You are on page 1of 13

In response to the statement, I strongly disagree that traditional teaching

methods is the only way to educate students within the classroom. Within the
changing environment children are exposed to in and outside school it is
important to integrate the traditional with the whole child approach. The whole
child looks at implementing the curriculum to align with the students needs,
social and emotional (Miller, 2010). In comparison to the holistic approach to
teaching, traditional teaching pedagogy is where in which the teacher in the
classroom communicates the knowledge to the students regardless of the
students individual expectations or overall comprehension (Marui & Sliko,
2014). Holistic approach to teaching combines the curriculum topics to create
more flow disregarding any time limits with learning that can be transferable into
society away from the classroom (Winch-Dummett, 2006). Therefore combining
the traditional and holistic approach together with the right teaching strategies
such as group work and personalised learning the teacher has a greater chance
of the teaching and learning process being effective.

Direct instruction is an traditional teaching method that transfers the

information to the students via the classroom. Rittle-Johnson (2006) reported a
finding that students who were taught using direct instruction to a correct
procedure had better procedure transfer compared to those students who had to
think of a new way to solve the problem on their own and with no instruction
(Lee et al. 2011). Therefore Direct instruction has a greater chance of reaching
the students in the classroom when it is set for effective learning, such as all
students paying attention to the teacher. The teacher must deliver the
information in an appropriate presenting technique in a way that engages the
students (Ganz & Flores, 2009). According to Binder & Watkins (2013) direct
instruction has the assumption that students can pass or fail the topic, due to the
effectiveness or non effectiveness of the instructions given by the teacher.
Therefore the outcome relies heavily on the teacher and not the students for
their lack of effort in the classroom. Traditional teaching methods such as direct
instruction has the tendency to be interrupted by the students behaviour, which
can interrupt the entire learning process for all the students (Scott et al. 2014).
Therefore it is important for the teacher to consider how the students learn
effectively and if direct instruction is the best way to teach in the classroom.

Learning is important aspect in teaching within a classroom for students to

excel in their education, yet knowing how the student obtains the information
can mean the difference to improving the students knowledge. Effective learning
for students can occur in the skills and knowledge they gain during the process,
but also through their emotional reactions and attitudes towards the task at hand
(Ormrod, 2011). Behaviourism looks closely at the students reaction to a
stimulus, such as answering the correct number to a addition sum during maths
class ( Ertmer & Newby, 2013). Using behaviourism does not work solely within a
learning environment, it can be used to manage students emotional and social
learning. Cameron and Pierce (1994) discovered that when the teacher gives the
student praise has a greater impact on the their motivation than a physical
reward or no reward at all (Hayes et al. 2007). Therefore an holistic approach to
teaching considers shaping the students behaviour to give them more
responsibility for their learning, leading to the students investing more in
wanting to make the teaching/learning process work (Freiberg & Lamb, 2009).
Another effective learning theory is cognitive process which looks closely at the
stages that occur for students to be able to acquire the information and use it
again at a later period (Eggen & Kauchak 2013). The cognitive focuses on
making the knowledge/information meaningful and help students organise and
relate the new information to their prior understanding within memory (Yilmaz,
2011). Ertmer and Newby (1993) indicates for students to learn better in the
classroom the information they are being taught should be based on some
existing mental schema for it to be effective. Therefore the teacher who
considers traditional teaching may not have awareness that the students have
no existing memory of the information they are being taught directly. Where an
holistic teacher that uses cognitivism learning, according to Chambers (2001)
"Enables the learner to transfer and apply the knowledge, Skills and sensitivities
from the dimensions of the 'professional as a learner' model their own
workplace" (Kelly, 2006).

Constructivism learning theory looks at the learner and how they construct the
knowledge on their own and through this develops meaning that they
understand best (Hein, 2012). With the changes of digital technology, students
have greater access to information to construct and share with each other
(Wong, 2012). Constructivism considers the students as responsible for their own

learning which often occurs in and out of the classroom environment and allows
the teacher to act as an facilitator (Kong & Song, 2013). Using constructivism
learning can enable the classroom teacher to construct the students thinking
process and understand how they best learn through resources such as journals
and stories (Howe et al. 2012). According to Kong & Song (2013) Constructivism
learning theory "Is different from the teacher-centred paradigm in which a
teacher's role is to transmit knowledge in traditional classrooms"

Following on from learning theories, how effective the teaching strategy is

can determine how the classroom operates to align with the students learning.
One highly implemented teaching strategy is inquiry based learning where
students are able to research their questions and develop greater knowledge
through the process. According to Harlen (2013) benefits for inquiry based
learning can include the students discovering the information for themselves
instead of being told as well as developing important skills that they may need in
their education to pursue in scientific inquiry. The role of the teacher develops
into the facilitator, where they monitor the students group progress and only
stepping in to assist only when needed (Baum, 2013). Using inquiry based
learning "is not a matter of getting students to commit results to memory but of
encouraging them to participate in the learning process which makes possible
the establishment of knowledge"(Bruner, 1966). Inquiry based learning moves
away from traditional teaching method presenting information to students by
making the task student focused and more possible to be extended on individual
students (Allan & Powell, 2007).
Discussion and group work involve the students learning to revolve within work
with their peers and in groups. According to Bangqing (2015) discussion within
the classroom plays an important role in improving and strengthening the
students knowledge memory process by delving deeper into the information.
Group work within the classroom is a form of doing which places students into
situations where they must communicate with their peers all while holding a
strong group ethic (Marks & O'Connor, 2013). Compared to traditional teaching
methods which focuses on the whole class, group work and discussion looks to
improve students motivation to learn and develop greater than if they were on
their own being fed the information (Hammar et al. 2014).

Another teaching theory differentiation and personalised learning is more

student focused than the previous theories. Differentiation looks at changing the
task for individual students to fit their ability if they are struggling or those that
are more advanced. Tomlinson (2000a) indicates that there are four ways to
differentiating; content, process, product and environment as well as the
students readiness/interest on the learning (Sondergeld & Schultz, 2008). This
may be demonstrated when the teacher implements group work or individual
stations within a classroom to cater for the different students learning needs.
Unlike traditional teaching methods the personalised learning is "successfully
including students with so many differences and different ways of learning
challenges schools to reinvent themselves as more flexible, creative learning
communities that include and are responsive to a full range of human diversity"
(Ferguson, 2001).

Assessment and feedback teaching theory is important in correcting the mistakes that
students make, along with making them aware of those corrections. Assessment
according to Bintz (1991) is a way of determining what the student has achieved
aligning with the curriculum. In the past the traditional form of assessment was
considered separate from the learning process in the classroom such as tests and
marking of work, where the holistic views assessment as a part of the education in
current time (Daghan & Akkoyunlu, 2014). Feedback in the classroom can be both
positive and negative feedback towards students. Hattie& Timperley (2007) states that
through feedback students have more capabilities to detect errors in their own work and
lead to self-feedback, independent of the teachers help. Feedback and Assessment work
towards the holistic approach leading to more independent learners and transfer into
further education and work life.

Moving away from the traditional teaching method has more consideration with
the students social and emotional needs which more often can impact the
students ability to learn. Rothi et al. (2008) looked at the number of time the
schools deal with pupils mental health such as extreme behaviour that was
disruptive and lead to exclusion of the student. Considering the holistic form of
teaching and caring for all aspects of each students along with " appropriate
support during the school years can make a real difference to the quality of their
lives as adults." (Kyriacou, 2009) Daniel Goleman (1995) indicates that when
students who have negative emotions such as anxiety and stress they simply do not

learn (Cooper, 2005). Therefore looking after the student through pastoral care can
shift the teacher from remaining in their role as educator, stated by Thomson et al.
(2003) the teacher has to manage the different teaching strategies in the classroom
but also the relationship between students and the teacher. This is demonstrated
through the students who must get along with their classmates which all have
differing abilities and culture at home, that is where the teacher must act as an
consultant, negotiator and professional in the classroom (Kecskemeti, 2013) .

Cyber-Bullying has changed the dynamics of a traditional classroom as students now

have " Full membership in participatory culture requires learners to adopt digital
literacies situated in new media environments that are sustained by the internet and
multimodal telecommunication devices" (Barnery & Gordon, 2005; Gee, 2004; Knobel,
2005). Teachers prior to the introduction of current technology had more
control/understanding of the classroom dynamics and student, yet the nature and extent
of bullying between students has changed. Cyber Bullying can create a classroom
environment which can leave the students feeling uneasy and not safe. In this
atmosphere the level of equality between students can be drastically reduced, this can
leave students with psychological issues as well as socially (Olweus, 2001; DiGiulio,
2001; Wallace, 2001). Unlike the traditional classroom where some topics such as
bullying remained outside of the teachers curriculum the "Traditional measure are clearly
inadequate to address the unprecedented social and educational challenges that come
with new technologies and diversity" (Shariff & Strong-Wilson, 2005) . It is now the
teachers legal responsibility to educate students on the awareness of cyber-bullying and
how to best approach the situation.

Combining the traditional with teaching the whole child allows more flexibility in
changing with current situations in society and the demands of technology. Teaching
the whole child as stated by Diamond (2010) the best and most effective form of
strategy to improve student education is to nurture and care for their social,
emotional and physical needs at the same time. You will not achieve the best results
if you only focus on the academic development of students.

Whole Child Education

Miller, John P.
Toronto [Ont.] : University of Toronto Press. 2010

Ormrod, J. E. (2011). Human learning (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Students' Experiences in Learning Physics: Active Learning Methods and

Traditional Teaching.
Marui, Mirko1
Sliko, Josip2
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education. Dec2014, Vol. 8 Issue 4, p4510-14510-12. 12p.

Successful Pedagogies for an Australian Multicultural Classroom

Winch-Dummett, Carlene
International Education Journal, v7 n5 p778-789 Oct 2006. 12 pp.

When Does Provision of Instruction Promote Learning?

Lee, Hee Seung; Anderson, Abraham; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R.
Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the
Cognitive Science Society (33rd, Boston, MA, Jul 20-23, 2011). 7 pp.

The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Language to

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identifying Materials.

Ganz, Jennifer B.1
Flores, Margaret M.2
Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders. Jan2009, Vol. 39 Issue 1,
p75-83. 9p. 2 Charts, 3 Graphs.

Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction: Measurably Superior

Instructional Technology in Schools.
Binder, Carl1
Watkins, Cathy L.2
Performance Improvement Quarterly. 2013, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p73-115. 43p.
1 Diagram, 1 Chart, 1 Graph.

Teacher Instruction as a Predictor for Student Engagement and

Disruptive Behaviors.
Scott, Terrance M.1
Hirn, Regina G.1
Alter, Peter J.2
Preventing School Failure. 2014, Vol. 58 Issue 4, p193-200. 8p.

Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features

From an Instructional Design Perspective. Ertmer, Peggy A.1
Newby, Timothy J.1Performance Improvement Quarterly. 2013, Vol. 26
Issue 2, p43-71. 29p. 1 Diagram.

Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher

Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process.
Hayes, Ben1
Hindle, Sarah1
Withington, Paul1
Educational Psychology in Practice. Jun2007, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p161-175.
15p. 3 Charts, 3 Graphs.

Dimensions of Person-Centered Classroom Management.

Freiberg, H. Jerome1
Lamb, Stacey M.1
Theory Into Practice. Spring2009, Vol. 48 Issue 2, p99-105. 7p. 1 Chart.
Eggen, P. & Kauchak, D. (2013). Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms
(9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

The Cognitive Perspective on Learning: Its Theoretical Underpinnings and

Implications for Classroom Practices.
Yilmaz, Kaya1
Clearing House. Sep2011, Vol. 84 Issue 5, p204-212. 9p.

Hein, G. (2012). Constructivist learning theory . Retrieved from

In-service Professional Development and Constructivist Curriculum:

Effects on Quality of
Child Care, Teacher Beliefs, and Interactions.

Howe, Nina1
Jacobs, Ellen2
Vukelich, Goranka3
Recchia, Holly4
Alberta Journal of Educational Research. Winter2012, Vol. 57 Issue 4, p353378. 26p. 5 Charts.

Inquiry-based learning in science and mathematics.

Review of Science Mathematics & ICT Education. 2013, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p933. 25p.

Augmenting Guided-Inquiry Learning With a Blended Classroom

Baum, Edward J.1
Journal of College Science Teaching. Jul/Aug2013, Vol. 42 Issue 6, p27-33.

Examining the Underlying Principles of Enquiry-Based Learning: Two

Instances of where Learning Sessions Start and End.
Allan, George1
Powell, Norman1
International Journal of Learning. 2007, Vol. 14 Issue 8, p157-165. 9p. 2
Study on discussion in the English class of middle schools.
Bangqing Pei1
Journal of Chemical & Pharmaceutical Research. 2015, Vol. 7 Issue 3, p511515. 5p.

Understanding Students Attitudes About Group Work: What Does This

Suggest for Instructors of Business?
Marks, Melanie Beth1
OConnor, Abigail H.1

Journal of Education for Business. May/Jun2013, Vol. 88 Issue 3, p147-158.

12p. 4 Charts, 7 Graphs.

Group work as an incentive for learning -- students' experiences of

group work.
Hammar Chiriac, Eva1
Williams, Gareth J.2
Senior, Carl3
Frontiers in Psychology. Jun2014, Vol. 5, p1-10. 10p.

Science, Standards, and Differentiation: It Really Can Be Fun!

Sondergeld, Toni A.; Schultz, Robert A.
Gifted Child Today, v31 n1 p34-40 Win 2008. 7 pp.

Designing Personalized Learning for Every Student

Ferguson, Dianne L.
Alexandria, Va : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

A Qualitative Study about Performance Based Assesment Methods Used

in Information Technologies Lesson.
DAHAN, Gkhan1

Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice. 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p333-338.

The Five Dimensions of Social Pedagogy within Schools

Kyriacou, Chris
Pastoral Care in Education, v27 n2 p101-108 Jun 2009. 8 pp.
Support Staff in Schools : Promoting the Emotional and Social
Development of Children and Young People
Cooper, Vanessa
London : National Children''s Bureau. 2005

The Stance of Curiosity in the Classroom.

Kecskemeti, Maria
New Zealand Journal of Counselling, 01/01/2013, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p36-53,

Confronting the Challenges of Critical Digital Literacy: An Essay Review

Critical Constructivism: A Primer.
Pascarella, John1
Educational Studies. Jun2008, Vol. 43 Issue 3, p246-255. 10p.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Bullying and New Technologies.

Shariff, Shaheen
Strong-Wilson, Teresa
Classroom Teaching. 2005, p219-240. 22p.
Document Type:
Book Chapter

The Evidence Base for Improving School Outcomes by Addressing the

Whole Child and by Addressing Skills and Attitudes, Not Just Content
Diamond, Adele
Early Education and Development, v21 n5 p780-793 2010. 14 pp.