William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style. 1918. !T"#$% Strunk, William, 1869–1946.

T&T'E% The elements of style, (y William Strunk, Jr. E)&T&#*% 1st e+. ,!-'&S"E)% &tha.a, *./.% ,ri0. 1rint. 23ene0a, *./.% ,ress of W.,. "um1hrey4, 1918. ,"/S&5 ' 46 1.7 19 .m. )ET &'S% &S-*% 1898:648;6;8:. 5&T T&#*% Strunk, William. Elements of Style. &tha.a, *./.% ,ri0. 1rint. 23ene0a, *./.% ,ress of W.,. "um1hrey4, 19187 -artle(y..om, 1999. <<<.(artle(y..om=141=. 2)ate of ,rintout4. #*8'&*E E).% >irst 1u(lishe+ ?ay 19997 1u(lishe+ July 1999 (y -artle(y..om7 @ 5o1yriAht -artle(y..om, &n.. (Terms of !se).

This (ook is inten+e+ for use in EnAlish .ourses in <hi.h the 1ra.ti.e of .om1osition is .om(ine+ <ith the stu+y of literature. &t aims to Ai0e in (rief s1a.e the 1rin.i1al reBuirements of 1lain EnAlish style. &t aims to liAhten the task of instru.tor an+ stu+ent (y .on.entratinA attention (in 5ha1ters && an+ &&&) on a fe< essentials, the rules of usaAe an+ 1rin.i1les of .om1osition most .ommonly 0iolate+. The num(ers of the se.tions may (e use+ as referen.es in .orre.tinA manus.ri1t. The (ook .o0ers only a small 1ortion of the fiel+ of EnAlish style, (ut the eC1erien.e of its <riter has (een that on.e 1ast the essentials, stu+ents 1rofit most (y in+i0i+ual instru.tion (ase+ on the 1ro(lems of their o<n <ork, an+ that ea.h instru.tor has his o<n (o+y of theory, <hi.h he 1refers to that offere+ (y any teCt(ook. The <riterDs .olleaAues in the )e1artment of EnAlish in 5ornell !ni0ersity ha0e Areatly hel1e+ him in the 1re1aration of his manus.ri1t. ?r. 3eorAe ?.'ane Woo+ has kin+ly .onsente+ to the in.lusion un+er $ule 11 of some material from his Suggestions to Authors. The follo<inA (ooks are re.ommen+e+ for referen.e or further stu+y% in .onne.tion <ith 5ha1ters && an+ &E, >. "o<ar+ 5ollins, Author and Printer ("enry >ro<+e)7 5hi.aAo !ni0ersity ,ress, Manual of Style; T. '. )e Einne Correct Composition (The 5entury 5om1any)7 "ora.e "art, Rules for Compositors and Printers (#Cfor+ !ni0ersity ,ress)7 3eorAe ?.'ane Woo+, Extracts from the Style-Boo of the !o"ernment Printing #ffice (!nite+ States 3eoloAi.al Sur0ey)7 in .onne.tion <ith 5ha1ters &&& an+ E, Sir rthur Fuiller85ou.h, $he Art of %riting (,utnams), es1e.ially the .ha1ter, &nterlu+e on JarAon7 3eorAe ?.'ane Woo+, Suggestions to Authors (!nite+ States 3eoloAi.al Sur0ey)7 John 'eslie "all, English &sage (S.ott, >oresman an+ 5o.)7 James ,. Gelly, %or manship in %ords ('ittle, -ro<n an+ 5o.). &t is an ol+ o(ser0ation that the (est <riters sometimes +isreAar+ the rules of rhetori.. When they +o so, ho<e0er, the rea+er <ill usually fin+ in the senten.e some .om1ensatinA merit, attaine+ at the .ost of the 0iolation. !nless he is .ertain of +oinA as <ell, he <ill 1ro(a(ly +o (est to follo< the rules. fter he has learne+, (y their Aui+an.e, to <rite 1lain EnAlish a+eBuate for e0ery+ay uses, let him look, for the se.rets of style, to the stu+y of the masters of literature.




Form the possessive singu !r o" nouns #ith $s.
>ollo< this rule <hate0er the final .onsonant. Thus <rite, 5harlesDs frien+ -urnsDs 1oems the <it.hDs mali.e

This is the usaAe of the !nite+ States 3o0ernment ,rintinA #ffi.e an+ of the #Cfor+ !ni0ersity ,ress. EC.e1tions are the 1ossessi0es of an.ient 1ro1er names in -es an+ -is' the 1ossessi0e (esus)' an+ su.h forms as for conscience) sa e' for righteousness) sa e. -ut su.h forms as Achilles) heel' Moses) la*s' +sis) temple are .ommonly re1la.e+ (y the heel of .hilles

the la<s of ?oses the tem1le of &sis

The 1ronominal 1ossessi0es hers' its' theirs' yours' an+ oneself ha0e no a1ostro1he. H.

In ! series o" three or more terms #ith ! sing e %on&un%tion' use ! %omm! !"ter e!%h term e(%ept the !st.
Thus <rite, re+, <hite, an+ (lue honest, enerAeti., (ut hea+stronA "e o1ene+ the letter, rea+ it, an+ ma+e a note of its .ontents.

This is also the usaAe of the 3o0ernment ,rintinA #ffi.e an+ of the #Cfor+ !ni0ersity ,ress. &n the names of (usiness firms the last .omma is omitte+, as -ro<n, Shi1ley an+ 5om1any

The a((re0iation etc.' e0en if only a sinAle term .omes (efore it, is al<ays 1re.e+e+ (y a .omma.


En% ose p!rentheti% e(pressions )et#een %omm!s.

The (est <ay to see a .ountry, unless you are 1resse+ for time, is to tra0el on foot.

This rule is +iffi.ult to a11ly7 it is freBuently har+ to +e.i+e <hether a sinAle <or+, su.h as ho*e"er' or a (rief 1hrase, is or is not 1arentheti.. &f the interru1tion to the flo< of the senten.e is (ut sliAht, the <riter may safely omit the .ommas. -ut <hether the interru1tion (e sliAht or .onsi+era(le, he must ne0er omit one .omma an+ lea0e the other. Su.h 1un.tuation as ?arIorieDs hus(an+, 5olonel *elson 1ai+ us a 0isit yester+ay,

or ?y (rother you <ill (e 1lease+ to hear, is no< in 1erfe.t health,

is in+efensi(le. *on8restri.ti0e relati0e .lauses are, in a..or+an.e <ith this rule, set off (y .ommas. The au+ien.e, <hi.h ha+ at first (een in+ifferent, (e.ame more an+ more intereste+.

Similar .lauses intro+u.e+ (y *here an+ *hen are similarly 1un.tuate+. &n 1:69, <hen *a1oleon <as (orn, 5orsi.a ha+ (ut re.ently (een a.Buire+ (y >ran.e. *ether Sto<ey, <here 5oleri+Ae <rote $he Rime of the Ancient Mariner' is a fe< miles from -ri+Ae<ater.

&n these senten.es the .lauses intro+u.e+ (y *hich' *hen' an+ *here are non8restri.ti0e7 they +o not limit the a11li.ation of the <or+s on <hi.h they +e1en+, (ut a++, 1arentheti.ally, statements su11lementinA those in the 1rin.i1al .lauses. Ea.h senten.e is a .om(ination of t<o statments <hi.h miAht ha0e (een ma+e in+e1en+ently. The au+ien.e <as at first in+ifferent. 'ater it (e.ame more an+ more intereste+. *a1oleon <as (orn in 1:69. (een a.Buire+ (y >ran.e. t that time 5orsi.a ha+ (ut re.ently

5oleri+Ae <rote $he Rime of the Ancient Mariner at *ether Sto<ey. *ether Sto<ey is only a fe< miles from -ri+Ae<ater.

$estri.ti0e relati0e .lauses are not set off (y .ommas. The .an+i+ate <ho (est meets these reBuirements <ill o(tain the 1la.e.

&n this senten.e the relati0e .lause restri.ts the a11li.ation of the <or+ candidate to a sinAle 1erson. !nlike those a(o0e, the senten.e .annot (e s1lit into t<o in+e1en+ent statements. The a((re0iations etc. an+ ,r. are al<ays 1re.e+e+ (y a .omma, an+ eC.e1t at the en+ of a senten.e, follo<e+ (y one. Similar in 1rin.i1le to the en.losinA of 1arentheti. eC1ressions (et<een .ommas is the settinA off (y .ommas of 1hrases or +e1en+ent .lauses 1re.e+inA or follo<inA the main .lause of a senten.e. The senten.es Buote+ in this se.tion an+ un+er $ules 4, 9, 6, :, 16, an+ 18 shoul+ affor+ suffi.ient Aui+an.e. &f a 1arentheti. eC1ression is 1re.e+e+ (y a .onIun.tion, 1la.e the first .omma (efore the .onIun.tion, not after it. "e sa< us .ominA, an+ una<are that <e ha+ learne+ of his trea.hery, Areete+ us <ith a smile.


* !%e ! %omm! )e"ore and or but intro+u%ing !n in+epen+ent % !use.
The early re.or+s of the .ity ha0e +isa11eare+, an+ the story of its first years .an no lonAer (e re.onstru.te+. The situation is 1erilous, (ut there is still one .han.e of es.a1e.

Senten.es of this ty1e, isolate+ from their .onteCt, may seem to (e in nee+ of re<ritinA. s they make .om1lete sense <hen the .omma is rea.he+, the se.on+ .lause has the a11earan.e of an after8thouAht. >urther, and' is the least s1e.ifi. of .onne.ti0es. !se+ (et<een in+e1en+ent .lauses, it in+i.ates only that a relation eCists (et<een them <ithout +efininA that relation. &n the eCam1le a(o0e, the relation is that of .ause an+ result. The t<o senten.es miAht (e re<ritten% s the early re.or+s of the .ity ha0e +isa11eare+, the story of its first years .an no lonAer (e re.onstru.te+. lthouAh the situation is 1erilous, there is still one .han.e of es.a1e.

#r the su(or+inate .lauses miAht (e re1la.e+ (y 1hrases%

#<inA to the +isa11earan.e of the early re.or+s of the .ity, the story of its first years .an no lonAer (e re.onstru.te+. &n this 1erilous situation, there is still one .han.e of es.a1e.

-ut a <riter may err (y makinA his senten.es too uniformly .om1a.t an+ 1erio+i., an+ an o..asional loose senten.e 1re0ents the style from (e.ominA too formal an+ Ai0es the rea+er a .ertain relief. 5onseBuently, loose senten.es of the ty1e first Buote+ are .ommon in easy, unstu+ie+ <ritinA. -ut a <riter shoul+ (e .areful not to .onstru.t too many of his senten.es after this 1attern (see $ule 14). T<o81art senten.es of <hi.h the se.on+ mem(er is intro+u.e+ (y as (in the sense of -ecause), for' or' nor' an+ *hile (in the sense of and at the same time) like<ise reBuire a .omma (efore the .onIun.tion. &f a +e1en+ent .lause, or an intro+u.tory 1hrase reBuirinA to (e set off (y a .omma, 1re.e+es the se.on+ in+e1en+ent .lause, no .omma is nee+e+ after the .onIun.tion. The situation is 1erilous, (ut if <e are 1re1are+ to a.t 1rom1tly, there is still one .han.e of es.a1e.

>or t<o81art senten.es .onne.te+ (y an a+0er(, see the neCt se.tion. 9.

Do not &oin in+epen+ent % !uses ), ! %omm!.

&f t<o or more .lauses, Arammati.ally .om1lete an+ not Ioine+ (y a .onIun.tion, are to form a sinAle .om1oun+ senten.e, the 1ro1er mark of 1un.tuation is a semi.olon. Ste0ensonDs roman.es are entertaininA7 they are full of eC.itinA a+0entures. &t is nearly half 1ast fi0e7 <e .annot rea.h to<n (efore +ark.

&t is of .ourse eBually .orre.t to <rite the a(o0e as t<o senten.es ea.h, re1la.inA the semi.olons (y 1erio+s. Ste0ensonDs roman.es are entertaininA. They are full of eC.itinA a+0entures. &t is nearly half 1ast fi0e. We .annot rea.h to<n (efore +ark.

&f a .onIun.tion is inserte+, the 1ro1er mark is a .omma ($ule 4). Ste0ensonDs roman.es are entertaininA, for they are full of eC.itinA a+0entures. &t is nearly half 1ast fi0e, an+ <e .annot rea.h to<n (efore +ark.

*ote that if the se.on+ .lause is 1re.e+e+ (y an a+0er(, su.h as accordingly' -esides' so' then' therefore' or thus' an+ not (y a .onIun.tion, the semi.olon is still reBuire+. & ha+ ne0er (een in the 1la.e (efore7 so & ha+ +iffi.ulty in fin+inA my <ay a(out.

&n Aeneral, ho<e0er, it is (est, in <ritinA, to a0oi+ usinA so in this manner7 there is +anAer that the <riter <ho uses it at all may use it too often. sim1le .orre.tion, usually ser0i.ea(le, is to omit the <or+ so' an+ (eAin the first .lause <ith as. s & ha+ ne0er (een in the 1la.e (efore, & ha+ +iffi.ulty in fin+inA my <ay a(out.

&f the .lauses are 0ery short, an+ are alike in form, a .omma is usually 1ermissi(le% ?an 1ro1oses, 3o+ +is1oses. The Aate s<unA a1art, the (ri+Ae fell, the 1ort.ullis <as +ra<n u1.


Do not )re!- senten%es in t#o.

&n other <or+s, +o not use 1erio+s for .ommas. & met them on a 5unar+ liner se0eral years aAo. 5ominA home from 'i0er1ool to *e< /ork. "e <as an interestinA talker. man <ho ha+ tra0ele+ all o0er the <orl+, an+ li0e+ in half a +oJen .ountries.

&n (oth these eCam1les, the first 1erio+ shoul+ (e re1la.e+ (y a .omma, an+ the follo<inA <or+ (eAun <ith a small letter. &t is 1ermissi(le to make an em1hati. <or+ or eC1ression ser0e the 1ur1ose of a senten.e an+ to 1un.tuate it a..or+inAly% Aain an+ aAain he .alle+ out. *o re1ly.

The <riter must, ho<e0er, (e .ertain that the em1hasis is <arrante+, an+ that he <ill not (e sus1e.te+ of a mere (lun+er in 1un.tuation. $ules 6, 4, 9, an+ 6 .o0er the most im1ortant 1rin.i1les in the 1un.tuation of or+inary senten.es7 they shoul+ (e so thorouAhly mastere+ that their a11li.ation (e.omes se.on+ nature. :.

A p!rti%ipi! phr!se !t the )eginning o" ! senten%e must re"er to the gr!mm!ti%! su)&e%t.
WalkinA slo<ly +o<n the roa+, he sa< a <oman a..om1anie+ (y t<o .hil+ren.

The <or+ *al ing refers to the su(Ie.t of the senten.e, not to the <oman. &f the <riter <ishes to make it refer to the <oman, he must re.ast the senten.e% "e sa< a <oman, a..om1anie+ (y t<o .hil+ren, <alkinA slo<ly +o<n the roa+.

,arti.i1ial 1hrases 1re.e+e+ (y a .onIun.tion or (y a 1re1osition, nouns in a11osition, a+Ie.ti0es, an+ a+Ie.ti0e 1hrases .ome un+er the same rule if they (eAin the senten.e.

#n arri0inA in 5hi.aAo, his frien+s met him at the station. sol+ier of 1ro0e+ 0alor, they entruste+ him <ith the +efen.e of the .ity. /ounA an+ ineC1erien.e+, the task seeme+ easy to me. Without a frien+ to .ounsel him, the tem1tation 1ro0e+ irresisti(le.

When he arri0e+ (or, #n his arri0al) in 5hi.aAo, his frien+s met him at the station. sol+ier of 1ro0e+ 0alor, he <as entruste+ <ith the +efen.e of the .ity. /ounA an+ ineC1erien.e+, & thouAht the task easy. Without a frien+ to .ounsel him, he foun+ the tem1tation irresisti(le.

Senten.es 0iolatinA this rule are often lu+i.rous. -einA in a +ila1i+ate+ .on+ition, & <as a(le to (uy the house 0ery .hea1.


Divi+e #or+s !t ine.en+s' in !%%or+!n%e #ith their "orm!tion !n+ pronun%i!tion.
&f there is room at the en+ of a line for one or more sylla(les of a <or+, (ut not for the <hole <or+, +i0i+e the <or+, unless this in0ol0es .uttinA off only a sinAle letter, or .uttinA off only t<o letters of a lonA <or+. *o har+ an+ fast rule for all <or+s .an (e lai+ +o<n. The 1rin.i1les most freBuently a11li.a(le are% . )i0i+e the <or+ a..or+inA to its formation%

kno<8le+Ae (not kno<l8e+Ae)7 Shake8s1eare (not Shakes81eare)7 +e8 s.ri(e (not +es8.ri(e)7 atmo8s1here (not atmos81here)7

-. )i0i+e Kon the 0o<el%K e+i8(le (not e+8i(le)7 1ro1o8sition7 or+i8nary7 es1e8.ial7 reli8Aious7 o11o8nents7 reAu8lar7 .lassi8fi8.a8tion (three +i0isions 1ossi(le)7 +e.o8rati0e7 1resi8+ent7

5. )i0i+e (et<een +ou(le letters, unless they .ome at the en+ of the sim1le form of the <or+% 1en8nines7 5in.in8nati7 refer8rinA7 (ut tell8inA.

The treatment of .onsonants in .om(ination is (est sho<n from eCam1les% for8tune7 1i.8ture7 1resum18tuous7 illus8tration7 su(8stan8tial (either +i0ision)7 in+us8try7 instru.8tion7 suA8Aes8tion7 in.en8+iary.

The stu+ent <ill +o <ell to eCamine the sylla(le8+i0ision in a num(er of 1aAes of any .arefully 1rinte+ (ook.


M!-e the p!r!gr!ph the unit o" %omposition/ one p!r!gr!ph to e!%h topi%.
&f the su(Ie.t on <hi.h you are <ritinA is of sliAht eCtent, or if you inten+ to treat it 0ery (riefly, there may (e no nee+ of su(+i0i+inA it into to1i.s. Thus a (rief +es.ri1tion, a (rief summary of a literary <ork, a (rief a..ount of a sinAle in.i+ent, a narrati0e merely outlininA an a.tion, the settinA forth of a sinAle i+ea, any one of these is (est <ritten in a sinAle 1araAra1h. fter the 1araAra1h has (een <ritten, it shoul+ (e eCamine+ to see <hether su(+i0ision <ill not im1ro0e it. #r+inarily, ho<e0er, a su(Ie.t reBuires su(+i0ision into to1i.s, ea.h of <hi.h shoul+ (e ma+e the su(Ie.t of a 1araAra1h. The o(Ie.t of treatinA ea.h to1i. in a 1araAra1h (y itself is, of .ourse, to ai+ the rea+er. The (eAinninA of ea.h 1araAra1h is a siAnal to him that a ne< ste1 in the +e0elo1ment of the su(Ie.t has (een rea.he+. The eCtent of su(+i0ision <ill 0ary <ith the lenAth of the .om1osition. >or eCam1le, a short noti.e of a (ook or 1oem miAht .onsist of a sinAle 1araAra1h. #ne sliAhtly lonAer miAht .onsist of t<o 1araAra1hs% . ..ount of the <ork. -. 5riti.al +is.ussion. re1ort on a 1oem, <ritten for a .lass in literature, miAht .onsist of se0en 1araAra1hs% 5. >a.ts of .om1osition an+ 1u(li.ation. ). Gin+ of 1oem7 metri.al form. E. Su(Ie.t. >. Treatment of su(Ie.t. 3. >or <hat .hiefly remarka(le. ". Wherein .hara.teristi. of the <riter. &. $elationshi1 to other <orks. The .ontents of 1araAra1hs 5 an+ ) <oul+ 0ary <ith the 1oem. !sually, 1araAra1h 5 <oul+ in+i.ate the a.tual or imaAine+ .ir.umstan.es of the 1oem (the situation), if these .all for eC1lanation, an+ <oul+ then state the su(Ie.t an+ outline its +e0elo1ment. &f the 1oem is a narrati0e in the thir+ 1erson throuAhout, 1araAra1h 5 nee+ .ontain no more than a .on.ise summary of the a.tion. ,araAra1h ) <oul+ in+i.ate the lea+inA i+eas an+ sho< ho< they are ma+e 1rominent, or <oul+ in+i.ate <hat 1oints in the narrati0e are .hiefly em1hasiJe+. no0el miAht (e +is.usse+ un+er the hea+s% J. SettinA. G. ,lot. '. 5hara.ters.

?. ,ur1ose. histori.al e0ent miAht (e +is.usse+ un+er the hea+s% *. What le+ u1 to the e0ent. #. ..ount of the e0ent. ,. What the e0ent le+ u1 to. &n treatinA either of these last t<o su(Ie.ts, the <riter <oul+ 1ro(a(ly fin+ it ne.essary to su(+i0i+e one or more of the to1i.s here Ai0en. s a rule, sinAle senten.es shoul+ not (e <ritten or 1rinte+ as 1araAra1hs. n eC.e1tion may (e ma+e of senten.es of transition, in+i.atinA the relation (et<een the 1arts of an eC1osition or arAument. &n +ialoAue, ea.h s1ee.h, e0en if only a sinAle <or+, is a 1araAra1h (y itself7 that is, a ne< 1araAra1h (eAins <ith ea.h .hanAe of s1eaker. The a11li.ation of this rule, <hen +ialoAue an+ narrati0e are .om(ine+, is (est learne+ from eCam1les in <ell81rinte+ <orks of fi.tion. 1;.As

! ru e' )egin e!%h p!r!gr!ph #ith ! topi% senten%e0 en+ it in %on"ormit, #ith the )eginning.
Aain, the o(Ie.t is to ai+ the rea+er. The 1ra.ti.e here re.ommen+e+ ena(les him to +is.o0er the 1ur1ose of ea.h 1araAra1h as he (eAins to rea+ it, an+ to retain the 1ur1ose in min+ as he en+s it. >or this reason, the most Aenerally useful kin+ of 1araAra1h, 1arti.ularly in eC1osition an+ arAument, is that in <hi.h . the to1i. senten.e .omes at or near the (eAinninA7 -. the su..ee+inA senten.es eC1lain or esta(lish or +e0elo1 the statement ma+e in the to1i. senten.e7 an+ 5. the final senten.e either em1hasiJes the thouAht of the to1i. senten.e or states some im1ortant .onseBuen.e. En+inA <ith a +iAression, or <ith an unim1ortant +etail, is 1arti.ularly to (e a0oi+e+. &f the 1araAra1h forms 1art of a larAer .om1osition, its relation to <hat 1re.e+es, or its fun.tion as a 1art of the <hole, may nee+ to (e eC1resse+. This .an sometimes (e +one (y a mere <or+ or 1hrase (again; therefore; for the same reason) in the to1i. senten.e. Sometimes, ho<e0er, it is eC1e+ient to 1re.e+e the to1i. senten.e (y one or more senten.es of intro+u.tion or transition. &f more than one su.h senten.e is reBuire+, it is Aenerally (etter to set a1art the transitional senten.es as a se1arate 1araAra1h. ..or+inA to the <riterDs 1ur1ose, he may, as in+i.ate+ a(o0e, relate the (o+y of the 1araAra1h to the to1i. senten.e in one or more of se0eral +ifferent <ays. "e may make the meaninA of the to1i. senten.e .learer (y restatinA it in other forms, (y +efininA its terms, (y +enyinA the .on0erse, (y Ai0inA illustrations or s1e.ifi. instan.es7 he may esta(lish it (y 1roofs7 or he may +e0elo1 it (y sho<inA its im1li.ations an+ .onseBuen.es. &n a lonA 1araAra1h, he may .arry out se0eral of these 1ro.esses.

1 *o<, to (e 1ro1erly enIoye+, a 1 To1i. senten.e. <alkinA tour shoul+ (e Aone u1on alone. 2 &f you Ao in a .om1any, or e0en in 1airs, it is no lonAer a <alkinA tour in anythinA (ut name7 it is somethinA else an+ more in the nature of a 1i.ni.. 3 <alkinA tour shoul+ (e Aone u1on alone, (e.ause free+om is of the essen.e7 (e.ause you shoul+ (e a(le to sto1 an+ Ao on, an+ follo< this <ay or that, as the freak takes you7 an+ (e.ause you must ha0e your o<n 1a.e, an+ neither trot alonAsi+e a .ham1ion <alker, nor min.e in time <ith a Airl. 4 n+ you must (e o1en to all im1ressions an+ let your thouAhts take .olour from <hat you see. 5 /ou shoul+ (e as a 1i1e for any <in+ to 1lay u1on. 2 The meaninA ma+e .learer (y +enial of the .ontrary.

3 The to1i. senten.e re1eate+, in a(ri+Ae+ form, an+ su11orte+ (y three reasons7 the meaninA of the thir+ (Kyou must ha0e your o<n 1a.eK) ma+e .learer (y +enyinA the .on0erse.

4 fourth reason, state+ in t<o forms.

5 The same reason, state+ in still another form.

6 K& .annot see the <it,K says 6.7 The same reason as state+ "aJlitt, Kof <alkinA an+ talkinA at (y "aJlitt. the same time. 7 When & am in the .ountry, & <ish to 0eAetate like the .ountry,K <hi.h is the Aist of all that .an (e sai+ u1on the matter. 8 There shoul+ (e no .a.kle of 0oi.es at your el(o<, to Iar on the me+itati0e silen.e of the morninA. 9 n+ so lonA as a man is reasoninA he .annot surren+er himself to that fine intoCi.ation that .omes of mu.h motion in the o1en air, that (eAins in a sort of +aJJle an+ sluAAishness of the (rain, an+ en+s in a 1ea.e that 1asses .om1rehension.L Ste0enson, %al ing $ours. 8 $e1etition, in 1ara1hrase, of the Buotation from "aJlitt.

9 >inal statement of the fourth reason, in lanAuaAe am1lifie+ an+ heiAhtene+ to form a stronA .on.lusion.

1 &t <as .hiefly in the eiAhteenth 1 To1i. senten.e. .entury that a 0ery +ifferent .on.e1tion of history Are< u1. 2 "istorians then .ame to 2 The meaninA of the to1i. (elie0e that their task <as not so senten.e ma+e .learer7 the ne< mu.h to 1aint a 1i.ture as to .on.e1tion of history +efine+. sol0e a 1ro(lem7 to eC1lain or illustrate the su..essi0e 1hases of national Aro<th, 1ros1erity, an+ a+0ersity. 3 The history of morals, of 3 The +efinition eC1an+e+. in+ustry, of intelle.t, an+ of art7 the .hanAes that take 1la.e in manners or (eliefs7 the +ominant i+eas that 1re0aile+ in su..essi0e 1erio+s7 the rise, fall, an+ mo+ifi.ation of 1oliti.al .onstitutions7 in a <or+, all the .on+itions of national <ell8(einA (e.ame the su(Ie.ts of their <orks. 4 They souAht rather to <rite a history of 1eo1les than a history of kinAs. 5 They looke+ es1e.ially in history for the .hain of .auses an+ effe.ts. 4 The +efinition eC1laine+ (y .ontrast. 5 The +efinition su11lemente+% another element in the ne< .on.e1tion of history.

6 They un+ertook to stu+y in the 6 5on.lusion% an im1ortant 1ast the 1hysioloAy of nations, .onseBuen.e of the ne< an+ ho1e+ (y a11lyinA the .on.e1tion of history. eC1erimental metho+ on a larAe s.ale to +e+u.e some lessons of real 0alue a(out the .on+itions on <hi.h the <elfare of so.iety mainly +e1en+.L'e.ky, $he Political /alue of 0istory.

&n narration an+ +es.ri1tion the 1araAra1h sometimes (eAins <ith a .on.ise, .om1rehensi0e statement ser0inA to hol+ toAether the +etails that follo<. The (reeJe ser0e+ us a+mira(ly. The .am1aiAn o1ene+ <ith a series of re0erses. The neCt ten or t<el0e 1aAes <ere fille+ <ith a .urious set of entries.

-ut this +e0i.e, if too often use+, <oul+ (e.ome a mannerism. ?ore .ommonly the o1eninA senten.e sim1ly in+i.ates (y its su(Ie.t <ith <hat the 1araAra1h is to (e 1rin.i1ally .on.erne+.

t lenAth & thouAht & miAht return to<ar+s the sto.ka+e. "e 1i.ke+ u1 the hea0y lam1 from the ta(le an+ (eAan to eC1lore. nother fliAht of ste1s, an+ they emerAe+ on the roof.

The (rief 1araAra1hs of animate+ narrati0e, ho<e0er, are often <ithout e0en this sem(lan.e of a to1i. senten.e. The (reak (et<een them ser0es the 1ur1ose of a rhetori.al 1ause, thro<inA into 1rominen.e some +etail of the a.tion. 11.Use

the !%tive voi%e.

The a.ti0e 0oi.e is usually more +ire.t an+ 0iAorous than the 1assi0e% & shall al<ays remem(er my first 0isit to -oston.

This is mu.h (etter than ?y first 0isit to -oston <ill al<ays (e remem(ere+ (y me.

The latter senten.e is less +ire.t, less (ol+, an+ less .on.ise. &f the <riter tries to make it more .on.ise (y omittinA K(y me,K ?y first 0isit to -oston <ill al<ays (e remem(ere+,

it (e.omes in+efinite% is it the <riter, or some 1erson un+is.lose+, or the <orl+ at larAe, that <ill al<ays remem(er this 0isitM This rule +oes not, of .ourse, mean that the <riter shoul+ entirely +is.ar+ the 1assi0e 0oi.e, <hi.h is freBuently .on0enient an+ sometimes ne.essary. The +ramatists of the $estoration are little esteeme+ to8+ay. ?o+ern rea+ers ha0e little esteem for the +ramatists of the $estoration.

The first <oul+ (e the riAht form in a 1araAra1h on the +ramatists of the $estoration7 the se.on+, in a 1araAra1h on the tastes of mo+ern rea+ers. The nee+ of makinA a 1arti.ular <or+ the su(Ie.t of the senten.e <ill often, as in these eCam1les, +etermine <hi.h 0oi.e is to (e use+. The ha(itual use of the a.ti0e 0oi.e, ho<e0er, makes for for.i(le <ritinA. This is true not only in narrati0e 1rin.i1ally .on.erne+ <ith a.tion, (ut in <ritinA of any kin+. ?any a tame senten.e of +es.ri1tion or eC1osition .an (e ma+e li0ely an+ em1hati. (y su(stitutinA a transiti0e in the a.ti0e 0oi.e for some su.h 1erfun.tory eC1ression as there is' or could -e heard.

There <ere a Areat num(er of )ea+ lea0es .o0ere+ the Aroun+. +ea+ lea0es lyinA on the Aroun+. The soun+ of the falls .oul+ still (e hear+. The reason that he left .olleAe <as that his health (e.ame im1aire+. The soun+ of the falls still rea.he+ our ears. >ailinA health .om1elle+ him to lea0e .olleAe.

&t <as not lonA (efore he <as "e soon re1ente+ his <or+s. 0ery sorry that he ha+ sai+ <hat he ha+.

s a rule, a0oi+ makinA one 1assi0e +e1en+ +ire.tly u1on another. 3ol+ <as not allo<e+ to (e eC1orte+. "e has (een 1ro0e+ to ha0e (een seen enterinA the (uil+inA. &t <as for(i++en to eC1ort Aol+ (The eC1ort of Aol+ <as 1rohi(ite+). &t has (een 1ro0e+ that he <as seen to enter the (uil+inA.

&n (oth the eCam1les a(o0e, (efore .orre.tion, the <or+ 1ro1erly relate+ to the se.on+ 1assi0e is ma+e the su(Ie.t of the first. .ommon fault is to use as the su(Ie.t of a 1assi0e .onstru.tion a noun <hi.h eC1resses the entire a.tion, lea0inA to the 0er( no fun.tion (eyon+ that of .om1letinA the senten.e. sur0ey of this reAion <as ma+e in 19;;. ?o(iliJation of the army <as ra1i+ly .arrie+ out. This reAion <as sur0eye+ in 19;;. The army <as ra1i+ly mo(iliJe+.

5onfirmation of these re1orts .annot These re1orts .annot (e .onfirme+. (e o(taine+.

5om1are the senten.e, KThe eC1ort of Aol+ <as 1rohi(ite+,K in <hi.h the 1re+i.ate K<as 1rohi(ite+K eC1resses somethinA not im1lie+ in KeC1ort.K 1H.*ut

st!tements in positive "orm.

?ake +efinite assertions. 0oi+ tame, .olorless, hesitatinA, non8.ommittal lanAuaAe. !se the <or+ not as a means of +enial or in antithesis, ne0er as a means of e0asion.

"e <as not 0ery often on time. "e +i+ not think that stu+yinA 'atin <as mu.h use. $he $aming of the Shre* is rather <eak in s1ots. Shakes1eare +oes not 1ortray Gatharine as a 0ery a+mira(le .hara.ter, nor +oes -ian.a remain lonA in memory as an im1ortant .hara.ter in Shakes1eareDs <orks.

"e usually .ame late. "e thouAht the stu+y of 'atin useless. The <omen in $he $aming of the Shre* are unattra.ti0e. Gatharine is +isaAreea(le, -ian.a insiAnifi.ant.

The last eCam1le, (efore .orre.tion, is in+efinite as <ell as neAati0e. The .orre.te+ 0ersion, .onseBuently, is sim1ly a Auess at the <riterDs intention. ll three eCam1les sho< the <eakness inherent in the <or+ not. 5ons.iously or un.ons.iously, the rea+er is +issatisfie+ <ith (einA tol+ only <hat is not7 he <ishes to (e tol+ <hat is. "en.e, as a rule, it is (etter to eC1ress a neAati0e in 1ositi0e form. not honest not im1ortant +i+ not remem(er +i+ not 1ay any attention to +i+ not ha0e mu.h .onfi+en.e in +ishonest triflinA forAot iAnore+ +istruste+

The antithesis of neAati0e an+ 1ositi0e is stronA% *ot .harity, (ut sim1le Iusti.e. *ot that & lo0e+ 5aesar less, (ut $ome the more.

*eAati0e <or+s other than not are usually stronA% The sun ne0er sets u1on the -ritish flaA.


nee+ ess #or+s.

EiAorous <ritinA is .on.ise. senten.e shoul+ .ontain no unne.essary <or+s, a 1araAra1h no unne.essary senten.es, for the same reason that a +ra<inA shoul+ ha0e no unne.essary lines an+ a ma.hine no unne.essary 1arts. This reBuires not that the <riter make all his senten.es short, or that he a0oi+ all +etail an+ treat his su(Ie.ts only in outline, (ut that e0ery <or+ tell. ?any eC1ressions in .ommon use 0iolate this 1rin.i1le%

the Buestion as to <hether there is no +ou(t (ut that use+ for fuel 1ur1oses he is a man <ho in a hasty manner this is a su(Ie.t <hi.h "is story is a stranAe one.

<hether (the Buestion <hether) no +ou(t (+ou(tless) use+ for fuel he hastily this su(Ie.t "is story is stranAe.

&n es1e.ial the eC1ression the fact that shoul+ (e re0ise+ out of e0ery senten.e in <hi.h it o..urs. o<inA to the fa.t that in s1ite of the fa.t that .all your attention to the fa.t that & <as una<are of the fa.t that the fa.t that he ha+ not su..ee+e+ the fa.t that & ha+ arri0e+ sin.e ((e.ause) thouAh (althouAh) remin+ you (notify you) & <as una<are that (+i+ not kno<) his failure my arri0al

See also un+er case' character' nature' system in 5ha1ter E. %ho is' *hich *as' an+ the like are often su1erfluous. "is (rother, <ho is a mem(er of the same firm TrafalAar, <hi.h <as *elsonDs last (attle "is (rother, a mem(er of the same firm TrafalAar, *elsonDs last (attle

s 1ositi0e statement is more .on.ise than neAati0e, an+ the a.ti0e 0oi.e more .on.ise than the 1assi0e, many of the eCam1les Ai0en un+er $ules 11 an+ 1H illustrate this rule as <ell. .ommon 0iolation of .on.iseness is the 1resentation of a sinAle .om1leC i+ea, ste1 (y ste1, in a series of senten.es <hi.h miAht to a+0antaAe (e .om(ine+ into one. ?a.(eth <as 0ery am(itious. This le+ him to <ish to (e.ome kinA of S.otlan+. The <it.hes tol+ him that this <ish of his <oul+ .ome true. The kinA of S.otlan+ at this time <as )un.an. En.ouraAe+ (y his <ife, ?a.(eth mur+ere+ )un.an. "e En.ouraAe+ (y his <ife, ?a.(eth a.hie0e+ his am(ition an+ realiJe+ the 1re+i.tion of the <it.hes (y mur+erinA )un.an an+ (e.ominA kinA of S.otlan+ in his 1la.e. (H6 <or+s.)

<as thus ena(le+ to su..ee+ )un.an as kinA. (99 <or+s.)


! su%%ession o" oose senten%es.

This rule refers es1e.ially to loose senten.es of a 1arti.ular ty1e, those .onsistinA of t<o .o8or+inate .lauses, the se.on+ intro+u.e+ (y a .onIun.tion or relati0e. lthouAh sinAle senten.es of this ty1e may (e uneC.e1tiona(le (see un+er $ule 4), a series soon (e.omes monotonous an+ te+ious. n unskilful <riter <ill sometimes .onstru.t a <hole 1araAra1h of senten.es of this kin+, usinA as .onne.ti0es and' -ut' an+ less freBuently, *ho' *hich' *hen' *here' an+ *hile' these last in non8restri.ti0e senses (see un+er $ule 6). The thir+ .on.ert of the su(s.ri1tion series <as Ai0en last e0eninA, an+ a larAe au+ien.e <as in atten+an.e. ?r. E+<ar+ 11leton <as the soloist, an+ the -oston Sym1hony #r.hestra furnishe+ the instrumental musi.. The former sho<e+ himself to (e an artist of the first rank, <hile the latter 1ro0e+ itself fully +eser0inA of its hiAh re1utation. The interest arouse+ (y the series has (een 0ery AratifyinA to the 5ommittee, an+ it is 1lanne+ to Ai0e a similar series annually hereafter. The fourth .on.ert <ill (e Ai0en on Tues+ay, ?ay 1;, <hen an eBually attra.ti0e 1roAramme <ill (e 1resente+.

1art from its triteness an+ em1tiness, the 1araAra1h a(o0e is (a+ (e.ause of the stru.ture of its senten.es, <ith their me.hani.al symmetry an+ sinA8 sonA. 5ontrast <ith them the senten.es in the 1araAra1hs Buote+ un+er $ule 1;, or in any 1ie.e of Aoo+ EnAlish 1rose, as the 1refa.e (-efore the 5urtain) to /anity 1air. &f the <riter fin+s that he has <ritten a series of senten.es of the ty1e +es.ri(e+, he shoul+ re.ast enouAh of them to remo0e the monotony, re1la.inA them (y sim1le senten.es, (y senten.es of t<o .lauses Ioine+ (y a semi.olon, (y 1erio+i. senten.es of t<o .lauses, (y senten.es, loose or 1erio+i., of three .lausesL<hi.he0er (est re1resent the real relations of the thouAht. 19.E(press

%o.or+in!te i+e!s in simi !r "orm.

This 1rin.i1le, that of 1arallel .onstru.tion, reBuires that eC1ressions of similar .ontent an+ fun.tion shoul+ (e out<ar+ly similar. The likeness of form ena(les the rea+er to re.oAniJe more rea+ily the likeness of .ontent an+ fun.tion. >amiliar instan.es from the -i(le are the Ten 5omman+ments, the -eatitu+es, an+ the 1etitions of the 'or+Ds ,rayer. The unskilful <riter often 0iolates this 1rin.i1le, from a mistaken (elief that he shoul+ .onstantly 0ary the form of his eC1ressions. &t is true that in re1eatinA a statement in or+er to em1hasiJe it he may ha0e nee+ to 0ary its form. >or illustration, see the 1araAra1h from Ste0enson Buote+ un+er $ule 1;. -ut a1art from this, he shoul+ follo< the 1rin.i1le of 1arallel .onstru.tion.

>ormerly, s.ien.e <as tauAht (y the teCt(ook metho+, <hile no< the la(oratory metho+ is em1loye+.

>ormerly, s.ien.e <as tauAht (y the teCt(ook metho+7 no< it is tauAht (y the la(oratory metho+.

The left8han+ 0ersion Ai0es the im1ression that the <riter is un+e.i+e+ or timi+7 he seems una(le or afrai+ to .hoose one form of eC1ression an+ hol+ to it. The riAht8han+ 0ersion sho<s that the <riter has at least ma+e his .hoi.e an+ a(i+e+ (y it. -y this 1rin.i1le, an arti.le or a 1re1osition a11lyinA to all the mem(ers of a series must either (e use+ only (efore the first term or else (e re1eate+ (efore ea.h term. The >ren.h, the &talians, S1anish, an+ ,ortuAuese &n s1rinA, summer, or in <inter The >ren.h, the &talians, the S1anish, an+ the ,ortuAuese &n s1rinA, summer, or <inter (&n s1rinA, in summer, or in <inter)

5orrelati0e eC1ressions (-oth' and; not' -ut; not only' -ut also; either' or; first' second' third; an+ the like) shoul+ (e follo<e+ (y the same Arammati.al .onstru.tion. ?any 0iolations of this rule .an (e .orre.te+ (y rearranAinA the senten.e. &t <as (oth a lonA .eremony an+ The .eremony <as (oth lonA an+ 0ery te+ious. te+ious. time not for <or+s, (ut a.tion Either you must Arant his reBuest or in.ur his ill <ill. time not for <or+s, (ut for a.tion /ou must either Arant his reBuest or in.ur his ill <ill.

?y o(Ie.tions are, first, the ?y o(Ie.tions are, first, that the inIusti.e of the measure7 se.on+, measure is unIust7 se.on+, that that it is un.onstitutional. it is un.onstitutional.

See also the thir+ eCam1le un+er $ule 1H an+ the last un+er $ule 16. &t may (e aske+, <hat if a <riter nee+s to eC1ress a 0ery larAe num(er of similar i+eas, say t<entyM ?ust he <rite t<enty .onse.uti0e senten.es of the same 1atternM #n .loser eCamination he <ill 1ro(a(ly fin+ that the +iffi.ulty is imaAinary, that his t<enty i+eas .an (e .lassifie+ in Arou1s, an+ that he nee+ a11ly the 1rin.i1le only <ithin ea.h Arou1. #ther<ise he ha+ (est a0oi+ the +iffi.ulty (y 1uttinA his statements in the form of a ta(le. 16.:eep

re !te+ #or+s together.

The 1osition of the <or+s in a senten.e is the 1rin.i1al means of sho<inA their relationshi1. The <riter must therefore, so far as 1ossi(le, (rinA toAether the <or+s, an+ Arou1s of <or+s, that are relate+ in thouAht, an+

kee1 a1art those <hi.h are not so relate+. The su(Ie.t of a senten.e an+ the 1rin.i1al 0er( shoul+ not, as a rule, (e se1arate+ (y a 1hrase or .lause that .an (e transferre+ to the (eAinninA. Wor+s<orth, in the fifth (ook of $he Excursion' Ai0es a minute +es.ri1tion of this .hur.h. 5ast iron, <hen treate+ in a -essemer .on0erter, is .hanAe+ into steel. &n the fifth (ook of $he Excursion' Wor+s<orth Ai0es a minute +es.ri1tion of this .hur.h. -y treatment in a -essemer .on0erter, .ast iron is .hanAe+ into steel.

The o(Ie.tion is that the inter1ose+ 1hrase or .lause nee+lessly interru1ts the natural or+er of the main .lause. This o(Ie.tion, ho<e0er, +oes not usually hol+ <hen the or+er is interru1te+ only (y a relati0e .lause or (y an eC1ression in a11osition. *or +oes it hol+ in 1erio+i. senten.es in <hi.h the interru1tion is a +eli(erately use+ means of .reatinA sus1ense (see eCam1les un+er $ule 18). The relati0e 1ronoun shoul+ .ome, as a rule, imme+iately after its ante.e+ent. There <as a look in his eye that (o+e+ mis.hief. &n his eye <as a look that (o+e+ mis.hief.

"e <rote three arti.les a(out his "e 1u(lishe+ in 0arper)s a+0entures in S1ain, <hi.h <ere Maga2ine three arti.les a(out his 1u(lishe+ in 0arper)s Maga2ine. a+0entures in S1ain. This is a 1ortrait of -enIamin "arrison, Aran+son of William "enry "arrison, <ho (e.ame ,resi+ent in 1889. This is a 1ortrait of -enIamin "arrison, Aran+son of William "enry "arrison. "e (e.ame ,resi+ent in 1889.

&f the ante.e+ent .onsists of a Arou1 of <or+s, the relati0e .omes at the en+ of the Arou1, unless this <oul+ .ause am(iAuity. The Su1erinten+ent of the 5hi.aAo )i0ision, <ho 1ro1osal to amen+ the Sherman .t, <hi.h has (een 0ariously Iu+Ae+ The Aran+son of William "enry "arrison, <ho 1ro1osal, <hi.h has (een 0ariously Iu+Ae+, to amen+ the Sherman .t 1ro1osal to amen+ the mu.h8 +e(ate+ Sherman .t William "enry "arrisonDs Aran+son, -enIamin "arrison, <ho

noun in a11osition may .ome (et<een ante.e+ent an+ relati0e, (e.ause in su.h a .om(ination no real am(iAuity .an arise.

The )uke of /ork, his (rother, <ho <as reAar+e+ <ith hostility (y the WhiAs

?o+ifiers shoul+ .ome, if 1ossi(le neCt to the <or+ they mo+ify. &f se0eral eC1ressions mo+ify the same <or+, they shoul+ (e so arranAe+ that no <ronA relation is suAAeste+. ll the mem(ers <ere not 1resent. "e only foun+ t<o mistakes. *ot all the mem(ers <ere 1resent. "e foun+ only t<o mistakes.

?aIor $. E. Joy.e <ill Ai0e a #n Tues+ay e0eninA at eiAht ,. le.ture on Tues+ay e0eninA in ?., ?aIor $. E. Joy.e <ill Ai0e in -ailey "all, to <hi.h the 1u(li. is -ailey "all a le.ture on K?y in0ite+, on K?y EC1erien.es in EC1erien.es in ?eso1otamia.K ?eso1otamiaK at eiAht ,. ?. The 1u(li. is in0ite+.


summ!ries' -eep to one tense.

&n summariJinA the a.tion of a +rama, the <riter shoul+ al<ays use the 1resent tense. &n summariJinA a 1oem, story, or no0el, he shoul+ 1refera(ly use the 1resent, thouAh he may use the 1ast if he 1refers. &f the summary is in the 1resent tense, ante.e+ent a.tion shoul+ (e eC1resse+ (y the 1erfe.t7 if in the 1ast, (y the 1ast 1erfe.t. n unforeseen .han.e 1re0ents >riar John from +eli0erinA >riar 'a<ren.eDs letter to $omeo. Juliet, mean<hile, o<inA to her fatherDs ar(itrary .hanAe of the +ay set for her <e++inA, has (een .om1elle+ to +rink the 1otion on Tues+ay niAht, <ith the result that -althasar informs $omeo of her su11ose+ +eath (efore >riar 'a<ren.e learns of the non+eli0ery of the letter.

-ut <hi.he0er tense (e use+ in the summary, a 1ast tense in in+ire.t +is.ourse or in in+ire.t Buestion remains un.hanAe+. The 'eAate inBuires <ho stru.k the (lo<.

1art from the eC.e1tions note+, <hi.he0er tense the <riter .hooses, he shoul+ use throuAhout. ShiftinA from one tense to the other Ai0es the a11earan.e of un.ertainty an+ irresolution (.om1are $ule 19). &n 1resentinA the statements or the thouAht of some one else, as in summariJinA an essay or re1ortinA a s1ee.h, the <riter shoul+ a0oi+ inter.alatinA su.h eC1ressions as Khe sai+,K Khe state+,K Kthe s1eaker a++e+,K Kthe s1eaker then <ent on to say,K Kthe author also thinks,K or the like. "e shoul+ in+i.ate .learly at the outset, on.e for all, that <hat follo<s is summary, an+ then <aste no <or+s in re1eatinA the notifi.ation.

&n note(ooks, in ne<s1a1ers, in han+(ooks of literature, summaries of one kin+ or another may (e in+is1ensa(le, an+ for .hil+ren in 1rimary s.hools it is a useful eCer.ise to retell a story in their o<n <or+s. -ut in the .riti.ism or inter1retation of literature the <riter shoul+ (e .areful to a0oi+ +ro11inA into summary. "e may fin+ it ne.essary to +e0ote one or t<o senten.es to in+i.atinA the su(Ie.t, or the o1eninA situation, of the <ork he is +is.ussinA7 he may .ite numerous +etails to illustrate its Bualities. -ut he shoul+ aim to <rite an or+erly +is.ussion su11orte+ (y e0i+en.e, not a summary <ith o..asional .omment. Similarly, if the s.o1e of his +is.ussion in.lu+es a num(er of <orks, he <ill as a rule +o (etter not to take them u1 sinAly in .hronoloAi.al or+er, (ut to aim from the (eAinninA at esta(lishinA Aeneral .on.lusions. 18.*

!%e the emph!ti% #or+s o" ! senten%e !t the en+.
The 1ro1er 1la.e for the <or+, or Arou1 of <or+s, <hi.h the <riter +esires to make most 1rominent is usually the en+ of the senten.e. "umanity has har+ly a+0an.e+ in fortitu+e sin.e that time, thouAh it has a+0an.e+ in many other <ays. This steel is 1rin.i1ally use+ for makinA raJors, (e.ause of its har+ness. "umanity, sin.e that time, has a+0an.e+ in many other <ays, (ut it has har+ly a+0an.e+ in fortitu+e. -e.ause of its har+ness, this steel is 1rin.i1ally use+ in makinA raJors.

The <or+ or Arou1 of <or+s entitle+ to this 1osition of 1rominen.e is usually the loAi.al 1re+i.ate, that is, the ne* element in the senten.e, as it is in the se.on+ eCam1le. The effe.ti0eness of the 1erio+i. senten.e arises from the 1rominen.e <hi.h it Ai0es to the main statement. >our .enturies aAo, 5hristo1her 5olum(us, one of the &talian mariners <hom the +e.line of their o<n re1u(li.s ha+ 1ut at the ser0i.e of the <orl+ an+ of a+0enture, seekinA for S1ain a <est<ar+ 1assaAe to the &n+ies as a set8off aAainst the a.hie0ements of ,ortuAuese +is.o0erers, liAhte+ on meri.a. With these ho1es an+ in this (elief & <oul+ urAe you, layinA asi+e all hin+ran.e, thrustinA a<ay all 1ri0ate aims, to +e0ote yoursel0es uns<er0inAly an+ unflin.hinAly to the 0iAorous an+ su..essful 1rose.ution of this <ar.

The other 1rominent 1osition in the senten.e is the (eAinninA. ny element in the senten.e, other than the su(Ie.t, (e.omes em1hati. <hen 1la.e+ first.

)e.eit or trea.hery he .oul+ ne0er forAi0e. So 0ast an+ ru+e, frette+ (y the a.tion of nearly three thousan+ years, the fraAments of this ar.hite.ture may often seem, at first siAht, like <orks of nature.

su(Ie.t .ominA first in its senten.e may (e em1hati., (ut har+ly (y its 1osition alone. &n the senten.e, 3reat kinAs <orshi11e+ at his shrine,

the em1hasis u1on ings arises larAely from its meaninA an+ from the .onteCt. To re.ei0e s1e.ial em1hasis, the su(Ie.t of a senten.e must take the 1osition of the 1re+i.ate. ThrouAh the mi++le of the 0alley flo<e+ a <in+inA stream.

The 1rin.i1le that the 1ro1er 1la.e for <hat is to (e ma+e most 1rominent is the en+ a11lies eBually to the <or+s of a senten.e, to the senten.es of a 1araAra1h, an+ to the 1araAra1hs of a .om1osition.


=e!+ings. 'ea0e a (lank line, or its eBui0alent in s1a.e, after the title or
hea+inA of a manus.ri1t. #n su..ee+inA 1aAes, if usinA rule+ 1a1er, (eAin on the first line.

Numer! s. )o not s1ell out +ates or other serial num(ers. Write them in
fiAures or in $oman notation, as may (e a11ro1riate. uAust 9, 1918 $ule 6 5ha1ter N&& 69H+ &nfantry


senten.e .ontaininA an eC1ression in 1arenthesis is 1un.tuate+, outsi+e of the marks of 1arenthesis, eCa.tly as if the eC1ression in 1arenthesis <ere a(sent. The eC1ression <ithin is 1un.tuate+ as if it stoo+ (y itself, eC.e1t that the final sto1 is omitte+ unless it is a Buestion mark or an eC.lamation 1oint. & <ent to his house yester+ay (my thir+ attem1t to see him), (ut he ha+ left to<n. "e +e.lares (an+ <hy shoul+ <e +ou(t his Aoo+ faithM) that he is no< .ertain of su..ess.

(When a <holly +eta.he+ eC1ression or senten.e is 1arenthesiJe+, the final sto1 .omes (efore the last mark of 1arenthesis.)

>uot!tions. >ormal Buotations, .ite+ as +o.umentary e0i+en.e, are
intro+u.e+ (y a .olon an+ en.lose+ in Buotation marks. The 1ro0ision of the 5onstitution is% K*o taC or +uty shall (e lai+ on arti.les eC1orte+ from any state.K

Fuotations Arammati.ally in a11osition or the +ire.t o(Ie.ts of 0er(s are 1re.e+e+ (y a .omma an+ en.lose+ in Buotation marks. & re.all the maCim of 'a $o.hefou.aul+, K3ratitu+e is a li0ely sense of (enefits to .ome.K ristotle says, K rt is an imitation of nature.K

Fuotations of an entire line, or more, of 0erse, are (eAun on a fresh line an+ .entre+, (ut not en.lose+ in Buotation marks. Wor+s<orthDs enthusiasm for the $e0olution <as at first un(oun+e+% -liss <as it in that +a<n to (e ali0e, -ut to (e younA <as 0ery hea0enO

Fuotations intro+u.e+ (y that are reAar+e+ as in in+ire.t +is.ourse an+ not en.lose+ in Buotation marks. Geats +e.lares that (eauty is truth, truth (eauty.

,ro0er(ial eC1ressions an+ familiar 1hrases of literary oriAin reBuire no Buotation marks. These are the times that try menDs souls. "e li0es far from the ma++inA .ro<+.

The same is true of .olloBuialisms an+ slanA.

Re"eren%es. &n s.holarly <ork reBuirinA eCa.t referen.es, a((re0iate

titles that o..ur freBuently, Ai0inA the full forms in an al1ha(eti.al list at the en+. s a Aeneral 1ra.ti.e, Ai0e the referen.es in 1arenthesis or in footnotes, not in the (o+y of the senten.e. #mit the <or+s act' scene' line' -oo ' "olume' page' eC.e1t <hen referrinA (y only one of them. ,un.tuate as in+i.ate+ (elo<.

&n the se.on+ s.ene of the thir+ a.t

&n &&&.ii (still (etter, sim1ly insert &&&.ii in 1arenthesis at the 1ro1er 1la.e in the senten.e)

fter the killinA of ,olonius, "amlet is 1la.e+ un+er Auar+ (&E. ii. 14). H Samuel i%1:8H: #thello &&.iii H648H6:, &&&.iii. 1998161

Tit es. >or the titles of literary <orks, s.holarly usaAe 1refers itali.s <ith

.a1italiJe+ initials. The usaAe of e+itors an+ 1u(lishers 0aries, some usinA itali.s <ith .a1italiJe+ initials, others usinA $oman <ith .a1italiJe+ initials an+ <ith or <ithout Buotation marks. !se itali.s (in+i.ate+ in manus.ri1t (y un+ers.orinA), eC.e1t in <ritinA for a 1erio+i.al that follo<s a +ifferent 1ra.ti.e. #mit initial A or $he from titles <hen you 1la.e the 1ossessi0e (efore them. The +liad; the #dyssey; As 3ou 4i e +t; $o a S ylar ; $he 5e*comes; A $ale of $*o Cities; )i.kensDs $ale of $*o Cities.

(?any of the <or+s an+ eC1ressions here liste+ are not so mu.h (a+ EnAlish as (a+ style, the .ommon1la.es of .areless <ritinA. s illustrate+ un+er 1eature' the 1ro1er .orre.tion is likely to (e not the re1la.ement of one <or+ or set of <or+s (y another, (ut the re1la.ement of 0aAue Aenerality (y +efinite statement.)


right. &+iomati. in familiar s1ee.h as a +eta.he+ 1hrase in the sense, K Aree+,K or K3o ahea+.K &n other uses (etter a0oi+e+. l<ays <ritten as t<o <or+s. As goo+ or )etter th!n. EC1ressions of this ty1e shoul+ (e
.orre.te+ (y rearranAinA the senten.e. ?y o1inion is as Aoo+ or (etter than his. ?y o1inion is as Aoo+ as his, or (etter (if not (etter).

As to #hether. %hether is suffi.ient7 see un+er $ule 16. @i+. Takes the infiniti0e <ithout to. The 1ast tense is -ade. C!se. The Concise #xford 6ictionary (eAins its +efinition of this <or+%
Kinstan.e of a thinADs o..urrinA7 usual state of affairs.K &n these t<o senses, the <or+ is usually unne.essary.

&n many .ases, the rooms <ere 1oorly 0entilate+.

?any of the rooms <ere 1oorly 0entilate+.

&t has rarely (een the .ase >e< mistakes ha0e (een that any mistake has (een ma+e. ma+e.

See Woo+, Suggestions to Authors' 11. 688:1, an+ Fuiller85ou.h, $he Art of %riting' 11. 1;681;6.

Cert!in ,. !se+ in+is.riminately (y some s1eakers, mu.h as others use
"ery' to intensify any an+ e0ery statement. s1ee.h, is e0en <orse in <ritinA.

mannerism of this kin+, (a+ in

Ch!r!%ter. #ften sim1ly re+un+ant, use+ from a mere ha(it of
<or+iness. .ts of a hostile .hara.ter "ostile a.ts

C !im' v). With o(Ie.t8noun, means lay claim to. ?ay (e use+ <ith a

+e1en+ent .lause if this sense is .learly in0ol0e+% K"e .laime+ that he <as the sole sur0i0inA heir.K (-ut e0en here, K.laime+ to (eK <oul+ (e (etter.) *ot to (e use+ as a su(stitute for declare' maintain' or charge.

Comp!re. To compare to is to 1oint out or im1ly resem(lan.es, (et<een

o(Ie.ts reAar+e+ as essentially of +ifferent or+er7 to compare *ith is mainly to 1oint out +ifferen.es, (et<een o(Ie.ts reAar+e+ as essentially of the same or+er. Thus life has (een .om1are+ to a 1ilArimaAe, to a +rama, to a (attle7 5onAress may (e .om1are+ <ith the -ritish ,arliament. ,aris has (een .om1are+ to an.ient thens7 it may (e .om1are+ <ith mo+ern 'on+on.

C ever. This <or+ has (een Areatly o0eruse+7 it is (est restri.te+ to
inAenuity +is1laye+ in small matters.

Consi+er. *ot follo<e+ (y as <hen it means, K(elie0e to (e.K K& .onsi+er

him thorouAhly .om1etent.K 5om1are, KThe le.turer .onsi+ere+ 5rom<ell first as sol+ier an+ se.on+ as a+ministrator,K <here K.onsi+ere+K means KeCamine+K or K+is.usse+.K

Depen+!) e.

nee+less su(stitute for relia-le' trust*orthy.

Due to. &n.orre.tly use+ for through' -ecause of' or o*ing to' in a+0er(ial
1hrases% K"e lost the first Aame, +ue to .arelessness.K &n .orre.t use relate+ as 1re+i.ate or as mo+ifier to a 1arti.ular noun% KThis in0ention is +ue to E+ison7K Klosses +ue to 1re0enta(le fires.K


s noun, means result; as 0er(, means to -ring a-out' accomplish (not to (e .onfuse+ <ith affect' <hi.h means Kto influen.eK). s noun, often loosely use+ in 1erfun.tory <ritinA a(out fashions, musi., 1aintinA, an+ other arts% Kan #riental effe.t7K Keffe.ts in 1ale Areen7K K0ery

+eli.ate effe.ts7K K(roa+ effe.ts7K Ksu(tle effe.ts7K Ka .harminA effe.t <as 1ro+u.e+ (y.K The <riter <ho has a +efinite meaninA to eC1ress <ill not take refuAe in su.h 0aAueness.

Et%. *ot to (e use+ of 1ersons. EBui0alent to and the rest' and so forth' an+

hen.e not to (e use+ if one of these <oul+ (e insuffi.ient, that is, if the rea+er <oul+ (e left in +ou(t as to any im1ortant 1arti.ulars. 'east o1en to o(Ie.tion <hen it re1resents the last terms of a list alrea+y Ai0en in full, or immaterial <or+s at the en+ of a Buotation. t the en+ of a list intro+u.e+ (y such as' for example' or any similar eC1ression, etc. is in.orre.t.

F!%t. !se this <or+ only of matters of a kin+ .a1a(le of +ire.t 0erifi.ation,

not of matters of Iu+Ament. That a 1arti.ular e0ent ha11ene+ on a Ai0en +ate, that lea+ melts at a .ertain tem1erature, are fa.ts. -ut su.h .on.lusions as that *a1oleon <as the Areatest of mo+ern Aenerals, or that the .limate of 5alifornia is +eliAhtful, ho<e0er in.ontesta(le they may (e, are not 1ro1erly fa.ts. #n the formula the fact that' see un+er $ule 16.


ha.kneye+ <or+7 the eC1ressions of <hi.h it forms 1art .an usually (e re1la.e+ (y somethinA more +ire.t an+ i+iomati.. "is su1erior traininA <as the Areat fa.tor in his <inninA the mat.h. "e <on the mat.h (y (einA (etter traine+.

"ea0y artillery is (e.ominA "ea0y artillery is 1layinA a an in.reasinAly im1ortant larAer an+ larAer 1art in fa.tor in +e.i+inA (attles. +e.i+inA (attles.


nother ha.kneye+ <or+7 like factor it usually a++s nothinA to the senten.e in <hi.h it o..urs. feature of the entertainment es1e.ially <orthy of mention <as the sinAinA of ?iss . (-etter use the same num(er of <or+s to tell <hat ?iss . sanA, or if the 1roAramme has alrea+y (een Ai0en, to tell somethinA of ho< she sanA.)

s a 0er(, in the a+0ertisinA sense of offer as a special attraction' to (e a0oi+e+.

Fi(. 5olloBuial in

meri.a for arrange' prepare' mend. &n <ritinA restri.t it to its literary senses, fasten' ma e firm or immo"a-le' et..

=e is ! m!n #ho.

.ommon ty1e of re+un+ant eC1ression7 see $ule

16. "e is a man <ho is 0ery am(itious. S1ain is a .ountry <hi.h & ha0e al<ays <ante+ to 0isit. "e is 0ery am(itious. & ha0e al<ays <ante+ to 0isit S1ain.

=o#ever. &n the meaninA ne"ertheless' not to .ome first in its senten.e
or .lause. The roa+s <ere almost im1assa(le. "o<e0er, <e at last su..ee+e+ in rea.hinA .am1. The roa+s <ere almost im1assa(le. t last, ho<e0er, <e su..ee+e+ in rea.hinA .am1.

When ho*e"er .omes first, it means in *hate"er *ay or to *hate"er extent. "o<e0er you a+0ise him, he <ill 1ro(a(ly +o as he thinks (est. "o<e0er +is.ouraAinA the 1ros1e.t, he ne0er lost heart.

:in+ o". *ot to (e use+ as a su(stitute for rather ((efore a+Ie.ti0es an+
0er(s), or eC.e1t in familiar style, for something li e ((efore nouns). $estri.t it to its literal sense% K m(er is a kin+ of fossil resin7K K& +islike that kin+ of notoriety.K The same hol+s true of sort of.

Less. Shoul+ not (e misuse+ for fe*er.
"e ha+ less men than in the 1re0ious .am1aiAn. "e ha+ fe<er men than in the 1re0ious .am1aiAn.

4ess refers to Buantity, fe*er to num(er. K"is trou(les are less than mineK means K"is trou(les are not so Areat as mine.K K"is trou(les are fe<er than mineK means K"is trou(les are not so numerous as mine.K &t is, ho<e0er, .orre.t to say, KThe siAners of the 1etition <ere less than a hun+re+, K<here the roun+ num(er, a hun+re+, is somethinA like a .olle.ti0e noun, an+ less is thouAht of as meaninA a less Buantity or amount.

Line' ! ong these ines. 4ine in the sense of course of procedure'
conduct' thought' is allo<a(le, (ut has (een so mu.h o0er<orke+, 1arti.ularly in the 1hrase along these lines' that a <riter <ho aims at freshness or oriAinality ha+ (etter +is.ar+ it entirely.

?r. -. also s1oke alonA the ?r. -. also s1oke, to the same lines. same effe.t. "e is stu+yinA alonA the line of >ren.h literature. "e is stu+yinA >ren.h literature.

Liter! ' iter! ,. #ften in.orre.tly use+ in su11ort of eCaAAeration or
0iolent meta1hor. literal floo+ of a(use 'iterally +ea+ <ith fatiAue floo+ of a(use lmost +ea+ <ith fatiAue (+ea+ tire+)

Lose out. ?eant to (e more em1hati. than lose' (ut a.tually less so,
(e.ause of its .ommonness. The same hol+s true of try out' *in out' sign up' register up. With a num(er of 0er(s, out an+ up form i+iomati. .om(inations% find out' run out' turn out' cheer up' dry up' ma e up' an+ others, ea.h +istinAuisha(le in meaninA from the sim1le 0er(. 4ose out is not.

Most. *ot to (e use+ for almost.
?ost e0ery(o+y ?ost all the time lmost e0ery(o+y lmost all the time

N!ture. #ften sim1ly re+un+ant, use+ like character.
.ts of a hostile nature "ostile a.ts

#ften 0aAuely use+ in su.h eC1ressions as Ka lo0er of nature7K K1oems a(out nature.K !nless more s1e.ifi. statements follo<, the rea+er .annot tell <hether the 1oems ha0e to +o <ith natural s.enery, rural life, the sunset, the untra.ke+ <il+erness, or the ha(its of sBuirrels.

Ne!r ),.

+0er(ial 1hrase, not yet fully a..e1te+ as Aoo+ EnAlish, thouAh the analoAy of close -y an+ hard -y seems to Iustify it. 5ear' or near at hand' is as Aoo+, if not (etter. *ot to (e use+ as an a+Ie.ti0e7 use neigh-oring.

O"tentimes' o"ttimes.
mo+ern <or+ is often.

r.hai. forms, no lonAer in Aoo+ use. The

One hun+re+ !n+ one. $etain the and in this an+ similar
eC1ressions, in a..or+an.e <ith the un0aryinA usaAe of EnAlish 1rose from #l+ EnAlish times.

One o" the most.

0oi+ (eAinninA essays or 1araAra1hs <ith this formula, as, K#ne of the most interestinA +e0elo1ments of mo+ern s.ien.e is, et..7K KS<itJerlan+ is one of the most interestinA .ountries of Euro1e.K There is nothinA <ronA in this7 it is sim1ly threa+(are an+ for.i(le8fee(le.

*eop e. $he people is a 1oliti.al term, not to (e .onfuse+ <ith the pu-lic.

>rom the 1eo1le .omes 1oliti.al su11ort or o11osition7 from the 1u(li. .omes artisti. a11re.iation or .ommer.ial 1atronaAe. The <or+ people is not to (e use+ <ith <or+s of num(er, in 1la.e of persons. &f of KsiC 1eo1leK fi0e <ent a<ay, ho< many K1eo1leK <oul+ (e leftM

*h!se. ?eans a staAe of transition or +e0elo1ment% Kthe 1hases of the
moon7K Kthe last 1hase.K *ot to (e use+ for aspect or topic. nother 1hase of the su(Ie.t nother 1oint (another Buestion)

*ossess. *ot to (e use+ as a mere su(stitute for ha"e or o*n.
"e 1ossesse+ Areat .ouraAe. "e <as the fortunate 1ossessor of "e ha+ Areat .ouraAe (<as 0ery (ra0e). "e o<ne+

Respe%tive' respe%tive ,. These <or+s may usually (e omitte+
<ith a+0antaAe. Works of fi.tion are liste+ un+er the names of their res1e.ti0e authors. The one mile an+ t<o mile runs <ere <on (y Jones an+ 5umminAs res1e.ti0ely. Works of fi.tion are liste+ un+er the names of their authors. The one mile an+ t<o mile runs <ere <on (y Jones an+ (y 5umminAs.

&n some kin+s of formal <ritinA, as in Aeometri.al 1roofs, it may (e ne.essary to use respecti"ely' (ut it shoul+ not a11ear in <ritinA on or+inary su(Ie.ts.


0oi+, in <ritinA, the use of so as an intensifier% Kso Aoo+7K Kso <arm7K Kso +eliAhtful.K #n the use of so to intro+u.e .lauses, see $ule 4.

Sort o". See un+er :in+ o". St!te. *ot to (e use+ as a mere su(stitute for say' remar
. $estri.t it to

the sense of express fully or clearly' as, K"e refuse+ to state his o(Ie.tions.K

Stu+ent )o+,.

nee+less an+ a<k<ar+ eC1ression, meaninA no more than the sim1le <or+ students. mem(er of the stu+ent (o+y ,o1ular <ith the stu+ent (o+y The stu+ent (o+y 1asse+ resolutions. stu+ent 'ike+ (y the stu+ents The stu+ents 1asse+ resolutions.

S,stem. >reBuently use+ <ithout nee+.
)ayton has a+o1te+ )ayton has a+o1te+ the .ommission system Ao0ernment (y of Ao0ernment. .ommission. The +ormitory system )ormitories

Th!n-ing ,ou in !+v!n%e. This soun+s as if the <riter meant, K&t
<ill not (e <orth my <hile to <rite to you aAain.K Sim1ly <rite, KThankinA you,K an+ if the fa0or <hi.h you ha0e reBueste+ is Arante+, <rite a letter of a.kno<le+Ament.


.ommon ina..ura.y is the use of the 1lural 1ronoun <hen the ante.e+ent is a +istri(uti0e eC1ression su.h as each' each one' e"ery-ody' e"ery one' many a man' <hi.h, thouAh im1lyinA more than one 1erson, reBuires the 1ronoun to (e in the sinAular. Similar to this, (ut <ith e0en less Iustifi.ation, is the use of the 1lural 1ronoun <ith the ante.e+ent any-ody' any one' some-ody' some one' the intention (einA either to a0oi+ the a<k<ar+ Khe or she,K or to a0oi+ .ommittinA oneself to either. Some (ashful s1eakers e0en say, K frien+ of mine tol+ me that they, et..K !se he <ith all the a(o0e <or+s, unless the ante.e+ent is or must (e feminine.

;er,. !se this <or+ s1arinAly. Where em1hasis is ne.essary, use <or+s
stronA in themsel0es.

;ie#point. Write point of "ie*' (ut +o not misuse this, as many +o, for
"ie* or opinion.

<hi e.

0oi+ the in+is.riminate use of this <or+ for and' -ut' an+ although. ?any <riters use it freBuently as a su(stitute for and or -ut' either from a mere +esire to 0ary the .onne.ti0e, or from un.ertainty <hi.h of the t<o .onne.ti0es is the more a11ro1riate. &n this use it is (est re1la.e+ (y a semi.olon. This is entirely .orre.t, as sho<n (y the 1ara1hrase,

The offi.e an+ salesrooms are on the Aroun+ floor, <hile the rest of the (uil+inA is +e0ote+ to manufa.turinA.

The offi.e an+ salesrooms are on the Aroun+ floor7 the rest of the (uil+inA is +e0ote+ to manufa.turinA.

&ts use as a 0irtual eBui0alent of although is allo<a(le in senten.es <here this lea+s to no am(iAuity or a(sur+ity. While & a+mire his enerAy, & <ish it <ere em1loye+ in a (etter .ause.

& a+mire his enerAy7 at the same time & <ish it <ere em1loye+ in a (etter .ause.

5om1are% While the tem1erature rea.hes 9; or 99 +eArees in the +aytime, the niAhts are often .hilly. lthouAh the tem1erature rea.hes 9; or 99 +eArees in the +aytime, the niAhts are often .hilly.

The 1ara1hrase, The tem1erature rea.hes 9; or 99 +eArees in the +aytime7 at the same time the niAhts are often .hilly,

sho<s <hy the use of *hile is in.orre.t. &n Aeneral, the <riter <ill +o <ell to use *hile only <ith stri.t literalness, in the sense of during the time that.

<hom. #ften in.orre.tly use+ for *ho (efore he said or similar
eC1ressions, <hen it is really the su(Ie.t of a follo<inA 0er(. "is (rother, <hom he sai+ "is (rother, <ho he sai+ <oul+ sen+ him the money <oul+ sen+ him the money The man <hom he thouAht The man <ho (that) he <as his frien+ thouAht <as his frien+ (<hom he thouAht his frien+)

<orth #hi e. #0er<orke+ as a term of 0aAue a11ro0al an+ (<ith not)
of +isa11ro0al. Stri.tly a11li.a(le only to a.tions% K&s it <orth <hile to teleAra1hMK "is (ooks are not <orth <hile. "is (ooks are not <orth rea+inA (not <orth oneDs <hile to rea+7 +o not re1ay rea+inA).

The use of *orth *hile (efore a noun (Ka <orth <hile storyK) is in+efensi(le.

<ou +.

.on+itional statement in the first 1erson reBuires should' not

& shoul+ not ha0e su..ee+e+ <ithout his hel1.

The eBui0alent of shall in in+ire.t Buotation after a 0er( in the 1ast tense is should' not *ould. "e 1re+i.te+ that (efore lonA <e shoul+ ha0e a Areat sur1rise.

To eC1ress ha(itual or re1eate+ a.tion, the 1ast tense, <ithout *ould' is usually suffi.ient, an+ from its (re0ity, more em1hati.. #n.e a year he <oul+ 0isit the ol+ mansion. #n.e a year he 0isite+ the ol+ mansion.

a..i+entally a+0i.e affe.t (eAinninA (elie0e (enefit .hallenAe .riti.iJe +e.ei0e +efinite +es.ri(e formerly humorous hy1o.risy imme+iately in.i+entally latter le+ lose marriaAe mis.hief murmur 1ri0ileAe 1ursue re1etition rhyme rhythm ri+i.ulous sa.rileAious seiJe se1arate she1her+ sieAe

+es1ise +e0elo1 +isa11oint +uel e.stasy effe.t eCisten.e fiery

ne.essary o..urre+ 1arallel ,hili1 1lay<riAht 1re.e+inA 1reIu+i.e 1rin.i1al

similar simile too traAe+y tries un+ou(te+ly until

Write to-day' to-night' to-morro* ((ut not together) <ith hy1hen. Write any one' e"ery one' some one' some time (eC.e1t the sense of formerly) as t<o <or+s. T"E E*)


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