I?>,@3l.H5>7:,@,/5>C‡5dMs,‹36or7J.N]6<-,@.-0>]lMF,@3;.+(+.N0U363B1Œ1k,/7J0{.H14, D/, .+$3&P; 7J2?8Oj9 .,h Os,@E,/.+081ŒON7:OND/3l.-CT1gP;08ON]63l,@5>.N3Q.N?836ON5m3;DKC:5{7:.N7J36.g,/5uON7:0U</36ON.+C:08o}D/5A,/]\7:0x
]\,‹(+9I,@5>,@7:C:?8,/3_MN*-C:3;3BEG]dD/O+5{,@,.N7TEG]l36,/P Cy08OS]6(N,@.+.N14.N5>36365>1}06€S1N0UD/(+C:]dC:,/Og5>0Q,/0u,@.+[s1ƒ,I?>,@Ms5>3B3)1Œ(+0>08]l36,/1H.N?>.NDL365>,K06] V2,Z±m(N7:(+58583=5>3l14.Z7J<K?8C:7Šo/?d,@€ZCF*H7J*H,@.S,/o-</36[s0t,@EG?858MFDK36* 1ƒ0>]\]lDK,/CJDK.N5u.NfN365>ON0QD/,@?8DZ5>30
?8D/,/O+5A0u3hfND/.-5>C:7J7:.N.KP{3B?2,I,@*-?>5R]d36O+±;1N36±Q7:0t,+w†DKV25u±m,/08oS58fs5dC:367J,‹.+36o/1N14V)58DKz{7T*k]lO+,/3l3LCZ?8C:363l]\5>7:.s065d0UŽ’]\3B(N?>02ONCT,@,@3_5=5>DK3Q,@M4]l5>bcD/5>36,‹*-]\oŒ?u*-Pm7:0uD/DK.Nfs(NC:DZC:o1j0U7J(+?8MF087:D/363k1h.+O+36?8,@1HD=.+]lEG1ND4,/oŒ58]\3l(+EGEGDK02(N5_,C:CJ7:ok.+C:08587Jfs36.+C:3B3 ,@]^&?8?87:7J7:9/.k.N3{<g?8?>O+D,@3Q.+?85>,/ON36CJ3&DK,/<ƒCS]lPm,@14*-DK7T,@5836CTCT5>1R0_,08DK,/(+.K.+]d?>O1D
?808O+ON3=DIP;]l7J.h5d]\7:.k(NCTp‚,@5m7:</,@(N5>5>5>3 ,‹oL… V 7:­s0Q|]B08]6’,@f+.N58.+DI369S1-7T14EG36DK0A5u,&?>ONO+3_,@5d7:14*HP{,@,@</5>3&3mD@08EyD/?>C:(4ON?83&7:D/.+.h3l36?81ND=CJ7J3K.ZVA?836z{</O+5d3_,I?>7:7J.K.N?><r3l5>,@36C:0UCZ?8?87:ON.N3{< C:7J<K';OZr?A°N36.N• 3lR5></fso=,@58E,/?87JCJ?8C:7J7:.+D/.<
7:D@.KE‚?>?8DRO+3l3R7J?8,@O+.j3l5m7J*H0836,/]\</?83/DK€45>02M+(4DK?)5uM+*-,/7J.+<K1NOK?)0uD@OsE‡,‹?89/ON3r3=D@]\?>7:ON5>3l]l5)CJ3K08V 7J*-
«?QfNPQC:3,K0t(+0814363B0)0U7:,K</0{.N3BPm1k36CJEGC²D/Vm5 ±m,KON(s7:,@fe.Z?8*H 7 l,@7:.S.N(4<E?>,/ON]\?83_(NfF5>DI7:.NPm<k365u?83608]dfsO+3B.N]^D/?8C:5>D/(N<K* o
fN5>36083l.Z?>0{DKfNfFD/58?8(N.N7J?87:360QEGDK5;7J*-fNC:3l*-36.K?>7J.+<HD@?8O+3l5)]\(s0c?>D/*143B0U7:</.s0lV
«?8E’O+ 3ho/A#DKC:BD(H3l<.+O+$ 0&E ,‹A,@9/.+3)1j,K ]l.N]l3lD/36³N?80>,@3R02*-7J?8?>7JDL.s0=,k,I]\?8DK±;7:.+D/±Q.Œ0U?8w„5>D@(+E2]l]^,},@?>*-7JDK±;.’36±Q5>”s,+w14€/DSD/]l3B,/MN0_*k?>,@7J?_367:.H5>O+, fF,‹9K3l3R5>*k,}7T0>0U0UOS7:(4D/.-?8?836?>5_Dh?>3\Dƒ³4fN]\C:C:D/DK5>083;37JD@?>`©0Q]\,@D/C:.sCY0cC:?>7J<K58(+OZ]\?6?8€s7:1ND/DZ.’3BV0)';7J?&36*kO+DI,‹9K9K33

,@]dO+.a,/,@.NfF</3l7:.N5d<L,I?>?8(NON5>3r3hEG?>D4Dj]l,/]dC’Os,@C:3l.N.N<K</3h?8O ?>ONƒ3}3/0UV 7 <+ lV‚3-?8D/ONEu3R?81NO+7:3}0U?>]\,/D/.+.+]\3L3D/MFEm3\?c5dPQ,‹oS3l360=.ƒf+?>,KON080837:.NCJ36<ƒ.+0)?>ON,/5>.+D/1j(N<K±;O ±Q w

c0=?8
.+ON0U36fF583}36]\,Œ?;?8*-ON363L,@±;.s0r±QD@w E
,@,k5>*H5d,‹,@o/</VA.+')7ŠEGDIoSP 7:.N<-CT,@5></</CT,/3=0>7:0 0; ?8ON3,/]\?87:9/3083l.+087J.+<-,/583B, e±Q,@.go/DK(g083l3=?>ON37J.s147J9S7T14(+,/C’]\3lC:CT0 }1NDkoKD/(g.N3l3B1

Sz{° (NONf+3=A#fsBD]\DZ<3l0U$.Z3hE ?>A3l?85QO+,@D@ ?=Ey?8,@O+.n3=,@]l.+CJD4,/]dCJDKˆk<ƒ7J*H]\C:,@D4<K]d36ˆŒ0m7T,I0)?u?>?>DƒONMF3r3h]\3l5>.Z36?>,K3l1j5Q(+D@0UEY7:.N, <g… F,g*r±;³ ±Q… wF*]l14,@7:*-</7J36?>5>,/,-Cs7:?>*HO+,I,@?r</3=0c?d,@,@.+5>361H0&?814ON7J3=5>36ON]\D/?8(+C:oe5u,IO+?&,/.+7J?61 V




7TO+0Q,/?c.+P;1N7:0;]l3rD/EX?8ON?>ON33RP;]\7TC:1SD4?8]dOjˆƒD/PQEX3=?>ON.+33l36*-1Œ7J?>.SD}(4?>083]6,@O+.g,@.+?8ON1Œ3MNf+(47Š?=³43l®NCTV0;r?D/>EX7J*-?>ON363R0)7Š14?d7:0;</7JCJ?>36,@.NCY<@7J?>*HO’Vt,@<KzX3rDk7J. C:D4]l,-,@]\?83r7:5d]\?8(NO+CT3,@5{7J*HE,K,@0U<KON367:0QD/.YD@E‚V_?8|O+,Z3 
,ONI ?uDK7:9/58?8 7 3rON l3)DK,R.K7:EG*H?dDK,@58,@C+*L<K,@3)(N³47:C:]\06,R3lVQ.ZEGD/?>|Ms3l5;5  ]\
cDK0t*-?8 fNON(43658?83=7:.N ,< fNB €K5>|D/P;UQMNONC:,@3l3l.+5>*†-31 7JA<.Œ7T|%0AU]\uD/?8ON.ZEGD/3=?>5{58,@DKfN.NCJC:7J<K7J³S.+CJ363;< C:0 *HA,K08 DB143;?><O+Ms ,I3lD/?{?c.ŒPm,36,k(N3l.N]\.-7:7 5d,Z?>]\ON(NC:3&3)3&5dD/08,‹-3EYoR,Z5>(N,K?83614D .+7:(+]\03)B D/<Ey ]\fN,/3l7Š.+³4.Z?>1k363lC:0u?85>O+36D@1 3 E
,,@.s,.1ƒ) .5>)+3l' fF%D/58(?;)+D/(2.e% _,k7T0)fN<K5>3l,K.N]^?>367:5>]6,@,@?8C‡3B*-1 3\?8|²O+˜@DS]61Œ)w&EGDKDƒ5;</08D/3l*-.+3l3R5d,IDK?8(47:.N?>08<H7:1N083h(+]d5>Og36,/,-1N7J14.N7:<H</7J?>7:. ,/C’,-]\7:?>5>3\]l³SCJ3K?&V DK. ]\D/*-fN(N?83l5=</5d,@f+ON7:]60
 !$ A <$>
?)ACB>
E

5d,I?83Q–_D@7TE‡14v/36DR®&]lfs,@36*-520U363B5>]\,KD/02.s]\1y5>36€@,I3l?>.s7J,@.+MN<C:7J7J.+*H<=,@,&<K3l585>36ofN5>EG36D/085u3lOZ.Z(+?>,@*-?87:,/D/.H.R]\D/D/Es.sD/0UMN(Nbc*-36]^f4?2?>7J*-DK.HD@?>587JDK3B]\.hDKDI5>9K1k3l0U5X3 ?8,Z7:(N*k3l3{.+]l7:.k3602,KD/1NEF147:7J*H?87:D/,@.L<K36?80tD=,@?8?uO+,3
v/¯ 
  "!#!$!

iris retina
( rods
and
pupil cones )

fovea

:7p‚.Œ7J<K?>(NON5>3 3 %… !KV ¯#F4FhŽQ±mMsDS5>(+DKˆ}143RMS08oƒˆ/W’3l?>36]d9ZOg7:.ND@3KEAV  ?8ON3hOZ(+*-,/.j3lo/3R,K0)]l,/*-3l5d,NV_|~¨e(+]dOj*-D/5>3R143\?d,@7:CY]l,/.eMs3DKM4?>,/7J.N3B1


fEGF08D/f+3lC:,I5dC:DI]\?>Pm7:3l,/fN3BCY?81iEG7:D/3BMS,I.’on?8€(+*/,/58®j3BCJCu0&O+3l5>,/9/3lCŠ36f+EQ.a58EG3B5>7J0U,/*H36*-.K,@?>36<K360r3-1jfF587:DI3l.i5hP)?>0r08ON367:3-]l.ªD/0U.+,@7:.N1aCJ?8</36,@C:583h5>.+3-7:,@*H?8(+3H,@0836<K081y36(+0&Ž]l]lD/?>36ON50>360U 087:D/3H.’O+VŒ,/^CŠ•)EQVh.ªEGzX5>,/,@Dƒ*-(sf+1436587J0RDIDe9S,/087T587J143H<K3R.+,@EG,@C:DKCtCu5rD47:0R081N*-1,/C:DS087:D@Dj*-?8Oi,/3l.+</OZ3H]l(+D45>*-14DI36P),/1y. 0 V
–_5d,I7T?8143r36D 7T0{]lfN,@5d*-,/]^36?>5>7:,K]60=,@C’]l,/583B.+,I1ƒ?>7J.+.N3l<j361g7:*H.N,@D/</?)36(+58o 083&EGD/?>ON53*HO+,/,/]dCŠONE‚7:EG.N5>3},/*-]lD/3&.+?>0836(N]d*-ON.+f47?8,Z7:(ND/3K.aV ]l,/.a583B]\D/5d1 7:*H,@<K360,I?RP;Os,I?8369/365
7T140u3B(+0U7:pN08</(+5d.N,@,/3B*-CJ1gC:oL3B?80y(sD}D@0U3B0>E4,I1k,;?>?87:9S0UDh7:EG1NoŒ5>3l36D)*L1N08(+(N-3 ]\CJ,Z?83;7:(NfN?>3lONCJ.s3L3&]\583t,/3 *-,@,Z5>(ND/3t7J(N5>083l.Z3l*-?uf+,/D/365>EY.K,@?d1N?80l,I36Žt?d1&?8,NONMSVAo&3Rz{*H*-ON3&,/DZ580c,/ˆK?_.+3l7:,@5d.Z0yC:?8D/,@36<R58.+3Bz{1r0c?>–„087JD/.N*-0c<}?d32,@EG.+367J*H,I1N?>,/,/(N5></5>1+3t36020)]\O+DK,/,‹*-CJ9/C:DIfN3_P 58Ms3BEG3608DK083l5;7:.ƒD/?8.]6O+,@083L5>]d3\O+0>EG,@3l(N*-*-C:CJo 33
PQ3l087J.s<K3l]\C:.+C~D4,@V=14CFz{7:.N?8DkON<e3hMF</7:37:.Z9/?8(+363l0U.n5>3B361HMF0U?83lEG3BDKC:DI1j5;P3l58V 3B7J?8,/ON+ 1436365{3}5&]l]\08D/DKONC:.KD/D/?>5Q(+7J.SC:D/1 (N5{3H]l*-D/O+.+D/3l.N085>(ND43HCJ]d?_P;ON?>5>7ŠON?>D/On3h*-5>?>3r3lONz{CT3},I–&?>.N360{D/1j?8,@7:5>.sD/361}.a,/1N?>D@7JD-.NE;<Œ]614,@7:,@</5>.+587J?>oH1j,/08Ct?>D/ON9S(N3L7:.s14081}36(NDeD/*-5QMs*H36?>7J3\,@.+³S5><-?)oŒbc0UD/(+7:E</0c.+?k,/,eC:0{0U,K3l 0x
,Z(N3l.s]\3rD@E … w1N7J<K7Š?d,@Cy7:*-,/</3B0lV

1N083-,/,Z5>(N1N±;3l0u±Q.s14]\w 363/08€Y7J]6<K.N,@.N3l*-363B1L3l145d36EG,}1nDK5t?>?836OSDj]d(NON<K*H.+7J9KD/,@3kC:.HD/</,j]\ojDK08.+*kEG0UDK(+DS5R*kD/*H?8fNOa,/?8]d7:fND/ON7T.’7:]^.N?8V23-(+p‚589S7J3k5d7:0U08?8?67:DeD/€@. ?>,gONO+3)OS,/(N7:0.Z*H?8083l,@D/5>.a*-CT,/*H3\]\?>7:7J,@.N*-ˆK<r363BD@0=0REy(N0UD4(N.N1N`F.N1 363BI58]\3l3B3B9K1 083l0>.k,@EG5>5>EGD/o 5>* ,/]\*-DK14*k367:0208f+fN7:CJ.HCT3l,‹³Soi,7J?c9S0Uoe?>7:14,@EG36DK.ND 5x


*HON36,/7J<K]dONOK?r7:.NMF3k369S]l7:,/08(+7JDK08.’3LVk*-°4DK360U]\?DK.+147:1408C:fNo/CT€’,‹*Ho40_,/EG.ZDKon5r±;OZ(+±Q*-w$,/.+,/580=5dO+,‹o4,‹0_9/3kOs,‹,ƒ9/­s3hŽ vŒOs,/0U1n 7 l3kfN7Š5d³4,I36?8C:7:0rD+VkP;7J° ?8,ZOa(+,ƒ,@5>­s3hŽ vŒfN7J5d³4,I3l?8CT7:0rDg,@D@.+Em1 P;,Œ7T1S08?>7:Oi.N</?>C:D3
0>]\]lDK,@.+C:0U3{?85>f+(+,@]^5d?>,@7J*-DK.ª3l?8?83lDI52P{PQ,@D/5d(+1©C:1LOS(NMs*H36.N,@38. (+?u0U?>*H,@.s,/]d1NON,@7:5d.N1N3;0-9S,@7:08.+7:1D/.’*HVA,/z{]dONON3;7:.NOS3g(N</9S3;7:08]l7JDKD/..+0814(N36*-9/3l3652CJDK*Hfs36,@5>5>0kˆ/3lO+?2,‹O+9K,/3Œ0tO+1N,K581©7:9/36?>.kD 1436367Š?>9SON7:]l3l35
,/1+,@f4?;D/5;fs,‹o}*-D/5>3&EGDK5)143l9S7T]\3B0{*-,K143r7J.jC:7J*-7J?83B1 ,Z(+,/.Z?87J?87:3606V


A ?)>& 
  A

I?8, O+?-3Œ?>±mON7:.+5>3e(+087:D/1414(43l3ŒC:?doe0UD@7TE;140UfF3g?>36ONEG,/3gD4ˆS]\087J(+.N(N08<s587:E€F.N,/?8< ]lON3}3-?8OND@OS3eE)(N?>7:*H*HON3Œ,@,@.n</08fN3g3lONo/D/363k. 5837T0=?8O+|,Œ083 3l0U3gf+2ONpX' 3l)7:</5>7:(+g]658,@P;3 CAO+]l… 7:,/V ]dF/*kO ^36V 7:5>0-,ƒz{DKONP;fN3 7ŠfF?>DKO)+ 08) 7Š, h?>3Œ…]\D/®/?>.Z*kON?>3e*‰58DKC:3lC:EG0R.+D40H]6?8ON,@,/CA3g.+CJ1),@36.N*-(+<@D/³S?>(NOi3B.Z1¥C:?k3lDK.+D@. 0 E
C:147J<K5>36OK1n?*-f+,K7J08C:CJ087:7:D/.N. <ƒ5>?>36ON]\5>36D/f4(N?8<KDKO 5]\?83lO+C:3kCT0C:3l .s,Z0r(NMZ7Jon?83H]\,gD/.ZC:?>D@58?RDKCJ]\C:DK7J.+*k<}fs?8,@O+5>3-361e087 ?> lDe3-,ƒD@Em?coS?8ONfN3+7T]l,,/Cm$ , ±;)+%±QV w Hu,K,@]d5>Oi5d,‹3lo/oKVh3L¨eOsDK,/580r36DID/9/.+363L56€FOS(N?8O+.43 x
?85>]\O+3\36?8.Z3 7:?8.+ 3l,L5B€‡7:0{?8@O+(+€X3k.NO+3l14,K9K360r3l.+.N,ƒ08C:7ŠoH?c9Koe3lfs5>D/DKo EmfN14(N]\3lDKCT,I.+.N?>0836363-0r1Œ]\14P;D/3B.s7Š]\?>]\5>Og363l,/.Z0808?>3l365>.+,@0&08?8D/P;7:D/5;ON.i]l7:CJ3l3LD/C:C:EQ06?8O+]lV2D/3-•)C:D/1N.j5=3l,@.+585>3B08367Š]\?c,R3loefN.+?8D/36D/Eu,@5d5QMN06€‡CT?>,/ON]6]d,@3ˆZC:CJx«]\3BP;3l1 .ZON?>7Š(03l?>
3h5{ D@5>36EXd]lVk?83lONf4•)3r?>P{D/5>3\5d,‹?80loj7:€F.+EG?8,+58O+DK€S3 *š]6,@9C:?8CJ,13BO+d1 3 €
7:,g.+]\0U5>7:.N36</,KC:0U3H3B0l0UVƒ(+5Uz{E,KO+]\3H3-OZ0U(+fF*-D@?,/.©7:*-3l,/oK</3-7:.N08<g3l.sD/0U. 3B0r?>ON?8ON3-5>EG3lDI3}9/3B083l,Nfs€‡,@MF5d36,I]l?8,/3-(+7:08.Z3L?83l?>.sON0U3-7J?8CJ7:7:36</0ROZ?EGD/5>536]\?>36ON7J589K36363}1 ]\EGDK58.+DK0c*‰?>7Š?>?8(NO+3l,@.Z??h08]lfFD/D@C:?rD/5dE0r,@C:D@C:0 E
 -   D  C  v!

‚p]\DK7J<K.S(N9/3l5>35d087J… DKV .k*NŽ D4]6


]\*H(N,@5d0u</3B,@0ƒ?m?>08ONON3_DIP;7:.Z7:.N?83l<ª5d089I36,@]^5>?>7J7JDKDK(+.}0}D@EY147T080UD/?8*-D/583&?87:MND/58.s7:0l</V OZ?{|~0cW’?>3\587:E‘fs?^ 3B0l ”y|~5>]\3l3lo .Z?>C:3l3l5^9K23lC&MNC:]lDSCJ7:D/fN*-fN7J7:.+.N<h< 7:14.+(N]\5>5>367J.N,K< 0U3B02• ?8IO+w 3
7:08.KON?>D/3l58.+?{08EG7J?cDSoj]6,@,@Cy?_C:3l?>.NON</3L?8Oj.+3lC:7:3l</.+OS08Ms36DK0;5>,/0)58D@3rEu(+MN085>367:1y</VOZ?_fN7J³43lCT0l”2|G5>7:</OZ?d)M+,@5>5836CX147T0U?8D/58?87:D/.i7:0&D@E‘?>3l. DKM+0U36589K361jP;ON36.

?8D/OSD .(N*HP{v ,@,‹.©149/7Š3l`‡36C:3lo/3l.+5>3\3l<@x«MN.Z?8Os?-5d,@0h?c7:.©oSD/fsE&7:3B0hC:0-7J<K7Š?dD@OK0LE&?-,/]l7:MN.D/7:.NCJ,7J3B?c0loi]\V 36?>5UHuDn?d,@,K087:]d*-.¥OªDZ5d?cD/,@oS?8.NfsON<K3jC:3/o VD/fsE=&36]\5>.NDK]l.N3g3l7:3g9/D@3ƒE&O+,/?8, 0-ON3j08,a36,/*-0U*-fFDK36CJ0U3B]l?k087:0L,/7:.ZC{,@?8fN.+5>7J7J1©<K<K(N*-0U7:?>.N3l,/.Z<nMN?-CJf+3Œ?858O+DKv/,@fsw ?-365U7TPm?>0H7JDK3B08580h3lCT1a.+D/08E_3l7Š?>9K?87JO+3l9K. 33


?8OSO+(ND/*H(N,@<K.aOŒ9S?>ON7:083R(+36,/o/C236fs0_36,@5>]l5>3R3lf4]\?>D/7JDK.s.’0c?dVƒ,@.Z• ?8C:o}087J<K*-.NDI7&(s9S]l7J.N,/<s.K?Vmz{f+,/ON5U3B?R0U23 D/Em?>ON(9(3H,OS(N{*HD/,@EA.a?8ONMN3R5d,@367:o/.a3R7:,/0583r36.N.N<K3B,/]\</363B0>1 0>,@7:5>.©oHfNEGD/585)D4]lf+36580>DK0Ufs7:.N36< 5
9SD/(s7:080X(+fF,/CuD/7:7:.Z.N?>fN0‚(47:?B.hV ?>ON_3m?8MFONDS365LD/ˆ‡]dŽYO+7:,/.k5>,Kf+]^,@?>583l?85>7T7:]\0U(N?87TCT]l,@0r5B€‹D/*-E;D/?8ON5>3m3Œ14OZ3l(+?>,@*-7:CT,/0A.©D@Es9S]l7:08D/(+C:D/,@5‚CQfs0Uo4365>0U]l?8363l*f4?>7JDKP;.L7:CJCQ,@5>MF3u3Œ<K7J149K7T3l08.L]l(+7J0>.}0U3B±m1©O+,@,IfN?h?89I3l,@5 5>*N7Jx V

_EG• 5d,/0>08]^A#(N?>BD7J*-DK<.H$3_E AD@?>O+E,I% ?)j,LD@OZE’(+*-7J?>0m,/.ƒ7J.N36.+o/3l3l5mMs08,@(NC:58CFE7T,/0 ]l3_%&,@7:.+5>36]dOŒ,+V7J.j+ 14O+7T,@,@?m*-7T3\0t?>?>3lON5{3&,@,‹.+9K1ƒ3l5d?8,@O+</,@3{? 08%B7 ® 6&3_58D@D4E’1N,/0Q583B,@,.s1Œ]\DI]l9/D/36.N583B3B1k0ufFMZo-D/fN,h(+08C:,@7:.N?83r</C:,3





?85>O+36]\7:0)36f4,‹?89KDK3l5 5d„,@<K| 3/';€Z3lP;*-ON3l7JC:*L3rMsfs36365658€y7:fNO+ONDI36Pm5>36,/9/Cy3l585B3B€N]\36?>O+f4,I?8DK?=5>EG0{DI9/,@5>3B3r,@C‚*-583BD/]\5>363rf408?8f+DK,/5>5>0&083/,@5>V™ 3hf+,K]dˆ/361j*L(+]dOi*-DK583h1N3l.+083lC:oj?8O+,/.




-› œ

 lŸ / ¡š¢6  3 ¢l£L¢d§1 .0/ 1£hŸ_¡ 

MFfN°S36OS3l9/C:o4DI3l0UP5d7T]l,@V 06CFVtfN_z{5>08D/ON(+MN3,@C:C:3lDIC:*Ho/9K€A3l0{5dD/,I,@(N`‡C:5LCF363l]\7:1N`F?{363B?8,@]^ON?)C:7 3 lD/3608EX1a3l?>.+ON9S083R7J7:.+3l]\P$<hDKfN*h<K5>7JMND49K7:]\3l.+36.©,I0>?>06fN7J€SDK5>08.j3lD/9S*-D@7:D/EY3=(+?>D@08ONCJEX36on08?83ON7:0L3rfND/5>*-D/.+DKMNCJoa0UC:3l?Q*H,@7:.¥*-0{fs,/7T0)DKfN5UfN,@?d.j5>,@D‹.Z7:³4*H?{7J*HD@,@EX</,I3=?>P;7JDK?>O+O+.i7:]d,IOg?>?)D ,@O+5>?>,K3&ON0)3ƒC:087:0UD/5>?8*-363B,/1 3 C




C:14,@3l5>7T*H0c3r?>0&D/*-58,/?8D/587:5>D/3L3=.g</]l7:7JD/9/.j*-36MF.e*-D@C:D/?>,@Og.’?83l€N7J5=?>O+0)DI7:. Pm</3l36?8DKO+9/*-3l3h5B3\MFV ?8DZ5>o}DKˆ‡,@”y.s*k1ƒ3l7:?8.ZON?83lD4.s1N0U0_7J?8EG7:D/365=06Vt*H¨e,@ˆS3\?>7:.NON<ŒD41N140{3B]\EGDK7T0U5)7:D/]\.sD/0_5>5>14363B]^?>0U7JfN.+7J<k?83-08D/08(+*-]d3rO D@7:*kEX?8fFON3l3B580UEG336]\fN?85>7:D/D/.+MN0x


!#"%$'&("*)+!,-."/,0

:7 *k3lfFDK3l*-58EG3\36?8]\5>?h7T]H0UDg147:0U?>?8O+DK,I5U?r?>7J?8DKO+.a3H7:Ms0h3BfN,@58*H3B0U0r36.ZD@?REQCJ7J7:.ª</OZ08?R3l9KMF3l3l5d7:,@.NC2<eP{]\,‹D/oSC:C:0r36]^7:.a?>361i?8O+EG3}58DK7J*H* ,/,j</7:.N08]l<e3l.NfN3H5>DS08]l(N36580>E0l,/Vg]\3kz{3lONC:3l3}*-C:3l36.+.K0h?h*H,/58,‹3koi.NMFD/3?


­K® 
  "!#!$!

FMC:3l3l.+.Z08?H36063\”Y³N0U,/?8]\5d?8,@C:7:oª</OZ,/?_0kC:7J7J.N.Z3B?>3l0.+,I14?=3B1y?8ONV 3k5QfF,/3l585>5>7JfN3lC{O+3l145>7Toe0c?>D@D/Et58?8?>7:OND/.3k0>7:]\0-36]\.NDK3-*-,@*kfNfFDK36.N,/C:o©5_?>D/DŒM+08MF3lDI5>P 9/3B1a,‹P{EG,‹D/oƒ5HEG085>*-D/*‰,/CJC{?>EGOND43H]6,@]\C{3l.ZCJ36?>3l.N5=<@?>D@O E


?8O+37J*H,@<K3,/0;08ONDIP;.g,@?{?8ON35>7J<KOZ?{7:.ep‚7J<K(N583 … V *+V
)!$  -#"%0 
Q,@.s361e,/*-08,@0‚?8D/3lEsC:C:5d7Š?>,/3R147T7J,I*H?>,/7JDK</.h360&]l,/,@.L5>3MFf+3{,@Ms5836?8.K7T]\?2(+DKC:,/5A581NC:oŒ7:08fs08(+365>0>08]\363l1LfN?8MS7:MNorCJ3R?8ON?83{DŒ*-08(+361N]dOe7J(N3l* `F3B?8]^ON?>5>06D/€F(+P;</OhON7:P;]dO O+7:,/]d58OL3R?8]6ON,@36(+oR08f+361j,K08MS06ogVX•_PQ3l,@5>?87:36,/5 C
5
9I,@fFD/5;DK5{?83l*-fF3l5d,I?>(N583r<K5>,K147J36.Z?>0m?8O+,@?)</7:9/3=CJ36.+0Ux²C:7JˆK3]dO+,@5d,/]\?83l5>7T0c?>7:]60u?>Dk?8ON3R,@?8*-DK08fNON36583KV
  , "%0 
Q]dO+36,/]658,@<K(+3&083R]\DK14CJC:7T3608]l]\58?83l3B?81Œ3R,@14?{3lDK?836.N]\3r?8DK]\5>3l06C:C’€+]l08,/(+.Œ]dOeC:36,/,/0&ˆH±;7J.Z±Q?>w†D-,L]\3l.NC:CT360l7J€F<KOZ,@MF5>3=D/5>.+7:D@.N?_<kfF]l3l3l58C:C~EGVt36]\z{?8C:O+oŒ3&7:?>.+3l085>(N* C:,@?83B% 1g.EG"58DK)*36,@,K5>7T]d0UOj3B0tD@?8EG5>O+D/3l* 5B€
5
?85>O+36083m(NfNCŠ?>O+7J.+3l.N<RDK7J*k.Œ36,.+MN,&5>P;7J<KONOK3l? 5>3m[+08DI(+PQ]dOh3l50C:=36,/7JˆI.H,@?></ON3Q3_0U7:f+*H583B,@,/<K1N3{0Y?8D/O+(4,@?‚?mEG7T580uDKCT*,@5>,)</369K5A3l?85>O+o=,/M+.}587:7Š</?{OZ,/?X]\5>?83l(+<K,/7JCJDKC:ok.RD/08ON.hDK?8(NONC:3Q1-7:MF*-3&,/,K</0u3m08fNONC:,/DI.NP;3/. €
7:.jp‚7:</(N5>3 … V *+|~]\3l.Z?>3l5^^V
  #" ."/,0 )
&w147J(N`F3j3658?836D©.Z?r7:*-]l3lfsC:C:360&5UEG?83BDg]^?87T7:14D/3l.s.Z0H?87T7J]l. ,/CX*HC:7:,@</.SOZ(4?=E,K7:.Z]^?8?836(+.+580U7:.N7J?c<+o/€mVR?8p+O+D/3l5=5>3gfN5>*H36]\,‹7Toª083hMF7:3e.K?>9I3l,@5>fN5>7:5>,@3\?8?>7:,@D/?8.+7:D/0-. 7:. D/Eu?8ON7:.K3e?>3l5>.+3608087JfF?cD/o/.+€y087J?=360k*HD@,‹E=oe?8MFO+33
.NfN3B7J³4]\3l36C²0>€K0>MS,@5>o-o©]l,@?8D¥C:7:MN1N5>,@3\?8?8367:D/58.-*-P;7:.N7J3i?8OH, (NEG.N(N7JC:EGCrD/5>,@*5>5>,‹7JC:o©C:(N*-D/E7J.+0>,@]l,/?87:CJD/3j.}E,K08Dr]^?>?8D/O+5d,@0 ?m
7:.Z ?83l .s 0U,/7J?c.+ok1 ]6,@0U.HO+7ŠE‘MF?d3)0 5> 36 0U ?8D/ 5> €;361-D/.N,K3 0EG D/5} 3B ,/]d O
<?8/
DH7: 9/,K3= 08.N087JDk<K.ƒ58 3B?>0U ONfF3D/ .s5>360U 3r08 fs,IDK ?;.+ V",@0UC:3=
C~Vu. D@E2°4,/(+,-.i]d14OŒ3l36³Z14,K?>3l1Œ58EG3636]l*-]\3l?>C:3-0;Cy]6?8]lDH,/,/08.ŒMF3/3r€‡MF?>3?8ONO+143ƒ3r3\±;?>,‹369K±Q]\3l?8w$5d36,@1Œ<K,@3_MS5>5>oH5>,‹36og7J08.sfs*H0UDKfF.+,‹36oe0U]\3r?8O+7:D/D/,‹EY.’9/?8Ž23-O+DK30U.NDK.N3=*-3l0837:D@</E‘OS,?cMFP{D/,@, 5d5>0l3_(V 5>%+3l% *-_P;3B14ONoH7T]d7:O 0
$  "  "%0     !(0 &

I93l.g.s,@C:]\?8(ND4ON3/143R€Z7:.ND/,/5B<ƒ.+€/,@EG7JC:DK?>D/0u5<hON,ƒ?87:</D}C:DIOH14PmD/7:36</5d5_7J14?>367:,/.Z5tC’?8MN]\3lDK7J.s?>.Z0U0m7J9K?c*-3lo/5dVh,‹0UoL7:z{D/Ms.YO+3&€Z3L,kCJ5>DZ369/0c08?B36(N€Z58CJoƒ]6?=,@OND/(+7JEm08<K7:OŒP;.N<r5d7:,@.Z?8f4?8ON36x 3_.+,@5>0U9‹D/7J,/?c(NCJo}(+.s3)*H1j?8,‹7:Dh0ro}Ms08MF3l3)3R3lP;.n]\5dC:7J7J,@.f+f+fsfs,ƒ3B3B1Œ<K1S58x«D/36,/` oZ58DKx«?80>(NDH]l.+,/,k1kCJ3R*H7:.K7:*H,I?>³4Dh,@7:<K*h08D/3k(N*-,K* 30

,H]\DKMNCJDK5>567:</VtOZz{?&O+5>3R3l<K7J*H7JDK.g,/</P;37J,I?8O?;?>,}ON3R1N,/C:3\58E‘ˆK?_3l5_7:.e]lD/pX5>7:3/</”F(+7J58.i3 ,ƒ… V *H]\D/08C:OND/5&DIP)7J*H0{,/P;</5d3R,@f47J?=x ,@]65>,@D/. (N.s5>361y08Ž2(N0UCJ?_DK*k7J.n3r,}7:.Z.N?83lD/5d?8087T]\3636]^,/?>7JMNDKC:.+3h0{]dD@O+E2,@.+MN</5>7:3R</OZ7:. ?


C:7J.N3B0;5>3608(NCŠ?;7:.jfN7Š³436C:0;1N,/58ˆK3l5Q?8Os,@.g?8ONDZ0U3=EGDK5;3l7J?8ON365;CJ7:.N3/V
$"(., ."%$ & "%)+--."/,0

:Cw&E 3l>@.+7Š`‡?)0m3l9IA5>3l,@E.Z5><$7J?3BA0uPQ&P;,‹A 9K7J?8E3lOŒ&C:3lPQ.N"</,‹?89K*HO+3l0_C:,‹3lokD@.NEu</,K?8]^C:7:Os?></(+\OZV‚,@?rC:•&CJ,/o-0m587:3k,h*HMF58,@3B3l</0U.Z3=(N?rCJ,r?61N€SEG7Š3l`‡36P .N3l5>3l3lfN5>.Z</7Š³4?8okC:36o 7JC:.g0QMS,@14o f+7J`F,/,Œ365U?m58CJ3636D/.+.K.H0-?{?>P{|‘ON?8,‹O+3=9/3 1N3lC:3\)3l ?8.+3B,<@]^?8?># OsD/5B02 VA "D@p+EYD/-C: 7:5m</3\OZ³N(2?%',@$)%*-B11jfN? C:D/3/Eu€Z" ?8?8
O+O+A 33
7:*-.-,/</,ƒ3LD/D@E‚Em7:.Z,ƒ?83l9/.s3l0U5>7Joe?coƒ0UOs]d,@O+5>,/f .N</MN3CT,/08]dfNˆZ58x²3BP;,/O+1ƒ7Š?>DI3h9/3lMF5;D/08(N3l.+9K1+3l,@5d,@5>ogC‡fN7:. 7J³S36?>C:ON0{3-7:.gfs36?858ON7:fN3ON7:*H3658,@oj<KD/3/EtV ?8ON3-0>]\3l.+3L*H,‹oj583B0U(+CŠ?=7J. ,
'(! 0."*) ."/,0 ,+ $ .)

H*z{ON,@3f+0=147:7J</?r7J?8?87 Dg 6,@D/?8.N7:D/3k.gD@fNE{58,ŒD4]l14367T0>0>0m]\5>]l3\D/?8C:3-CJ3B08]^3\?>?r0;D@,-Em0><K,@58*-36ojfNC:9‹3&,/D/CJ(+EX367:.Z0r?8,@3l.+.s1 0U7J?c?8oHOS(+EG5>0rD/*7T0r0U,k(+140>]\7T0836]lf458?83l7:?8MN3C:3k,@5>?836Dg,hMsD@D/EY?8?>O ON3R*k0>7J³4]\3l7J.+.+<g3=,/,/.+.+11


 -   D  C  ­%
5>D/(N.+1N7J.N<-fN5>D/M+CJ36*-06V2z{ON36083,@5>3,/1N145>360>08361}7:.j*-D/5>3r1N3\?>,/7JCy7:.g?8ON3.+3\³S?_0U3B]^?>7JDK.’V
›-œ 8¢ 7Q§  2 Ÿ e  7Q§A¢ k j¡ 1R   3 ¢\£L¢^§ 1 .0/ 1£LŸ)¡

 

+ 3u.NDIPª147T0>]\(+0>0Y08D/*-3m]lD/.+]l3lf4?d0X,/.+1r.ND/?>,I?>7JDK.R7:*kfFD/58?>,/.Z?YEGD/5XMsD/?8Oh?8ON3u?8ON36D/5>o=,/.+1fN5>D/<K5>,/*k*-7:.N<
D@EA7:*-,/</3=fN5>DS]l360>0U7:.N<-D/fF3l5d,I?>7JDK.+06V

  )  "%  )

@o4, .j.s0U7T1 02]\D/P;,*-) ONfN36)+'(N583{?8%7:7J.N?u)+<-7T0AP;EG7Š58\?>(+VtOŒ7Š?8z{7:EG*H(NO+CN3&,@?></fNDR3B7T0l]^]\€S?>D/(N7J.s?;5>0U3_7:7T0;14EG3l(N]l5AD/.s.S?>]^ON9/?87:3;36D/.N7:.g*-7J367T.Z,/0Q?m</,h3)?>DL*H,K02PQ,I?8,=D/O+5>EG3l(NˆH*H.+P;]^,I?>7Š?>?>7J7:DKOŒ]6.H,@MFC‡D@D@*-EF?>Oƒ?cDSPm1N?>Dr3lONCF3R9I?8,@O+]\5>DK,@7T.+,@?QMN]\7T36C:0Q36f406D@?>VXE‘0Q?>•_3lD/.ƒECJCs(s1D@ 0UEF3BEG1}(N% .+7:.Œ]^?>)+/,@7JDK.s.+,@,@CJxC


,@,@.s5>5d,@,‹C:ohoS08D@7T0XE‚7T140A7:0>?>]\ON5>3l3\.H?>3&,‹9I9I,@,/7:CJC:(N,/3BMN0lC:V 3m5QEGDKD@5t?>O},@.+7:,/*-CJo,/ 6</7J3=.N<r0Uf+7:,K*H]\,@3=</,@3B.+0l1ƒV‚z{7J.ZON?83)36.+14087:7Š</?c7JoH?>,/5dC4,@7J.N*H<K,@3_<K,@3{5>3I7:02,Z*-(+36,/58.Z36?8CJ7 oh l36, 1ƒ… 7Jw .Z?>DL583B,k]^?d14,@7:.N0><K]\(N5>3\C:,/?>35
08]\3\DK?_*-D/*kEADK9I. ,/CJ(N?8D 3B0l5>€+36fs]l36D/585d*-1i7J7:?U.Z?87:?8.N3l<ƒ.s0U?87J?cONo 3R,K7:*H0R,@,@<K.©3r¯@?8x²D}MN7JMF?Œ3h| 0U%\?8x«D/MZ5>oZ36?>1g3B=7:. .S(N, *h… MFw 3l5h]\D/P;*-ONfN7:]d(NOª?83l,/5&CJC:*-DIP)3l*-0rD/9I,@5>oŒC:(N0U36?80h5>(+D@]^E;?>®j(N5>?83/D V
«… ?_F$FN7:0 V
3l7:… *-.+F$D/*H,/(N</14<K3m7JO}`F*k36?87:58DH</36OZ.K0>?A,I?=?>MsCJ7:363;0U9/EG14o-363BC:?80;]\ONCT7T,@30)5>]l36(sD/10U.+(+7:08.L,/(NCJC:,*-oj± 3l,@5BC:fNV2CY5>•)?>D/ON<K.+3R5>1y,/fN€+*„5>MZ36oZ,K]l?>7:0 36087J0{<DK,@.
5>>@3=,‹B9I]l,@D/ 7:.SC: ,/ 9/MN36CJ.N 3r7: 3lEG .Z5>D/?u * EGDK 5)?8 +O+]\V 3LD/Hm*-08,/3lfN.+]d(NOR08?8D/fN3l5_7J5d³406,/3lVA.+CS1ep+D@D/E‡,@5{,_CT083\DH]l³ND/,/7:C:0&*kD/5‚(+f+7J08CJ*H(+3K€S,@,@C:,/<KCJ.o 3
PQ7:.ND/<(N%6CT1e® … 5>­_-3 ,Z14(N7J`F7:58363h5836vŒ.Z?A0U(s7:.Z]d?8O 36.+9I0U,@7JC:?c(NoR369I06V,@C:
(N.n3B0l0U€@DKP;*kO+3L7:]d*-Ok36,@14fN7TfN]l,/5>DKC‚,K,/]dfNONfN36C:0Y7:]6?8,IO+?83Q7:D/C:7:.s*k0l€7J?2%6D@®@EFx²M+OZ7Š(+?_*-36.+,/.+]\D40A147:.k7:.N14<Œ7T0>7:0&]\3l(+5>.N08367:.N1y<)€’,/?>ONCJC:3lDI*jP{x V
.N]\5>D/36?>,@,Iz{?8?>3BON7JDK1Œ3{.ªEGMSDKog(+CJC:08DI,@36P;.j1ª7J7:.+?81NON<r365>,@1ND/CY83 (N(+D/<Kf4.NON?>7JD/?87:7:(N]6D/,@?h.sCY0t?808O+o4,@7:0c5>0k?>3{3lMF7J*j.ZDZ?8DK€+36ˆ‡P;.+V 14ON3B7T+n]d1kOj3g?8PmDRMs3R]\36CT</,K,@7:085>.¥087JEG(NoRP;*-7J7J*-?83rO fF?8DƒD/,@58.¥O+?>,‹,/7T9/.K143r?u3B,@]l7:.C{D/(+.+.N.N]lD@3l7J?>?8f47J3RDK?d.ª02f+58,@D@3B.+E=]\1-7T,@0U,/7:. D/C:08.’,/D=VQ.+?8w_,@DC:7:D/36</<i0U7J?>?>,/,/7J*HMNC’C:7:,@7:*L08<KO 3 x
7?8:,@.KOs<K?>,I363l?)0.+C:08,/7J7J*-58?c3ko-7J?)EG,@D/?{fN5>58*-,h3B]\36CJD47T1 0U]67:,ID/MS?8.go 7:D/7:.Œ.g.-,/MF0uD@, ?>,k%(Oj) 14Hfs7T08DZ?8]l0UON587J3l?87T0h?87:D/3&,/.j9‹.+,/,@,@CJ.+C:(+D/1g3/<jV27:.Z7:•)*-?83lC:,/C‡.s</580U3H3B7J?c,@o/,IC+V?h7:*H1N,@7:0><K]\365>0Q3\?>,@3H5>3_CJD4,I]l`‡,@36?8]\7:D/?836.+1ƒ0hMS,@ok.+1 f+OZ5>o43lfN087:5>]636,@08CF3l.ZfN?85>7:DS.N]l<g360>?80UO+3B3 0
 "!  >& >$#%' $ ?)> A )  &%(' )+  *  )    +-,!)%(0   0  )/.  )+' +,  0()  )%1 )
 ,.'*)-.%#, ./' 20# 1 ,  1 ,)0.  +) '  , 0(2)  )%
 ) )  ' )+'  '  (0  , ' )-%#,) ' )    +21
3 "! $%'$" >#-$ ?)> A ) 
%0' +)    B <   , 2* ' , 00,) *(2' %('  

 ) ' )+'   , % 54  (0  6,!)%(00)  ,  * ' , $ )  (% )+#)+' ,8, 0() )%
71

-*z{08ONOND/DI3L(+P)08*-0tC:onON,@DI?8(+ONP 08363\*H?>EG(+ON,ICQ3_?87:7Tf+.ª]l7Š,/³4MFCX3lD@CT*-0m?>O¥D4D@14EY1436,@36CX.ƒ0>D/]\7JEu5>*H7:,@MN,@. 7J<K.+3_7:< *H,@7J,@5>*H3&</,/3L0></,@,/36*-0_0LfN,},@C:.+36EG(N0u1¥.+D@14]\EY?838,L7:(+D/.+]\. D/7J.N.ZD/<n?>E27J.S?cD/Pm(NfFDKDŒ3l(+5d58,I0t3B?>,@7:7J*HDKCX.+08,@f+0</,@3_D/?8.ª?>7T,@,/CY?8ˆ/ON3lfs36.},@*g5d,@,@V?m*-9Ip‚3\,@?>7J5><K3l7:D/(N5d0;(+583 0u7:0&fs… 3lDKV4|.+7J.ZD/1s?>580x


?8fN 8 O+7J³4:3l9 3l. Cy?>?>D/ONDLEY3>?>?>ONON8+33Rx«087Jf+,@*H5>,K5d,/]\,‹7:</o-.N3r<
]lfN3l?@CTC:,@CY8 .N]\3KDKMsV .Z3l?>
«?cEX,@Pm7:?>.N36ON3l7:3l.N. 5><k3fN?87J,@ON³45>3r3l36CT0_7:; .Z7T?80A3l08.s= ,/0U*-B7J?c;oŒfNCJVr3B0>,@0{z{*-7J.gONfN3RC:?>3rONEGDK367:0;58*L<e<K7J(Nx 9K14CT3l,H7J.Œ5>5836367J]\.gC:?8,@7:D/?8?8O+7:.g.N3 <},/(+]\?></5>ONDK(N3L0>5>0Q3]l,k3l,I.Z?;1N?8367:?>0UON5&?>3,/fF.+58D/]\7:7:</.Z3OZ?&D/?BD/EV Eu=R, €


C  "! &$ <


" BDA $ & < " $4 & )   '/.'*)%(.%  ,  ' .'*)%
EDAF| 8 :9   2, )%('*$&
  $#'(' )%1  'G, + ,.'*)-.%  . )-% H8 
 , 9 1 8 1 , 9  % %($  ,F.  ) 8,.) '48 '
, )%(' $&/1 ,IDA| 8 :9  )  $ $ %+%  .% *  .% %($ /,F.  )  '") ' * )+'4  '-, )%(2' $&/'!,) '
| 8 :9 J 1
­… 
  "!#!$!

F [i + 1, j]
y y [W/2, H/2]
I [0, 0] F [ M-1, N-1] F [ i , j]
c

x
. ..
.
x
[0, 0]
r I [M-1, 0] [x , y ]
[-W/2, -H/2] 0 0
F [ 0, 0]
I [M-1, N-1] [ x + i ∆ x, y + j∆ y]
0 0

(a) (b) (c) (d)

p‚]\DK7J<KCJ(+(N*k5>3 .j… ]\VDSSŽDK{5>w_147:7J.+`‡,@3l?85>363l0{.Z?=0U?>]l,/DZ5UDK?>7J5>.N1N<-7J.+,I,@? ?83R ® 08 o4® 0c ?>3lEG58*HDK*0)(+?808ON363r1e?>EGD/D/fg5_CJ7:3l*HE‘?6,@”Y<K|36Ms06;Ž&±Q|,Z,@58?83B10U 7T' ,@.g+]\DS D/)-*5d14'7:.+,R,I?>(s3_0UEG3B5d0),@5>*-DI3rP„P;,/7Š.+?>O1
 ®  ®  ,I?r?8ON3-C:DIPm365&C:3\E‘?B”Q|~]6±Q,@58?83B0U7T,@. ]\DSD/5d147:.+,I?>3hEG5d,@*-3kP;7Š?>O  ®  ®  ,I?r?>ON3-7J*H,@<K3k]l3l.Z?83656Vg|1+
';36C:,@?87:D/.+08ON7:fŒD/E‚fN7J³43lC’]l3l.Z?8365;fsDK7J.Z?  8 :9  ?>D},@5>36,L3lC:3l*-3l.Z?)0>,@*-fNC:361g7J.e,/585d,‹o-3lC:3l*-3l.Z?   V 

 "!  BA


  E-<#># A $ ?)> A )    1  (0./ ,.) .)+' %&)+ 6 B @< , )+' 1  ) ' )+' 
%($ , , ) #% 1
 "! ?
  #" $ E& A"<
"-B>$# $ ? > A )  *%(' )+     ,!&)%(921  0(2'    %($ 
'4 (0  ,.'*)-.% ,.) -' -, ) #2% 1 '#)+ #) #(2' $ %+% 0)(0% . )+  4 '* '  0(2'    

% 2*  '4B1

 "! $4& >@B  $ ?)>


 .%($     1 A )  ,) )+' .% )+ @, )+' %+%, ) #2%  

 "! # > A # A $ ?)> A )   ,.) .)+' % )+/  B< ,!1 , ) # %  % $  _08oS*hMFD/CT0
 
. >.  )+'  .% , ' 1  9.% %($   2, ) #2%,*'.' '  $&' (0  * ,9()  )%1

, .' ' , ) #2% 1 2% ' , (01'( , '4  "
A"?)>#" $ < $ ?)> A 
 , &E A   < 7#% BA $ ?)> A 1
 

D/5>3l. CT,I7J•?8?-7:9/]l7:3_. DZ?8DK,Dk5>1N14]l7JD/3l.+9S*-,@7T?8]\fN3h3r(408?>]\o43lDS0c5-D/?>5d3lfN14*q5>7:D/.+<K*h,I5>?>(+,/360U*g06?&V‚€AMFw&?>3hDa7Š`‡(s3l580U5>3l3B3lEG1g3l.Z5k?;?8DŒ?80UDao4,K0U1N?87J?}3614*-5>7J.360m0>0;(+,i087:.+36*H1ƒ14,@7:7J?89Z.ƒON7T1436?8(+*-ON,/7T,@0QCX?8Msf+7T]lDS7Š,/³4D/C{3lˆ}CTEG0)D/,/5>D/.+*hEt1H,@(N36. CTC:,N08€t7:3l*HP;DK,@5kON</36?83K58D©3=”+?>,/,@D}5>1N3&1ND/fF58083BON3l08DI5d0k,IP;?>7J. 3?


7:(+. 083lp‚527:P;</(N7:CJ5>C+3 .N…3l3BV 4V1h?>D).N</3lEGD/?258,K?8(N]l]l.+(+,@0c?8?>36D/CJoK*-€Y36141h7J`F?8Dr3658?>36ON.K3l?R*j]lV2D/*-pNDKfN5U(4?>?>(N3l.+5=,@?8?8DS3lC:D/o/CT€K0=]\D@D/E‘.s?>3l]\.3lfN(+?>020U3-,@5>143{7J`F.N36D@58?236?>.Z7J?3B1L08o4?80cDR?>3l,r*H]\0rDSD/,@5d.+141i7:.+?8,IO+?>33


08]\oSDK0U.+?808367:*j0U?836V .K
?g.nP;?87ŠON?>7TO 0MF*HDZ,IDK?>ˆ‡ON€’3l*H]\D/,I.s?>]\7:3l]6fN0}?>?>03\³S,@5>?>3h0g(sP;0UON(+7:,/C:3iCJC:oi7:*-14,/7T0></]\3 (+0>f+0U583BD41 ]\3B(+0808087:7:.N.N<e<¥,j,@C:±Q</,/DK5U58?>7J?836O+087:*-,/.n0ƒ(+]\DS08(+DK5>,@14C:CJ7:o .+,@(+?8083L3i08o45d,/0c?>0U3l?8*365
]\DSDK5>147:.+,@?83606V
   ! 0-") -"%,0 0(&% -"    ! . 
) (  0
u,/0r,K]d7T0ROƒ08fNON7J³4DIP;3lCy. D/E‚7J.©,kp‚147J7J<K<K(N7Š?d5>,@3 Cy…7:*HV … ,@V/</3=
«Em5>?>3lONfF3H3608fN3l7J.Z³S?>360{Ct,-7T008,/fN*-5>D@fNbcCJ363=]\?8D@3BEA1 0UDKEG5>*-D/*š3&36?>CJ36ON*k3H367:.Z*-?>,/,@</Cy3-5>3lfN<KCT7J,@DK.N.ƒ3HD/MsEY,/?8]dO+ˆe3=D/5>36(N,/?C‡?87JDj*H,@?8O+<K33
H
08D/(N5d]\3L*-,@?836587T,@CX7J.i?8ON3H0>]\3l.+3/€F?8ON36. ?>ON3k087 l3kD@E2?8Os,I?08]l3l.N3k3lC:3l*-3l.Z?r7:0_?8O+3  #) % *% $&'*)%

 -   D  C  ­Zv

|~,K |GMF

| ]B |1s
p‚]\5>7J36<K,@(N?85>3B3 1}… MSV ¯NoƒŽh,‹9/p+36D/5>(N,/5h</7:1N.N7J<R<K7Š3B?d,@,/Cu]dO 7:*H… ,@<K36… 0.ND/3lEm7:</?cPQOSMFDjD/E5>,/ON]lDS36DS061ƒ”{|~D@,KE{|,K% {… ƒ5,/.+>1ŒDIP)58360fND@CJ7TE ]l,@% ?8*7:e.N<L]\D/?8C:ON(N3R*-,‹.+9K063l”;5d,@|G</Ms3)ƒEG| D/% (N… 5{*I³?>7J% *-*K360
?8| D¥% … fN®@³58D4% 14D*(sZ]\)3 ]\5>, 36,@… ?83B1i…7:.©,‹089/,/36*k5>,/3H</3g*HMN,/.NCJD4.N]d3lˆ‡5r”LEG5>|~]6D/e*| % |]6… \­@V ³ % H2*`‡K36L]\?8]\7:5>9/363H,I?>.N36DK1 *-7:.7J.+,/08C2,/*k583B3e0UDK*HCJ(N,/?87:.ND/.N.+3l05ƒ,/EG58583jDK*| % … |B³Ms^”-% D*|K1+\ €
(+pN| *K085dvI(+,@³N.+,@¯/C:ˆ C:¯ZoH5Q^€2ON7JD43l|v
]lC:f+]6%\0Q,N³4V­/MS­SoH^MN€2CJ| (+%58F‹5>³ 7J.+…/<R… {?8O+5>363r08,/fs.N3B]^.N?8DI7:oS9/7:36.NCJoK<hVƒ08O+|zX,@5>5>oefƒMFCJDSD/D/(NˆS.s7:.N1N<Œ,@5>,@7J3B?&0u?>D/ONE’3-?8O+MN3rC:DS0]d,ZˆS(+oj,@7:5>*-3606,/V™</ 3Bt0&O+MSD@o ?8Dk0 ,Z]\(NDK7J(N.Z5U?>?>7J36.N08<so-”’D@7J? E
D@F@EQ®K®j?8O+143}7J<K0U7Š36?d.+,@0UCmDK7J56*HV},@p+<KD/3/5R€Y?83lON³N36,@.©*-?8fNONC:3/3ƒ€Y.N7JE;D/*-, 7:.+%6®g,@Ct7J.s5>36]d08OaD/C:0 (4,Z?>(+7JDK,@.5>3-D/0UE{ON?836ON3\?h3ƒD/083lEQ.sfs0U,@DKfF53l7:50L7T®N0V ® 7J*H… ,/7J.s</]d36ON1i36?806DjVeEGz{DKON58* 7:0h]\, D/F@.s®K]\®}3lfN³ ?
*HP;7:,‹CJCmoj9‹.N,/D@58?=on*-P;,/7Š?>ˆ/Oª3h14083l3l.sfN0U?83LOª7ŠEt,@.s?>ON1©3L0U(N0>]\5836E,/.N]l3h3HOsD/,/5>0=7J36,}.Z?>C:,ID@?>?&7JDKD/.’EuVƒ143lz{fNON?8Oi@3 . 9I,/58% ,7T,I?> 7J DK.’ )-€FB08, 7:.+D/]\3hE;,/?8ON.a3L7J*H.ND/,@*-<K7J7:.+.+< ,@C‚0U58363B.+0U0UDKDKCJ5(N?87:7:0hD/.,
*-fN5>3636,K]l0U7:08(N7J5>DK3-. D@7:E;. ON*HDIP†,@ˆS7J*h.+<Œ(+]d08O©f+,ID/?>Em7:,/?>CXON3ƒ*-360>]\,K3l0U.+(+3H58367Š*k?h36]6.Z,@?>.©0&0UD/365=3/7JVg.iz{1NON3\?83 3B]^?>7J*.N< %($&(+' )%.N13LeEGD/36E;,@?8,e(N5>08363l06.sV-0UDK| 5+ 7:7J0?8Oa5>3l]lCT,I,@?>5>363\1nEG(+?8CXDe(+087J?>3/0 €
?8,@DH.s1 ,/.j0UDK,K*-]l]l3h(N*-5>,KD4]\14oH3lD/C‚E 7J.N%rEGD/f+5>,@*-58?;,@?87J. 7:D/.’F/®/€y®/, ®+€SF@®/P;®HON7:³ ]dOjF/®/7T0;®H]lf+,/7ŠCJ³4C:363l1C‚7:*-$ ,/ ,</3k) # ]l%,@.iMs*3L% $&(+'*0U)%3B
1e+V™?> Dƒ*H,@ˆK3R*-36,/08(N5>3l*-3l.Z?d0
     & ? %$ &>#BDA"E #  " $%'&  ' **)  '   )  '   * ( "% /* '
'' )+  '  2 ).% -, ) # %!
 ' )+/-, % 1 01

I$     ' #'   BA"E #  " $%'& * 20 '  ' , 0(2)  )%
  '7.)  .)  13
 $&/* '454 2$&')  . /.%+%  , .  , ) ,) 13* 'H, 
 B1- ",F.  , ) .% , . % , ' 2 +54 )+'/

. $ '  ' )'.") %.%($&' )%14"1 ) '  *.%($&'*)%
  '&)  *(1   ) )
  2'  1 '
 $# , ./)+'31 ) '  $&  /%()  , )+0 ,/")+%+% )+/'  '.'(1  *% , 
,)  ' ) $&)   '  , )+ /1 ! ' .' .%+%  ,) 13* ' (01 ( , ' )  '   $&2  , ) #2%  )+% % 
 , )/
­/­ 
  "!#!$!

*'8(   *% $&'*)%


  /*  , ) #%  J1
 )  % ' 2 , .  )+' )%1   
 , 1 '   
) '  ')+'  ' .'  ) '  2, 1  ,  '4 '  .  % ,) )-J, (1 ,) )-,, 4 ,!)%(0 2% '  '  0'  
 (9, )+%()+'  '  / 7, 0(2)  1 $&2* 4'  1 , '  (0   (2 ' )  )%1   (* 01 
' 
, 9 ()  %) 1    $&/* ' )  # (2' )%1  '  #) % *%($&' )%1$4 ')  )  (%+% , E &6$  A# 
BDA"E 7# !" $4 & 1

l]%-,/*@.}³ p‚%-5>*H7J36<K]\7T(NDK0_5></37:.N.+7 …08 l( V 3)¯}},R08]\ONE7:,@DI3l*-.ZP)?60;7:VCJ7TEG,@


DK.5m(NE5&0U,/DK7:]l*HCJ3_9S,@7:(+.N<K08<ƒ367J.+0),Œ< D/fNE2*@5>­/?8D/³ONMN*/3-C:­3l0>*‰58,@3B*-0U(+DK3R08CJ7J(NE.+,K?8<Œ]\7:D/3]\.’DK?>€SDƒ*-,@.+fN3l*-1}(4?8fN*-36Os5r,‹,/oS9Z08MF7T7 08 63_7J3hDK(+.’5>0836€F7:08.N?8D/ON<LC:3k(4v ?87J… 7:*-D/³N.evfN… C:3l3l`F5>*-363B0836]^D/.K?>C:06?>(4D/Ž;?85r7:OSD/(N0U.YO+*H€/D/MN,@(N.+(4CT1 ?0
(+*-08363Q,K,/0U.L(N5>,/3lfN*-fN365>.KD/?dfN0Q5>7:P;,@?8ON3t7JC:5>3r36?808DSD/DHC:(4?>*L7JDK(+.’]d”‹OŒ?8DSP;D=7:C:CJC’7J?U(N?>.NCJ3{.N3B5>36]\083BD/080>C:(4,@?85>7:7JD/C:o}.R08P;CJDI7:C:P„C4fN1458DID4P;14.g(s]\,/3uCJ<KfFD/DS5>D/7Š5A?>ON5>*H36]\0{DK</,@.N.+7J1Œ?87:PQD/.,K0cDK?>5A3r7J*-*kfN36*-5>36D/]l5>7:08o/3 V
I$     ' 
A # $ $ A  / **   ) "'  )   "' *( #' ' +) '(

 4 ."#.-, % 
  )' (0 *   ) (9 J1 ) ( ') 1  , )+' , , '4 )+' /
   

 ) $&%' $ >&!  # > B
A# $ $ A 46 $(9   ,  *  , .J1

@D,@E‘<K?>3_3l°S.-P;7:.+7TON0u]\363L14583=3l,H?8363lfN,K5>7J]d*-³SO}367J.+CXfN367J7:³4.i1k3lMS,/Cy.eoL08,/,r7J*-*H*-fN,@CJ7Š<K³S3B30m?>(N*-EG5858DK3;36*,/D/08E‡(N,h1N5>7Š3608`‡0&fs3lD/,@5>?{3l. .ZD/,@?tE’5>*H?836O+,-,I3&?>7:3l.e3B5>,@7:?>58,/ON?8C:O3R06V‚5>%Bp+36®@,@D/*CX52Pm3l³ ³4DK%6,/58®/*-CT1j*jfN,@VtCJ3K.+±m€K1 C:]l36D/.N,/.+D@5808?&C:7:o/1N,}€Z3l?>fs5tO+DK,,I7J?{.Z0>?6,IfN€‡?87J36³S7J?>CJ36C:0_C‡7J?89‹9‹3;,/,/7:CJCJ*L(+(+33 x


EG*Hf+D/,/5>,‹fs*qoH365RMsP;3RP;ON,k7Š3l?>.eO 0>,@MN*-%67:®j.+fN,/C:]d583=O+oŒ,/D/5>7JEX*H,KP{]^,@?8,I<K36?>365>3l0=0)5B€SfF,/08583lD/3r5L7:C²EG7J€NDK.+,@58]d*-.+OY1ŒVŒ3B1y9/¨ V 36</,/')3\.Z36?don,I]\DK?>7J7J.+*HDK08.Œ,/7:14</]\363-DK5;*hfN?87JMNO+³S7:3L36.NC:,@3B0h1yMFP;V2DI9/7Jz{C:3rCtON3lDI3r³49KfN,/3l*-585>DKC:,/fNMNf CJC:3h3l,e*D@E2]d,/O+7JfN*H,/fs5>,/,K3B</]^,@7:?>5d.N3l0Q<}5r7J.j,HMsDK,-0U(NO+0U.+3l363\1N9/?&,/3l585>D@o 3 E
EG,@]\5>DK.sD/(N1a* CT1ƒON?>3lMFON.+3R3h]l3ƒ0U]d3lO+?;5>,/36?85>]lD-,K3l]^7:3l9/?>7J3l3}?85BO+”K,e3l?>5_ON*-®k3R7J³ZD/.N?>53l(N?)5>%K3ƒ58V3B+ D@0U(+E;ONCŠON?)7:7:]dMF</O+O+3l3l7:3l9/.N5h36<ƒ5;7:.Z,k9I?8,@9I36C:.+,@(NC:0U3r(N7J?c3R7Šon?_7:.j7TEG0658€4DKMs7Š* 3l?)?cPm7T?>0;ON36f+3l3}.j,/M+5UM+?>,KCJ,/]do}]dˆSˆS7:</.+<K5>]l58D/D/DK(N5>(N.+58.+3B1a1g]^?,/,@ .+.+1a1jCJ]dDIO+PQ,/3l5>5h,K]^7J.Z?836?8365Q.+?808O+7Š?c,@o ?
,@z{5>ON5d3h,‹p‚oR?87J<K7:D@CJ(N3BEy0_5>MN3 EGCT,/DK… ]d58V ˆg*q!k<K|Gf+MN7J9K5>,@367J?U<K0;?8OZ3614?858.N3l.s?>3B0),@08?>7:0tCTO+0;®Z,I2D@?E ,@,@.s,Z5>(+1-3 ,@P;… .ZON?8M+ 7 7Š 658?>,@7:3L</?8OZ7:|D/MN?&.g58087:</fsfNOZD/5>?>D/?>.N0=MN36C:,@3l0>.+0t*H1e¯K06AVu?cPm?8•_7:DŒCJ0>3B0U0uMN(+58,/*k7:0u</3rOZ0UON?_?>DIO+C:P;7:,I.N?;.}36?>0&,@ON?tD@3 Eu?8…O+14w3)7J`‡CJ083l3l]lE‘5>?m3l3l.N.Z7:.-3?=?8P;7T0;ON7T3 1S, ?>(+%6O+</®@0l(+³ V 58%63K
«® E V
?8fNO+5>3_36]l7:7:*-083l,/C:oŒ</3;DKD/. EFD/?>ON.+3&3-0>±;]\36±Q.Nw3;E3l,/C:CJ3lCT*-0tDK3l.Z.}?&, ?8F‹ON
³ 3kFR583B±;0U±Q(+CŠw“?=7:,/0_585d?8,‹ONoh3-0814(+7:</]dO-7J?>,/?8OsCX,I7:*H?u3B,@,/</]d3LO 0UON… ³DIP;… .i083\?u7J. D/E’pX,/7:</1‹(+bU,K583]\3l… .ZV?t!s?>|GMs7JC:\36V=0tEz{,@O+C:C:30
?8EG5>DKD/fe* CJ3lEGE‘DK?(N±;5k±Q?8w†7:CJ3B0l3lVC:3l*-z{3lON.Z3e?r080U3\36?H.+0UD@3BE&0;EG7:D/.K(N?>5H3l.+MN085>7J?c7:o</OZ… ?L ?>7JC:36|®0ƒ ,I?k® ?8 ON3j® ?> D/f ¯K 58I7:­H</OZP;?kONE7T,@]dC:O C)D/7:0).¥?8ON?cPm3kD¥,‹9/±;36±Q5>,/w‰</3=3l7JC:.Z3l?8*-36.+36.K087Š?d?c0lo € *

36D@,KE)]dM+Oi587:D/</EuOZP;?hON?>7J7TC:]d36On0L7:D@.ZE)?83l7:.Z<K?85>36,@.+?83B0U0)7J?co©?>ON¯ 3-7J7:.Z*H?8,@36.+</3B087Š0h?coj,K0LEG5>,iD/*‰58DI?cPPQDŒD@E=M+±;587:±Q</OZw ?,@3lC:.+3l1 *-?c36Pm.K?dDj0-1N0U,@365>.+ˆg0U7:?8.N7:< CJ3B0l7:.ZVk?8z{36.+ON0U3-7J?coa0U7:.N­+</€2C:3kP;58ONDI7:C:P 3


?8MNO+C:3l3}.+141ND/36(N1jM+?>CJD/3-</5>3lDI?8PON365_7J*H7:.e,/</?836O+0r3L,K7:0_*H?c,@PQ</Dj3KV458DI
«E2P)?80&O+D@3hE{7:*-7:.K,/?>3l</.+3R087T7J0_?co ?8ON­+5>”X36ON08ONDID/PmCT36149/3B361e56€F,I??8O+ 3- ?cPmvNDg€s?8CJ7:O+.N3l3B.n0r,}7J. MN?858O+7:</3-OZ0>?_]\fs36.N,I?U3H?>3l,@5>5>. 3
7:ON]\.KDKDK?>.+58DH7 08 l7:D/DK0U.N?8.K7:3?d.N,@<ƒ5>C‡3lD/,@<KEm.+7JDK1ƒDK. .N9/ 3R36
«5UE‚?>?>7J?87:C:]63-ON,@3hP;C‡]6147J,@C:7JCA*-5>36Ms3l]\3-5d?8,k7:C:D/DK.’7:0U0_?&€Z14?>EGON7:5>08D/3lfN.Œ*‰CT,/?8]l?>ON36ON3r1Œ3L7:MZ*H7:*Hog,@,@</,@<K3=.e3k0U,@O+,/*-DI.+P;1eDK(N.ƒ?>.ZON7:?).Œ3h-3 p‚?>,ZON(N7J<K5>7:3l(N9‹3k,/5>3CJD@36?8….ZO+?;V !s3l?8|5=DH1+EGu36D/,@58.+3B?83&(N0U(+?>5>CŠ7J36?dC:0=3R0lV2P;7:.jz{7:CJONC2Ms3rD/,@?8C:0UC‚OjOsEG,@?8(+fFO+08333
D@C:7JE‡.N?>3BON0=3_7J.i­/x~?8?>ON7JC:3-3)08MN]l5>3l7J<K.NOZ3k?m5>0U36fF08(ND@?QCŠ?=7:0m7J. 147T, 0c?>D/5>58,/?8*-361-f 7:H.i7:|~. 1+t|1s,L&14,K7Š0_`‡3lDK5>fN3lfF.ZDK?u08*H361j,/.N?>.NDƒ3l?>5uON?83kO+,/]l.}D/.+7:0U. ?>,/|G.ZMs?&m,@</.+5>3l1koj?>5>ON3l3)<K?c7JDKPQ.eDRD@MNE&5>7:|</MsOZ^? ”
*-7:*-D/,/5></3l3BDI0{9K3lD@5BE‚€s0>|]\1s36{.N0U3=ONEGDI36P),@?80u(N?85>O+36580Q36?>3&O+DK,IM4?_bc,/3658]\3r?{.N5>3l3B<K,@7J5>DKCJ.+o-0m?>ONP;3RON3l0U5> 7 l363,K0&D/EX|MsDKQ.N0U3ONfNDI7JP)³S360mC’?c,@PQ5>D+3rV2(Np‚.+7J0U<K?>(N,@5>M+3 CJ3K… V V !L0UONDIP)0m?>O+,I?{?8O+3
5d,@,/5>3Œ]\o-p‚1N7J,@3\<K.s?8(N3B1}5>]^3 ?>14363\… 1y?>V 36!N€m]\€y?8?>ON08,@ON36M+7JDI7J5HP)C:7Š?c080=oKf+VuON,IDI?>°S7:P *H,/C{,@ 3\C:,C+³S.EG?8'*3B36)-,I..K?>% ?H(N258*-$ 3B
0m7:</ ]6OZ' ,@?k).} MFMF' 3j)%3=1fs *kDS7T*DK0>13580UC:3B0o©1H(2'458)D/365m7:fN*kEG5>(+36fF0808DK363l081}.Z3k?8,/3BCJ.+1y7:*-1}V 7Š36?d)9/0r3lD/D/.ƒ?8.i3gP;*-ONONDI3B3lP$,/.}08CT(N?8,@O+585>363g</*-36M+5t3l58.ZEG7:3B</?=,IOZ,K?8?H(+]l]\580U(N3B3l?0x
 -   D  C  ­"F

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 8 0 0 0 0 8 8 0 0 2 0 0 4 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 0 0
0 0 0 4 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 4 4 4 4
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 4 4 4 4
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
4 4 4 4 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(a) (b)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 8 0 0 0 0 8 8 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 0 0 2 0 4 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
4 4 4 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
8 8 8 8
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

‚pF‹³
7J<KFŒ(N7:5>*-3 ,/… </V 3-!NŽªD@EQ|,ZfN 5>36%6]\® 7T083lC:oe%6®?8ON(+3H36M+C:1 587:</D/OZE&?8.+?>7J36C:360>00ƒ(+D@3lErCT1aMN58,I7:</?rOZ?8?>ON.N3ƒ360>CJ0H3lE‘®a?RP;D/5ƒON3l¯+5>V3-36|G,/MF]dO
.ZfN?87J³436.+3lCu0U7J08?83l7:36.+0}0836580=3B]\?>D/ON5d3}14,‹3B1¥9/365>7:. ,/</, 3
(c) (d)

MN145>DI7JP;<KOZ.g?8,@.N.+3B081Œ0rD/D/.NEQ3&, ?87:… C:3r?8DL… ?8.NON3l3r7:</5>OS7J<KMFOKD/?05>NONV DS)D41 D/?8D@3=EQ?8Os?87:,IC:36?{06?8V ON3 |]6,Z(+


,/*-.K,/?>7</ 63-361ƒ0U36MN.+58087:36</1 OZ?>MS.Noi360>0U0QO+9‹7ŠE‘,/?>CJ36(+1©360;]l14,/*-36fs3l365d.+, 1ƒDKD/.Œ.N3kMFD@?87:?>C:O 3
?8EG5>O+D/3}*š,/]^?>?>ON(+3H,@Cu0UONfN7J7ŠE‘³4?83B361aCu0U]l7 ,@ l*-3H36,/5>.+,ƒ1 7J.fsDZ?80UO+7J?83-7:D/0>. ,@*-58363-C:,@*H?87:,@9/.N3k.+?83lDj5?>,/ON0=3H7:. MN5>|7J<KMsOZ^/V?8.N
3B.Z08?80 3658(+f+3658C:1’3l?>Vi,I?>|7J1+DK.i
D/.KEu?>3l?8.+O+083-7J?8,K7:36]^0?>(+5>,@36C2]lD/0>5d]\143l.+361 3
EG36,@?8(N5>360{P;7:C:C’Ms3f+58DKMNCJ36*H,I?87T]=P;7Š?>Oj3l7J?8ON365;7J*H,@<K3H|GMsQDK5R|1+\V
­#* 
  "!#!$!

D@AEm3l5>EGD/O+(N,/5rf+0u?>7JPQC:363r0R0U7JON*HDK,@(N<KCT1}360r3\,/³40rfF3636]\7Š?>?;ON,/3l.ƒ5R36,g585>9KD/3l5{58?8,/7T0Q]l,@M+CA,KDK1ƒ5=,/O+0{D/®+5>7V 6FRD/fN.Z7Š?>³4,/36C‚C:0{fs,@7:.}7:5?>D@ONE;3r±;fNC:±Q,Kw]\36*k3lC:363l.Z*-?{3lD/.ZEX?>0r,LD/MsEmDK(N7:.Z.+?81N3l.s,/580Uo}7J?co 14(+­+3 V


?8,nDgD/5>.ND/3j(N.+fN1N7J³47J.N3l<gC{3\D@³4E{fF, 36]^#?>36) 1#3l,+5>,58DK) #5L7:%s. P;,iON36*-. 36,Œ,K0UMN(+7:58.+36,@*k5>oe36.Z7:?k*-*H,/</,/3k1N3j7:0r,K]l]\585>3BDK,I0>?80R3B1 ?cPQMSDiojMF?8O+D/58(+3B.+0U1NON,@DK5>C:1N7:367J06.NV <s”y¨e?8O+DK7:580r36DI7:*-9/3lfN5BCJ€ 7:36) 0
,  #,0('3'  ,' 9('( ' .) 2' $&/)  ) .0)+/B4 '* ,  "$ '4 2 $&/'.'3')+
)+   )  )  .' %   ' ' ,  , ) #2%  ) ,)-./'  ')  )'(%($ ,30, "2'G,  %.9('4dVm±mDK.+087:14365;,

]M+\36fF,K.Z]d3l?8ˆZ5>3l7:<KDS5>58361 DK1ƒR(N,I.+3l?u1n.s14?>?8ON7JOs.+3=,@<-fs. ,kDK]d7J08.ZOs3l?m,@.Z5dP;?8,/36O+]^.+3l?>]\3l5>3=3_5h7J­-.g,/.+±;,L1ª±Qp47Jw•_?L¬7T]l0k3lP;C:CJC:7:0mONˆ/36DK*-CJ08o 3l3&3\?>7:?B*HO+ŽA,I,@36?L<K,/3_]d?8OHON7T0{3jD/D/E’]d.NO+?83=O+,@3_5dfN,/­h7J]\³S?8f+3636C‡7Š5h³47J.j3lP;CT0m147:CJ7TCQP;,@Ms7J*-C:3gC‡3\Ms?>C:3lDK3=5{0U*-?LMN7Š(4P;³4?{36ON1}E36,@. P;C:CT0m, 7Š?>3lOƒM+³N7J*-,/.+]^,/D/?>585>CJoo 3


7:*-,/</3r7T0QEGD/5>*k3B1 
 I$     ! ? $  A &6$  A# )  1 )+/ , ) # 2%7,!12) ' )+'   ,  * '4    , %  
#) #'*$&7 '  )-% ' 9,  ) '  % ,  % , 1

m3\± ³ND/,K.sA#]^0UBD?87TC:<14o $ 3lE F45mAV ,R!r1N³} ,@¯N5>&ˆhV%).g5>fN369I7J]\,@³4?>5>3l,/7:CT,@.N0u?8</DK7:C:D/.H3).ŒD/?8D@ON.HE23=,,@5>5>P;3636,@O+, Cs7Š?>7J*H3_f+,/</,/3/fsV2365t• ?8OsMN,I7J.s?u,@7T5>0uok7:*H7:*H,@,@<K<K361-3)7:0U0u(s?8]dDLO-Ms?8O+3=,@fN?u5>?8D4O+143)(+58]\3B3B]^1}?d,@08(+.N]d<KOHCJ3;?8*-Os,I36?m,K0Uf+(+7Š³4583B3l0 C




9I•),@C:C:C:(NDIP360&?>,@ON5>3)3R5>®H36]\D/?>5 ,@.+%h</14C:3{3lfF?8D3l.s?>145>,/7J.+.+<ƒ0UCT,I(N?>fF3;D/P;.e7ŠP;?>OHON7Š3l?d?80mON08367T5)1436?>ON023hfs,@fN5d7J³4,@C:3lCJC‚36C40U36?8D360)?>ON*-3=DK±;583±QDKw“M4bc5836DI]\P)?_02D/,/5&.+*k1HDK]\58DK3CJ(+Ms*k,/]d.sˆS0l</V5>+D/(NO+.s,@1y? V
7T0Q?8ON3R08*H,@C:CJ3B0c?_,/583B,h7:.jfN7Š³436C:0{7:.g?8ON3MN7:.+,/58o}7:*H,@<K3=DK(4?8f+(4?  + Os,I?)7T0Q?8ON3CT,@5></3B0c?),@5>36, 
m36± ,KD/]d.sO A#0UBD7TC:<147J.N$ 3lE 3k5RA 7T?c0&Pmi®+D V ¯ƒ&M+58.gfN7:7Š</C:³4OZDK36?h0>C:0{0=f+D@D/,/EY. 5>?>,/ON?8CJC:ON7:3l.Œ3kCuEGCJ7J3B7:*H.N,I36,/?>0h(N</583hD@3BE)f+0 C:]\,/DK.N.+3/14V (+
c]\0&?8DK?85hON36D/58.ª3k, ,Œ08fN7J58?87:(+.Z,@?8?83B7:1©D/. ]\7:P;5>]lON(N367Š58?L3LMsD/DZ.N,@3k5d1yC:7JV .N3kz{,@ON.+3}1iP;.N7T1SD@?8?=O¥?8O+D@3 E


D@?>ON3l5;PQD/(+C:1g147T08,/fNfs3B,@5;7:.e,LM+7J.+,/58oƒ7J*H,@<K3=]l583B,I?>361g,/0{7:.Œ?>ON33\³4365>]l7:083=,/MsDI9K3  Ht³Sf+C:,/7J.’V
05>8fs36,/3B1N]^
?-.3l5h?8±mDP;O+7:ON,/C:CmDIf4P$MF?8363g5 7J?-,/%6MN5>v+C:3l€‚3HCT,I?8?8ON?>D 363ƒ0k(N?8]l.+ON,/147:*k.ª365>36C:0U3l5>?>,i.+,/0L.+5813B-3 0U,ZDK?8(+OsCJ,@(N,I?8?8?H7:7:D/D/0U.a.’3B€2]^EG?85>7:7:*HD/D/* . ,@</,ID/3Œ?hf4MN?>?>7:C:ON]6(N7T0h560h€Q7TfF0R,@D/.+5>7:3l1 .Z9S?67:14Va3l3lPQfN'_36?8,‹1©O¥9S7J,@D/.+.sE <e1a(+?>367:,/0kC:ˆ/1’0c3lŽ}?>. (+?814O+0UDK7:3Œ36*k1©7:.Z3ŒP;?8]l3l7J,@5>?836O¥5>0U3H?8583B?>3l1D x
O+*-147T,‹7J089K<K]l3ROZ(+?m0>3l0A.NP{?8DK,@ON(N.Z3=</?tOi]d?8O+DM+,@,/(+5d,/]d.+ˆS]\1ƒ?8</365>]l58D/3l7T(+580c?>?>.+,/7:1Œ]67J0‚.H?8D@DgDKE’M4Ms0Ubc363636.+</]\08?>7:. 7J0t.N(s<RPm0UDK,/7:.N58.+ˆS<L1k7:.N,R?8<}O+*k3)DK7T.i.N]\5>D@DK]\?>360>7JDK]\5U?dDK.+,@fs027:3K. D/€/E‡…7:5>.+w360808fsD/*H3BC:]^(4,/?Q?>]d7JON, DK7:.-.NQ3h,/±¥.+9SMF1-7T0UDK*-7:,@D/5d. 7Š³41y3B,/€Z1-fND/fN5mfNC:587Š7:³43B]636]\,IC:D/?>067J<K€/DK.NPQ.+7 0l l3)V3{.N?8+ DIO+P 33
EG080836O+7J<K,@,/.N?814(N7 (FDI5>P ]l36,@0_.ZD/?8?tEQOsv/,I,Œw?rM+*h,/]dO+]d(+ˆS,@0UC:5d?&7Š,/?RMF]\vK?83k3lw†5A083l5>DK363lM4.i*Hbc36,@,@]\5>7:?63R.NV-7:D/.Nz{Et<rON?87JON.k3k3L?>7J*HONfN3;5>,@D/<K7JfF*H7J.+3l,/5r<Œ</0U3;36 7 .Z l,I3L9SE‘?>7:7J583l.iDK52.N?>?8*-ONON3)3L3l.Z087J*H]6?r,@*h,@C:7J<K.+(+3/<&0UVr?EG•_5>MsD/0>3-* 0U(+3lPm.+*k</DK7:7:.N58.NCT<ƒ1R3l36?8?>58O+D3B,@1i7J?&*H08?>,/DƒON</3l?>3{5>O+3h7:,I0u?r7T]\0_?8D/.+O+.ND3 x
087:1436583B1y€I?>ON3)7:*-,/</3B02]l,@.L?8O+3l.HMF3),@.+,/CJo l3B1h(s0U7:.N<=?8ON3 … w *-3\?>OND41N02D/Es?>ON3;.N3\³S?u083l9K3l5d,@C4]dO+,@fN?83l5d06V
-› œ 3 ¢l£L¢d§1 .0/ 1£hŸ / 1=§A¡
 

 _0U?>08,@3k.s1ND@,@Em5d141n7:</EG7JD/?>5>,/*-CA,@7J*H?>0,@<KOs36,‹0&9/3H7:0=MFP;3l3l7T14.ª36081NfN3l5>9/3636,KCJ1eDKfs7J3B. 1©]\0UDKDj*k?>*LO+(N,I.N?-7T]l14,@7J`F?87:36D/58.’36.K€y?L1N,@O+?>,@,@5dMs14,/P{0836,@065>€F3-,/,/.+.+1 1a*H0UD/,/E‘]d?cO+PQ7J,/.N583k3}9S]67:,@087:.©D/.i08O+,/,@.+5>1 3


*H1N2,@,I, ?>?d,N0)VR)+/0cp‚?>7J7:C:</CYh(N7:.e5>*H3 (+,‹… 08o V&3/%BVQMs®ƒ3R•08bcˆ/EG(+3l3l0c?>P„?h]dON,eD@3BEA0)0U?8?8?>O+5>ON363R7:,/0*-* 08DK7J?80UD/(+?)EQ,@7JMS?8*-7:oZD/fF?8.’3BD/V058?>_3l,@.+.Z.4]l?)EGD4D/DK1458?8.N7J.+(N36<Œ.s0),I,/?>?8ON58363r3}CJoKMN7:€‡*H5>?87:ON3\,@[+36</58og3-3-14fN,@7:7J5>0>³43L]\3l(sCT1N008D087:36 l.©1g36.+587:0=DI.jP{D@?8x«EmONMS7T1NoK0_7Šx«`‡5>08DI3l365>]\P„3l?87:.ZDKD/?=5>.’1NEGVQD/3l•585Bx €

 -   D  C  ­
A#BD<$ E A   083l.s0U7:.N<kf+,@fF3l5)*-DK.N3loƒ1N3l.NDK*k7:.+,@?87:D/.+0
m.N± DKD/*k.s0U7:.+7T14,@3l?85_7:D/?8.+ON0 3k14%K36€ 087:</F4.e€ D@%BEu®N,ƒ€‹,@0U.+361 .+0UDK… 5;®+EGVD/t5=D/,}(L9KD/3l.N.+C:14or7:.N.N3l<}3B*H1r?8,KDr]dON]\7J5>.+363,@?8?83uO+,_,@?_5836?dfN,@5>ˆ/363B080 3l.Zh?>V,@°‡?8VF7:D/f+.r,/fsEGD/365Y5_?8*-ON3QD/5>.N3636]\ojDK</D@.NEt7 14 l363\5x

(

?814Di3l?8(+36]\0U3K?87:”t.No/<RDK]\(©DK(N.N.Z3l?83B361a5UEG.N367ŠD@?2?-MN147:CJ36CT0608V{7:</|4.ª5Q3),e0U5>(N365>]l3QD/</?8Dr.+7ŠD/?>MN7JDK?>.a,@7:.H,/CJ<K0UDKD/*-5>7Š?>3{ON0>*j,@*-€X.+fND/C:365L0A08MFON3\DKEGDK(N58C:1a3;,/oK.+D/0U(©PQ3lMF5>3Œ7:.N]l<+D/V™.+]l•_3l5>0>.N08(N361a*-3{,@MF?8D/O+(N,@??
D?8@,kO+EtCJ37:C:.N3lCJ.s3B7:.N,@0_365=,@,/±;.s5)1e±Q,@5>wP;5>,‹O+,/o ,I58 ?&5d,‹ˆZH2o-7:³4.+*hfN1eCT(+,@D/0U7:Et?).’7JV MFC:C:3R(N*-(+087J36.+1ƒ,@?8?87:D}D/.i147:08</ON7JDK?87 (N lC:3R1j,kMFMN3h7:CJ(sC‚0U,/3B0{1  7J?)|3lMs.Z_?836'_5>0QDIP?>ON*-3*H,/.S,/oŒ]dONfN7:7J.N³43K3lV_CT0_|,Z,/583R+ .+O+3l36,I1N?)36ˆS1e7:.+7:.1
application
(doc proc)
application
( scanner ) device,
write IF database IF read application
image image ( OCR )
file file file
file or
application channel
(web search)
application
...

p‚°Z?d7J<K,@(N.+5>1N3 ,/5>… 1HV%6EG®+D/Ž‚5>*-¨ ,@,/?m.S7:ok*H14,@36</9S3 7:]l(+36CJ0t3B0rDK5m|% ,/ fN0dfNuC:7:,/]658,I3_?87:.ND/3l.ƒ3BfN143658DK1}</?85dDL,@*H1NDR02]\?8O+5>367:0Q,@?8fN3K5>€ZD4]l14D/(+.+]^08?>(N7J*-9K3l3/C:ok€ZD/EG5QD/5{]\D/,.SE9K,@3l*-58?t7:CJ7Jo-*HD/,@EX<K143&3l1N9S,@7T]\?>3B,+0 V


,@.s1ƒfN5>D/<K5>,/*H0lV
]l087,/ 6CJ3/C:36€s1 ?87:*k 3h' 2?>-,/ˆ/.3l.Y,€s^,@€@.sfF1e3l5>]\O+5>36,@,If+?>0‚7JDKP;.e7J?8*-OL3\CJ7:?8.NO+3\DSx²1 EG3l3B7:0_1N02.N08D@3l?_f+fs,/,@5>,@58?_?87:.ND@Eu<),H5>DI5dP),‹0lP„V
7J*H.NEG,@D/<K5>*-3/V_,@°S?87:(sD/]d.kOe0U7J(+.4]dEGOkDK58,/*H0X,@7J*H?87:D/,/.e</3m*-?coZ7J<KfFOZ3/? €
MFfN5>3;D@O+bc3B,@]^.+?61N€YP;7J.a587J?UP;?>3lON.k7T]dD/Oa.-D/,_.N3}?d,@,/fF(43;?8C:ON,/DKMs5=36C4?8DSD/D/52ˆn7:.kf+08,@D/58*-?6€’369SD/.N7T143K3l— D/0A?>5>,/36fs08363B,/1 5>]d,gORM+.+,/D@5R?836]\MsD4DS14DK3H8ˆ MF3\EG?8DKON587T3-0A7:9S0t7:1N7J.+3l,KD@14?d-3,@,ZfN(+7:.N,@<j?83K7:Vm*-|²,/&</.+3B30
EGDI5>9/D/36* 5>,/CJ?>C4ON.+3}D/.43l³Sx«7JfF*H3l,/5>7:</*k3)367:.Z.4?6EGD/Vj5>*Hz{ON,I3}?>7JDK]\.}DK*k,@MFf+D/(4(4?836?t5h?>ONfN3_5>D/3l<K³45>fs,/36*š587:*-Pm3lDK.Z(N?>C:,/1nCN?>?8ON5>363l,@.©?8*-fN5>3lD4.Z]\?B3BV L080r¨e?>ONDK3}0U?mM+5>,/365h]l3l]\.ZD4?814C:o-3-14?>3lDe9K3lD/C:M4D/?dfF,@367:.1
0U,@?>.s,@1}.s1N?>D},@5d141}36EG]lDKDS581N*H3=,@7J?>?60;V ]\DK.Z?>,@7:.e,-ON36,K143l5;P;7J?8Oj.NDK.4x«7J*H,@<K3r7J.4EGDK58*H,@?87:D/.j.N36]l360>08,/58o-?>DHC:,/Ms36Cy?8O+3h1N,I?d,
7:z{.-ON083}D/°S*-36149/3l3;3l?>5d,/]l,@,K7JCTC’0U03BEGD/0‚fN5>5>MN*-DI(49S,@?t7:?>14.N0;3BD/1iDK?A587:7:MF.-</3l7:C:D@.+DI?>,@P†ON?83l36085d1gON0l€/P;DKfN(N7J?8(NC:1OiMNC:fN]l7:];D/5>DI*-1N9SDSf+7:]l1N,/(N3L.N*-7J?>3B3lON0_.Z3H]l?>58,@5>3B36?8,I7:,/D/?81N.-7:3l.N5,@<H.+P;7:1k*H7J?8]\,@OaDK</.S3hfN9/5dfN3l,/5d58]^08D4?>7J]l7:DK]636.h,@0>C20U0U7:D/7:.N.4E‘<H?cEGPQD/D/5>,/5_*H583{</,I5d?>,@,@7J5>DKfN3{.iON,‹7T9‹EG]lDK0),/5R7J?8CT,@DSO+M+D/,@CJCT.N3K06x ”V
14,@5>C:7J3.+< 0U369/]\D/365>*-,/fNCs(N<K?83l3l.N5365>7:,/*HC’,@]\<KD/36.s06]\V}3lfN•)?>CJ0;?8ON]\DKDK(N.Z?></,@O 7:.N?83BO+1ƒ3}7:14.g3\?8?dON,@7:7TC:0;0R0U,/3B58]^3-?>7JDK]d.ŒO+,/?>.NO+</,I7:?_.N<j08ON5>DK,/(NfNC:7T1Œ14CJ3loi.s14P;(N7Š?>5>On3/V ?>36]dON.+D/C:D/</oK€y?8O+3l5>3
 ?)> A$ # A A"> ACB

?8]\DS5>36DK,@C:• 0)?87:]6D/. ,@.’% .e€Z,@PQ .+D/1H5>,ˆƒ08D/P;R*-7J7T3;?80ROjˆS.N7:?>36.+ON361H3l14*jD@3B1E‡V)?>z{?87Š?>DeONCJ3K3R*HV O+,@


«?m36ˆK,/3}*-1N,@,‹3l.©o-5_08,@7:ON*HCT08D/DR,@(+</C:]\1e3 D/.Z(s]l?dD/CJ,@3ƒ.Z7:?>.-08,/3l,h7JCJ.gE‘x]\14?8D/O+36C:D/0>3R]\5t5>7J?>*H7J,@M+,/M+7J.N</CJ3)< 3hDK14085uDj7:*-]\?8D43lOs14.+,I7:08?h.N7:<D/7:*H.+?d06,@,@€NMN</?cC:3ƒoS3;fFfN?>3/DR58€sD4Ms1+]l3_36,I0>?8(+0U3h0U7:.N3BD@1< E
?8.NDgD/?87:36.K0{?>3lDK5>.jfN5>ON3\DI?&P f+7Š?>³4ON3l3rCA7J9I*H,@C:,@(N<K3B3r0lVRPQ,K•0;.N]\5>7T]\363L,I?>EG36361g,@?8,@(N.+5>1Œ3h.NfND/5>D4?=]\D/36E‘0>?8083636. 1yV ,‹9I,@7:CT,@MNC:3R7T0=, )  '  0(2' )%1j]\DK.K?d,@7:.N7:.N<
­K¯ 
  "!#!$!

 ?)> A : >#"->

NEGO 36DI,@PQ?8°S(N3lDK9K5>*k363l065B3)V €’EGt?8D/O+7J5>³4DK*-3l083ƒCs,@08?>0U7 0m(+ l]l3&58,@9S,/.H7:.+9ZOs1H7:.N,@<j7:.+*H14?>,@C:DS3_</1+3=DK,‹.Noi0U7 C: loLO+3&,‹C:7JCJ9K*-7:*-3}7J?87Š]\?d3BD/0t1-.Z?c?>?coS7JoS.SfNfs(N7T]l3B3B,/0u1 CJD/C:oH?8E’D 7J14*H7J<K`F58,@36DI<K5mP†36MF06€K?83\D 08?c(+PQ7:]d3l.+O}36]l.ƒCJ,/(+0u141NMN7J3}`F7:.+36*-58,@36D/5>.Kok5>?3},/(+7J.+*HC:1-3),/EG*-</DK3-58D/*H.N?coSD4,Ifs]d?dON0l3BV25>0hD/°S,/*-36.+9K3K1 x ”


3l7:*-5d,@,/CF</EG3DK581N*H,@?>,I,-?d0{,@]lC:D/,@.N.Œ<kO+P;,@.s7J?814OgCJ3?83l,k³Z0U?B3 €N,Z</(N5d3l,@.+f+]lON3r7:]6D@0lEY€4EG*L5d,@(+*-087:3B]/0l€4V3\?>0$]/V &%('*)+,)-=EGDK58*H,@?>0{,@5>3&369/DKCJ9S7:.N<L,/.+1ƒ7:.+]lCJ(+1N3
: >#"->)9+ ?& BDA"E-E $%'&

4D@1 E;7:587J3B?>¨ ]^0h?>,/CJ5>o .Z,‹okP36.+EGDK0U]\7 58D4 l*H143}3B,I141y?d360QVfsfN


3658*H.+DI14,@9S7:<K7T.N143k<i3)]lEGDKD/DK.*-5 fN?8(9ON.5>363-0>,0U,Z7:(+D/,/. 9CJ 7J]l?c)%
oi,@k. 5>D/3-5>,ZEY36(N14?>ON(+7:5>3&]l363k1a7:*H?8,@ON,@.+3}<K1a3=087 *-1N 6,@3-3l?>?8D@,kONE;D40U,@DL1a. ?8(+Os7J08*H,I36?;1y,@,@V <KC:3kCF±mf+?8D/De7Š*-³4v/3lfNCy®5>q9I36,/0>CJ08D/(N7J5rDK3B. 0{3l9K,@]63l5>,@.a3_.©.NvMFD/ 3?
% 19 % 0RD/5 %  0IV+ 7J?8O CJDZ0808CJ3B080h]\D/*-fN5>360>087JDK.’€Y?>ON3ƒDK587:</7:.+,/Cu7:*-,/</3ƒ]6,@.©MF3ƒ5>36]lDI9/3l5>361 3l³4,K]^?>CJoKV
+ 7J?8O}C:DK0>0UoL]\D/*-fN5>360>087JDK.’€I?8O+3)fN7J³S36C+5>3lfN5>36083l.Z?d,I?87:D/.s02]l,@.+.ND@?tMF3_5>36]lDI9/3l5>361h3\³N,/]\?8C:o‡ŽX08D/*-3\?>7J*-360u,
C:7:DK.+0>]\0uC:(+D/14E 3H,Z08(+D/,@*-C:7J?c3-okDI7T9/0Q3lfs5>ON365>3B]l,/3l1j7:9/7:3B.41yEGD/€S5>MN*H(4?;,I?8.N7:D/D@.a?;,@,@C:MFP{D/,‹(NoS?&06VA?>ONzY3}Dk]\7JDK*-*kfNf+C:3l58*-3B083608.K7JDK?). ]lD/*-*-3\fN?>ON5>36D40>1 0U7:D/,/.’.+1 €/?8ONfs3r,@5d7:,@*H*-,@3\</?>I3 3l5d(+0lC:Vh3&¨ *L(+DK0U0U??
MN7J14?{7:7J?></7T0{0;7J?>D/,L,/EXCFOZ147:(+*H7:*-</,@7J?><K,/,@36.ŒC‡0{DK7:,@*H5m5>3_,@*H</9K,K3r3l]d5>1NONo-,@7J.+?>1N3/,R7ŠVt`‡P;3lz{7:5>C:ON3lCy3r.ZO+?{0U,‹7JEG9/?8583&(sDK,I* CJ7J?8?U7:?>D/0UCJoS.g3r*L7TD/06Ms5{DK,K.NCJ(+7TDk]&7Š?>3\3r1N`‡7J1N36<K]\7Š7Š`‡?d?;,@3lD/C‡5>.ƒ3l7J.N.Z7JEG?Q?>D/0{EG5>D/*-]l5;D/,@.+*-?8087:DK(ND/0U*- . ?Q3l-D/5B?8C:€SONDK58360>365;0u<KDK]\,@D/5;5d14*-]dC:O+36fN,@0>(N0t.N?8<K3lD/53_EYP;(sD/E‚CJON3B,h3\0l?>”SEGONEG3lDK3lP 55
3\D/³N5Q,/?>*kON3=f+CJ,/3Kf+€Z,@]d58O+?8,/*-.N36</.K7:.N?;<h,/1+,L140U587:3B.N08<K0uCJ3&EG5>MND/7Š*š?{7:.ƒ— •R,@—S.}?8Dg36*-— 5&fN—:CJ&V DI
oK*H3l3&,@<K583=3B]\]lD/D/5d*-1-fN]\5>DK36(N0>C:0U1ƒ7:D/]d.HO+,@7T0;.N<K,@3).Œ?>3\ON³N3&]\7J0>?8,@7:.NCT,@<-5>o ,@5>(s363l,CT1H?>O+MS,Io ?)08f+@¯ ,@% !.s… 0
?808O+3l9/3h36<K5>,/,/C‡*hfs(4DK?;7J.ZEG5>?>D/0{*‰D/EX08?>7JON<K7T.+0{,@?8C’3lf+³Z58?>D4Ms]\DS3BDK08ˆF087:€4.NM+<-(4?8?_D}7T0{DKM4.NbcD@36?_]\?_08o45>0c36?>]\3lDK*H</,I.N?>7J?87:]67:D/,@.YC:CJVo-
?>*H583B,@,I<K?83h3B1y]\V DK*-fN583B08087:D/.g7:0&147:0>]\(s0808361e,@?
3 I$     !  )+   ', )  #% E E/# ACE E )  ,9(0.-, 0 )%1 
 (9.-,  9 )%
   2' , #3
 
)  %'  '  , 0() 2%  0(9     2 +) '   '  ) ) .%3)+   ,  * ' ' )%1 1' 2  , ) B4#'
(0 ,  0 )%1 /', )  #% E-E 1 
9+ ? ? & #  E-A  BD?)>#" E

5>*H36,I]\36?B¨ 7JVi9K,/36°S.Z1ŒD/oe*-EG5>D/D/3}Em* PQ?>ON3l,ƒ3-5>3}]\7JD/*H08C:]6C:,/36,@</,@.N36<K.+0r(N3637:1 . D/EG5_?85>OND/587T* 3l0r?85>MFf+7JDZ36ON9/DKD@36ˆ ?>1ƒDKf+0hEG,K5>,/D/0808.+*‰361 1i,@?8?8.eO+ON3l7:5>7:*-D/5h(+,/D/</</5>O 3R7:</1N*h7:.+,@(N,@?>CJCu,/?8M+7:1NfN,/7JC:<K083-37Š?dEG,@7JD/. Ct5>*-EGDK,@ 58 *H?>€ 06,@V-
?R °4PQ D/*-,KDK0 3H5)3l7J*H9K  3l,/. </D/365 0=  PQ EG3lD/5>583 x V
D/]\°SDKfF7:*-*-3l5dfN*k,ICJ?>3LDK7JDK.N7J*H.+C:og0t,/PQ(s</0U3R3l3B5>fN1e3_5>14EGD4D/DK]\5>3B.N*H083_08,I7JP;.+?d0&7J<k?8O,/*-583R7:</M+OZt58?&7:?>3\OsDS[+,‹D/o 9/CT0u31NDK36MF5u0>3l]\3lP;5>.n7J7JMF?814OŒ36D/1e08.NfFMF3h363l]\(+C:7TDI0U,@P7:C.NV  <H ?>D/?)ON53h>!7: "*HA$,@#&<K% fN3r5>BD?8D/> DS<K& D/5>
C,/*-$<$H06E V‚,@
.s°4#D/1jA *-*k$ 3_DKD/BD58E’?)3L?8]\ON>#D/"3&*-E *-fN> DKC:BD3\0U³A ?
E " $F# #A 7# $%& P;7Š?>OŒ,?>5836.+1HEGDK5m3B,/]dO-?>DLMF3&*-DK583&7J.+]lCJ(s0U7:9/3KV‚z{ON3=5>36,/1N3l5m08ONDK(NC:1}Ms3r,‹PQ,/583)?8O+,@?
0814D/D4*-]\(+3h*kD/36Et.Z?8?6ONV 3-143l?>,@7:CT0&<K7J9K3l. MF3lC:DIP P;7:CJCAO+,‹9K3R?8DgMF3L(Nf‡1N,@?8361iMSo ]\D/.s0U(NCJ?87:.N<ƒ?8ON3kC:,@?83B0c?r583lEG3l5>3l.+]l3
B ! &  < A $%&> B  $ ?)> A"E

5>';36(N14.N(+x«]l]l$#3HDS1N*-3 7J(0.N3l *-<j,)D/PQ5>RD/oi5>7:0=ˆ408f+0&,@,/.iPQ]l3l3/3 C:€Y}CtM+P;]\(47:ON3l?h.Z367J.?=?L]l?8]lD4ON,/1436.a7J58.+3-,/<ŒC:7T080R0>De]d,gON0U3lfFCJD/*-3l?R3B3R1aD@EGEmDK(N5_5>fa36MN1N7J7:*H(N.+.+,/,/1N58</oj,/3H.+D/D/]\5&fFo 3lC:,/7:5d.aMs,I?>36fN7JCJDK3B7J³S.+1e3606C:7:€Y0h*-0U,@(s,/C:]d</D/Oa3B.N0l<Œ,KŽ{0R?8.NON08D/3ƒ3\?&?R7JD/*HD/.+fFCJ,@oe3l<K5d3-14,I?>DS587J36DIDK0&P).+7J0606? VV



 -   D  C  ­!
 









   



  


  !#" $&%'(((

") *!,+ .-/102-30(2-/102-30.-410.-3 02-/10

") *!65 7-/.83(09-:;8:109-4284


0

Sop‚7J7J36<KC:(N1+5>0;3 ,@… .jV&%#3%/}Ž0]\';7:3l(N.Z.s?>]\CJD4oƒ14]l7:D/.N*-<rfN3l.+5>36]l0>DS0U1N3B361ƒ0X7:?8*HON3{,@<K5>3/(NV .+0‚D@E‡]\DK.+0U3B]\(4?>7J9K3m®&D/5 %Q9‹,/CJ(+3606€@,@.+1hEGD/5208D/*-3Q1ND/*H,@7:.+06€


MS•_';oa(N0>08.N?8(Nx«ON*-]l3jDS3-1N.S83,Œ(N*L5 MN7:Ms.+D@36EY,@5k5>?>oeOND/E;3 7:*-(+%K—<K,/0-(N</,@3K583rCJ”y?8EG3608D/ON585r.sDI,IP)36?8,K0{7:]d.N,LOi< *-7:,/*H]\DK,@5>58DK</3r0>3L]\0hDK58?8DI*kONPfs3j€y,/3lPQ]^.Z?;3-?>367J]\5>.+3ŒD/]\(+D45>C:14DI1nP7:.N58Vª<k3B]\D@p‚DKE+5>7J<Kbc1j(s(N?>0c5>ON?;3 3 ?>… ON& V&3 %# %6%\? • x«58(+</AC.+7:9/B0m36EGD@0k58EQDK,@*$®N. — 0_P;3\EG³NONDK,@CJ7:C:]d*-DIOgPQfNPQC:363/1 3 V

MF]l,/DZ. DKˆ‡0UV?87:';C:C2(N58.43Bx]\]\DID49/14367:5_.N?><-ON7:3H0{D/D/5>E‘?87:</367:.g.+,@(sC‚0U3B581ƒDIPEGDKV 5)+ ]\DK3k*kP;f+7:58C:3BCt08(+087J08DK3-.ƒ08(+P;]d7JO?8ON3l7:.e.+]l0cD4?d14,@.+7J.+1+<K,@0&5d1 EGD/(+5RC:3=08D/EG*-D/5>3H*H,@,IC:?></06DKV 587J?8ON*H0&7J. ?>ON7:0


< % >=?< B "-> # A % BDA   > &

D/7:.45 EGD/&5>r*H.NDK3g,I5U?8?dD@7:,@D/E&MN.ªC:?83 ON,/3eL583ƒ7Š08? 7J3l*-.+]lfNDSC:,@361Nfj0U36? 1©E,/(+*-7:CJ.¥3g7JC:•&oeEGDK°s58D@*H± E2


EG,I
^DK?dV2580L*Hz{EGD/,ION5H?d3ƒ0h0c7:?>|*HD/,@5>5{7J<K.+¨ 3 <n (+,@ C:.s3ƒ 1¥5>¨©3l3lfN³4€ 5>]d36uOs08,@3l¨n.Z.N?>^<K7JVs7J.N.Nz{< <nO+,/3h7J*H.ª7:*-,/7:*-</,/3j,/</</3L1N3},ION?dD/36,i,KE_147T¯ 0k3l5=5>?8DION,@P)3.+01eD@f+E7Š³4% 3l* C
< CA 
@<BA 

]\,@DK5>3tCJ(+,@*kCT08.sD_0{0UO+P;DI7Š?>P;Og.’*H€63B,@,/³S]d7:O*h7T(+0y* ?>ON3u</5>DK3l(4o}?8fN9I(N,/?YCJ(ND@3rEND/7:*HE ,@%</! 3t… ]l7TD/0).S089/ON36DI5>P;087:.gD/.&7J.j?8DSp‚D/7JCT<K0Y(N,/58fN3 fN… C:7JV&3B% 1r… V2?8D;z{?>PmONDk3uDK</585d7:,@</f+7:.+ON,/7:]&C‹?85>3\3l³S.+?‚147J36.N58f+7:.N(4<Z?60 V


z{v … ON3-5>DI7:P)*-0_,/</D/3-E *@,I­j?=?8]\ONDK3-CJ(NC:*-DIPm.+0=365&3B,/C:3\]dE‘O’?R”yP{?>ON,/0&3-*H7J*H,/,/14</3-3LMS,@oe?r5>?83lONfN3-C:7:C:]6DI,IPm?>7J36.N5_<Œ5>7J?8<KO+OK3k?rf+P{7Š³4,/3l0=CT0=*H?8,/Dg14*H3kMS,@ˆKo 3k(+,Œ5>0UC:?,/58]\<KD/3l.S5=9K3l7J*H58?8,/7:.N</<}3k?>D@D E
7:3\
.©³N ,/ D/*k(NEG5f+DKCJ583l3‹*H³4^6V,/,I*-?m5mP;7:fN.+CJ7Š,/3K?>OH58€YoK7:CJ€I.+DZ5>1408,@087T?8]loLON,@]l36?8D/7:5X.N*-?>< O+fN,@ON5>.-36DI0>P •&0U7:°sD/?8ON±.’3}V‚

‚z{7:*HfNON7Š,@3³4<K36(+3kCN5d]\0c7:D4?m.414EG3lDK7:.Z.N58?8*H<r5>oh7:,I02?>D/7J,‹EFDK9I.a?>,@ON7:7:3CT0R,@MN ]lC: D43u14EG36DK1 5A(+C:C:3)|,/•=587T<K0A°+3m±?8O+fN
"37T
]^?><K(N585>3636o 06)%(VmC:3l|9/z{36O+C:% 0r$ 3;\7:*-.©€ ,/ D/</…(+7T]5
ED

.S(N*hMF3l5{EGDK5;MN7:.+,@5>o}7T0 u­ K\V


 A#BD<$ E A   ±m5>36,@?87:.N<-,  u¨ fN7T]^?8(+583

7:(N•¥.K5>?>3]l3lD/.+… C:08D/V %7J5X?c… on7JV *H9I&,@,@0U<KC:7:(N3u.N3B<R]l0,/oK.REGD/D/MF(N5L3m5t36]\3B,KD414]d147JO ?83BD/1f+5B7Š€K7:³4. ]l3l58C² 3B€2,I5{0U?>7:¨3)*-, 7JEGCTDK(+,@585RC:*H3 ?8,IDe?X?>MZON or3Œ(+]l08DS7:.N1N <;361a?8O+3l*-3m.s*HD/]\D4.N,@14D4<K7:]d.N7:ON]t<R5>9‹D/vR,/*-CJ]\(+3DK3 7J.s]\m3l… v .Z ;?>58,/(+7T.+];C:3Œ1=]\7:08?85>ONON]lDI5>(N3lP;CT3=,@.a5t| '5>7:.¥3l€ <K p‚7JDK€ 7J5{.+</0x
D@5d,IE_?81NO+7Š3l`‡5{3l?85>Os3l.Z,@?k.j]l3lD/.+C:]lD/D45d140lV 7J.+<Lp+D/?>5kON5>363l,K3R]dO©083lf+fN,/7Š³45>36,@C~?8€A3=?>*kON3}DK.N?>D4ON]d58ON363Œ5>D/]l*-D/3&C:D/7:5h*H9I,@,/<KCJ(N360;3B0,/0{EGDK7TCJ0)C:DI14P$DK.N7J3r.¥7J7J.e*-08*-D/*-361437T,ID@?>?>3ŒON3l085{(+]lEGDK]l36580>*H0U7:,@D/?>.Y06€V
 BF1GHIH KJLJ1M 1N

w&7:08fNCT,‹o}o/DK(N5{fN7:]\?8(N5>3(+087J.+<-,/.j7J*H,@<K3_?>DSD/C’DK5QPQ3lMjMN5>DIP)083l5BV

F 
  "!#!$!


   !    
%!,6% $   &    8  ,%!  !, (
   3 !&  !#$ %*
(6 (


&







6
&


,
&
&


&
(  


  ,
&
( 6
&
&


&
(  


  ,
&
( 6
&
&


&
(        ,
&


,
&
&


&
(        ,
&
 (,
&
&


&
(  


  ,
&
 (,
&
&


&
(  


  ,
&
 (,
&
&


&







6
&


,
&
&

:?8Cp‚3lO+7J9/<K3 36(NC~5>€ 7 3 N% …Vƒ… V¯j%•Q… 7:?h0RŽX?8zY?8ONON3l3}3ƒ³Z?_C:CJDI36|~PQ9/•&3l3l°+Cu5± D@C:


3\E
UE‘?h'(+7T0RC: 3),j,@5>3l.+fNfN1n5>5>7J.Z36?>08?>ON3l363ƒ.Z1a?8C:7:DIfN.NPm7T<r]^36?>,@5(N.-58f+3H7:,@*-58*H?h,/,K</D/143;E 3-D/EsEG7~58—:?>DK€AON* ,@3;.+Pm?>1 ONDK3ƒ5>% 1 ! ,@… MF'_7:DI0R9/7 +3k?8#”ON?>*/3ƒ3\­³SCJ36?7:0A9/(+3l?>C:CmON3}3;D@(+E{M+08,K?87JO+.+]dˆZ3ƒ<e<K147J58*HDKD@(N?L,@.+<KD@1 3 E
EG,@D/C:</5>*HDK58,I7J?8?rO+]\*gD/.SV 9K3l5d0U7:D/.g?8DSDKC:06V•Q?&?>ON3LMFD@?8?8DK*š587:</OZ?&7T0=,@. 7:*H,@</3L*H,/143k(+087J.N<g,}C:DK0>0Uoe]lD/*-fN5>360>0U7:D/.
%   $ ?)> A
# A $
BD?)>#"

F(+M C:3l363l0Q.ez{,@ON(s5>3 3)0U3B5>% 1ƒ3lCT5>?>,I,/DH?8fN7:3l9/ON.+367TCJ]l]lok20D41436^,K3h.Z0U?8,-oL365>OS?8]dDL(NOs</,@Pm3r.NDK<K.S583ˆk(N*LP; Ms7JDK?83658O’5)*H€SD@,IMNE2?e(47:?;*-| ]l,/,/ </ .N3Bk.N0{D/DKD/?u58.g7:Ms</3=?87:.+ON(+,@3 08?836+361-1ª+ EGEGDK58+5mDK*O+7JDK<K5)±mO4x²D/7:.jf+*-58]l3BfN(N]\(s5>7T°40U587:363lD/.K5>.H9/?_3/]\1+€DK,ICJ
DK?>.+,/56]@M+€SV ,/087J08.+,@36]l.+063)V1 D/ O+.+
c,KCJp o 0
¯I]\DKx«MN*-7J?>fN0R(4,/?8365853-14(+7:080836fN1nCT,‹?>o/De3B1 3l.+7:*-]lDS,/1N</3}3B0l]\”’D/,ŒC:D/5B*-V}D/z{5>3kON3]lD/… *-Ff+*j,/]\]\DK? CJDK% 5*Ix 9‹]\,/DKCJCJ(+DK365_0RD/,‹fN9I?8,@7:D/7:CT.n,@MN]6C:,@3H. ,@,@5>3LCT0UDŒ?coSMsfN3-7T]l,/(+CJ08C:36oi1y08Vk( W} ]\+ 7:3l.Z?R.ND/EGDK.N5x
C:DK0>0Uoƒ]lD/*-fN5>360>0U7:D/.Œ7:0;,‹9I,/7JCT,@MNC:3/V
  $ ?)> A
# A $
BD?)>"

@,08(NC:CtfNfFfF&D/D/5>fN587J<K?>(+0A7JC:.+,/*h,@5?8(+3BfNCŠ1H?>C:,@7JfNMS?UC:EGoƒ3)DK58•)7:*H*HCT140R,@(+</,/0_3B.+0‚±m1 P;DK7:7Š580?>f’O D/V:€$E‘%{?8 36?>.aD … ?8­rONDK3-MN5 7JEG?> DK0258 *HD/ E‡7T,I]l0{?RD/9/C:(sD/360U585A3BoHfs1n<K36MS523l.No fN367J08³S5>]6,/36,@CFC~.NVu,/.N.+&361ƒf45>06?>9K7JV 3lDK5>.+ o}02,/]\,@< DK5>*k3;^*H,‹f+9ICJ,@3l,@</³‡7:3C:V,/MN
«?)CJ7:3mC:7T3 0QEGD/(+ 520UD/363B5>7Š1ƒ?>*-ONDK,@3l. 5?
C:DK0>0Uo}DK5{CJDZ0808CJ3B080{]lD/*-fN5>360>0U7:D/.’V
 <  % $
BD?)>#" $
B E*" $F#F#&
" E

 >7:*-5 ,/D/</(N 3Bf’0lH ”/V2?8 z{ON3{ON!| Kp3$*H,I


cbcp DKH "5AZp fN(N
]\5>"D4fs14DZ 7:0U.N3{<}P{20>7T,/]d0QON0X,R3l?8*-D*-3rfND/5>7:5>DI0;3_9S0U5>7:?81N365>]l3u363l,/EG.ZDK*k?Q5‚x²0Uf+DK?>5>58,/,K7:.+3l]^.Z1N?8?87T,@]l3B5d,/1ƒ1-CN,/EG]\5>.+DKD/*k1j*f+,@58?8C:CJ3BO+DI08#3 P)087JKD0mDK/.REG7:D/.ZD@5;? E‡5>tON367:,/O+</CŠD@O4x²?8?8x 7:DK,Z*-</(+5d3r,@,@C:O+fN7J?c,@O+oR5d7:]14]\P{D/HtC:,@D/³45>52fs3_360U?8EG5UDK7:?dCJ50 C
?8(N]\O+D4.+3l14]l5>7:D/3k.N*-<ƒ7TfN0r,/5>D/.+36.+1 0>0UCJo 3B141 3BDK]\.NMSD43koZ14?87:7J3B.N*H0l<+V%,@V&<K•)3- .ifsH 367: 5*H(+7T,@0rCJ<K3K3h7JVH.+]l1Nz{,/3l.eONfF3-3lO+.NON,‹369/36.K3R,K?R14(+D/3lfe5Et?8?8]lO+D ,/3-. *@]l­/]lD/ˆƒD/C:.ZD/³ ?>5,/*@]\7J­/. D4ˆg14,Œ7:fN.N?87J<j³4OS3l(N0UCT*ho40)0UM+D@?836.+E *g,@… 7:­}€XC2,ƒ7JMN*H7J*H?>,/0&</,I363-bcDK,KD@5]dO’EQ,/€F(N14,/fi9ICŠ,@?>?>ON.ZD ?dD/,@(+*@</</­/3KOˆ V
MN¨eC:3/DK€Z583rMN(414?m3\?d]l,@D/7:*-C:0QfNDKC:.g3\³k]lCJD/DZC:08D/085{oL0U]lo4DS0U1N?83l7J.N*H<R0{0>,@]d5>ON3=36*k</7:3;9/3l7T.ƒ02(+7J. 0836±m1-O+P;,@O+fN7:?8]d3lOH5 D/*+E‘V2?83lzY.}D-]6,/,@]d.HON]\7:3lDK9K*-3_fNON587:3B</08Oj02]\,rDKO+*-7J<KfNO 583B,K08(s087:,@D/C:.’7Š?c€SoL,R7J*H[s3\,@³4<K7Š3 x
 -   D  C  F@%

>5.N… 3l®+D/</?QŽ&%r7:D/7:*-P;.s0r7Jfs?8DKD@ON5UE;DK?d(4.N,@?)36.Z,/?{.N58D/?8C:onDL?87T]l?8]l,@OND/M+3.+CJ0U3R]\?>DK,/14.+.Z3608?h</(N5d*-]\,/D/1N3lC:,@D/5B?8VQ5R7:D/|!,/.’.+ V21aH z{P; ONON3RO+36]l,K.©D/0{*-ON,h7JfN<KC:5>O7Š?836?80>EGC:0U583r7:3 D/(+,K.g(+0U3B3lPQ1ƒ.+D/]lC:5>onDKˆS0>0Q9I08CJ,@PQ3B5>083l7T0Q,IC:C’?8]\7:P;DKD/*kON. 36f+7:.Œ.©583B?>0858ON08363R7J</DK7:7:.}D/*H.+D/,@0fN</?8D/3r7:E{D/O+.’1N,K€S3\0{?>P;,/C:,/ON7JCm587T]d<K7:O 30


*-,) 7J*<K(OZ?' ,K ]d(0ON 7: 3l)9/ 3 3… '*Ž %k1]l D/ *-. fN/5>36.0>'*0U)%
7:D/+.i€/P;(+O+0U7:7:.N]d<Ok7:, 021N,.7:0>)%]\(2(+' ) 0> 08)361L(0 7J.},)±m/O+V™ª,@fNz{?83lON5 3HFN]\€IDKEGD/*-C:CJfNDI58PQ3B36081h087:D/MS.io $0>]d2ON1 3l*-3k1 (+08(036 0=,)?8O+@3 €
P;ON7T]dOj7:0{.ND/?;?85>36,@?8361Œ7:.Œ?>ON7T0;MsDSDKˆFV  H  7T0 &! " 1436087:</.N3B1}EGDK5;9Z7T1436D+V

’MSW oŒD4]6A#]l,ICJBD?87T<]d3RˆS$ E ,/7J.NA .e<-7J*HDK .g,/</oK3D/(N9S5;7J367:P;*H7J,@.+<K<-3I?8(sDSCJD/3CT0U7T3l]\?_DK.’D/.jV  oK_D/08(N35_D/]l.ND/3r*-7:fN*-(4,/?>3l</5=30UD/o4EA0U,k?83lE*j,K]\Vr3|,@z{.+ON1g3B0UDK3h.N*k37:D@</E2OZ,-?_C:MF,/3h.+1N,‹9I0>]l,@,/7:CTfs,@3KMN”NC:3QMsD/bc(+?8O’0c? €
0814ON7:</D/7J(N?>CT,/1nCt]lD/,@5>*-7J<K7J36.+5>,/,+CJVkC:o ±mMFD/3H.S9/D@36EQ5U?=ON7J?8<KO+O 3k,K7:*H(s,@,@C:<K7Š?c3koK€X,/*k0>,‹DKo .N¯/<j®/14®ƒ7Š`‡³ 3l5>*K3l®/.Z®g?r]\EGDKD/CJ5>DK*H5,IfN?d7Š0-³436 C:06€’ EG5>D/  *  ,Œ [s
,@?8MF 361a3l?>0>]@]lV,@.+';.N3B3l]\5D/5dDK1 5


?8DIO+9/3h365>0U,/7 CJ lC‡30>]\D/3lEX.+?>3ON3RfNCJ36(s.+0;]\0UD4*H143B,@1ŒC:CY7:14*H3l,@?>,/<K7J3 CT0l(+V CJ3B0;7:.eMZoZ?>360),/.+1g.ND@?>3r?8ON3 ,Z(+,/CJ7J?coƒD/EX?>ON3R7:*H,@</3K”+]\DK.+087:14365;?8O+3


 A#BD<$ E A n˜  H  0c?>(+14o

?8C:|DK3B,Z0>0c 0U?{oj')?>ON36]\3=DK0836*kw,@f+5d±Q]d58Oaz3B08?8080>O+7J]dDK3ON.e36*k(+ 083=H7J.N7: .g<g,h0U]lDKD/CJ*-DZ*-083hfN08CJ5>3\3B36³4080>0m7T0U0c7:*H?>D/7J.+.ª,@<ƒ.N0>.+7:]d*-3lON536,/*k|G</3l3h3Œ³4]l?8EG3lDSD/f4D/5-?{C²Vk¯ EGDK|~5Q1+ fF¯iDK_7:0>*H08087J7J.N,@MN<Œ</C:3=3ƒ?858O+MNDK;3 CJ(ND4.+*@]d­gˆ41406D/]\V`gDS3 36|}Ms585> ]lD/7J5^


36*k^.KV{?df+0)|CJ]B36EG{*k5>D/±m36*‰5>.Z36?-,@C:DK?8,/0>3=.+0U1o,
]\¯ DK*-¯LfN587:3B*H0808,@7:<KD/3/.’V €B5836</36.N3l5d,I?>3t,@.h¯ ¯{7:*H,@</3m,@.+1R]lD/*-f+,/583t7J?>0‚fN7J³43lCZ9I,@C:(N360XP;7Š?>O?8O+DK083uD@E4?>ON3QD/5>7J<K7J.+,/C 

< E "
<B1$ &"

?8CT,@36.N5>0A<Kz{(+,/ON.+,@3r<K1R3{E,@,/,/5>*k.+3u17:D/C:oŒE‘?836H D/.LE‚mEG(+°#DK08&5836*H1h7:0t,@P;3l?>.+7Š-0 ?>]6Oh5{,@f+w=¬;08p%$(N%Q CT,Iu</?85dw=3B,@1kWfNfsONDZH7T]l0cm0X?d08°g14]l7T580U0U7:fN?8f4DKCT?_,‹58o43r|GDK0X7:58*-,/7:</.+,/7:1R</.+3R,/f+CJ581NC:7:o,@.Z?>?8EG5>,H3lD/5d(s*†06V0U7:•&.Nm<H14w&D/fNMFW!5>3B7J).Z\?d€/7T0A,@P;MN,)ONC:3hf+7T]d,/OH•&</°s3{7T0t± 14]\


36DK
;0>*k]\]d5>O+*-7JfN,@DK?85d.N7:,/D/CJ]\.o x
(+3l.s0836]\1ƒD414?836DH1-]\9SDK7T.Z, ?>,@Bx7:«.gMN7J</?m5d•&,@fN°sON± 7T
]l
t0Q]\DKD45Q147:3B*H0l€Z,@0U<KDR360m?8ON?8D-3B0UMF63 3(sCJ7J3B.+0u083l]l58,/?8.H3B1ƒMs3&7:.Z3\?8³NDH,@,k*-C:7:,/.N5836<K1H3l5{,/.+14D41H]\]d(NO+*-,/.N36.K</?B3BV1LtMS7Jo-³43l,rCT0m?83l9I³S,/?mCJ(N363B1N0;7Š?>,@D/5>5B3 V
F&?>DRv/®K®/®r14D@?d02fF3l5t7:.+]dOHD@Ey<K5836oh08]6,@C:3;D/5t]lD/C:D/5t]l,/.HMs3_5836fN583B0U36.Z?8361k,@.s1L.+3lPQ3l5t9K3l5d0U7:D/.+0A7:.+]lCJ(+1N3
P; ONH3658 3r7J]\?)DK7:*-0{fN?>DH583B,@08fN087:fFD/36.’,/Vg56V2• ¨euDZw=0c?;W D@E‚ON?836O+,K3143l7J5L*H]\,@D/<K.Z36?d0Q,@7:7:.Œ.+0r?>ON?87TO+0;3}MsMsDSDKDK(Nˆ}.+O+14,‹7:.N9/< 3rMFMF3lD‹36³n.gD/7:E{.+]l?8CJON(+3}1N367:*H1j,@,/<K60 3HH D/m.a° ?8(+O+CJ3}3B0lf+V ,@<K3
 <  % $
BD?)>" $ B $ A

4</1 5>7:D+D/€6(+¨ ?8f 3l ³ZD@H ?‚EQ,@58.+361=fN|‚58¨</3B5d0U,@36f+.Z ON?>@,I7:]6¨ ?>0l7J9KV 36H 0)¨  EG58 x DK% H*šI ¨ 7J{.+ 1N0cH ?d(+,@ 0c.+?>x 581+… o 0‡XEG,/7:D/0{.+5 1n,L0c</?>D@DI58?89/3B7:36,@D/58*k. .+x²r*kDK7T5836]^7:.Z?>3l?>(N.Z0658?>Vr3361-z{_3lO+³4.s3-fs]\36¨D45U14?d 07:.NH % <L 5>0>D/]dE(NON,/f’3l*-*-€‹7J,@C:3&.ro EG7:D/D@.Z5QEQ?83l9S0c5>?d7:.+14,@,@.+36?8D+1N7:€4,/D/,@5>.+1+(N,/0xC
 B<

7T¨ 0 ]\(NH 5> 5836x.Z%=?8C:7Toe0;fN3l5>9/7:DK*-CJ9S,/7:58.N7:<gC:oƒ5>14,/36fN087:7:1N</CJ.Noi3B1},/CJDKEGDK.N5)<g*hP;(N7Š?>CJ?8On7:*-?>ON36143k7T,H?83B08]doSON0U.N?8D/36C:*HD/<K0)oe,@.+D@E{1g]\fND/5>*-DI9SfN7:(N1N?8363l0m5d0EGD/,@5_.s,-1n1N]l,@D/?>*-,-*h5d,I(N?>.+3=7:D/]6,IEA?8®+7:D/V … .YF V


¨e08(NMN7Š?d7J,@?>MN0QC:fF3)3lEG5;DK5m0836*L]\DK(N.+CJ?81H7:*kD/EY3B14]\7TD/,R*-EGfNDK5>5m36fF0>08D/36fN1}(+C:,/,/(+5u14fF7:DL3l5d,@0U.sDK.+1 ,@%/CFV ]\… D/F*-¨ fNMN(N7Š?8?d3l0Q5d06D@€ZEXM+]l(4D/?Q*-7TfN0u5>?836DS0>Dh0U3BC:1-DIP 9Z7T14EGD/365mD+ONV27Jz{<KO4ONx36,K08(s3_,@5dC:,I7Š?c?>oH360Qz{,@–h5>3 V
z{143 ON(+3}.N7J¨ ?87:D/.iH z{x–… 5d0U,I?>?>,/36.+061NV;,/z{5>1iON3LfN58]lDID/9S*-7T14fN365>0&360>EG0UDK7:5D/.j(Nf 08]dO+?8D 3l*-% FŒ3?>¨e,/ˆ/MN3B7J?>0)0R,/fs14369I5h,/.K0U?d3B,@]\<KDK3.+1nD@E21+Ms,ID/?>,g?8Oi5d,I08f+?>36,@0&?87T?8,@DeCY5>O+36,/1N.+(N14.+C:1N3-,/ON.+7J]\<KoKO €
5d,/,I0h?87:(+D-0836D@1©E … 7:. FL?>D  H%/€N P;€‚7J?8,@O .+1 … ®/?>®h3l*-?8D fFD/%5d5d,@,ICQ?8587:DK3B0{14(NfF.+DK1N0>08,/7J.+MN]\C:3/oaV ,@.s1a </,3l..+3l5d% ,@C:CJo,$#fN 5>,DI19Z 7T14(r3B0R360>,e083l(+.Z08?83\7TEG,@(NC:CJC;oƒ]l*kD/*-3B,@fN.+5>0;360>?80UO+7:D/,@. ?

F … 
  "!#!$!

 ?)> A$ # A) BD?)>#"   " ACE $   " A"EC9;> DB E
@%6®v/!+¯+€€ … … v
A A
 F.!#F F &%
 
  

%!
6¯…
v@%%-C­*/"%®+FNK€€€­ZvK@¯v//¯ ®v
!@%
%.F !
%
*


  |CJDZ0808CJ3B080d
 
­ !+&€ % */®
I®/®
*/¯@­

  |CJDZ0808oN *@%! … !+€ F/®/®
</z‚p‚5>,@7J3l<KMNo (NC:35>C:3 3l… 9/… V&36%KV&C%BŽ&vNp‚V '47:CJ
/3-i0U7J7 *H l3B,@0-<K3ƒ|G7:.n08ONMSDIoZP;?83B.ª0>)7:.¥EGD/p‚5=7J?8<KO+(N3 583 08… ,/V*-% … 3 H,/.+7:*H1ª,@v/</­3k3l.s]\­KD4¯14!i361i]\D/7JC:.aD/5 147J`F±Q36,@58365d90.Ze?&7JEG*HDK58,/*H</,I3ƒ?d0l08ONŽ=DI¯ P;.ª% 7:.*

*H]l,/,@.h.Sbco©(s0c5>?_3l</367:.+D/]\.sD40k143R1NDn]dOs.N,@D/.N?}<K36]d0{O+,@,@.N.+<K1g3Œ36*L9/3l(+.g]dOªfN5>EG365>14D/7T*]^?;D/EG5d.N,@3Œ*-EG3B5>0Q,/*-EG58DK3Œ*$?>DiEG5>?>,/ON*-3e36.N0;3lMF³Z3\?}EGDK,/58.+31¥,@.s,/1g. ,@36E‘.+?8]\36D45;147J.g7:.N?8<©O+3R08]d9SO+7:3l14*-36D3
08]\-3D4,Z14(N3Q3l?>.sD]\3/</V 3l.+|~3lpN5d(4,I?>?8(N3m5>?83}O+3l9/7:36525>7J08*H7JDK,@.+<K0=3606D@VE;R¨ ¨e 3614H 7T , ,ZP;(+7:,@CJCmC:7J?cO+oR,‹9/7:023-1N]\3\D4?81436583B*-0r7:EG.ND/3651k5>36,I]l?2D/?><KON.N3{7 6?8367:*-1n3{D/M4D@E‡bc3B3l]^.+?d]l0DS,@1N.+7J.N1 <sfNV 5>
D/<K 5> ,/
* 

  7T0=,HOSoZM+587T1e08]dO+3l*-3RP;ON7T]dOHbc(+0U?=,/fNfNC:7J3B0  H  ]lD/*-fN5>360>0U7:D/.g?8DŒ9S7:1436Dƒ087J.N<KCJ3REG5>,/*k3B0_,/.+1
(+MF14DS083ƒ7J36.+fF0A< DZ.+DKD@
58?A36?>5 ,/
?8ˆ/Os3;,@,/
.ª14 9IP;,/7J.K?8O€X?d,@]\<KD/3m*-D/fNE+5> ?836360>V *-08_7JDKfs08.nDK3ƒ5>7T,/D/0C4E).N58*-3BD/14?hD@(N?8,/.+7:D/01N.©,/<K.+DZ9K]\D436oK1y]\V?8€‚D/+ 0U5dDj0ON*-MS7:C:o 3;3l*-3l.+DK]l58DSon1N 7J(+.N0UEG<3BD/,@5k,/<K.+]\3-1LD/,/*-1N.+36fN1n]\5>D436?8140>5d087:,@.N7J.+DK<r08. *-7T0tD/7:0UE;0>7:08*-9Z7JDK7TfN14.nC:367 D (+P;3B7:7:CJ1 0 C
143B08]l587:Ms3B1ƒ7:.i±mO+,@fN?83l45 !+V 

9+ ?&> B1$ E '& $ !


BD?)>#" E

@?8D D E‡?>,jONz‚3;,@v/MN­?>,/C:3 MN…C:3_V%t­K,@¯]\fN!gDKf+*kCJ]lohD/fsC:?8,@D/D5>5r36?>0y7:ON*-083;D/,/?8*-</7:.S3K32okV fs¯


«DK?RfN(N7:0R% CT,@*&fs5’<KDZ7:5808*H36087Jo4,@M+08<KCJ]63A3k,@EGC:?8D/3QDe5>f+*-DK7:]\M4,@?8?>?>(N0‡,/5>7J7:.©3.r?81436'_7J58`‡7 *Hr3l5>0’P;3lD/.ZO+ES?h3l0U5>?80U367 DK l,/5>3-0‚,/</?>fNON327T3_]^08?>7 5>(N 67:3/5></36VYOZ0rz{?uEG]\ONDKDK3u5rCJ(NCJ?83l*-ONE‘?X3 .H]\DK,@08CJf+(N,/fN*-*-CJ7:.+3 36 00
7:D/*-(N?8,/fN</(43k?LMSEGoe58DK(+* 0U7:.N?><jON3Œ147J0>`F]l36,/58.N36.N.K3l?R5h08PQ3-,Z,K(N0 36F@.+®]\!N3B0&€ … F@D/vŒEuEGMSDKoZ58*H?836,I06€A?P;]\DKON.S3l9/5>363l5d,K080R7JDK,e.+0l]\VDK.Sp+9/D/3l5r5d083\7J³NDK,@.i*-?>fNDiC:3/, €‡?>ON 3 (+C:3} P; 7J?8 O©  D/.+(+CJC:o 3 M

z{0>… ,@F$ON*-*H7T0 3h]\DK(+9SCJ.+7:DK3l,/5>PQC0{365>1j3- ,Z D/(N. (+7:58C:?83B3HON1 3}O+%6,/± v/1n¯+'A€EGzr… 36*PmV‡hM36z{5SO+oZMN3 ?87Š36?d
006 €s7:,/.a .+?81eON(s3}CJ, 3k]l D/D/.N C: D/3h5R(s?8CJ]\ON3hD47:5d141N1e3B3l0l5>7Š?d€X7J9K0&MN3608(41g 7 ?h lEG3L5>,/D/fN,/* fsC:083BDƒ?>,@O+5>14,I367T08?=1ifN58?8C:3,‹De,ZoK(N36MF1j7J3 5>36?>,Z1 ON(+3L%,@"%C:0>7J,@/?>,I*-€ ­K?>vK3K7J9K®hIV 3lC:+MSoeoZON?8?83BO+7:C:0l33 V
?8P;O+ON3R7T]dCJOjDZ08*-08o ,‹
oH5>-3 ,Z (N7T7:0)5>3=,HOs]l,@CJ5d3B14,@PQ5),/P;587:3_.N.NEGD/365)5)5>7J36.g,/?>CŠx²3l?85>7:*-*-0_3&D@fFE23l580UEGfsD/,/5>]\*H3K€4,@.+?8O+]l7:3/0_V 7:0),@?_,H]\DZ0c?)D/E21N36]\D4147:.N<}]lD/*-fNC:3\³47Š?co

-› œ  ¢ 7u¦e jŸ)¡‚¡ 1R 


  \ŸI/ ¡ šŸ 1 .0/21£hŸ   

5>fN• 7:5>]dD/M+ONMN58.+7:C:363\3l0>EY*H0_P{0&D/,@EtEGC:D/ˆk?85ONP;3k*H7Š?>.+,KOƒ]d,@ON?8D/(N7JfF.+5d3l3k,@.ƒC‚9S3l9S7To/0U7:087:3BD/(+0u.Y,@,/VgCA.+PQ|²1H°SD/3l*-5>3}C:1’7J.sp‚Vr1}7:z{</P;(NO+7:5>7:CJ3 0=C‡]\…5>DK7:V&]d%B. ONv}(+.+5>EG36*DK0>50_P;3\36³NOs.N,@,IO+*-?u,@.s?>fNON]\C:3&3/360&V™,/OS5U?>z{(N7:*H0UON?Q3-,@,/.n7JCJ.Z5>3\36?8³436,K.+fs1408ok367Š58?cˆZ7:o 3l.+.sDKDI]\P)53h0u]\M+D/,@(4C:MFD/?RD/5]l(N,@,@?u?(s?80U,/O+3B. 30


?c7:,@*-oS.sfs1©,/3g</D@3RD@?>E)fFON3lD/*H5L7:.Z,@D/?r?8M43l1N5>bc3l7T3B,@fF]^Cu?>3l06.+7:Vi*-1N0=fsz{DK7:ON.i5U36?d58,@]\3Œ.ZDK*-?6,@€25>fN3}M+CJ3l(40U³e?-fF36PQ08]lDi,‹(No4C:7T,/0L0)58DK7Š7J?d?8. 0L7:36*H0hDK58D/,I7:3l?>.¥.Z3l5>?d087:,ION,/?87:C~7:.S€FD/o </.©3608D/5>(N3l*-58CTE,I3\,/?>?>]\7J589K3BoK3H0l€s€2,@?808Dn.sO+1e,/?8O+1NCJ7:DI3Œ</P)OZ080l?>3l7J€‚.+.N08*h<sD/”y(45B.N€A?>(+D@CJ7:,@?=</CQOZD/5>?k.N3\C:[+08ojD/3B(+7:]^0_?85>7:]l?8D/36O+.Y063 €€
,@.s1g?85d,@.+08f+,@5>3l.Z?)*H,I?>3l5>7:,/C:06€NEGDK5&3l³N,@*-fNC:3/V)pNDK5_5>36]lD/</.+7Š?>7JDK.gD/Et*H,@.Sog08(N58E,/]l360;DK5_D/MNbc36]^?d0l€‡]\DKCJDK5
 -   D  C  F /v
*H*H,‹,@oj.So-MsfN3k7J³SD@36EuC:C:067J€S?U?8.NC:D@3k?‚7Jbc*-(+fF0U?;D/58D/?>.N,@3K.sV2]\3h±Q,K5>3l0U3BCT,I0u?>P;7J9KON3R36?>58DŒ3=PQ08O+3_,@O+fF,‹3L9KDK3_5_C:7Š?>?83\?8³SC:3=?8(+]l58D/3K.Z€‡?8]d5>OsD/CF,@5dDI,/9/]^36?>5t3l?85>O+7:0U3&?87T36]l.Z0;9S?87:O+58,@DK?r.N*-14363lfs.Z36?6.+€S1n08(+(N]dOŒfsDK,K. 0
*-D/.N7J?8DK587:.N<k?85d, }]=f+,@?U?83658.s0l€N]6,@.gMs37:.Z?83l5>360U?87:.N<H,@.s1Œ147 }]\(NCJ?6V
•_08D/0_(N5dPmt]\5>3R3-D/08M+]lO+,/CJ36,/.n*-CJCY9I0k08,@3l5>0U3oe?87:7:CJ.i7:C;. 5>±m3l7:.ZO+*H?8,@36,@fN.+7:?8.¥0U3l7J5I?c36o 9/*N36€NDI.¥9K5>3\3l7:[+5r. 3B,Œ]^PQ?>5d7J3lDK,@C:.ŒCŠ.+x«</3lEG.+3k5>D/</D@*q7:.NEI3l%B,H36®/580U®+3BO+€1ª®K7J.S®/7:oƒ®H.+14*-?>(+D 3l0U?>?8%-5>,@7:C‚,/,/.+]\C{oS1n3lC:.S7J*k.+9S1NDZ7J5>3l0cD/5)?R.N7:08*-CJ3lC:(N.+36*-.K08D/?d7:0h5d.+0=,IDK?>]l5H36,@1j.+z{.N–‰MSD@oŒ?0U,-?8O+(s,/fF14.+D/7J147:DZ.ZC:0l3? V
0814(+7J`F]dOƒ3658,R36.Z14?8oSC:oL.+,/DI*-9K3l7:5A]_?85>7:,/*-.N3/</€Z3KMNV‚5>°S7J<K(NOK.+?>CJ3l7:</.NOZ7:.N?m<hDK5m±;,/±Q5Uw ?>7 (s7:*H]l7:,/,@C+<KC:367J02<KOZP;?Q7J?8]lOH,/.}7:.+ON]\3B5>36,I,K?m0U083B(N1k58E7J,/.4]\EG5d3B,@0l5>€S36]l1k,/(+DK085t7J.NCJ3B<R,‹9S?8ON7J.N36<*†08O+?>Dh,/1N5dDI,/P)147T0A,I?>D@3 E
,@,/7:0>5>08fN7:0UC:?r,/.N0836D/0m*-D/3-.Œ7:*-,h5>,/(N</.S7:.NPQ<g,‹o-D/fF,I3lE‘5d?>3l,I5m?87:?8D/ON.s360l7J€y5;MN14(N36?rf+,@7J?h58?8]l(+,/58. 3KV2,/±mC:08DKDg.KMs?>583kDKCJ?8C:D/36?>1},/CJ*kC:oiDK.N,@D4Ms]d0UONDK5>58D/MF*-361i3_MZCT,/on083l]\5m3l58CJ7:?></,/OZ7J. ?;]l0U,@(+.ƒ5UE,K</]\5>3636,I0=?>DKCJo 5
MF3R14D/*-7:.+,I?>361gMSoƒ0U3B]\DK.+1N,@5>oH5>3\[+3B]^?87:D/.s0mDK.jD@?8O+3l5d0lV
M+*-,/D/.+5>
143;.eP;]\*H7TC:361S,@,@?8O+.S5>C:oŒ0uoD@,/7ŠEyEyfNC:,IfN7J<KC:(+7:OK]6CŠ?Q?>,I3l?>]l5t7J,@DK7T.-.+0A0;(+MF083D@36Et(+1L,/CJ?8?8(436D?858DK3B,/*-1kCJC:DI,@D/P¥?8(47:D/?BDK”K.’.NEG€sCJDKohfN5t5>7J3\.4D/³NMNEG,/5dC:,@*k3l5>*H36f+1L0)CJ3K]6C:€/7J,@<KMN.jOK5>(N?AMs7T?>3k0UD3B0U0tf+DK7:,/CJ.}9K0>360l1N1gV‚,@¨e5>MSˆhoƒDI5>9S36367J.N1-.+</<=]d7:.NONDK3l36M43658bc5>58367J7:]\3B.N?>0t<s0‚]lV ?>,/O+
.-5>,I58?tMs36CJ3_PQ369ID/083l,@(N36.ZCT.1 ?
9/]l14,/363l58(+?8o-3608]\3L08?8ONDK,HD/56MN58V ?mC:_(NfF5>083l583)5>3B7JD@1eD4E61H7: *-' D/ ,/Ey$</?8(23L7:' *-$&(N3/.+€N,140836D%(5=)  ?80UO+?8'y,@3B]6?m,/,@14?>.-ONoj3l*H7:oHCJC:,@(N,/ˆ/*-fN3&fs7J0U.s3B(N,@,I585{?8E7:,/D/0c]l?>.n3;7JC:CF*-]l,@7J.g36.i,/,@08Ms.}(N3k5>7:3l7J*HC:*-C:(N,@3l</*-.Z3_?u7J.+EG,/D/,@.+5>?8*-1-3B1 367J.s1HMS0UoefFMSoH36), ]\,R?8 7:D/'*ON.H7:</*hO+#CJ(soH%(]d)  08OH3l&.+36'A,/08EG7Š08D/?>7:5=7J3l9K5B,3 Ž
EG</D/5>5H3l363l.}³N,@C:7J*-<KOKfN?BC:€43/0U€tDh?>(N?8O+5>MN,@?Q7J.+*H3g,@M+.SC:oH,K140836(N0H5UE]6,K,@]\.¥3=14MF3\3eEG3B7:]^CJC:?>(N0{*-,/fN7J.sfs,I3B?8,@3B5Q1¥,/MS0moªD/MSf+9S587J3BDK]\(+7T0U0u3eM+,@583BCJ?8,@36ˆ4580t.s,I7:.}?87:.N?>ON<a3=0c08?>*-587:DSfFD@36?80kO+D@.NEr360>580u3B1¥D/E’,/?8.+O+1 3


0U?85>7JfF360{7:.g?8ON3 … w 7J*H,/</3/V+ 3P;7JC:C’5>3\?>(N58.Œ?8Dk?>ON36083*-3\?8O+DS1+0),I?;9I,@5>7JDK(+0{fFD/7:.K?d0{D@E‚?8ON3r?>3\³S?6V


-› œ 3 žH§  7Q§ 2Ÿ  / › 3 .0/21£hŸ)¡
 

EGD/z{3l(NON5>?83l3&C:.Z7J.NOZ?;(+3B]\1 *-(N3B,/,Z0l.H(+V2,@9S'_.Z7:?8083l7J7J5>?>DK3=,@.}?8PQ7:0U9/3=o43H0U</?8*-7:369/*†3_D414DKfF3l.N3lCTC:05do}]\EG36DK,;7J5h9K,Z36*H(+02,/,@?>CJON.S7J?>3&on,@?80UD@7:?89/E{5>3r(+?8]\ON14?83B36(N0U0>5>3Œ]\3)5>]\7JD@fN(NE‡?83B7:?>0lD/ONV .’3&Vt


vK*-±mw fND/CJ<KPQ36.N*-D/7Š5>?>3lC:7J1k.Z9K?>3&MS,@o-fs?87:0UD/7Jo4.Z.ª]d?>ON3l,@</DK.s5dCJDK1©,I</?>7J7T14.+0c3l? <R*-sV0UD/36+V.s9/0c3l?>5d5>,@7:,@CsM+?8140U7:DKD/7ŠE‘.. x
D@083lE;9/?>36ON5>36,/08C‡3ƒD@EY*-?>D4ON143 36,ZC:0L(+,@PQ.Z,K?>0h7Š?d,I7:.Z?8?87:9/363r.+0U*-36CJD4oa14fN3lCT(+0;5>P;08(N7:36CJCY1ªMsMZ3Roa147T]\0>DK]\*-(+0>fN0U(43B?81ƒ365LCT,I?>9S3l7T0U5;7:D/7:.ƒ.¥?>58ON3B30U3BMF,@DZ5dDK]dONˆ‡3lV 5d0r7J.¥?8ON3 %!K¯/®N— 06€‚,/.+1
PQP{D/,/5>0=z{C:1a14ON363n,@0>.s]\7J5>1i*H7JMF?>,@36ON<K1n37J.+P;…<¥w7J?8fNOn5>0UD4?8p‚5>]\7:(+36</0>]^(N0}?>5>(N3 5>58363H… ]lVD/D/… 5dEm1N,/?>0ƒ.+ON1 3}]lD/5>7:*-*H3\EGfN36,@5&C:</3\3K³?>VŒDg5>•&p‚3lCT7:08,I</08?8(N(N7:5>*-D/3 .s3H0U… ON?8V7:%6O+f+vN3}0ƒV fsMs363l5>?c' 08Pm2fF 3636,3l]^ .?> 7J)+9K'?>3H)%ON13afNj5>v/D@7:0rw bc36fF]\0c3l?8?>5>7:58D/O+(+.a,/]\f+?8*-0&(ND45>?83i14ON3l3kD/CuER*-?8O+?8DKO+,@0U3??
7:5>*k36]\fFDKD/</58.N?>7J,/?8.Z7:D/?Q.e14D/36f4E2?8DSOj]6]\]\C:(N(+3K087JŽXDKDK.+M40)bc36<K]\7J9K?>0m360)?8Os5>3l,ICT?;,I?>,@7J5>9K3_3h]\14C:DK3608f43l?85mO’DSVr]6•]\C:(+fF143l3=5d08f+D/,@. 58?>080m3l3lD@.iE’DKP;M47Šbc?>36ON]\7J?>. 0m?8?8ONOs3k,I?;5836,@</5>7:3;D/E.j,@58D@?8EuON,ƒ365QPQ,‹,/P{CJCX,‹o‡7:0 Ž


?8P;]\OsC:367:,@CJ,/CF. 58MsC:oH?83&ON*h]\3}C:DK(+]608]d,@3lOŒ5B5QV 0U?8*HDL3,@?8C:O+% C:3l3r' 5t) 08 ?>3l O+.s,@0U DK.}) 5ur?8?>ONO+7:3&0h,@7J.Œ,@*HCT0U?8,@DeON<K3r3),@P{. D@EY,@7:C:*k,LC~V2fF]l•„,/D/5 58?>fF%6,/3l®R.Z5d?0U*kDK]l3l.ƒ(N?8363/5>5>36VŒ0m]\DKz{,‹</PQON.N3-,‹7 loK7J3B€/*H1H3l,@9KMF<K3l3l.-3-ON?>D@7:.+ONE;1gD/,g(N,L<K]6OH,@]6,@5 ?85{O+… 7:3)®Œ0mEE*-,@,/5Q5U3l?>?8]lON3l,/5d3l5u05;*-,‹,‹7JP{P{<K,‹,‹OZoo ?


MF3\³43LfF,}3l5>CT7J,@365>.+</]\363_5)O+]l,/,/0t56V=?>,@±Q(+,/</5>OZ0&?u,@(+fN0ufFON36DI,/P 5;?8?8DŒDR(+5>3l0_CT,I?8?>Dƒ3;MF?83hON3=MF0UD@ 7 ?> lOe3&?8,@7:.+.S1Hoe08,@fs.+361j361-*-?>DID9S?87JO+.+3&<ƒ140UC:7TDI0c?dP;,@C:.+oŒ]l3/7:.eVA•_?8O+0m3LPm143_7T0cPQ?d,@,/.+CJˆ-]l3/14”‡DID/P;(+. 5


?8,@O+CJ?83=O+5dD/,@(N7:<KC:58O}DZ,/Pm1k3=?8ˆS5d.N,/DI]dˆ‡P €K?8?8OsON,I3r?Q5d?8,@ON7:C:360QoH,@*hf+fs(+3B0U,@?m5m*H?8Dk,@7:*k.Z?>36,/3\7J?).ƒ,I?8?;ON3r,L08fs,/DK*-7J.Z3&?{087J3l.Œf+,/?8ON5>,@3?8147:D/7T.H0U?>,@7:.Œ.s]\v/3LwL|GV4?8ON•“3 1NDZ1DK 5u)  ?>&O+),I ?{ 7T,0m.DK)fs 36'‘^. €
7:z{.KON?>DH3&ED/,@(N5Q5_365814DS<KD/3&* D/E’7J*H?8O+,/3=</36140{DSDKDK5Q.j,/D/fN(Nfs5)3B5>,@3\5d?>0m7J.s08,HONDK,/5U0)?>3l,k5t?>?>5>O+,/,@fs.ƒ3 l?8D/ON7T3r1j.N,@3B.+,@1g5Q36.N14D/<K?;3/?8”ZON?83hO+7:580Q3B]^7T0u?>,/?>.NON</3 C: 3PQ03.ˆZ.+' DI*P  )7J?)r?83\D}`‡MF36]\3/? V
D@5>3lEACT,IfF?83l3B5d1}0UfF]\36(+]\3_?87:7T9/0 3r' fN#5>D@' $&bc36]\?87:D/.j,.,@)-.+ 1g'~Vt]\DKz{.SON9/3_3lo4?83l0Q³Z7:?>.4(NEGD/5>3&5>*HD/EY,I?80U7:(ND/58.jE,/,@]lMF360mD/(N]d?;O+,@?8.NON<K3R36vK0uw P;7ŠD/?>5>Oƒ7J36MF.ZD@?>?8,IOƒ?>7JDK?8ON.ƒ3rD/14EY7T?80cO+?d,@3h.+14]lDS3)D/EG5B5>V2D/* •

F 
  "!#!$!

‚p 7J<K(N583 … V&%BvNŽ2•]\D/*-fNC:3\³j08]l3l.N3rP;7J?8Oj*H,@.So}ˆS7:.+1N0;D/E‚1436f4?8Oe]\(+360{EGDK5;OZ(+*-,/.ŒfF3l5d]\36f4?87:D/.YV
?8*HO+,@3&fN9SC:3r7:3lCJPQ3B3l,‹5m9/3B,/0u.+(N1Hfj?>ON]\3rC:DK0U08(N3/€S58EP;,/]lON3)7:C:3&D/5>E7:,/3l5).Z?>,‹,@PQ?87:,‹D/ok.’PQV 3r
.}083l?>3=ON3&D/.+fsCJ,@o}5>ˆF<K€Z5836PQ3l3&.g]l]\,/D/.ƒC:D/085B3lVA3_z{7:.+ON1437:9S]dO+7:1N,@(+.N,@<KC‡3_MND/CT,/EX147:*-3B0u,/D/</E’3&</?85d3l,/³Z0>?>0t(NDK5>35
14±m(NO+3Q,/f4?>D=?836fF5 3l%5d08… fs</3B7:]^9/?83B7:9/0m3{*L9S(+7:3l]dP;Oj7:*-.N<rD/5>D@3=EF,r147T080>(N]\58(+E0>,/0U]\7:D/3Q.g5>36D@]\E‚3B14?8O+7:.N3<r7:0>7J.L0U(+?836ON0‚3)bc(+1N0U7:0U?)?>,/*-.+3l]\.Z3{?87T7:02D/.N]l3B,@1yC:C:V361h?8ON3 ' #' $& ,.)- '~V
 A#BD<$ E A  gDKM+083l5>9/3&,K0;,@.e,@58?87T0U?

1ON4±m7T36D/087J.s]l<K(+OK08]l0>?;7J0UDKD/3B(+1gEA0U,LC:,/ojMsEG3lDI*HP“9K,@3/[+ˆ/VQDS3kpND/D/D/5dMs5;06€Z0U3l36DK³N585),@9I*-,I,-?>fN0U7JDKfFC:3/.+D@€N0=?)?>7J587:.n.eog?c,L,-PQPQMNDg(+DS1408D4og7J1N`‡0l]63lV 5>,I3lEG3l.Z?8?3l5>3l7T.S,N9S€N7JDK5>D/5).N,}*-]\367J.K?coŒ?d0&0U?8,/5>.+3l1 3l?_0U]\ˆKD/3\5>?>.N]dO 365;0UD/DKM+*-083L3l5>D/9/Eu3B1}?8O+EG3-5>D/]l*q(N36, 0

 -› œ  ¢85LŸ  1/ Ÿ)¡ šŸ@Ÿ 2Ÿ_  7;Ÿ  (


v/083(+w*]d 2Oe0>]\,/360; .N(36]\DK06V.Z ?8pX5>D/7:9/C:CJ3L7:.NLEG<k5d,@,@5>D/*-3ŒfF363l.+0&5d3l,ID@36?8Eu1N7:D/365>.s13\0{EG367J7J58. .e36.+D/,k]\5d3kPm143lDK,@5L585>ˆŒ3h?8Da.N]\3l3614C:36CyDa14P;3B3l1e7J7J?8?8OeO+EGDK3l5>5=5 D/<KMF,Z3lD@(+.N?>,@360;C:5>7Š,/?d,/.+,ICY?>1gfN7J9K5>0U3ŒD/36M+.+DKCJ0U365DK*-5>,Z0{0=(+DK,/7:5;.n.Z?8fNvK7J5>?>wDI,I9Z?>0>7J7T9K14]\3g367:.N.N,/<-3L.+,-,/,@.+C:9Zo4,@7:0UC:587To4?80L(+0U7TD@,/06EC€
5>fFv/D/w3lMF5d]\D@3l3l?8.SfN7T9S]l?8067J7:5>D/€yD/.’MN.+V(4*k?Rz{36,/.ZON58?;33-EGD/,@(s5)CT9/0U3ŒOSDg(N?c7:*HoZ*kfF,@fF36.eD/0-587:?>D/.Z,/E)?8.Z36EG?&5>5d,K,@?>]^*-Dg?87:36fsD/0-.Y0Uo4V{,@]d5>°SON3g36DK9/7JCJC:DK36CJ</(s5>,/7T0c0cCy?>?d5>D@0&,@EA?8,/36?8.+ON1¥1e3B7J0U?>. 3RON3-EGp‚5>,/7J(N<K*k.+(N143B5>3630)5>,@0U… ?>5>V&,/3%6.+­+.N14”{D/7:,/?_.N]^<ŒD/?>.N(+D/C:,@EmoƒC:C:OSo/7:(N*-€ *Hfs*n,@DK58.a5U3l?dEG,@083lf+.Z5>?),I3l?>.+EG7:DK]l,/35 C
EG365d,K,@]d*-On36P;0;7J,/?8Oa583r7J0U?>O+0DIDIP;P;.g. 085>7J.s3\EG]\3l3=5>3l?8.sON]\363k583REG5>,/,/58*-3&3/?cPQV D-
.©1N7Š,@`‡C:3lC25>D@3lEQ.Z?;?8OND/3BM40Ubc3}3B]^]l?dDS0;D/7J5d.Œ147J?8.sO+,I3R?83k08]lEG3l5d.N,@3K*-€N36,L06€YM+CJ]lD4DZ]dDKˆƒ5>1N,/7J.+.+1j,@?8,L3B0=fSoS,/585d3-,@*-5>367:1’,/C€
.SD@E;(N*h?>ONMF3ƒ3l5df+0_7Š³4,/3lCJDKC{.N,@<}5>5d]\,‹DKo/.ZVe?87:pN.ZDK(+5RD/(+?8O+0)3ƒ,@³43\36³N06,/€+*k3\³Nf+]lCJ3B3l0Rf4?)7:.©EGDK?85)ON7:3j*-14,/7T</083h]l(+]l0>DS0UD/7:D/5d.©147J.sMF,I3l?8C:DI3BP0l€+P;o/D/ON(ª7:]dO 08ON,/DK58(N3C:1©7:.Z,/?836C:08</D 3l5=7:*H0U(+,@M+</087:.N]l583ƒ7:f4,/?d. 0
7:,@.Œ.s,@?>ONC:D/3R</DK0>]\(+3l0t.+083r7Š?>,/(+58,I3=?>7J?>DKON.}3P;fNONCT,‹36o/583l3;5d?>06ON€K3rM+,K]l0U,@3B*-0l€436Ms5>,r,@C:7TC:0m06€4,LM+z{,I?d–“0l€+]63\,@?>*-]/V 3l5d,R]\DI9K3l5>7J.+<R,M+,/083lMs,@C:C+<K,/*-3&,@.s1HD/M4bc3B]^?d0
 -   D  C  F#F

y
c x
c y z
C f c w
f

I b
xf

F
a

z
b
r

B
z
c
W y
w

x y
z b b
p
A
x y
w p
xp

Sfp‚oS7J<K5>(N,/*k5>3 7T1 … V%l­+ Žtp‚D/5;7:9/MN3RC:D4]l]dDZˆ DK5>1N7J .+\,@€+?8]l3r,/EG*k5d,@36*-5>, 360)9 .N€43l5>3B3614,@36Cy1Œ7:*HEGD/,@5&<K3v/w  >0 @, ]\.s361ƒ.N3RfN,@7J³4.s3l,@C’C:oS7:*H087T0l,@Ž2<K3 PQID/V5>C:1 €+DKM4bc36]\?  |‘EGD/5
P

 "      #&("%0 !    

8?
,@.aO+.s3}1g?8O+?8]l7:3}D/f¥C:fN(ND/7J*-³SE;36.’?8CuON€N,@3g5>5>365dfS08,‹fsoSo/3B5>€’,/]^?>*k3B7J,/9K7T]d1 3lOaC:o/
fsV2DK¨ E7J,/.Z,@CJ?hCT.S0LoƒOsP;,/?80ON7Š?>7:7:ON.N.Z7J<K?8. 3l0;<KfN,/3l7JMs5R³SDK36f+(4C 7Š?_³4> 3l,HCm 0>]\]\DS3l D/.+5d 3r14 ]67:.+,@ ,I.j?>P;36MF06ON3RV 361458
33\.©?> 3lp‚5> Œ*k7J<K,@7:(N.+.N5813B3 1Œ … MSk&V %6oƒ­+,@,/5>€Y3}.+?8,@ON7:C:.Z3}o4?80U3l7:7T*H<K0{3l,@D@5L<KE‚3H58?8DIO+D@P 3 E
7:D@*-?>ON,/3l</5R3L?87J5d.i,@.+?83l0UEG5>3l*H5R0=*-D@3BEu]dDKO+.N,@CJ.Noj7T08fN* 7J³4,/3lCACJP{5>,‹DIo4P)0=0_1N,@3l.sC:7J1i9K3l]\5>DK36CJ1a(+*k,e.sMN0lC:VD4]dpNˆ DK5r|GDK3\5R³N,@MF*-D‹³ fNC:3/D/€‡E{7JCTEm,@(+,ƒ.+f+147:5>]donˆZx 14,@.+3l?81S3lx«5>fN</CT36,/.Z]l?d3R=585>DKD/Ms(ND/<K?&ONDKCJo 5
EG?85>O+D/3L.Z?>7:*H,/CS,@?8</D3L?>,/ON0=3),}]l,/*H*k,I36?>5>58,+7J³e€I?8O+D@Et3l.-5>DI?8P)O+3)0_*H,@.s,@1 5>ˆZ]\7:DK.NCJ<Z(N0X*-DK.+.H0&7Š?dD@0AEtEGf+5>7ŠD/³4.Z3l?>CT,/06CNV 0U
(N.i58E?8,/ON]l3L3)M+]\DK,/(N083lC:1kM+,/MFCJ3)C‚<K7:.+,/0U*-fF3h36]\,@?8.+3B1-,/CJ(+DK</0U7:oK.N€+<r(+D/08.+7J.+CJo<
D/ON.+DIPQCJoH3l?>9KON3l3R5B€N7:,@*H.+,@1j</3K.N€4DHD/D/.N?83ON36]lD/5)(N7:.4CT1jEGD/145>*H3\?>3l,I5>?8*k7:D/7:.Y.N€+3PQ7JEA3R,-]l,@Ms.+,I.N?UD@?>3l?&5;1NP{3\?8,/360{58*-(+087:7:.N.N3R<}P;,kONMN7T]dC:,KOj]dD/ˆ}M4M+bc3B,@]^?6?_V 7T&0_0U,K7:.N]^?><-(+D/,@.NC:CJC:oŒoƒC:7:,/*H58<K,@3l<K5;3 7:
^. € ,

v/wD/5{P;ON3\?>ON3l5_D/5{.ND@?)DKM4bc36]\?>0;,/583rD/.j,-]\DKCJC:7:087:D/.j]\D/(+5>083/V
  $     & "%0 -    
)•]\DK.n*-D/fNM4(4bc?83B36]^5r?9Z]\7TDS087JD/DK5d.’14Vh7:.+pN,IDK?>35rEG3\5d³N,@,@*-*-3hfN7TC:0=3/€’(+p‚0U3B7:</1e(N?>5>Dƒ3 *-… V&D4%6­g143l08CAON7TDI14P)36,/0_CX?cDKPmM4Dgbc36D/]\MN?>bc0=367J]^.n?Ms]\DSD/DK?8O5>14]\7:.+D/,@*-?83RfN(NEG5d?83l,@5=*-</3B5d0l,@€yf+DKON.N7:3h]60_EGDK,/5.+1,
?8MNONO+C:DID43_P ]dD/ˆ ?>MNONbc 3r36]^ MN?{C:,/DS]\.+DS]dˆH1©D/5d7T14D/0Q7:.+.+fs3},IDZ?>0UEG3{D/3B1ƒ5HEG5>,i5>,/3l*-CTfZ,I3_oS?>5d7J,@9K,@5>3)*-3 ?>7T Dh18 ?> ON® 3ryVªPm DK z{V258CTONz{1}3gONDK36]\5mDS083&PQD/5dD/]l14DZ5>7:ˆ4DK.+0U5>,If+1N?>,K7J36.+]\0L,@3=?8D@]\3BE_DS02D/vK585dwq3614*H7:]l.+,@D/,I7:5>.-?>.N3)?83lEGON5L5d3=,@fs*-08DK,/7J3*k.Z? 3K€K5>Vt3lz{<Z5836,@O+C:5d3&,@14?8DKC:7:369/M40>3Hbc0A36?>]\D@D ? E
A

7T]\0{DSDK7J.j5>14fN7:.+5>D/,@fF?833l5;EG5dfF,@DK*-087Š3h?>7J7TDK0=.Œ.N5>3l3l3BCT14,I?>367J1 9K3=?8DŒ?8D-7J.+D@08?>fFON363l]^5;?ON,@DK.iCJ3BD/0{M4D/bc5)3B]^]l?6D/”‡5>.NEGDK3l5&5d0l3lV ³N,@*-fNC:3/€F?8Dg]dON36]dˆj7JEm,}f+,/5U?>7:]l(NCT,@5_O+D/C:3


F* 
  "!#!$!

      &("*0 -   

\33\z{³N?dON]@,/3{V2*k]l• f+,/CJ*kMs3K,@€436C:?85>CsDH,&P;]\5>ONDS3lDZfND/0U5>5d3_3614087:7J.+3l*H.Z,I,@?)?><K3tP;3)EGON5d]\,@3lDK*-?8.KON?>3)367J.S5)± (ND/7:3B5;0‚02D/.+?>E‘D@Dh?8?&3l3l.k,/.+.gC:.N,/36DK5836<KM4143;bc3B367J1]\.H?)EG?>D/7:ON52023&,/bc(+]l. 3l0c?&.Z36?87J</36.g5uD4EG]\D/5>36E’D/.Z.Zo/?8?)D/5>7:(+D@] 5tEAR58?8|3lO+]6?83R,@7:.+*-0U,363l.+5d7T0u,/0UDK]lC:567:3lˆ/€+.Z3l?8*kC:5>oL7:DI]B9S?8‡Dh7:.N9SO+7J<H367Š?QP,‹PQo/”@D/EG,‹DK(YoK5 V€


•08oS0U08?83l3636*H7J.N0;<*H5>D/,‹MFoƒD@MF?m3RD/5t,@C:OS*k(N*HDZ0c,@?B.H€NMN,/(458?&3;.NMFD@D@?_?>O}3l³ND/,/M4]^bc?>3BCJ]^oK?u€4,/?8O+.+3R1H080U,/36*k.+083KD/V&5  |~0 w_ 0U7T1jDR?8o/ONDK36(g7J5t36DK9/M4365;bc3658]\(N?m.j,@.s7:.Z1H?8Dƒ0U36,-.+0U14DKDS5tD/]\5>DSP{D/,‹5do}147:3l.+9K,I3l?>. 3
?8,@O+C:C:D/DI(NP <KO©?8ON7Š3=?k(+CJDS083lD/5mˆK?836D-1a0U,/360RCJ3B7Š]^E)?QoK1ND/7Š(’`‡3l— 1a5>3lf+.Z,/?;0>]l0r,@?>*-ON36585>DK,(N</9SO©7:3lP)P;0Q7J?8D@O+EYD/?8(4ON?L3r]lv/D/w„.Z?>,K08]l]^3l? .NB 3=MF±m3lDK7:.N*k<Lf+9S(47:?83l36PQ5h36</1y5dV2,@•“f+ONfN7:]6CT,‹0Ro-08oS,@0U? ?8(+36*H5d0U?0
M+,K0U3r*-7J<KOZ?{MF3MF3\?U?>3l5)9S7:3lPQ361gMSoƒ,-]l,/*k365>,LfFD/7:.K?>7J.+<-?8ON36583KV
       , &("*0 -   


>fN0±Q,‹CT,@,@o/*-.N€N3L7:36.+5>,I]d,k?&ON]\3B]lDS0)DZD/DKD/5d5>5_141N7:*k7J.+.+,I* ,@?>?8363B 0{0 ,@) 85>3=(2s%($€589 3B,.+,@)€C‡D  .S (NP;'*hON/MF363l,583>5d 0l, Dn€4'(s7T0U0)(0(+?>,/.ONCJC:3o},EG)D47:.ƒ]l,/'?>CYONC:3R 3ll.N0>V),@</*-v/?8O’w 3rV (NfF8.ND/}7J7:?>.Z,/0;?>.+0),/1 0Qf+589?>D/ONƒbc3r36,@]^Pm5>?_3DK?858.ND-CTD@1g?8?&O+]\08DS3h(ND/M+5>5d360>14,@]\7:CY5>.+7:7J,If4*H?>?>360_,@0 <KD@ 3 E
fN,I³47J³47T023lCT7:0).-7:?8.jON?83&ON7J3R*H7:,@*H<K,@3/<KV 3R
.},@5>p‚5>7J,‹<KoK(N€458MN3 (4… ?=V&%6,/­+58€@3MF5>D@3l?>CT,IOƒ?>36]\1ŒDSDK?85>D}147:?8.+ON,@3R?836f+0A7Š³4D/3lEyC‚580U3B7 ,@ lCN3L7:*H,@.+,@1j</3;fNfF7J³4D/3l7:CX.Z?fsDZ> 0U7J5>?83l7:CTD/,I.j?>7J9KD@3{EA?>?8ONDr3hEG5dDK,@f4*-?87T3 ]l,/ C
7:,@*-5>3,/</.N3r36<K7:.Œ,I?>?>7J9KON3/3V)fNp+7J³45>,/3l*kC’,@3 5>5d ,‹ o ]\IDKV .K?d,@7:.+09k?8ON3Rf+7:]\?8(N5>3REG(N.s]^?87:D/. ?8O+,@?_7:0=147:</7J?87 l3B1g?8D}EGDK58* ?8O+3h147:</7J?>,@C
 ,  &    & "%0 -    

/Dz{]\365‚ONCJ.NC+3uD/D/]l?‚5tDS,)9SD/5d7:5>5U14(N?>7J(+.N.s,@.+,ICN3l?85‚3A36.S7:EG0Y5d9Z,@7:E5>,@*-D/5‚.N3 D@*-7
`}3l,).ZT?BMs0Y€/,/.N,/0836]\3u36?814D/(+3B5X,@1=7Š?8E+D/?8?85dD)ON025>3Q,@3l58.sCT,I(+1k?>.N3t08.N3lD/3l.sMN5A0Ubc,@DK36.s5>]^0A1R?d0yD/0U7:E‘3B.h?8]\3lDKv/.H.+wL]l1”\D/EGM+*-DK,K5Y*h0U3\36(N³N*-.+,/,/7:*k]6.,If+?8P;CJ3;3K7JC:€69SC4?>7T]\D_,rDK14PmCJC:3l7:DK?81N583l3/CT5>1kV *-
]\.k7JDS.+D/,)3t5dP;5>14D/7:ONMF.+3\D@,I?>?>?>ON367:3l]60650 ”
EG7:.+D/5_0U363\5U³N?;,@7J*-?6V fNC:3/€+?8ON3L7J*H,@<K3R0U36.+08D/5;?>3lC:C:0)?8ON3R5>D/MFD@?)P;O+3l5>3?8D}f+7:]dˆŒ(Nfi,-MFD/CJ?=,@.s1Œ7:. P;ON7T]dOeONDKCJ3r?>D
7:7:*k.4EGfFD/ 5>D/*H583l?>DK,I,/*-?8.Z7:?rD/3\?8.RCT5>,I7T]l?>]lD/3l,@.Z5CK?>,@7:,/..+7J.+1?836ON*H1r3H,@7:.MF?8ONDS?836OND/*-3mˆ‡VH,@fN?87JpN³S7T]lD/36,/CZ5rC/,/5>?>583lON5dCT3H,‹,Io)?8.N7:(ND/3l.s.s³Z?R140UON3l087:5X3lf+9K?80’ON3l,/5d3Q*-,@,/C2D/0>]d0U.NO+(+<;,@*k?>fNONfN?836?83l7:085dD/3u06.r€’]lDZ?8ONOsDKDI,I5>PQ1N?Y3l7J?>9/.+ON36,@3l56?85>€‡3t3tPQ087To40X3-0c,_?>fN3l0c58*H?>D45>]l0Y,/367JP;0><K0rOK7:C:?8D/C/EG.NMFD/C:3u5>oePQ9/,/?836O+5>58o13
fF]\±mDK3lO+585d,/5>0U36f4fF08?836fF36]\5D/?87:.+9/% 14…3k36?8.+?8DH5d]\,@3 0U.+?80U?8(+EGD 14D/5>oƒ?8*HON?83 ,ION?>3587JDK3BfF.i,@3lC=5dD/08Pm5fsDK3B7J58?>]^CT0h?81y7:9/08V]63r,@z{7:C:*H7J.NON,@<g3 </3\7:58.N`‡3B<-,/3614]\*-?R365ŒD4P;14P;7J3lC:CtONC²V DMF3}*h,@(+MN0UC:?j3HPm,I?DK58?>ˆ ON7:0rP;fF7Š?>D/O 7:.Z?>?ON?83aDe,@<KC:</Dƒ3lEGM+DK5>58,©P{,@D/5dER1e?8O+?>D3
-› œ  §A¦jŸ  
Ÿ)¡ žƒŸ_ j¡ 2¡
 

z{0836ON]^7T?>07JDK0U.©3B]^D/?>. 7JDK.n(+5d7:0U.+?L]\C:5>(+3614,/3B1N0r7J.N?8<sO+€X3}(+14.N36CJ3B0>08]\0L5>7JfN,e?87:f+D/,/.i5U?>D/7:]lE{(N08C:3l,/9K5h3l5d08,@3l.+C‚08*-D/5LD/5>7:3-0h089/3l3l.s5>0UoiDK5>7:*-06Vkfs•DK5U?d5>,@36.Z,K?h143l?>5rDi*-,@.ª7J<KOZ,/?RfNfNMZC:oS7:]6f+,I,K?>087J0&DK.©?>OND@7:0 E
]\083l(+.+585>083lD/.Z5d0Q?h7J7:.g.Z?8?83lO+5>3r360UEG?6(4Vi?8(N°45>3l3/.+€+08MND/(45h?_?8,@36CT]d08O+Dk.NMFD/C:3\D/?8<K?836oi5)7Tfs0h36,/5U1NEGDK9‹58,/*H.+]\,/7:.+.N]\< 3=5dD@,@E2f+]\7:(N145>C:o‡5>3l”2.ZPm?{3Œ1N3l0U9SON7:DK]l(N36CT061©V 3\³4fF36]^?L.ND@?kD/.NC:on.+3lP
 $ <$B1 A&E $%" ?)A "-ACB

08,I7J?Q.NCJ<KD4°SCJ3R]6C:7:,I1N08?8363l7:D/0m.s. 0UD/DK5 5QB(+DKCJ.g* <


?8VA]lON,@z{3.ƒO+DK3)MsfN3r*HfsDZ08,I]60U?87J,@36?8.N3R58.+7T,@08367TCs1}147:3r0mMS*-EGo-58DKDIf+*9/,K3B081-08?>7JON.+9/3<L3l5>CJ,h7:ok</OZ08fN7:?)58.N3B</5>]\36C:7T3&]l0UD/36MFCJ5dok361N,/0QMS*$oL?8OND@*-3EY3BDKC:]d7:f4</O+?8OZ,@7T?]l.N,/7T" ]lCY
,/14B1Cs360U.+?>!0U,/7J</?c
o}360u?8D/(NONE‚.Z3=?>?8ON*H7:CF3,I,/*H?8.}36,I583l?>7T.Z,@3l?>C²5>ŽA7J7:5>,/,3 C
 -   D  C  F

boresight
prism
linear
array
earth

p‚08(N7J<K5UE(N,K5>]\3 3r… 3lVC:%3lFN*-Ž 365Q.K?;D/5>7T360;085>7:</3\EGOZ5d?8,/3B]^1Œ?>36*L1Œ(N7J.ZCJ?8?>7TD-0UfF08363l]\fs?8,@5d,@5d,ICX?80>3r]l,/]\.NDK*-.N36fs5&DK,@.NMF3lDK.Z,/?>0{5>1jMs,/,Œ083608,@1Œ?83lD/C:.jC:7Š?>PQ3/,‹V 9K')3lC:,K3l14.N7T</,I?8?8O’7:D/V .jEG5>D/*‰,ƒ087:.N</C:3


Multispectral Satellite Scanner

8?5>,/O+361N]^3l9‹?d5>,/,@3=.Z.N08?><KON,@(N<KD/CT3-(+,@C:527:1H0R,@MF5>?8363=O+,&,@CJ3B?h7:0208*H0Q0>]l9I,@,/,@.S.N5>on.N7:,@3B*-?81y7:D/DKV‚.H58'&3H7:,‹.Œ5>9SDI7:7JP).Z.N?8<r036,r.+,@0U.+0U7J7:1©?c.No-<K]l9ICJD/3;,@C:(NC:08(N3l*-36.+0{.+08D/0R145A(N]6</3&,@7:.©9/?8DL3BMF0A*H3}D/,@.ND/.S3;M4(4?d,KE,@14,/7:9I.N]\?8,@36(N.Z1’5>?>Ve7:,/.N</°4<L3Q(+14DI]d7JOª9/`‡3l3l,@5X5>.a?83lO+.+7:3&]l.+360c±;06?>VA58±Q(+•_w *k.N,@36D@.Z5>?>5>?hON,‹3loK7:50 €
08CJDIP“ONDIPm369/365Q,/.+1j]l,@.+.ND@?;MF3(+0U3B1ƒ7:.e,@(4?>D/*H,I?>7JDK.Œ36.S9Z7:5>D/.N*-3l.Z?d0lV
.NfN75>,ZD4(N]\z{3/36ON0>V 308
7J.N.Œ5>36<a?>,KON147:.3 3l5;% ?8!*-ONI®3 7:+</EG—OZ0QD/6? C:7:CJ.gDI(+P;.+?81eON7:.N3R<©08D/CT,@*-*HMj3,@D/.N7:EA.K.+?>3• 3l3l5B l5>V 5>367J0U365Q?)C C:7J';,K.g]dDKˆ?>08ON3l3,/.N.+EGEG3l1D/CTC:1yC:P;DI€NP;ON*H7J7J.N?8,@3 .S<-oƒfNON7Tf+7T]^0U7:?>?8]\(ND/?85>5>(Noƒ365>0H36D/0;PQEAPQ,-3l5>3l5>3j5>3l3rCT?>,I7J,/.+?>ˆ/36fN3l1j(4. ?)0>]l,/EG,@DK.+.+5)1 .N]\7JP;D/.+*-5><L,/fN?>fN(N36fs]d?83BO43l1 5x
,@]\oS5>D/C:7J(+.s.+141j3l5L,}PQ0c,K?>3l036fNCXCT]\,/oS]\C:3B7J.s1a147J3l. 5BV , _0c08?d(+,@,@.+C:1+CJo ,@5d!-1n0³ CT,I!-?>ON7J3}.s]dP;O ONfN7T]d7T]^Oª?8(+08fN583B(N0;.¥D/5=,/CJ]\CQD/0UC:fFCT,@D@</?d3B0R0{D@PmE{36?>58ON3R3ƒ0>fN]l,/7T]^.N?>.N(N3B5>1e3ƒ,I,@?_5>36DK,j.+]\7:.©3KV{EG5>z{D/O+.Z3?


D@D@E_Er,i?>ON0U3i*H]\,@oSC:C:C{7J.sW14Hu3lwq5}f+,@58.sD41©14(+0U]l3636.+1 0UDK,a5R?>5>O+DIP,I?kD/*kER3B$v ,/*/08®K(N®5>361afN7Š³4C:7J36<KC:OK0-?k?>O+583l,I[+?Œ36]\Pm?8367:.N583 < 0UD/?8` DK583B3B,/1 ]dOª,K0}08fs,©D/?6MNV C:D4Hm]dˆ¥,/]dDKOa. 5>3l*-9/,/DK</CJ(N.N?83l7:?8D/7T. ]


?>fN,/7J³4fs3l3rCT0lP;€‹ON(+DZ08(+0U3r,@C:5>C:or36]l]lD/D/5d.Z14?>7J.+,/7J<L.+7J08.Nfs<_3636*-1Œ,/PQ.So&,K0m3l³S7:.jfF3l0U5>oS7:.+*k]=36P;.Z?>7J,@?8OgCS1N?8,@ON?>3r,)CT08,I3\?>?dON0’3 ?>tO+z{,I?AONPm3 36(+58.s3t,@?8C‡ON?>36,/.hfs0U3 36f+(+,@C:3r5d,IO+?>,/361g1rMS$v *Ko®/0U®RD/E‘³Œ?cPQ$v ,/*K58®/3K® V
9+ #4
B >&   # " $ E& A"<
"-B>$#  ?)> A"E

M+,k,/?8.+O+5Q1N7J. 0636€@]65>7Š,@3\?t(+EG*H5d08,/3,‹]\?8oR?8O+7:.NMF3L<3)OS]l(+(N,/C:*H*CJC:36,@1kbc.i(s,#0c3l?_o/"3L7:.j$&O+% '*EG,/5>) 0= D/, .Z089?_3l(f+' D@,/EA5>%I?>,@ON08?83l33k.+5>±;0836D/±Q]\5B36V‚w f4°S?8,/DKDK585>*-5d0),‹3{EGo/D/]lVm5rD/z{C:0UD/36ON5u.+3R±;085>7J±Q.N3\EG<Œw 5d,/CJ]67:]^</,@?>OZ7J*-.+?=<3l7J5d. (+,/0ACJ0U*‰36,@f+5>143Q,@7T5dMN0U,IfF(N?>3l7:3RCŠ5d?t08PQ36MS,‹0)oh9K,}3lf+C:C:083l,K7:.N.N]\</7:</.N?8C:O<3
MF7:*-36,@,/* </3RD@7JEs?&P;f+O+58D47Š?>143;(+CJ]l7:</36OZ0)?A]67J,@.Z.e?8DrMF­r3RMF?>ON36D/,@(N*H<K0‚OZE?_,/CJD@C:Eu7J.+,K<=0)DK,}.h08­r3\?&.N36D/7JEA<KEGOZD/MF(ND/5&5>7:7J.N.Z<=?836]l583lC:36C:C:,‹0A9KD/36E+1j?>ON]\DK3_CJDK±;5)±Q7:w*-,/,@</5>3B5>,‹0l€soKV’D/.Nz{3ON3;EGDK145_7:</3B,/7J?>]d,@O C
?8D@5>5dD@Em,/?>?81N,@ON?8363H3B1g1 ­eEGD/7:.i145&7J`‡,H?>ON3lCJ3-5>DZ3l08D/.Z0)f4?8C:7J?>o .i7:]65>08,@3\f+CAEG,@5df+?8,/,I7T]^,@?>?>OSC’36PQ5>1n36,‹08PQo D/,‹C:08(49KDƒ?83l7:C:D/?>3lO+.Y.N,IV</?R?8
Oi. 14(+]l,ƒ58D/7:*-14.N7Š<gfF`‡D/3lD/5>.N.N3l363k.Z.K?&fs?d0l361NVH58367:08D4z{7J1i<KON.’3-D/€sEu<Z,},@?>7J]l7:*-.nD/C:3-D/7:.©5)D/.NP;0UfFC:O+oe363l]\5>3l?836CX5d1n,@7:0&C2CJ7:0U7:</.4oSOZEG.+D/?r]d5>O+7:*H0r58DK,If+.N?8,K7:D/D/08(+08.n36081’C:7:o 0 ”
?808O+36]^3l?>. D/5dMN02C:(ND@Ey3/€m3B,/?8]dONOH36. ]\DK<KCJDK5836563lV™R.’Vz{ON|3r•‰±;]l±QD/wC:D/5-,@5>P;5d,‹ONoR3l367:C;0u7:580=3B,/bc1-(s0cvr?ƒ?>,a7J*-14367T0m0Uˆ¥14(ND@5>E_7J.+?><5>,/D/.+.N083)f+,@5>D@5>3l?d.Z,I??>7JDK(+.kCJ*D/E‡P;?8ON7Š?>3_O ]lD/3 C:,ZD/(+5t,@P;C;O+083l7 63l3 C
?8fFDŒD/7:D/.KM4?;?dDK,@.Œ7:.i,Lv}5>,/083lfNf+7:1N,/CJ5>oH,@?8*-3RDI7:9S*H7J.+,@<K<h36D/06MN4V bc
36.e]^?{?8O+*H7:0=,‹o}1436,/08]\7:?8</(+.’,/€yCJC:08oH3l.+7J*H087J.+,/</<ƒ3)0U?>fFDH3l3B141e7Š`‡7T3l0)5>?>3l5>.Z,K?{14fN367J1g³S36EGDKC:0{5=DK]l.}D/C:?>D/ON5&3r087J3l*H.s0U,@7J<K?87:3_9SfN7Š?cCTo‡,@”‡.+,3
14(N5>7:.N<H,/] ,Z(N7T087Š?>7JDK.ŒD/EX?>ON3Rv-0U36f+,@5d,I?>3&7:*H,@</3B0lV
360>,@,/*-5U?>°SO 3}DK*k7:7T.+0&3r0c9S?d0>,@7:3l,I.ZPQ?8?L3636CJD/1jC:7JE;?8?>36?8ON0Q7:*-5>(+D/3/08(N3&€2<KOiP;?8ONON,37:CJ]\3Œ0DK.5>.+,K]\1436) f47T ,I?{?8'27:D@D/E08.aD}*EG?85>OsD/ ,I* )?R  ,@D/C:?8'CX&ON5d36,/5L1N$087: ,@fs0?8D/7:?>D/0L.e 7:' EG0h5> D/*-, *q,K.0U?8ˆKOs360,I1y.?V 0UfF°S) D@3l ?r3g'²7:pXŽ20r7:36</]l,KD/(+]dC:58CJOŒ33B]^08…?8fs3BVD/% 1 ?QF4,IV D/?=EYz{?8?8O+O+O+333
MF36,@*D@EY5d,/147T,I?>7JDK.}7T0{f+,/0>0U3B1-?8O+58DK(N</Og,hfN5>7T0U* P;O+7:]dOg147:08fF3l5d0U3B0u?>ON3147J`F365836.K?{P{,‹9/3lC:3l.+<@?8Os0uDK.K?>D
F @¯ 
  "!#!$!

,e083l9/C:7J36.+5>36,/,@C+5HM+±;,/.+±Q1Nw 0m(+,/0858365d1y,‹V;oi| P;')O+36]l7:]d,/OaCJCs?>?8ONOs3l,I.¥?{CJ087:7:</*hOZ?m(NCJD/?>EX,/.N08ON3lDKD/(+58?80U36C:oa5uP{08,/,‹*k9/3lf+C:3lCJ3B.+0h<@?8,@OH.s1ª7T0m14Ms7:36</.K7J?{?87 l*-36D/0R5>?83_ONMS3Œok7J.Z?8ON?>3l3=.+fN087Š5>?c7:oa08*7:.©?8O+?8,/O+. 3


C:,g7J<KfNOK7J?&³S36D@CAE2?8CJO+DK.N,@?R</367:5;0PQ,g,‹9K9K363l]^C:3l?>D/.N5</?8 O’V™}  p‚7:</ (N5>3 …V % Fk08 OND/DIE P)FŒ0)7:,}.K?>083lfF.+3608]^7J?>?c58o (+*9I,@C:D/(NE 3606FHVk1N• 7Š`‡3l… 5>w3l.Z?_7J*HM+,/,/</.+3-1N0_7:058]l3B580U3B(N,ICJ?8?>7:36.N1 <HMS7:.o
*-D@E2DI?>9SON7J3L.N<R0>,I?8?>ON3l3&C:CJMs7J?8DK3h583B7J. 0U7:</7J?>OZ0&?uD/DK5>5uMN(+7J?&087J,@.+5><hD/(+,R.+0>1Œ]l,@?8.+ON.N3L7J.+36<R,@58*-?8Oe7J5>oS58DK7:3l5tCT1N?>DR0_?8</ON3l3k?Q]\14DK7Š`‡CJ(+3l*k5>3l.s.Z0u?_D/5>EyDIP),h0)</7:D/9/EA36.H?8ON583LDIP7J*HV‚,@z{<KON3/3_V)*-•&0_D@?>oK7JDKD/.(
   

*-08fs7JD/<K?>OZ0m?LEGD/3\³45>* fF36,R]\?6?>€‚5>?8,/ONfs3Œ3 l58DK3B7:0U1N(+,/CŠCs?>7J5>.N3l<i<K7J7JDK*H.},@D/<K.ƒ3ƒ?808ON(43r`F3B365>,@0R58?8EGOƒ58DKP;* O+DK*k083)D/?8EGD/7:D/5>.ª* 14]l7T,/0U?8.ƒD/MF58?83r7:D/D/. M4?dn,@7:?8.NON363g1}0UEG3l58?LDK*D@E)?8,/ONCJ3 C{085>]636,@]\.N?>.+,/36.41 x


</(+$ C:$4,/& 95 "-LA14&7JE<K$%7Š"?d,@C‡ 7:*-># ,/</A"I3 E (+5dC:,I3=?>(sON0U3l7:5m.N?8<LOs?8,@ON.R3rbcP{(s0c,@?)5>fN,k7J.+0U7:<h.N</*-C:3=3\?>7JON.ZD4?8361N.+0{08D@7Š?cEto-±mEGDKO+5{,@f4,k?>3l087J5 .N%$<K%KCJ3rV 085Qfso}D/?QOsD/,‹EX9Z7:36.N,/<k5U?>, O’€SE&7Š?;A"7T<
0Q"-D@B E‘?836? .
fFDK0>0U7:MNC:3&?>D}]\CT,/0>0U7JEGoH?>ON3</5>D/(N.s1H?coSfs3R,K0{PQ,@?8365QDK5{EGD/5>360U?;D/5),/08fNO+,/CŠ?B€43\?d]@V
  B> 

NMfF(4D/7:?.K¬)?d,@x«0QCT5d08D/,‹Dƒor.HPQ1N?>3lON3lCT9S3_147:36E]l1e,/365Q0‚f+08?>7J7T5>fF14,/363&.+0r0UD/*-,@Ey.s?87J?21HON3=¬)bU,@x«3l5d5>*-0&,‹or7JD@?U?>Eu5d3l,/,@5{14f+7T7JfN,I.Œ?>CJ3B7J*hDK08,/.R(+(+]d?8Oƒ]\O+3K58?8VrDKON(N°43r</3l0>OL.+,@08*-*-D/5d3_,@0_?8*H365>5836,@7T]l,@.+D/C².N5d€@3l1gD@5{E‘?8?>,/5d3l0m,@.k.+P;f+087Š*-,@?>58O}7Š?>?80‚?>?8ON3BD/3&1 E+?8*-3lO+.+7T3;]\3l5>OZ5>D4</(+14oj*-3l,I.+,/?r.L087J7J?8MF*HD/D4*-,@14<K3lo/3 x €
?8,@36C:D/56VH.+<WY?8DIONP 3=3l3l.+.Z?>3l7J5>5></3_o 5d,‹,Io-?fNDK.N58D/3Hbc360U]\36?8.+360U1k3B1iEG5>D/7:*H*,@?><KON3k3=fF3lD/*-7:.Z7Š?R?8?87J36.s5614V 7:
«]6?{,I?>7:0m36036,K,@0U.aok,/?8DL]6]\7J(N*H*L,/(N</CT7:,I.N?83&7:D/, .n… D@w„E{*H¬)x«,I5>?8,‹36o;587T(+,@C:C2*$1436Ms.+36087J7Š.+?co<
3\0>]l³4,@fF.+DK.N08363l5ƒ1 | ?>D ]6,I¬)9? x«i5>,‹08o4]60,@.Nfs.N,/360>5d0U\7:€A.N<jP;ON?8O+7:]d58O©DK(N*H</Oª,@?8ON,e36MF*-D4,@14?8o/7T]lVn,/CJv/C:owq]l0UD/36.+.+0U0U?87:5>.N(+< ]\?>]60h,@.©,iMFv/3Œw ,/9/]6D/]\C:DK(N*k*-f+3}CJ7T0UD/O+E;361N1a3l.+(+08087Š7J?c.+o <i9I,n,@C:±Q(N36z 0
EG?85>O+D/3=* 5>7:</1NOZ,@?;?>,j7J.j]\DKp‚CJ7JC:<K36]\(N?858363 1i… MSV%-o *LfN7T0;5>D@, bc36… ]\w ?87:.N]\<ƒDK*k¬_f+x²5d(4,‹?8o4360&5Q<K,/CJ5>DK,/.NfN<gON7T*-]_5>,/3l.S.so 143l145>7Š`‡7J.+3l<L5>3lD/.ZEX?ON5d7:,‹</oSOj0_14?83lO+.s580UDK7J(N?coƒ</Oiv/w?8ON9K3-D‹MF³4DS3lCT1N0to/EGV-5>D/•Q* ?
,©08(N5U±QE,Kz ]\3B080h]6,@08. 3l3l.aD@E=EG5>, D/*14DK<+,eŽHfs?>,@ON5836?8087T3j]\(N9/CT,@D‹5R³43l9SCT7:0L3lP;,/58fF3ŒD/7:58.Z36?6.+Vi1436•q583B1¥147T,@,/</0L.+7JDKE_0U?8?87TO+]\3l7T,@oª.©PQ]l3l,/5>.©3ƒ3\.N³NDK,@.Z*-?85d7:,@.N.+3}08f+?>ON,@5>3Œ3l.Z083l?k.+58083l36[+1a36]\MF?8D/7:.N.+<3
0U?85>(+]^?>(N583=EG5>D/*,/.So}9S7J36P;fsDK7J.Z?6V
z{1436ON.+7:A#.N0UBD3=ˆn<?>$ ,/DZE MsD/A DK?8Oj(4?RD/5{0UDK?>*-ON3R3k08D/D@EmE‘?8oK36D/5)(N]l5r,‹DI9SP;7J?co.a 14+ 3l.ZOS?>,/oC2 ¬)x«5>,‹o406Ž&P;Os,I?RP{,/0=MN5>7J<KOK?R,/.+1iP;Os,I?RP{,/0r1N,@5>ˆ)e?8O+3


 >'& A " $ <  A"E &>&<$A  ?)> $4&! )   /+

S?8O O+(N3)*H¨ Ms,@D4.j,/14</MFok.NDS3l,@?81N.+7To/]t1 Vt5>B z{3608,@OND/.+3R.+1 ,/1N.+<,@]\?>,/3t,k587:3)fN*H5>,K,@D402<K14MF7J(+.N3\]\<kEG3BD/1ƒ|5>¨ 3/7TV0)'4Hu,-


U,KYv/]df+w Ok58D408,@*H145>(+5>,@,‹]lC:36oCN0A9/v/DK wE CJ(+*k7:B*H3;,@< 36</ CJ3B36€N*-0YP;D/3lO+E+.Z3l*H?t5>3 D/,I5?>E 3l15>7:.+ 7:,/#14C:7T06]l%I€‹,@58(+36?80U3BfN(s0)5>,@36, C:08CJ3lor.Z% f+)%?>(02,/;5U,r?d?80XON0>,@5>D/*-D/EN(+?8fN</O+C:O 33
?8fF08O+fs3l3H365>O+36*-1j,@f+,@|G0D/?836EF… 58MN7T,@*-C:DSC²VH*‰D41h¨ 7J[s.n,@DI<K14P_.N7:‚,/3\*-?>D@7:Es]k3\*H?85>3636,@5&08?8D/,/3l.+5>.+7T,/1j,@.+CN?8]\,IO+3-?23h,@?>7:ON.N.K3)<K?>7J3l9KDK.+D‹</08³S5d7J,@36?cogC~fNV‚OS*-°So©(+3B|]d,/¨OH08(N')0858]63B•&,@1g.Nr.+?8f+ON3l585d36D40258143h]l(+,@7:0&]l.-3658]\0r36DZC:7:0c,@.Z?u?8?83B3l,=1g.s*-0U?87JD}7:?8CJ7:C:367J?>DK0rON.H3L5>3l14]dCTD/O+,IC:?>3lC:36*-,/1i5>7:020U?8?8,/Dj5>.+og?81kO+D@,3 E
08¨ 7J.N' <K
mCJ3&08]608]6,@,@.N.N.N.N7:.N7:.N<k<h]l]6,@,@.g.ƒ14]l3\DK?>0U36?m]\?Q,7:?>.ZON?8D/3l5>(s.+08,/,/CF.+141H3l14EG36D/]\C:?>CT,@0{5d7:0l.}€KMNEG5>(4(N?Q7Š?d?80{ON,@367J.+5Q1ƒ9I9/,@C:3l(N<K3)3\?d7T,@0uMNPQC:363l0mC:Cs,@3B.+0c1ƒ?d,@*-MNC:,‹7T0Uo-ONMF3B1k3&EG(sD/0U5{3B1H147TEG,@D/</5{.+08DK(+08]d7:06O V
EG7:MS.h5>okD/?>*‰]dONO+3QDZv/EGDZw(40U?87:(N¨.N5><r3{')?>7Š• ONEF3_?81+O+MN,I3{5>?>7:]l,+</DKV)OZ0U?8?‚z{3BD/0cON?uE+7T0 ?>9KOND‹3;³43l14#C 3l)+9S#7T
]\$&3{ 14 58)DK f+DI' *9/06V‚365up‚)+,@' 7:8</C:Cs(N, 085>9CJ3 7T ]\.… 3B0V&0 (2% ' *+
K)%V21|CJs3l• E‘€y?dD/]lXD/A5 0U*-ON; DIfNP)(40A?>3l,=5m 14,/ 7:CJ</<K€F7JD/?>]l5>,@D/7ŠC4?>(NON7:*HCT*1j,@MF<K]l3h,@3m.}3lfN³Z5>,K?>D4]^5>14?>,K(+(+]^,@]\?>C:3B36CJ11o

</,=36PQ.N,/3l5dCJCZ,IEG?>(N3)C:CN,D/¨0EF08
(+©]dOL7:*Hf+,@58</7:.Z3;?8MS361ok…fNw 5>D@bc7:*H36]\,@?87:<K.N36<06€I7:MN.}(4,@?2.S?8oh5>(N9S3;7:3lv/P w 141N7:587:3B08fN]^?8CT,‹7:D/oS.Y0AV‚,/w&583Q7:,/.N</DI.NP DZ0U,‹7T9I02,/7T7J0ACT,@?cMNoSC:fN3m7T]l,/,@.+C:1LC:ok5>14,KDK14.N7JDK3;CJDK(+</087T7J0c.+?d< 0
,@5>3rCJ3B,@5>.N7:.N<h?>DH(+083&?>ON3l*jV
 -   D  C  F!

Nfp‚,H7J7J³4]\<KDK3l(N*-CT5>0{3 fNEG…58(4DKV&?8% * 36*N5)Žt,H</|36WY08.N3\3\3l?_E‘5d?^D/,IAEA?>• 36¨1Œ*H')7J*H,@•³S,/7:</*h08CJ3R7T(+]\14* 3B7T0{0U7Jf+EG.Z58C:?8DK,‹36*oS.+7:.N08,-7Š<-?coROSON(Nf+7J<K*H58O D/,@bc.e1436]^3lO+?>.s7J360UDK,/7J.ƒ?c1aoƒ|¨|9KfND‹


58³SmDI369SXC:7T0{*H14D/36,/1gEA14,H3QMSoŒ08MS3\o¨n?&fND@° 58EuD/±Qbc36')z“]\,K?87:0>14.N]l7J<_,/DK.+CJ?>DK0)ON</3{,/oN0_MN^”’5>,H7J|<K580UOK7:3l</?>?)OZ36D@?^0U?E
-

7:CJC:(N*-7J.s,I?83B1j0U(N58E,/]l3r3lC:3l*-3l.Z?>06Vtw=,I?>,-]lD/(N58?83B0Uo}D/E‚z{ON36583B08, 5Q3l5>.+,@5d14DsV
 >& A 0<#>&!&ACBDE >&  >& A  ?)> A"E

bc14(+7:580U3B?)w&]^?8?>3lO+CJ9So 37:]l,‹7J36.Z9I0k?8,@367:,@.+CT,@5>083ƒMN7Š?cC:oŒ,‹3h9ID@7:,@.nE27:C:5>,/,Œ,KMN145>C:,/3H7T,I.N?8?8</O+7:D/3L,@.Œ?-7J*H58083B,/3l]\.s</363/0U7J9K3ƒ€‡36P;1N1ŒON3lEGf4365858?>DK3BO¥* ,/0&D/7J5k?67J.aVQ5d,@°N,@.N,@.n<K*-3H7J.ZfN?8?>C:D3l36.+0;,i08D/7Š?cEXv/oe?>wqON7:*H3h08(N,@08(N5U<KE5U3/,KE€y]\,K3}0U]\(+3365UCJ08E36,KO+*-]\,@3-fF3l.Z30U?6O+D@€t,/EAfs5dD/,I3-M4?>ONbc]l3B,/3l]^5h. ?d0)?8D/O+.+,@,/5>CJ.o 3


?8MF5>5d3\3h,@[+.s143B]^0U3l*-?85>3B7:9/7J1i?>360)1Œ087J,/<KEG.g5>.+D/,@,/*qCA*kM+f+14,KCJ7 ]d7J}?8ˆ‡(+]lV71N(N3R5QCŠ?=oi*-,@DS]\.+DK1N1j*k(N36C:fs,@585>,@?8D/3B5>5{7J1Œ.NfN<ƒCT,/5>D/08?83lON.N5;3H3RMF]d,/36O+.+,/,/,@* .NC:o4</0U?>3L7TD}06D@Vu,HEQ•fN0UfFO+W D@,/
c?)08w_3jD/• EX|' 14?>ON36C:3R14,‹36oNv/9Z_w7T]\Ms3K083l€s(N?c5808PmEON,/36DI3l]lP;.n3r.j,/?8.+ON7J.e3k1gp‚?8585d3B7:,@</]\.s(N367J0U5>9K*-3 360Q7J… ?UV ?8?8% 3BO+4€1 3
*-D@,@E‚.sD41¥?814O+(N5>3h36CT,I,@]l?83l*L7:7:D/9/MN.Œ367J<K1 D@(NE’0U7J?c?>7:</oON.s3=Œ,@C:C²,K,H€t0U?80836O+fs5m3 D/MF?_36W ,/,I
c*g?&w)14I•V27Tz{0U'q?>ON,@7T]6.s0Q,@]\.Pm3DKD@*-58E ˆ4360u,/08D/(N.N5>C:3ƒo- ?>EGD/ON… 5{3 fN14145>7TD40c7T0c?d14?d,@(+,@.+]l.+]l36]l360{3j0Q?>]\7JON. DI3h9/?8360>36,@58583B*-*H1H3r0-MS58o-D@3BE&0UD/fF.N?8D/ON3=.+3efs083RfF36583l,/7:5>D40_7:1HDS,H1 MF0U36fFD@]lE=D@,/?_?8(+O+,@0833?
?8140836fs7T.+0cD/?d08?),@7Š?c.+EGoLD/]l5;3 ?8Dh?>ON?8€y7TON0)P;3_P{ON?83l,‹5d5>9/,@3 .+3lC:08 3l*-.+7T<@7Š0_?8?8?8?>Og36ON1-D@3kEA7:fs.ZCT?8,/36365808.+7:3lD45)0U1e7J?cC:7Jo/D@<K€KEtOZ?8?6*-O+V{3&D4z{14W OZ(N
c(sw_CT,I0l• ?>€+7J'?8DKON.’3h,/VC:W08¨eDR
cw)D/365>0U• 3l?8DI7:'*H9K3lf+,I5B?>58€N36D4MS0214oj(+?>ON]l]l3_36D/0{*-5>3\?cf+[sPQ,/36DH]^58?>7:5>.N7J3l9S<H</7J7T?c?>0UoLON?83l3LD/5>E‡365>?81Œ36ON]l7:3=3l*-7:0U9/,/(N3B</581jE3B,/07J.4]l 3 x


D@3\,H³4E25dfF?>,@ON3l.N.+3 <K083R7:,29/, 7:3;*-2MF%+,/% 36</]l' 3h)+,//(+,/08_.+3)1 .ND@36,/E‡36.e?814O+3B7J3).Z1g?8*-36?8DŒ.+3608]d]l7ŠO+?cD/oj,/*-.N7:fN7:*-]6(4,@,/?>CN</3Rfs3K?>,@V_ON583hz{?>0tONfN.+3LOs3l,/W36081N


c3hw)361k]d• O+?8',@DR.+0U7:</0=?83r360U3lEGC:D/5uDI5&PQ?8ON363l3),K5;]dCT?>O ,/O+08,@0U3l.ifF5uD@Ms,j?B3BŽQ,@±;7J*j?&±QV2w†7T0=z{,@]6ON,@CT7:0U*-0uDH3\3l*L³45d,-fF(+3l]dMF.+O 3608]l3)*-,/O+(+D/,K085>330
MF3l3l.Lbc(+0U?8&7 (+361Œ7:.Œ*-7:.N7J.+<k5>D/MFD@?d0m,/.+1Œ7J.Œ58DKMsD/?>0m?8O+,@?;3\³4fNC:D/5>3_D@?>ON3l5{MFD4147J3B0{7J.gD/(+5Q08D/CT,@5{0Uo40U?836*gV
v/08(Nw$5UE• 08,K(N]\9I583RE,@,/D/5>]lEA7:,@3k?8?8ON7:*-D/3L.L3BD/,/D@M408EF(Nbc3B?858ON]^36?=*-3 ,/F/3l.+®/.Z1g®/?>0r®&?8,/o/O+0r3B3h,@08MN58ONx²5>DIDK7J<KP;C:1LOZ. ?_0U(+7JCJ.a7:58.N9K3Lp‚3loS7J7Š<K?=7J.+(NfN<&58583 *-D4…143\&V(s?>%BON]\¯N36D4V-0_1-•†7:D@0&EFf+D/?8MsC:5>,/0U7:.N,/36.N3-589K</D@36(+Em1gC:,@C:MS7:?8</7:ogD/OZ.L?R,Œ]67:]l0r,@,@.-f+*-58MF36D/3;5>bc,+36(+]^V 0U?>3BHm361L1i,/]d?8D/DrOe.ZD/?8MNDgM45>?d7:</?8,@O+OZ7:. 3?
7:*-,/</3fFD/7:.Z? 8  9   7T0;?8O+3R7J*H,/</3D@Et08D/*-3R]\DK585>3608fFD/.+147:.N<-7:CJC:(N*-7J.s,I?83B1ev/w fsDK7J.Z? $8 :9    
 V-°SDs€y?8O+3-083l.s0U7:.N<j143l9S7T]\3 ˆS.NDIP)90 H?>ON3-fNC:,/.N3-D@EQCJ7:</OZ?,@.+1i?8ON3-5d,‹oeD@EQCJ7:</OZ?rEG58DK*‰?8ON3H]6,@*-3l5d,

?8]\O+36.Z3?87J3l*H5),@?8<KON7J5>.+D/<L(N<K5dOg,‹oH?8ONP;3R7JC:Cy7:*HfN,@7:3l<K5d3]\3=fs?8DKO+7J.Z3=?_f+DKC:,/(4.N?_3r7:.KD@?>EADƒCJ7:v/</w OZ?;0U7Jf+.j,K]\,k3K(NVQ.Np+7 58,ZDK(N* 3rfs7:.ZDK?87J.Z(N?67J?8Vt7:9/z{3O+<K3r3l]lD/DS*-D/3l5d?8145>7Jo/.s€N,IPQ?83B3R0 ˆS8 .N DI:P“9 ?8O+,@ ?



* 
  "!#!$!

LIght Detection And Range ( LIDAR )

range z = f ( phase change )


3D
intensity = g ( amplitude change)
surface

transmit albedo a
receive
nod and
pan surface spot
sensor
head amplitude modulated laser beam
( x, y ) z
varied
by nod
and pan

‚p 7J<K(N5>3 … V&% SŽA• W


cw)•I'0U36.+0UDK5;]l,@.jfN5>D414(+]l3=f+7Š³43lCT0;]\DK.Z?>,@7:.N7:.N<-MsD/?8Oj5d,@.N<K3=,/.+1ƒ7:.Z?836.+0U7J?co/V
?8]l08O+7J,/*L3h.}(NC:MF7JCŠ<K?d3&,@OK14.N?=3l360U?8D/ON3l(+5>360r*-3\?&C:7J7:.+.N,/36.+361H,/1 5MS… oH-3 ,Z3 ,@(+,K.+,I(s,/?>,ICJ7J?8oZDK7:?>.+D/7:0r.s]6,@0;oSC+7J7J. 36<KC:3l1+?8DK0=ON*kDZ?83l0UON?83R3H5>o‡vHC:ŽXD4(+]lPQ.N,I3)ˆS?>7J.NO+DKDI,‹.nP;9KD/3).+Em0;D/?>.NEGON5>3&D/3}3-* v/,Zw(+?8,@O+?80U3R7:(ND/7J58.H*HE,/7:,/]l.}</3L7:?8.NfFO+<HD/DK7:085>.Z3_,‹?6o‡vRV ”F(N
0U.¥.+DKˆZCJ9S±m.+7:O+DI.NP;,/<-f4.+?8?802ON363B5EG5>0UD/3L%6*v+v €
*-(36%()-,K0U(N.5>'*3l)%
*-}36.K*-?d3\0Q?8*-O+DS,K1+140;3,@D/5>.Œ3&?8<KO+7J9K33lPm.}DK?>58O+ˆS,IMF?;3l36.+.+]d,@O’MNV C:3=(+0Q?8DH1436587:9/3&?8ON3r.N3B]\3B080>,@5>o--3 ,Z(+,I?>7JDK.+0mEG58DK*083l9/365>,/C
,?8@O+.i3H3lz{f+.ZON,@?83}7:5858?83h7T,/]\MsfN(NDIC:CT,/9K,@.N5R3k3h,/,/D/fN58<KEtfN(NC:CJ7:7:*-]6</,IOZ3l?>?B.Z7JV_DK?.’¨ 7:0Vƒ,@36zX.S9/ojDj36.a9I0>]l,@08,/5>7:7:.©*k,@?8f+,@7:CJD/. 36.+5R3l0).Z7ŠE;3\?8³47:,e587:3}0U08?=7J0>.N,/]\<K36.+.NCJ1 3-3/€‚,}MF36,j08,/3lCJ* .s7:</0UOZDKD/?R5_EQ7T08C:0_ON7J<K3l(+OZ3l08?R?R(+7:,/D/0CJ5RC:f+ogMF58]d36D/O+,/bc36*DK]^08?>3l36*h. 1n(s,/0c5>]6?R,@]\?8DKMFON5>3}36145r7:0U.NPQ?8<-O+3l,/fN?>.D ?
?8C:,/7ŠO+]l?>3l3ƒ58DZ5d,I0U08O+02?8(+3l?83\58ON3K?R3rVADI08¨i9K]l3l3l,/5r.N]d3KON?>VA7J7:*-.N°N363}]l0{,@(+.+(s08.N0U7:7:.N7J.N.+< <-<h,e*h*-]\(N7J5>DKCJ5>?8.ZD/7:9KfN5d3lC:0t3roK]lD/CJ,/7:5</.}OZ0UMso4?_3&0U08?8ON(+36*g3l083l36Vg?>1-0;?>¨ ,@DL5>,@3=14.SDh(+o 0U?83B]\ON1}5>7T360l?>,I€SDH?>DK7J5u9K143HD}D/MN14,@bc36(43608?>]^7JD/?d<K0m*-.+]60RD/,@M+]6.}7J,@C:.aMF3&3)P;Ms?>O+3}5>3l,/EG3l.+D/CX(N08C:,@.+,@C:1a?87J<K36.N1-7:.a*-fs?83l,/O+.Z0U3??
7:7T,@.©0=.s]l1ª9/CJ3lDZ?>5>0UDaoi3k]d3l08O+fs.+363BD/]d]\(Nˆa7&<K(sO ?8]HO+?8fF3 DjDK(N080836?HD/06*-D@€XE=3L7:*H]67T14,@,@5H3B<K,@3}14CADS,@7J*H.+D/5d,/,/0-CJ</o4143k087:(N0rfs5>DZ7J*H.+0U<7J,‹?8o}7:*HD/bc.’(s,/VL.Z0c?h(Nz{E.+ON,/3l3H]^36?>1(N0c?>5>58?>3/3BD V ,@*‰9/+ 3658D@ON7JEQEG3lo .D/M+7JE_CJ08DS3l,jDK5>ˆZ9If+,I7:,@.N?858<a7:?8D/7T.s,I]\0)(+?}C:EG,/085>fs5D/3B*‰7J]\*H&7 (s?>,@ON]j<K3k3}D/08M40c3l?>bc.s583B7:0U]^fFDK?d350
7T0’(+08361r?>D_,/1Ibc(+0c?‚D/.NC:7:.N3t*H,@.S(4E,K]^?8(+587:.N<)DKfs365>,@?87:D/.+0‡EGDK5 ,Z(+,/CJ7J?co=]lD/.Z?85>D/CK,@.+1rEGDK5Y5>3lfFD/58?87:.N<;D 7:.N3/V
-› œ6 šŸ@Ÿ 2Ÿ&  7;Ÿ)¡

¨e°4]dDKO+58,/3RCJˆK08D@fs`i3B]\| 7&%(s!/]¯!K7:.4\EGVXD/zX5>*H(4?8,IDK?>587JDK7T,@. CT0t,@,@MF.sD/1h(4?)?>36?>]dONON3h.+7:14]63B,@0UC+7:</08fs.j3BD/]\EA7&(s7:]l*H,@,@?87:<KD/7J.+.N0t<}D@1NEy3l]d9SO+7:]l,@365>0&</3l]lx«,@]l.eD/(NMFfN3C:36EG1LDK(N14.+3l1j9S7T]\7:.e3B0t?8,@ON5>3R3{?8583\3B³S,/?_147:MSCJoo


EG08D/7Š?c(+oL.+D@1jE D/+ .g7:?80>O+]\DK3.+Pm0U7:36.HMg,I(s? 0U7:.N<} ,H0836 ,@
5d ]dOg 3l  .N <K
7J.N 3KŽt
D/ .+3
3\ ³N ,@ *- fN C: 3r7:0&VY,h&.N?>(43;?8D/DKE‡587T08,@3lCY9KfN3l5d58,@DIC49S3B7T14,@365>1ŒCJohMS,/o}5U?>?>7:ON]lCJ3 3B0A)D/.+.k7J9K?83lO+583 x 

36D@,/EA58*HC:o-,@14.S3lo}9KDK3lf4C:D/?8fN7T]l*-,/Cy3l.ZfN?uOND/3l.+EYD/]\*-DKCJDK3l.+5Q,-±;]6±Q,@w“.g]6Ms,@3r*-EGDK3l(N5d,/.+0u1g7:0u7J.gMSo-?>ONw&37:MsCJC:DSD/DK. ˆ}MS' oƒ%F')| 3B% ]d! OKI¯?_Z^,/V‚.+w_1 7T‡08]l,I(+bU0>,K0U]k7:D/| .ƒ%!,/D*.+K1-\V *-D4143lC:7J.+<


MN KJ M 1M J 9G J J 2M N H
 -   D  C  *
%

TRIANGULATING 3D SENSOR ( xc , yc )
Y
c
plane equation laser
ax w+ byw + czw = d stripe CCD
projector . camera

(x , y , z ) X
w w w c
Z
c

Zw . .
3D imaging ray
Yw object yields two
linear equations
in the 3 unknowns
(x ,y ,z )
w w w
X

p‚7:</(N5>3 … V%6¯+Ž‚•C:7J<KOZ?_0c?>587:fN7:.N<H0U36.+0UDK5{fN58D414(s]\360;vKw fFD/7:.K?d0{MSoH?85>7:,/.N</(+C:,@?87:D/.’V


w

?8OSO+(N3L*H¨ MF,@DS.a,/D/.Z9Sˆeoƒ7:08MSEG(+(Noj,/.+CtfZ1No4,/0Uo40>*-]d0UON?83l3l.ZD/* ?>C:D/,/<KCXEG7:58DK0UDK?M+*š0UsV3658?8sV9IO+,@3H ?87:fsD/7JMs36.+5>0U0;DK08fs.¥C:363B,K]^| 14?>% 7J!#7:9K.NF@3H<H®Z^D@?8V E;DŒt,@]\. D/5>D/*-3lfF.NfN3l<K(N587J?8?8.N7:3l36365&0_3l9S5RD@7:Em,/087J58,/DK3-.N.j7:</*-?87:3B9/,/]d36CXON.n9S.N7T7:7 0U.,K7:(+D/?836. ON0_3}0U]6o4?8,@0U3\.e?8³S36?RMF*-3RMS0=oiEGDK,@WY.s(N1e.+3l9S1e?87J.+O+7:. 33
D?8@| 5d%E2,@!/?>.sC¯ ON0cF/3kEG^DKVLOZ58*H(+z{*-,ION?>,/3-7J. DKMs.’9SDSVX7:D/08¨iˆi(+,/,@MZC‚5>o <K,/,@.+_5>1e3\,@?2C:</P{W’7:9/,i7:9S3B0&|7J.+% ,ƒ!<K!K0U</?8vKDSD/_D4.jMs1j| 36% 7J</.Z!/7:?>¯K.+(N¯K0r7ŠY?>P;7J</9K7Š7:?>3k9/O 361N02,j36,r0>14]\fF5>7TD/0>7Jf4]\f+(+?>(N7J0>DKC:0U,/. 7:5AD/D@.n?8Et5>36D@7:,@*HEm?8?8*-,@ON<K3l3H7J.Z.N]l?t<Œ,/D@f+,@EF,@.+OSM+1 (N7JC:*H?87Š?>ON7J,@3L3B.-0rfsfs,@3636.+5>5>081i]lfs3l3BEf4,@]^?>?>(N7J7JDKCJ9K?>. 30
P;08fs7J3B?8On]^?87:,/9/. 3&D/?85d5>,@7:3l.s.Z0c?>EG,@DK?8587:*HD/.j,I?>?87JDKDg.},@,@58?=5>3&,/]lfND/fN.Z5>?>36,/]\7J7T.N,I?>3B7J1HDK.’7:.ŒV&'_¨i,/,@5>.S,/ojCJ7T]dˆZˆ-.+,@DI.+P;1g. °S*HO+,I,@?8f+O+7J5>3lD+*H€Z,I–2?>D/7:]6C:(N,@C‚*-fN3 58DK

_fs36| %5U?>!7J! 3B…0)\D/V Etu?85>ON,K3L]^?8fs7T]l36,/5Ux C
MS1414oƒ3l7J`F?>¨e,@36587:CT36(N0R.Z5>?_5d,@,‹.+0Uo-1©DK(N,/,/5>.+.a]l1Œ360Q7J–t.Z7T?8,@0{36
. </7J';.+5d]l,IoSCJ?>fF(s7J.N3l145R<j361y| DI%V 9K!3l!/5>­Z9Z\7:”N3lP†,-±QD/.aw 7:D/*-E‚,/]l</D/3*-(+*-C:3HD/.jEGDK0U58D/*HE‘?c,IPQ?d,/0587T3&0(4fN?85>7:DICJ7J9Z?87:7T36140_3B1n]\D/7:C:.aC:36]^?8?>O+363}1ƒ3lEG.+58DK]l*o4]\C:08D/3lfF9/3636145>7T,/, C
%KV AVYw_7:C:CJDK.’€‚wLVAW’3lP;7T0R,/.+1apmV ,/08f+,@5B€  .%  2/.)    '  $)   ).% ' ! 
!  1I€
H H HazX5>,/.+0>,/]^?>7JDK.+0AD/. HuCJ3B]^?85>D/.-w&3l9S7:]l3606€K–2DKC~V Huw_x … F4€ )D+V … |~pN3lM % ! @¯K %B® … x %B® SV


… V +V5mDZ+V0c?>D/ .’7JVMs0UDK. | %!CF@®Z^€


A ACBD<$A &" $4 & $ "
A  $ E >#
B # €L'_D/(N<KOZ?8D/.Nx«¨e7 7J.Y€ <

v+V H)VN')3B]dOZ?;,/.+1j•RV+WX,IbU,K]L| %! I­Z\€  &" $ <#E €N•&1N147T0UDK.4 x +n3B0UC:3loKV


­sV ' @V/€N'_•_,/1N5>14,/7TCJ087T]dD/ˆR.4 x ,@+n.s1k3B0UWuC:3lVKoK°SV O+,/fN7:58DH| % !! … ^€ 97 ? & " ACB >&  "  $ E $%'&   7# ?)A"E  >&

FNV)¨©V wLV+WY3l9S7J.+3-| %!K#¯ F/\€  $ E $4 & $%&  >& >&  >@<


$4& A €+¨ ]  5>,‹P{x ')7:C:C~V
*+V)¨©V+W’7:9S7J.+<K0U?8D/.+3/€’| % !/¯K¯K !  'F4 2%+%($ )%1 
 , '  )  $ %   ' k€s°4]\7:3l.Z?>7 (s]•_*-3l5>7:]6,@.’€ Z,@.YV
%!/¯K¯N€ I¯@x«C¯ F4V
 D
* … 
  "!#!$!

4V +VL‚— ';¨e36(N7JC:5>C:5>oƒ,‹,@oa.+,@1g.+•_1)0>+ 08DS]lVX7:–t,@?8,/3B.


0l';€&
oS.+fs]/36VJ5g€%6| ®/%vk!!@¨e­Z\DK€ 585> 7:0;&°Z< ?B VJ<€F#%°S(N& 7J?8A3h!$•h> €s°S3l$ Ms%,/0UBD?8D/> fF& D/
C²$ €+<$±QE • !#$F# F@A ­ !…
BV D?)>"-E €
¯+V;–hV &,@C:PQ,g| %!!/v-^€
% $ A  B $ 9+ ?& !"-ACB  $ E $4 & €4•_1N1N7:08D/.4x + 3608CJ36o/V
!+V 'V sV2°4]dO+,@C:ˆ/D/`„| %!/¯ !K\€ : $%'$" >#  ? > A B10<$A"E E $4&! >& 9+ ? & " A#B  $ E $4 & € /DKON.
+ 7JC:3loƒ,/.+1e°SD/.s0lV
<