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This present report would not have been
possible without the help; I have received from
various quarters of the company. I extend a
special thanks to Mr. Adewale Shino; the
training division supervisor and Mrs. Rita. S.
Ogunbor for their guidance and special kind of
operation throughout the duration of my
training. I also convey my special thanks to
all staff members for plant familiarization and
understanding various plant processes.
Egbin power station commenced operations in
1985 with two 220 MW steam turbines each having
its own dual fuel gas/oil fired boiler. Two
additional and similar 220 MW units were
commissioned in 1986 and a further 2 in 1987
bringing the total installed capacity of the
facility to 1320 MW. Egbin Power PLC was
incorporated on November 8th 2005 owning all of
the assets of the station.

Egbin Power PLC is the largest generating

station in what was the state-owned National
Electric Power Authority (now Power Holding
Company of Nigeria - PHCN). PHCN was
responsible for generation, transmission and
distribution of electricity across Nigeria. As
part of government reforms initiated in 2001,
PHCN is being unbundled and the units are being
divested to the private sector.

Egbin Power PLC is one of the unbundled units.

The company will be privatized through an
international competitive tender under a World
Bank funded Project.

The facility is the largest thermal power

station in Nigeria and is fed with gas from the
Delta via the Escravos - Lagos pipeline. The
company employs 552 staff and between 2000 and
2005 averaged generation of some 7,130GWh
annually. The station exports into the
national grid although it is close Lagos, the
commercial capital of Nigeria with an estimated
18 million residents in.
Main station plant 6 x 220 MW generating
Gas supply system
Oil storage facility
Water Treatment Plant
Sea water cooling
Auxiliary Boiler
Installed capacity 1,320 MW

Available Capacity 880 MW (awaiting

(Feb-2007) remedial work by OEM)
Energy generated 8,592 GWh
Staff 552 employees

An ideal thermal plant is that which result in

a lower unit cost in the production and
distribution of electricity to the consumers.
The factors favouring the P.H.C.N in this
regard are:

1. Availability of Raw Material

Raw material should be available in sufficient
quantities. For any thermal plant, liquid fuels
such as L.D.O. (Light diesel Oil) and H.F.O.
(Heavy furnace oil) are required in sufficient
quantities every day. Since, there is well
defined arrangement done by the oil sector for
transporting gas from the delta region by means
of pipe lines.

2. Availability of Water Supply

For any thermal plant, water is always required
in huge quantities for the purpose of cooling
for P.H.C.N.; water is taken from a feed
supplied directly from the water corporation.

3. Waste control
The site must have the facility for the control
and management of emitted fumes. Since the
power plant is situated at the outskirt of the
commercial state the large amount of fumes
emitted daily won’t be much of a problem to the
residential areas nearby.


1. Fuel oil
This is a fraction obtained
from petroleum distillation, either as a
distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking,
fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that
is burned in a furnace or boiler for the
generation of heat or used in an engine for
the generation of power, except oils having
a flash point of approximately 40 °C (104 °F)
and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick
burners. In this sense, diesel is a type of
fuel oil. Fuel oil is made of
long hydrocarbon chains,
particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromat
ics. The term fuel oil is also used in a
stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest
commercial fuel that can be obtained
from crude oil, heavier
than gasoline and naphtha.

2. Water
Water for the power station is supplied by the
water corporation. This water is lifted as raw
water is stored in big wells where it is sent
for the treatment for removing turbidity in
water. In the water treatment plant it
undergoes many process and at last we get pure
and dematerialized water, this water is stored
in the DM water tanks from where the
dematerialized water sent to the boiler and the
filtered water which is not dematerialized is
sent to plant and colony for personal use with
the help of portable pumps.

The working principle of the thermal plant can

be best explained with the help of the figure
above. But the Egbin thermal plant was
remodelled to use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
instead of coal to heat the water, the rest of
the equipments remain the same. The primary
fuel is supplied directly from the refinery,
the direct feed of the fuel goes into a
reservoir and then the feed to the combustion
chamber is controlled in other to supply just
enough fuel to heat up the water.

The boiler comes in the form of an enclosed
vessel where the combustion process takes place
and the heat is then transferred to the water
until it turns to steam. The steam under
pressure then transfers the heat to the
When water is boiled into steam its volume
increases about 1,600 times, producing a force
that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. This
causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous
equipment that must be treated with utmost
The boiler system comprises of feed water
system, steam system and fuel system.
The feed water system provides water to the
boiler and regulates it automatically to meet
the steam demand. Various valves provide access
for maintenance and repair.
The steam system collects and controls the
steam produced in the boiler. Steam is directed
through a piping system to the point of use.
Throughout the system, steam pressure is
regulated using valves and checked with steam
pressure gauges.
The fuel system includes all equipment used to
provide fuel to generate the necessary heat.
The equipment required in the fuel system
depends on the type of fuel used in the system.

The water supplied to the boiler that is

converted into steam is called feed water. The
two sources of feed water are:
• Condensate or condensed steam returned from
the processes and
• Makeup water (treated raw water) which must
come from outside the boiler room and plant

Turbine is a rotary engine that converts the

energy of the moving steam into mechanical
energy. The basic element in a turbine is a
wheel or rotor with paddles, propellers,
blades, or buckets arranged on its
circumference in such a fashion that the moving
fluid exerts a tangential force that turns the
wheel and imparts energy to it. This mechanical
energy is then transferred through a drive
shaft to the compressor.

The deaerator is a device that removes air and

other dissolved gases from the feed water to
steam generating boilers. Oxygen in the boiler
feed water in particular, cause it causes
serious corrosion damage in steam systems by
attaching to the walls of metal piping and
other metallic equipment and forming oxides
(rust). It also combines with any dissolved
carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid that
causes further corrosion.
Most deaerators are designed to remove oxygen
down to levels of 7 ppb by weight (0.0005cm³/L)
or less.

Heat exchangers transfers heat efficiently from

one part of the system to another. The proper
design, operation and maintenance of heat
exchangers will make the process energy
efficient and minimize energy losses. Heat
exchanger performance can deteriorate with
time, off design operations and other
interferences such as fouling, scaling etc. It
is necessary to assess periodically the heat
exchanger performance in order to maintain them
at a high efficiency level.
Heat exchangers may be classified according to
their flow arrangement.
In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two
fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and
travel in parallel to one another to the other
In counterflow heat exchangers the fluids enter
the exchanger from opposite ends. This is the
type used in the Egbin power plant because it
can transfer the most heat.

In a cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluids

travel roughly perpendicular to one another
through the exchanger. For efficiency, heat
exchangers are designed to maximize the surface
area of the wall between the two fluids, while
minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the
exchanger. The exchanger's performance can also
be affected by the addition of fins or
corrugations in one or both directions, which
increase surface area and may channel fluid
flow or induce turbulence.

The super heater is a device in a steam engine

that heats the steam generated by the boiler
again, increasing its thermal energy and
decreasing the likelihood that it will condense
inside the engine. Super heaters increase the
efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely
adopted. Steam which has been superheated is
logically known as superheated steam; non-
superheated steam is called saturated steam or
wet steam

The surface condenser is very much like tube

heat exchanger in which cooling water is
circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam
from the low pressure turbine enters the shell
where it is cooled and converted to condensate
(water) by flowing over the tubes. Such
condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-
driven exhausters for continuous removal of air
and gases from the steam side to maintain
For best efficiency, the temperature in the
condenser must be kept as low as practical in
order to achieve the lowest possible pressure
in the condensing steam. Since the condenser
temperature can almost always be kept
significantly below 100oC where the vapor
pressure of water is much less than atmospheric
pressure, the condenser generally works under
vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensable air into
the closed loop must be prevented. Plants
operating in hot climates may have to reduce
output if their source of condenser cooling
water becomes warmer; unfortunately this
usually coincides with periods of high
electrical demand for air conditioning.
The condenser generally uses either circulating
cooling water from a cooling tower to reject
waste heat to the atmosphere, or through water
from the water corporation.

Economisers, or are mechanical devices that
reduce energy consumption, or to perform
another useful function like preheating a
fluid. The term economiser is used for other
purposes as well.
In simple terms, an economizer is a heat


In the case of a conventional steam-electric
power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the
surface condenser removes the latent heat of
vaporization from the steam as it changes
states from vapour to liquid. The heat content
in the
steam is referred to as Enthalpy. The
condensate pump then pumps the condensate water
through a feed water heater. The feed water
heating equipment then raises the temperature
of the water by utilizing extraction steam from
various stages of the turbine.
Preheating the feed water reduces the
irreversibility involved in steam generation
and therefore improves the thermodynamic
efficiency of the system. This reduces plant
operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal
shock to the boiler metal when the feed water
is introduced back into the steam cycle.

The electrical generator converts mechanical

energy to electrical energy, generally using
electromagnetic induction.
A generator forces electric charges to move
through an external electrical circuit, but it
does not create electricity or charge, which is
already present in the wire of its windings. It
is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which
creates a flow of water but does not create the
water inside. The source of mechanical energy
is turbine steam engine.


I received a formal training in terms of my

individual project and familiarising with the
On the other hand i was given to opportunity to
investigate how different types of people
interact in the workplace.
At PHCN, I was given invaluable exposure to the
real-world of power generation. All the dry
theoretical material that I have learnt over
the years at university has taken on real and
significant relevance and I have seen how my
studies can be applied to a practical


I have learned how science and engineering can

interact in useful ways and how remarkable
practice can occur even when it is
educationally driven; at PHCN, while deadlines
and budgets are important, creativity is not
I was lucky enough to work with a group of
enthusiastic and communicative people. It has
been a unique opportunity and one that I will
not soon forget.