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Stirling Engine Home Page -English

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Welcome to Stirling Engine Home Page

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viewers since 5 December 1995.

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Do you know about Stirling Engines?
The Stirling engine was invented in 1816, before the gasoline and Diesel engines. A Stirling engine can use any type of fuel, as well as solar energy and hot spring heat. This web site offers Stirling engine information. Please enjoy these pages. This page is under construction 5 December 95.

Stirling engines for beginners The Stirling engine's structure and history are examined in this session.

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Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

View of model Stirling engines In this session, I am introducing some model Stirling engines.

Let's build model Stirling engines On this page I offer plans for some easy to build Stirling engines.

Gallery of Stirling engines On this page I offer pictures of many types of Stirling engines.

Other Stirling engine web sites Links to other Stirling engine web sites.

Stirling Engine Home Page Academic edition This web site offers academic information for the Stirling engine.

Information about the Author

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Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

Here is information about me and an easy questionaire. Please help me make my web site better.

Stirling Engine Q&A If you have any questions, opinions or comments about Stirling engines, please come here.

INFORMATION OF 12th ISEC
12th International Stirling Engine Conference - 12th ISEC 7-9 September 2005 Durham University, School of Engineering, UK The 12th ISEC Official Web Site

INFORMATION
The author has published a web site rerated metal workings. Please come to my web site! Elementary Knowledge of Metal Workings

WebRing is a means of linking web pages with similar content. You may click on the items below and jump to other Stirling sites.

This Stirling and Hot Air Engine Ring site owned by Koichi Hirata. [ Previous 5 Sites | Previous | Next | Next 5 Sites | Random Site | List Sites ]

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Stirling Engine Home Page -English-

To Bekkoame Home Page Koichi Hirata e-mail: khirata@gem.bekkoame.ne.jp (Home) e-mail: khirata@nmri.go.jp (Office)

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Stirling Engines for Beginners -English-

Stirling Engines for Beginners

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Today we have ecology problems and energy problems. The world needs a clean and environmental power source. Stirling engines are able to use many kinds of fuel and achieve a high theoretical efficiency.

How does a Stirling engine work?

Structure of Stirling engines

History of Stirling engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/begin.htm [13.03.2007 00:07:00]

How does a Stirling engine work?

How does a Stirling engine work?
To Japanese Page Step 1 Characteristics of air Let's fit a rubber to a can like Figure 1. You can understand easily that the rubber expands when the can is heated (Figure 2), and the rubber contracts when the can is cooled (Figure 3). It is caused that a pressure of the air in the can works to the rubber when the air is heated, shown in allows of Figure 2. Of course, you cannot see the pressure by your eyes.

Step 2 What is a displacer piston? Next, let's put in a piston into the can like Figure 4. A diameter of the piston must be somewhat smaller than that of the can, because the piston works to move (displace) the air up and down in the can. And, please heat the bottom side of the can and cool the upper side of the can. After it has enough temperature difference, move the piston up and down by your hand. When the piston is moved up, the rubber expands because there is a lot of hot air in the can (Figure 5). It corresponds to Figure 2. When the piston is moved down, the rubber contracts because there is a lot of cold air in the can. It corresponds to Figure 3. In the case of the Stirling engine, this piston, which moves (displaces) the air and make the pressure changes is called a displacer piston.

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How does a Stirling engine work?

Step 3 Crank mechanism ~ from piston motion to rotation ~ Do you understand about the characteristics of the air and the work of the displacer piston? They are very important to understand how does the Stirling engine work. First, connect from the piston and a bent wire with a thread like Figure 6. When the bent wire is rotated, the piston is moved up and down. This is called a crank mechanism. Please heat the bottom side of the can and cool the upper side of the can, similar to above description. When your hand rotates the bent wire, the piston is moved up and down, and the rubber expands and contracts repeatedly (Figure 7).

Step 4 Power piston ~ function of the rubber ~ The Stirling engine converts from the motion of the rubber to the rotation of the bent wire. Please connect from the rubber to the bent wire with a rod. In this time, a force of the rubber (expansion and contraction) has to be the direction, which rotates the bent wire. In short, you must bend the bent wire the just right angle (90 degrees) from the piston like Figure 8 and 9.

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How does a Stirling engine work?

Step 5 Flywheel ~ for the smooth rotation ~ This engine has not worked yet. If you try to work this engine (Figure 8 and 9), the rubber keeps the most expansion or contraction. In order to rotate smoothly and repeatedly, you must fit a rotated mass with the bent wire. It is called a flywheel. Generally, the flywheel is circular like Figure 10. But at this point, please bend the end of the bent wire, and fit a mass at the edge of the wire like Figure 11. The mass works as the flywheel and to be balanced to the weight of the piston. So, you must fit the mass against the piston.

Step 6 It is the Stirling engine Finally, the Stirling engine is completed. Do you understand how does the Stirling engine work?
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How does a Stirling engine work?

Yes. No. I have known the principles before seeing this page. Do you think that above description is easy to understand? Yes, it is easy. No, it is not easy. If you have any suggestion about this page, please tell me it.

If you can, please tell me your name, e-mail address and country. Name: Country: E-mail address:
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P.S.: When the Stirling engine is understood, it is important that the knowledge of the characteristics of air (Thermodynamics), the crank mechanism and the flywheel (Mechanics and Mechanical Vibrations). I have tried to explain about them as simply as possible. Please contact me if you find incomprehensible contents or any errors, and have any your opinions. I hope that this description becomes more suitable for every young student. Permission is hereby granted, by author, to print and distribute this description. Thank you. Koichi Hirata (khirata@gem.bekkoame.ne.jp)

Return to Stirling Engines for Beginners

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Structure of Stirling Engines -English-

Structure of Stirling Engines

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Stirling engines have two pistons that create a 90 degree phase angle and two different temperature spaces. The working gas in the engine is perfectly sealed, and doesn't go in and out to the atmosphere. Stirling engines can be classified as two pistons type Stirling engines and displacer type Stirling engines. The two pistons type Stirling engine consists of two power pistons. The displacer type Stirling engine consists of one power piston and a displacer piston.

Two pistons type Stirling engine
The two pistons type Stirling engine is shown in this figure. A space above a hot piston is always heated by a heat source. A space above a cold piston is cooled always. Please click next buttons and you will see a operation principle of the two piston type Stirling engine. Stillness Animation (Netscape2.0 is demanded.)

Displacer type Stirling engine
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Structure of Stirling Engines -English-

The displacer type Stirling engine is shown in this figure. A space above a displacer piston is always heated by a heat source. A space below the displacer piston is cooled always. The displacer piston displaces hot air and cold air. Please click next buttons and you will see a operation principle of the displacer type Stirling engine. Stillness Animation (Netscape2.0 is demanded.)

Return to Stirling Engines for Beginners

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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History of Stirling Engines No.1 -English-

History of Stirling Engines No.1

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The Stirling engine was invented by Robert Stirling in 1816. He was a Scottish minister. At that time, Stirling engines were recognized as a safe engine that could not explode like steam engines of that era often did.

Stirling Engine of Robert Stirling (1816)

Go to Next Page Return to Stirling Engines for Beginners

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

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History of Stirling Engines No.1 -English-

Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Engines

View of Model Stirling Engines

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Here are links to information about different model Stirling engines.

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Variable Phase Angle Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Variable Storoke Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/modele.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:07:54]

Model Stirling Engines

Free Piston Type Stirling Engine

The Seesaw Stirling Engine by Hubert Stierhof

50 W class Stirling engine, Mini-Ecoboy
The web site named '50 W class Stirling engine, Mini-Ecoboy' has been moved to 'Stirling Engine Home Page at Ship Research Institute' which is author's official site.

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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LSE-01

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

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This engine is a two piston type Stirling engine with a cap type heater made of stainless steel and it does not have a regenerator. Its cooling system is a natural convection cooling by air. The pistons and cylinders use medical syringes made of glass, so the engine has few leakage of the working gas and small friction. To minimize the friction loss, at most of drive parts are used ball bearings. This engine has high speed performance. It can rotate about 3000 rpm.

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

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LSE-01

Go to Section of the LSE-01 Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

To Japanese Page

Following picture is a model boat with MSE-01. Ship type is named Short Water Area Twin Hal (SWATH).

Model Boat with MSE-01

Detail Information of MSE-01 Stirling Engine

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Model Stirling Boat with MSE-01

Development of MSE-01 Boat Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

To Japanese Page

This amphibian ship is powered by the 5W class Stirling Engine "MSE-02". Running Speed of this ship is about 2 km/hour on the land and on the water.

Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Detail Information of the MSE-02 Return to View os Model Stirling Engines

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Model Stirling Amphibian Ship with MSE-02

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Variable Phase Angle Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

To Japanese Page

This engine is used the variable phase angle mechanism with four bebel gears. In running the engine, the engine is been able to change the phase angle between two pistons, and controlled the output power and the engine speed easily.

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse03e.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:36]

Model Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Model Stirling Engine "MSE-03"

Photograph of the Model Boat with MSE-03

Principle of the Phase Angle Mechanism

Performance of MSE-03 Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Variable Storoke Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

To Japanese Page

In running the engine, this engine is been able to change the piston strokes by the special linkage mechanism, and controlled the output power and the engine speed. This engine is utilized the working space effectively, because the top dead center of the pistons is always the same point.

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mse04e.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:08:44]

Model Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Model Stirling Engine "MSE-04"

Photograph of Model Boat with MSE-04 Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

To Japanese Page

This model boat is powered by the MSE-05. The engine is compact and light weight.

Model Boat with MSE-05

Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata
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Model Stirling Boat with MSE-05

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Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

To Japanese Page

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine is new type engine. This engine drive 600rpm when it is heated by gas burner.

Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engines

Section of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine Return to View of Model Stirling Engines

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Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Let's Build Model Stirling Engines -English-

Let's Build Model Stirling Engines

To Japanese Page

If you have some machine tools and know how to use them, you can easily build model Stirling engines. Here are links to other pages with plans for easily constructed Stirling engines and the instructions for their assembly.

Let's build a Can Stirling Engine This engine can be built with very simple materials--no machine tools required.

Let's build a Model Stirling Engine 'LSE-01' This engine is a two-piston type Stirling engine. Its top speed is about 3000 rpm.

Let's build a Model Stirling Engine 'TSE-03' You must make a few parts for this engine. If you know machine tools well, you can make this engine in about 1 hour.

Plans for a Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine Plans for this prototype engine.

Let's build a Model Stirling Engine 'ESE-10'

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Let's Build Model Stirling Engines -English-

Sorry, but I am still preparing the figures that show the plans for this engine.

How to cut a glass syringe This page shows several photographs how to cut the glass syringe.

How to get a glass syringe Where can you get the glass syringe? This page answers this question.

Down Load the Engine Figures
The following is available as a zip file. Some figures used in the plans above are included in the English files. The Japanese files include most of the figures.

A Can Stirling Engine , GIF format data, English version with a text and html file for a local computer, 122 kB If you had downloaded an old version of this file (no text file), please download this file, cantxte.zip (4 kB).

A Can Stirling Engine , GIF format data, Japanese version, 140 kB

A Can Stirling Engine , EPS format data, English version, 99 kB

A Can Stirling Engine , EPS format data, Japanese version, 23 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01" , GIF format data, Japanese version, 175 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01" , GIF format data, English version, 117 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "TSE-03" , GIF format data, Japanese version, 131 kB

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/make.htm (2 von 3) [13.03.2007 00:09:34]

Let's Build Model Stirling Engines -English-

A Model Stirling Engine "TSE-03" , GIF format data, English version, 87 kB

A Model Stirling Engine "ESE-10" , JSH format data, Only Japanese, 174 kB

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Let's Build A Can Stirling Engine -English-

Let's Build a Can Stirling Engine

To Japanese Page

The Can Stirling engine can rotate using a candle as the heat source. This engine is constructed with very simple materials. There are a can, a balloon, a wood board and others.

A Can Stirling Engine (This engine was proposed by Mr.Saburo Tsucchida. He is teacher of Kasukabe technical high scool.)
q q q q q q

Step 1 --- Material Preparation and Structure Step 2 --- Cut a Wood Board Step 3 --- Make a Wood Piston Step 4 --- Make a Diaphragm Step 5 --- Make Connecting Rods and a Crank Shaft Step 6 --- Construct a Diaphragm and Crank Mechanism

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Let's Build A Can Stirling Engine -Englishq q q q

Step 7 --- Construct the Frame Step 8 --- Construct a Wood Piston and Crank Mechanism Step 9 --- Fit Up a Can Step 10 --- Let's Try to Move

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Let's build a LSE-01 -English-

Let's build a LSE-01

To Japanese Page

This engine is a two piston type Stirling engine with a cap type heater made of stainless steel and it does not have a regenerator. Its cooling system is a natural convection cooling by air. The pistons and cylinders use medical syringes made of glass, so the engine has few leakage of the working gas and small friction. To minimize the friction loss, at most of drive parts are used ball bearings. This engine has high speed performance. It can rotate about 3000 rpm.

Model Stirling Engine "LSE-01"

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_l01.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:09:46]

Let's build a LSE-01 -English-

Section of LSE-01 Assembly Drawing of LSE-01 (1) Assembly Drawing of LSE-01 (2) Suggestions to Assemble LSE-01

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_t03.htm

Let's build a TSE-03

To Japanese Page

You can make a model Stirling engine TSE-03 in a short time, because TSE-03 has a few parts. If you can use machine tools very well, you can make this engine about 1 hour.

Model Stirling Engine "TSE-03"

Section of TSE-03

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_t03.htm

Assembly Drawing of TSE-03 Suggestions to Assemble TSE-03

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

To Japanese Page

This rotary displacer type Stirling engine has very unique feature. I introduce the plans of the prototype engine in this site. Thare is more information about this engine in "View of model Stirling engines" site.

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Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Prototype of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Parts drawings of No. 1 - No. 2

Parts drawings of No. 3 - No. 5

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Plans of Rotary Displacer Type Stirling Engine

Parts drawings of No. 6 - No. 8

Parts drawings of No. 9 - No. 16

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Let's make a ESE-10

Let's make a ESE-10

To Japanese Page

This engine is a two piston type Stirling engine with a cap type heater made of stainless steel and it does not have a regenerator. Its cooling system is a natural convection cooling by air. The pistons and cylinders use medical syringes made of glass, so the engine has few leakage of the working gas and small friction. To minimize the friction loss, at all of drive parts are used ball bearings. This engine has high speed performance. It can rotate about 4000 rpm.

Model Stirling Engine "ESE-10"

Section of ESE-10
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/mk_e10.htm (1 von 2) [13.03.2007 00:10:21]

Let's make a ESE-10

Now, I am preparing the figures of ESE-10.

Return to 'Let's make Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/how_cut.htm

How to cut a glass syringe

To Japanese Page

Almost of my model Stirling engines use medical syringes as pistons and cylinders. The syringe has performances of few gas leakage and low friction loss. The syringe is cut using a grinder with a blue grindstone like below photographs.

How to cut the syringe

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/english/how_cut.htm [13.03.2007 00:10:31]

How to get a glass syringe -English-

How to get a glass syringe

To Japanese Page

I have often received the question, that is "Where can I get the glass syringe?" The glass syringe is sold at a science goods shop which sells a test tube, flask and etc. Its price is about 3 to 5 US dollars per one syringe. You can get it at following shops.

UK Fisher Scientific UK Bishop Meadow Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 5RG Telephone: +44(1509)231166, Fax: +44(1509)231893 e-mail: info@fisher.co.uk Web site (catalogue) at http://www.fisher.co.uk Canada Dyna Medical Corp e-mail: dynabc@netcom.ca Web site at http://tor-pw1.netcom.ca/~dynabc/index.html Japan Tsubasa Industrial Corp. Minami-senju 3-11-3, Arakawa, Tokyo Telephone: +81-3-3807-5151

If you know other shops which sell the glass syringe, please tell me information.

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How to get a glass syringe -English-

Return to 'Let's Build Model Stirling Engines'

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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Gallery of Stirling engines

Gallery of Stirling engines

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Go to Stirling Engine Home Page

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Gallery of Stirling engines

Koichi Hirata e-mail: khirata@gem.bekkoame.or.jp (Home) e-mail: khirata@mech.saitama-u.ac.jp (Office)

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/gallery/rotary1.gif

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http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/gallery/gamma1.gif

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites
Jump to;
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Building of model Stirling engines (not commercial base) Sales of model Stirling engines and related goods Developments of high performance Stirling engines (not commercial base) High performance and high powered Stirling engines for commercial base General descriptions, thermodynamics, analysis model and notes Societies, organizations and news letters Other information

Building of model Stirling engines (not commercial base)
Mr. Fukui's Stirling engine, Japan A high performace model Stirling car has been developed by Mr. Fukui at Tokyo University. This Stirling car can run about 2.5 m/s speed. (in Japanese). The Metalmaster and Stirling Page, UK This site introduces nice model Stirling engines with the drawings and detail information. Stirling Prayer Engine, USA This site introduces a can Stirling engine made by Bob Blick. He made a 10 second movie showing the engine in operation. Model Stirling Engine Library, Japan Finaly, another Japanese enthusiast, Mr. Tsuchida made a Stirling web site. He presents several
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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

photos of unique models. But they are Japanese only yet. Stirling Engine for Education, Japan A Japanese technical high school teacher, Mr. Ishida made a web site. This site introduces many Japanese industrial heritage and his Stirling engine for educations. But they are Japanese only yet. Omniscience Futureneering, USA This is nice site! Test-Tube Stirling Engine is shown here. And here is many other interesting information. Ron Ginger's Home Page, USA A Hot Air engine which runs on very low heat is shown here. And information of a Hot Air Fan which made in about 1900 is shown here. A Novel Stirling Cycle Hot Air Engine To Build, Australia This is very nice site! There are plans of a model low temperature Stirling engine. The Idaho Stirling Engine Homepage, USA Here is a nice model Stirling engine. I like "IDAHO STIRLING ENGINE ANIMATION". Mechanical Engineering Tools at MIT, USA This site introduces model Stirling engines as educational tools. Chris Greve's Homepage, USA Chris introduces a low temperature Stirling engine that has been running on his cable box for almost 2 years! Lecture Demonstration Facility at NCSU, USA Here is material from a lecture at North Carolina State University. The Rusty Iron Gallery, USA A Ericsson hot air engine manufatured by the Rider Ericsson company is shown here. RAYSHADE animation, Germany You can download a mpeg-animation with a low temperature difference Stirling engine. It is nice! Designing a Stirling Cycle Engine Module Abstract, USA It is useful information from University of Massachusetts Lowell. Ein Stirlingmotor als Bausatz, Germany A Can Wood Stirling Engine do-it-yourself kit is informed here (in Germany).
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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

TH Rijswijk's Stirling page, the Netherlands Here you can find some information from their school project about a Stirling engine. Takamatsu Technical High School, Japan There is information of their school project about a Stirling engine (in Japanese). Roy Rice's Little Engine Pages, USA There is a lot of beautiful and unique Stirling engines. It is one of the best web sites! WrenchTEN's Study of External Combustion Engines, USA Many variable engines from steam to Stirling are shown here. Dr. Fujio Toda, Saitama University, Japan Many types of low temperature difference Stirling engines are shown here. Mr. Chino's Stirling page, Japan This site shows a multi-cilinder type Stirling engine in Shibaura Industrial University (in Japanese). Tsuchiura Technical High School, Japan A nice Stirling powered model car is shown here (in Japanese). Hans Temme's Stirling engine page, Germany Very small and nice model engines are shown here. Symanski's Stirling engine page, USA Many kinds of the model engines are shown here. e-Zee (Little) Steam Engines, USA Many steam engines and their plans are shown here. Majosoft's Hobby Site, USA You can see beautiful steam engines here.

Sales of model Stirling engines and related goods
TECHNO PROTO, Japan This site introduces and sells beautiful Stirling engines and steam engines (in Japanese).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

Exergia, Germany This site introduces and sells several model Stirling engines. They use the low temperature heat source. American Stirling Company, USA This company is making and selling a model Stirling engine called the "MM-1." This engine will run on ice or hot water! Bailey Craftsman Supply, USA A model Stirling engine, a video and several books are sold here. I recommend the video entitled "An Introduction to Hot Air Engines." It is very interesting! Lutzer's Stirling Motor, Germany A model low temperature Stirling engine is sold here. E. Schmidt Stirling Engines, Germany Many kind of model Stirling engines, books and videos are sold here. Educational Innovations, Inc., USA A low temperature difference Stirling engine is sold here. Science Workshop PASCO, USA A low temperature difference Stirling engine is sold here. The Philips Stirling Engine, the Netherlands A book entitled "The Philips Stirling Engine" is sold here. Ken Rhodes Home Page, USA Some models of an antique hot air engine are sold here. Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of the Stirling Cycle Machine, USA You can buy a book entitled "Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of the Stirling Cycle Machine." The Huxtable Desk Top "Working" Hot Air Engine, Australia Buy a hot air engine. Northwest Tech, Inc., USA A model solar Stirling engine is sold here. Boehm & Daum GdbR, Germany

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

High quality and beautiful stirling motors are sold here. The Stirling Outlet, USA Very reasonable model Stirling engines are sold here. The Stirling Engine Powered Fan, USA A Stirling engine powered fan named FREE BREEZE is sold here. Model Project Plans & Kits Home Page, USA This site shows a catalog of model Stirling engine, atmospheric (vacuum) engine, and other types of model engineering project plans sets, material kits and casting kits for the hobby, educational and experimental machinist. Model Stirling Engines, JAPAN The book entitled 'Model Stirling Engines' shows various model engines (in Japanese). Theory and Design of Stirling Engines, JAPAN The book entitled 'Theory and Design of Stirling Engines' describes detailed information related the Stirling technologies (in Japanese). Regenerative Thermal Machines (Stirling and Vuilleumier Cycle Machines•jfor Heating and Cooling, JAPAN This book shows vapour compression systems using Stirling cycles, heat pumps and chillers using Stirling cycles, Vuilleumier machines, thermoacoustic machines and pulse-tube refrigerators.

Developments of high performance Stirling engines (not commercial base)
Stirling Engine Home Page at National Maritime Research Institute, Japan This is my official site related experimental Stirling engines. Energy Research at UWRF, USA This site is produced by Dr. J. R. Senft, who is famous for research of low temperature differential Stirling engines. Sandia National Laboratories, USA This site shows many Solar Stirling Engines. National Aerospace Laboratory, JAPAN
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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

This laboratory studies Space Stirling engines. Stirling Cryocooler Progress Report at NASA, USA This web site reports the progress of Stirling cryocooler research at NASA. The University of Reading, UK This university has quite a bit of Stirling engine research going on. Canterbury University, New Zealand Stirling engine battery charger and power generation is being studied here. Power Technology Earth Applications at NASA, USA This web site reports some Stirling engines research at NASA. Stirling Technology at NASA, USA This web site reports some Stirling research at NASA. Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Program at DOE, USA This web site reports on some Stirling engines developed under the Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Program. A Greenpeace report on ozone, USA A Greenpeace report on ozone and Stirling coolers. Olympic Photos Home Page, USA You can find a high resulution jpg of a solar dish Stirling engine. Bernd Kammerich's Stirling information, Germany Some high power Stirling engines are informed here. Prof. Iwao Yamashita, Tokyo Denki University, Japan You can see test and evaluation of practical Stirling engines and their application systems developed by Moonlight Project of AIST, MITI (1982-1987). Assistant Prof. Hiroichi Watanabe, Nihon University, Japan This site shows solar Stirling engines, low presurized Stirling engines and model automotive Stirling engines (in Japanese). Prof. M. Katsuta, Waseda University, Japan This site shows Stirling technologyes and other studies of interesting thermodynamics (in Japanese).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

Stirling Engine Research and Computer Programm Development, Germany There are many academic information related to Stirling engines. Meisei University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hamaguchi Lab., Japan Educational Stirling engines, a new type steam engine, a crypcooler and others are shown here (in Japanese).

High performance and high powered Stirling engines for commercial base
Whisper Gen, New Zealand Whisper-Gen is developing a home-sized Stirling generator. Its power output is 800W. STM Power Inc. (formerly Stirling Thermal Motors), USA STM Power Inc. has spent over fifteen years developing a new generation engine based on the Stirling Cycle principle. ST05G Stirling engine, Germany There is a photo of a 500 W Stirling engine "ST05G" developed by Dieter Viebach.(in German) Sunpower Inc., USA This site introduces free-piston type Stirling coolers and engines. TEM Stirling engines, Sweden TEM has been developing a new type of Stirling engine, which is hermetically sealed, with integrated generators. Sigma Elektroteknisk A.S, Norway This company is currently working on industrialising the PCP (Personal Combustion Powerplant) using a Stirling engine as the prime mover. Tamin Enterprises, USA This company is designing a Stirling engine with several variations. The engines are intended for commercial applications and for use by the general public. Bomin Solar Company, Germany This company has developed low- and medium-temperature Stirling engines. These Stirling engines are designed for broad applications and mass markets.

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

The Hymatic Engineering Co Ltd, UK There is detail information about cryocoolers. Stirling Technology, Inc., USA An over 5 HP of shaft power Stirling engine, ST-5 is informed here. Small Stirling Refrigerator of Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan A 50 Kelvin class Stirling refrigerator is developed here (in Japanese). Small Stirling Refrigerator of DAIKIN Industries, Ltd., Japan A 80 Kelvin class Stirling refrigerator is sold here. SOLO KLEINMOTOREN GMBH, Germany A solar Stirling engine and 10 kW Stirling engine are developing here. Submarine of KOCKUMS, Sweden A Stirling powered submarine developed by KOCKUMS is shown here. Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden This web site shows photos of Swedish submarines. There is a photo of a Stirling powered submarine made by KOCKUMS.

General descriptions, thermodynamics, analysis model and notes
Stirling Engine Animation by ITC and NUD, Germany There is an animation of the Stirling cycle. Sorry, I cannot understand this site, because it is witten in Germany. LASER, Stirling Machine Analysis, USA A Stirling machine analysis model, LASER is explained here. Mad Scientist's Lair, Australia This site is collected information on alternative technology and 'free energy' machines. There are Stirling-cycle water pump and engine sites. Eric Anbergen's Stirling Page, Belgium Inventor Eric Anbergen is describing about Stirling engines.

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

The Stirling Engine - The Power Plant of the Future, USA Air Sport Corporation is describing about Stirling engines. The Green Heat Machines, USA There are several nice pictures and useful Stirling information.

Societies, organizations and news letters
Information of Stirling Cycle Machines of JSME, Japan This site informs Stirling Cycle Symposium of JSME (in Japanese). UK Stirling News, The Stirling Engine Society, UK The Stirling Engine Society publishes a quarterly newsletter "UK Stirling News" European Stirling Forum 2002, Germany From September 18 - 19, 2002 the 6th European Stirling Forum will be held in Osnabruck, Germany. Bendigo Society of Model Engineers Inc., Australia Several Hot air engines are informed here. Stirling Engine and Hot Air Engine Home Page, UK This site is being developed for Stirling Cycle Engine enthusiasts. The Stirling Engine for Cars, Austraria Students of the University of Melbourne shows their nice report here.

Other information
Mechanical Design for Metal Workers, Japan This is one of my sites for students learning mechanical design (in Japanese yet). Tips of Metal Working, Japan This is one of my sites for students too (in Japanese yet). Microcomputer for Mechanical Control, Japan This is also my site (in Japanese yet).

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Other Stirling Engine Web Sites -English-

Fish Robot Home Page, Japan This information is one of my official researches. IBM Patent Server, USA It is very useful site! Please try to search for "Stirling".

Go to Stirling Engine Home Page Koichi Hirata

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index

The Metalmaster and Stirling Page
(Not such strange bedfellows, as will be seen)

The Metalmaster

designed and built by the late David Urwick:

Brochure and Specification. David Urwick's descriptive Article, published in the SIMEC newsletter. Photograph and recent history of my machine. Details of alignment technique etc in the Instruction Manual.

The original Sales

Stirling Engine pages.

Experimental Steam Engines

Piston Rings and Odds

Copyright Mick Collins at:- sylvestris@btinternet.com

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stirling

Stirling Pages
(still under construction) Completed so far:-

Back to Home Page

Fizgig - Withdrawn 17-11-03 due to unavailability of either Steradent or stainless steel displacers but restored by request 17-01-04. Piglet - A Robinson look-a-like. Phoelix - A Stirling dyno/lighting set Whippet - A 5cc Gamma type Competition engine Whigmaleerie - A yoke drive, alpha type engine Gallery - Pictures of some of David Urwick's engines. The Tin Can Stirling - A link to a pdf file on the NAMES (North American MES) web site.

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Warning_Index

FIZGIG

Introduction & Instructions

Drawings

(hit 'Back' to return)

IntelliCAD dwg files IMPORTANT - download a single file to check compatability with your CAD program before downloading the All.zip file.

Return to Index

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Index of /~sylvestris/fizgign/vectors

Index of /~sylvestris/fizgign/vectors
Name Last modified Size Description Parent Directory 10.dwg 11.dwg 12.dwg 13.dwg 14.dwg 1GA.dwg 2a.dwg 2b.dwg 3.dwg 4.dwg 5.dwg 6.dwg 7.dwg 8.dwg 9.dwg All-PurgedVersion14A..> 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 21-Jan-2004 14:17 11:14 11:14 11:14 11:14 11:15 11:15 11:15 11:15 11:16 11:16 11:16 11:16 11:16 11:16 11:17 11:17 80k 74k 73k 75k 71k 51k 70k 54k 82k 118k 112k 105k 87k 120k 88k 458k

Apache/1.3.31 Server at www.btinternet.com Port 80

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Piglet

Piglet, a Robinson lookalike.
Piglet was built from a set of commercial aluminium castings but bears little resemblance to the original design. The most obvious alteration is the greatly increased length of the air chamber and displacer to both reduce heat leakage loss and to give increased surface areas for regeneration. The firebox has been almost completely isolated from the cooler with the hot gases escaping between the firebox top and the flange, and the slim brass columns between the flange and the cooler providing an effective heat barrier. The air
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Piglet

chamber/heater is made of 0.008" tinplate, as is the displacer. (and its too heavy!) The heat baffles in the displacer are of 0.004" shim steel and are held squarely by tubes of the same material rolled to approx 3/8" diameter, (not shown in the drawing) the whole stack being held together by a light spring at the cold end. (not shown) A new pedestal was made to accommodate ball races for the crankshaft and almost all other bearings and pivots are also fitted with ball races. The cylinder is fitted with a cast iron liner, highly polished, and the lightweight cast iron piston runs in it without oil.

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Piglet

Since there is no side loading on it, the silver steel displacer rod also runs without oil in a very long brass bush, extending right down inside the displacer to avoid air leakage. The flywheel is by Stuart Turner. The overall effect of the ball races and the oil-less piston is to give extremely low friction and, running on a 'nite-lite' candle the engine develops just over 0.6 watt, ie 25 ft/lbs/min. Note - The sketch is not to scale.

Return to Index

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phoelix

Phoelix
'Rose from the ashes and keeps on walking'

When the, low friction, loaded PTFE materials first became available to amateurs it was decided to try them out for the piston of a small hot air engine. The material I had was a very small piece of 'Rulon', a plastic with both a lower coefficient of expansion (c of e) and lower friction than ordinary PTFE, and this was made into a 'cup washer' seal - similar to a leather cycle pump washer. The rest of the piston was made of unloaded PTFE and to overcome its high c of e the skirt was split and bound with brass wire before turning it to fit the cylinder. The cylinder was drawn brass tube and to assess the durability of this unlikely combination of materials it was decided to give it an extended life test. So the remainder of the engine is conventional and kept as simple as possible with the exception of the electric heater which was wound on the hot end of the air chamber to permit long periods of unattended running and the mechanically operated snifter which can be seen just above the displacer rod bush. To provide cross-head loading on the piston the engine needed to drive a load and several small electric motors were tried as dynamos. Unfortunately these wore out very quickly and were replaced by a cycle dyno' and this was loaded by a 3.5v 0.3a bulb. Testing could now begin and, following a disastrous melt down due to the wrong tapping on an oversized transformer and requiring a complete rebuild of the air chamber assembly, the engine was
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phoelix

left running for long periods. One very noticeable effect during this time was the affect that ambient temperature had on performance. Much of the running was during the Summer months and in the afternoons the speed dropped to reduce the voltage on the lamp to 2.5v. but by 1 AM the following morning it could be seen at full brilliance, lighting up my workshop at the bottom of the garden. Many bulbs (and one dynamo) were replaced before I decided to figure out the cost of running the electric heater - and the testing stopped abruptly! The engine had logged a total of nearly 7000 hours, sometimes running for several weeks non-stop. All bearings were completely worn out (the big end had been adjusted several times) but the piston seal was still 100% and, apart from the dreadful racket, it ran (and still runs) as well as ever. Note:- PTFE = polytetrafluoroethylene = Teflon (?)

Return to Index

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whippet

Whippet

Whippet was built for the new Class B introduced in the 1980 Hot Air Engine Competition , to be judged on power to weight ratio, and weight was eventually reduced to 11ozs - the massive looking bed is actually a very light tinplate shell. However, in the Competition it developed 4.7 watts (207 ft/lbs/min) and with a swept volume of 5cc, it actually won the award for specific power. It is thought that this is still the record for a non pressurised air engine of this size. (?) The design is really only a 'sports' version of Phoelix, my 6cc dynamo driving engine, the proportions of which had been very loosely based on a design in a schools metalwork handbook. The principal changes were the fitting of ball races throughout, a reduction in wall chamber thickness of both air chamber and displacer together with an increase in length of both. A direct port between chamber and cylinder replaced the sharp angled passage in Phoelix, piston stroke was reduced to reduce swept volume to 5cc and the piston was machined from a single piece of Rulon. The displacer rod bushes are 'sintered' from some of the swarf produced when machining the piston. Reciprocating masses were reduced to the minimum and the structural design improved to give greater stiffness. To ensure consistent performance electric heating was used and my previous experience with Phoelix enabled me to wind a nichrome coil drawing almost exactly 100watts (when hot) from a 24volt transformer. (thereby ruling it out of Class B with a total weight of 11 ozs + transformer + the National

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whippet

Grid!) The two blue caps on the front of the air chamber are covering two valves. The bottom one is a normal snifter whilst the top one is a non-return valve, used to take peak pressure readings. This peak, actually 12.5psi when snifting, can then be used to calculate the IMEP and, by comparing this with the measured output, give an indication of the engine's mechanical losses. The, fully run in, engine was actually developing 4.9 watts during later tests with a measured torque of 4oz/inches at 1660rpm. The calculated torque was 5.13oz/inches, giving a mechanical effy of 78%. Nevertheless, the overall efficiency, with 100watts input, was a mere 4.9%. In an attempt to increase power to 5 watts the electric heater was removed and the hot cap run at bright red using a ring type gas burner. However it stubbornly refused to go beyond its previous best and we must therefore assume that the 100watt electric heater was running it at a similar temperature.. Following all this excitement the engine was stripped and the cause of a light rustling sound coming from the air chamber found to be due to the mild steel displacer scaling. Since the displacer had originally been made with a wall thickness of only 0.004" this was deemed to be sufficient cause for retirement; a small firebox was fitted to take a nite-lite candle for demonstration runs and Whippet was put out to grass.

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whippet

And he occasionally enjoys a cup of tea ------

Return to Index

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mmbrochure

Specification Photograph Page

Instruction Manual

Article Home

Metalmaster/Impetus Sales Brochure
The Metalmaster/Impetus was a general purpose combination metalworking tool designed and built by W. D. Urwick, the owner of a small foundry, in the early 1950s to exploit his patent triangular gib key and included many unique and innovative ideas, all aimed at getting maximum versatility and accuracy out of a small, affordable machine tool. Note the logo - a sketch of the Patent Triangular Gib Key:Pictures and text from the original promotional brochure but please note that the radial drill was not fitted on the production models and the name was later changed to Metalmaster. -------------TURNING In addition to normal turning the removal of the radial gib key (Brit. Pat. No. 696773) locating the bed enables the latter to be setover for taper turning and reclamped solidly at the required angle. DIVIDING The main driving pulley has 60 equally spaced and numbered holes. Any of these holes can be picked up and the mandrel locked by means of a link rod. The link rod itself has six divisions, thus giving a range through 360 degrees.

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mmbrochure

KEYWAY CUTTING For this purpose a hand lever can easily be attached for racking the saddle along the bed. The leadscrew nut can be released, giving the saddle a free sliding action.

BORING A small boring head with radial feed, operated by star wheel and trip pin, is supplied, thus at once converting the machine into a miniature horizontal borer.

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mmbrochure

MILLING With a crossfeed of 7" and the 10" x 4 1/2" slotted table, quite large workpieces can be milled. A machine vice mounted on the table enables end mills, slitting saws and cutters to be used for a variety of work,

GEAR CUTTING If a dividing head is available, gears of 18 D.P. upwards can readily be cut on blanks up to 5" diameter. TOPSLIDE The machine is supplied with a four-way tool post. A small topslide is, however, available, and is intended mainly for turning short tapers and screwcutting. TAILSTOCK The tailstock is provided with rack feed to the barrel and has a graduated dial. The barrel is locked by means of a radial gib key as used on the main column. LARGE WORK With the Tee bed in position work up to 8" diameter can be handled. With the tailstock and Tee bed removed, work up to 14" diameter can be swung, the toolpost being suitably blocked up from the crossslide.

Back to top of page

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galleryindex

A Small Picture Gallery of Engines built by David Urwick on the Metalmaster.
1. A miniature Flame-gulper 2 A Slack type Boat Engine 3 A Two Cylinder Siemens Engine 4 A Ross Yoke type Engine 5 The 'Nutator'

A Horizontal Gamma type Engine

Return to Stirling Index

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smallseimans

Siemens Engine
This two cylindered engine is based on a design for a four cylindered (steam?) engine patented by William Siemens in 1863 in which a nutating plate driven by a ball ended rod fitting into a socketed disc crank, interconnects a circle of axial pistons - the phase relationships between the pistons being the same as their angular position in the circle. Thus two cylinders 90 degs apart can be used as the power cylinder and the air chamber of a Stirling engine. Less frictional losses than a swashplate drive but at the expense of far greater complexity, with ball and socket joints throughout.. (See also the Nutator)

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smallseimans

Return to Gallery Index

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nutator

The Nutator
David's name for his ingenious alternative to a Siemens drive. (It is hoped to replace this with a better quality print.)

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nutator

Nutation:-

"(2c) Movement by which an axis is made to describe a cone." (O.E.D.)

Return to Gallery Index

Return to Siemens Engine

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