Chapters 16/18: Evolution and Classification

Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. Many of Darwin’s ideas were developed from his observations during the voyage of the Battle.

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2. Darwin observed that the plants and animals of the Galápagos Islands were similar to those on islands off the coast of Africa with similar environments. _________________________ 3. According to Darwin, individuals with traits better suited to their environment are more likely to survive. _________________________ 4. According to Darwin, natural selection can cause the spread of adaptations throughout a population over time. _________________________ 5. The human forelimb and the bat forelimb are homologous structures. _________________________ 6. At some point in development, human embryos and the embryos of all other vertebrates have a tail. _________________________ 7. Evolution does not always produce the fittest form. _________________________ 8. Punctuated equilibrium refers to the model that evolution occurs gradually over long periods of time. _________________________ 9. The many different species of finches on the Galápagos Islands are an example of adaptive radiation. _________________________

____ 10. Taxonomy provides consistent ways to name organisms. _________________________ ____ 11. Two different organisms cannot have the same scientific name. _________________________ ____ 12. A genus is a taxonomic category that contains several families. _________________________ ____ 13. Linnaeus devised eight levels of classification categories for living things. _________________________ ____ 14. Kingdoms are subgroups of phyla. _________________________ ____ 15. A species is a larger taxonomic group than a genus. _________________________ ____ 16. Bird wings and insect wings are examples of analogous structures. _________________________ ____ 17. Organisms that have similar traits but evolved independently are the result of convergent evolution. _________________________ ____ 18. Comparing the sequence of DNA bases in the genes of several organisms is used to determine the order in which the organisms evolved. _________________________ ____ 19. All organisms in the kingdom Animalia are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. _________________________ ____ 20. Traditionally, bacteria have been classified on the basis of their shape, cell wall composition, and metabolism. _________________________

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 21. What does evolution mean in biology? a. change in species over time c. change in theories over time b. change in individuals over time d. change in ecosystems over time ____ 22. Darwin was the first to explain a. a theory of inheritance. c. the quick rate of evolution. b. a correct mechanism for evolution. d. how to record observations. ____ 23. Evolution can be defined as a genetic change in a. species. c. chromosomal drift. b. environmental variation. d. natural selection. ____ 24. Darwin thought that the plants and animals of the Galápagos Islands were similar to those of the nearby coast of South America because a. their ancestors had migrated from South America to the Galápagos Islands. b. other scientists in South America had written about similar species. c. the island organisms had the same nucleotide sequences in their DNA as the mainland organisms. d. he found fossils, proving that the animals and plants had common ancestors. ____ 25. Which of the following is the result of artificial selection? a. the rain-forest plants and animals b. the fish that live in the ocean c. the recognized breeds of dogs d. the weeds in a garden ____ 26. The finches that Darwin studied differed in the shape of their beaks. According to Darwin, the finches probably a. came with those traits from South America. b. would become more similar over time. c. were descended from similar birds in Africa. d. had become adapted to eating different diets. ____ 27. Beak shape in finches is affected by the a. number of predators in the area. c. color of the finch. b. size of the finch. d. type of food available to eat. ____ 28. Layers of rock give evidence of a. Lamarckian inheritance. c. the great age of Earth. b. population growth. d. artificial selection. ____ 29. The major idea that Darwin presented in his book The Origin of Species was that a. species changed over time and never competed with each other. b. animals changed, but plants remained the same. c. elephants and bacteria changed constantly. d. species changed over time by natural selection. ____ 30. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection included a. microevolution and variation. c. convergence and adaptation. b. coevolution and selection. d. overproduction and selection. ____ 31. Which of the following statements is not true about the steps of natural selection? a. Populations are able to overproduce. b. A small amount of variation can be attributed to inherited traits. c. The environment causes some individuals to leave more offspring than others. d. Adaptations for an environment become more common over time.

____ 32. According to Darwin’s view of natural selection, overproduction means producing a. too few organisms to enable all to survive. b. more food than is needed by a population. c. more offspring than can survive. d. too many species in one area. ____ 33. The Galápagos finches are adapted to their environment because they have a. not changed. c. evolved. b. migrated. d. hibernated. ____ 34. Natural selection is the process by which a. change occurs in the genetic characteristics of individuals that live together in an environment from one generation to another. b. organisms with traits well-suited to their environment reproduce at a greater rate than less well-adapted organisms in the same environment. c. use and disuse of a characteristic leads to evolutionary change. d. baseball players pass on the trait for strong arm muscles to children. ____ 35. Natural selection could not occur without a. artificial selection. c. competition for unlimited resources. b. gradual warming of Earth. d. genetic variation in populations. ____ 36. A trait that allows organisms to survive and reproduce better than others without the trait in a specific environment is a(n) a. accommodation. c. variation. b. adaptation. d. selection. ____ 37. According to Darwin, evolution occurs a. by chance. b. during half-life periods of 5,730 years. c. because of natural selection. d. rapidly. ____ 38. Which of the following describes fossils? a. large organisms that live on Earth now b. traces of organisms that lived in the past c. the fate of all organisms now on Earth d. preserved in igneous rock The diagrams below represent bones in the hindlimbs of fossil horses and modern horses.

____ 39. Refer to the illustration above. These fossils indicate that horse evolution included a. a change from six toes to two toes. b. a change from four toes to one toe. c. the process of adaptive radiation. d. the process of punctuated equilibrium.

____ 40. Refer to the illustration above. An analysis of DNA from these organisms would indicate that a. they have identical DNA. b. they all have fingers. c. their nucleotide sequences show many similarities. d. they all have the same number of chromosomes. ____ 41. Refer to the illustration above. The similarity of these structures suggests that the organisms a. have a common ancestor. c. evolved slowly. b. all grow at different rates. d. live for a long time. ____ 42. Refer to the illustration above. The bones labeled A are known as a. extinct structures. c. homologous structures. b. sequential structures. d. fossil structures. ____ 43. The study of developmental biology shows that a. closely related species will show similarities in embryos. b. if species have changed over time, their genes should have changed. c. closely related species will show similarities in amino acid sequences. d. distantly related species will show similarities in anatomy. ____ 44. Evidence that supports the theory of evolution includes all of the following except a. punctuated sedimentation. b. similarities and differences in amino-acid and DNA sequences between organisms. c. the fossil record. d. homologous structures. ____ 45. Darwin’s theory lacked an explanation for a. how evolution occurs. c. adaptations. b. inheritance of traits. d. competition. ____ 46. When Darwin published his theory of evolution, one strength of his work was a. his idea that species change quickly in spurts. b. his work was supported by a great deal of data. c. he knew about genetics. d. his idea that some organisms reproduce at a greater rate than others. ____ 47. The combination of Darwin’s work with newer studies is called a. the punctuated equilibrium theory of evolution. b. the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory. c. speciation. d. gradualism. ____ 48. Which of the following does the modern theory of evolution predict?

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a. individuals evolve c. specific future adaptations b. populations evolve d. survival of the fittest The most important evidence supporting Darwin’s theory of evolution came from a. the science of genetics. c. an understanding of competition. b. the study of economics. d. an understanding of the environment. Processes of microevolution include a. DNA and RNA. c. genetic drift and ancestry. b. homology and selection. d. migration and mutation. The term microevolution refers to a. speciation. b. macroevolution. c. small-scale changes in a population’s genes. d. large-scale changes in a species traits. New species form during a. adaptation. c. microevolution. b. extinction. d. speciation. The hypothesis that evolution occurs in “spurts” through geologic time is known as a. directional evolution. c. punctuated equilibrium. b. directional equilibrium. d. punctuated evolution. The hypothesis that evolution occurs at a slow, gradual pace is known as a. gradualism. c. natural selection. b. slow motion. d. adaptation. Taxonomy is a. the study of life. b. the science of naming and classifying organisms. c. the evolutionary history of a species. d. the sequence in which different groups evolved. An advantage of our scientific naming system is that a. common names mean the same in all countries. b. Latin names are easy to pronounce. c. biologists can communicate regardless of their native languages. d. organisms all have the same scientific name. All scientific names of organisms must be a. unique and have two Latin words. b. general and use the species name. c. different and repeat the phylum name. d. similar and include the common name. Linnaeus’s two-word system for naming organisms is called a. taxonomic evolution. c. Greek polynomials. b. Genus species. d. binomial nomenclature. In the Linnaean system of classification, the level that identifies one unique organism is the a. kingdom. c. genus. b. family. d. species. The largest division that a group of organisms can belong to is a a. domain. c. genus. b. class. d. kingdom. Placement in each level of classification is based on a. specific characteristics. c. shared characteristics.

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b. general characteristics. d. different characteristics. Similar genera are grouped into a(n) a. phylum. c. family. b. class. d. order. Analogous structures a. have a common size in organisms. b. perform the same function in organisms. c. have the same structure in organisms. d. evolve from a common ancestor. Similar features that evolve through convergent evolution are called a. analogous characters. c. environmental characters. b. homologous characters. d. genetic characters. Convergent evolution produces analogous characters in different species as the result of a. similar environments. c. sharing a common ancestor. b. different environments. d. shared derived characters. A phylogenetic tree differs from a cladogram in that a phylogenetic tree a. hypothesizes the time at which each group of organisms evolved. b. also indicates the new characteristics that evolved with each group of organisms c. only illustrates hypothesized relationships among groups of organisms. d. predicts the next group of organisms that is expected to evolve. Studies of fossils of dinosaurs and birds show that a. feathers may not be an important difference between dinosaurs and birds. b. dinosaurs can be considered to be modern descendents of birds. c. the anatomies of the dinosaurs and birds are unrelated. d. dinosaurs and birds share many analogous characters. Derived characters are traits a. that are shared by all species. b. that originated in a common ancestor. c. found in closely related species. d. found in distantly related species. Which of the following terms is no longer used to describe a group of organisms in the modern classification system? a. Archaea c. Monera b. Eubacteria d. Protista Sponges are animals that were once classified as a. bacteria. c. plants. b. fungi. d. protists. Which of the following characteristics was used to reclassify sponges? a. body type c. cell walls b. cell type d. nutrition Four of the kingdoms include eukaryotes and the other two include a. plants. c. animals. b. fungi. d. prokaryotes. Which of the following is not a characteristic used to differentiate kingdoms? a. cell type c. nutrition b. root system d. body type Protista is an example of a a. kingdom. c. genus.

b. class. d. species. ____ 75. Which two kingdoms contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms? a. Archaea and Animalia c. Animalia and Fungi b. Protists and Bacteria d. Protista and Fungi ____ 76. Bacteria : prokaryotes :: a. Fungi : prokaryotes c. Protista : eukaryotes b. Animalia : prokaryotes d. Archaea : eukaryotes ____ 77. One difference between plants and animals is that plants are a. prokaryotic and animals are eukaryotic. b. eukaryotic and animals are prokaryotic. c. autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs. d. heterotrophs and animals are autotrophs.

Chapters 16/18: Evolution and Classification Answer Section
MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 1. ANS: F, Beagle PTS: 1 DIF: II 2. ANS: F, South America 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. PTS: ANS: OBJ: ANS: OBJ: ANS: OBJ: ANS: OBJ: ANS: OBJ: ANS: 1 DIF: T 16.2.1 STA: T 16.2.1 STA: T 16.2.2 STA: T 16.2.2 STA: T 16.3.1 STA: F, Gradualism 1 T 16.3.2 T 18.1.1 T 18.1.2 F, species II SB5.d PTS: 1 SB5.d PTS: 1 SB5.a PTS: 1 SB5.a PTS: 1 SB5.a OBJ: 16.3.2 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 STA: SB5.b DIF: III DIF: I DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II OBJ: 16.1.2 OBJ: 16.1.2 PTS: 1 STA: SB5.a STA: SB5.a DIF: II

PTS: 9. ANS: OBJ: 10. ANS: OBJ: 11. ANS: OBJ: 12. ANS:

DIF: I STA: SB5.b

PTS: 1 13. ANS: F, seven PTS: 1 14. ANS: F, domains PTS: 1 15. ANS: F, smaller PTS: 16. ANS: OBJ: 17. ANS: OBJ: 18. ANS: OBJ: 1 T 18.2.1 T 18.2.1 T 18.2.4

DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II

OBJ: 18.1.3 OBJ: 18.1.3 OBJ: 18.1.3 OBJ: 18.1.3 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1

DIF: II DIF: II DIF: III

STA: SB3.c

19. ANS: OBJ: 20. ANS: OBJ:

T 18.3.2 T 18.3.2

PTS: 1 STA: SB3.b PTS: 1 STA: SB3.b

DIF: II DIF: II

MULTIPLE CHOICE 21. ANS: STA: 22. ANS: STA: 23. ANS: STA: 24. ANS: STA: 25. ANS: STA: 26. ANS: STA: 27. ANS: STA: 28. ANS: STA: 29. ANS: STA: 30. ANS: STA: 31. ANS: STA: 32. ANS: STA: 33. ANS: STA: 34. ANS: STA: 35. ANS: STA: 36. ANS: STA: 37. ANS: STA: 38. ANS: STA: 39. ANS: STA: 40. ANS: STA: 41. ANS: A SB5.a B SB5.a A SB5.a A SB5.a C SB5.a D SB5.a D SB5.a C SB5.a D SB5.d D SB5.d B SB5.d C SB5.d C SB5.d B SB5.d D SB5.d B SB5.d C SB5.d B SB5.a B SB5.a C SB5.a A PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 DIF: I DIF: II DIF: I DIF: III DIF: II DIF: III DIF: II DIF: III DIF: II DIF: II DIF: III DIF: I DIF: III DIF: II DIF: II DIF: I DIF: I DIF: I DIF: III DIF: II DIF: II OBJ: 16.1.1 OBJ: 16.1.1 OBJ: 16.1.1 OBJ: 16.1.2 OBJ: 16.1.2 OBJ: 16.1.2 OBJ: 16.1.2 OBJ: 16.1.3 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.1 OBJ: 16.2.2 OBJ: 16.2.2 OBJ: 16.2.2 OBJ: 16.2.2

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA: ANS: STA:

SB5.a C SB5.a A SB5.a A SB5.a B SB5.a B SB5.a B SB5.a B SB5.a A SB5.a D SB5.b C SB5.b D SB5.b C SB5.b A SB5.b B C A D D A C C B A A C SB3.c A SB3.c C SB3.c C SB3.b C SB3.b

PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: I DIF: I DIF: I DIF: I DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: I III III I II II II I II II II III

OBJ: 16.2.2 OBJ: 16.2.2 OBJ: 16.2.2 OBJ: 16.2.3 OBJ: 16.2.3 OBJ: 16.3.1 OBJ: 16.3.1 OBJ: 16.3.1 OBJ: 16.3.2 OBJ: 16.3.2 OBJ: 16.3.2 OBJ: 16.3.2 OBJ: 16.3.2 OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: 18.1.1 18.1.1 18.1.2 18.1.3 18.1.3 18.1.3 18.1.3 18.1.3 18.2.1 18.2.1 18.2.1 18.2.2

PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1

DIF: III DIF: II DIF: III DIF: II

OBJ: 18.2.2 OBJ: 18.2.3 OBJ: 18.3.1 OBJ: 18.3.1

71. ANS: STA: 72. ANS: STA: 73. ANS: STA: 74. ANS: STA: 75. ANS: STA: 76. ANS: STA: 77. ANS: STA:

B SB3.b D SB3.b B SB3.b A SB3.b D SB3.b C SB3.b C SB3.b

PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1 PTS: 1

DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: II DIF: III DIF: II

OBJ: 18.3.1 OBJ: 18.3.2 OBJ: 18.3.2 OBJ: 18.3.2 OBJ: 18.3.2 OBJ: 18.3.2 OBJ: 18.3.2

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