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Comparison Four-Band and Eight-Band World View-2 Imagery Classifications

in the Acme, Washington Study Area


by Sarah L. Thomas, 03/01/2014
ABSTRACT
This lab focuses on comparison of classification results for images produced using a set of four
Landsat TM similar bands and complete set of eight bands for World View-2 (WV-2) satellite imagery
collected near Acme, Washington. WV-2 satellite imagery incorporates three additional spectral bands to
those represented in Landsat TM imagery, covering different wavelengths throughout the
electromagnetic spectrum (Antonova, 2014). The original imagery was processed for select bands,
focusing on the near-infrared and visible color portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to create two
images; the first using four bands present in Landsat TM satellite images and the second using all eight
WV-2 bands. The two images produced were segmented, then classified using ISODATA classification
techniques in SPRING software in order to derived spectral classes for the Acme, Washington study
area. Resulting spectral classes were assigned to information classes of cover type for the four-band and
eight-band images. Accuracy assessments also performed for resulting image classifications by
comparing assigned information class locations to a test reference dataset of ground truth. Finally, the
extent and percentage of information class coverage, along with accuracy information was analyzed for
comparison between Landsat TM and WV-2 imagery bands.
METHODS
The image used for analysis originated as a TIFF file covering an area of approximately 100
square meters with a resolution of 2 meters by 2 meters encompassing an area near Acme, Washington.
The TIFF file was converted to the World View-2 image using image registration techniques in IMPIMA
software and saved as SPRING software compatible file. The WV-2 image covers eight bands in the
electromagnetic spectrum, adding three bands to the traditionally used Landsat TM spectral bands and
covering different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Following the procedures outlined on the
class website (Antonova, 2014), additional images were created to conduct a comparison of
classification results for images consisting of four-band Landsat TM similar bands and all WV-2
imagery bands. Prior to comparison, the imagery was processed at levels; registration, segmentation, an
ISODATA classification, and the assignment of spectral classes into information classes.
During the first stage of registration, the WV-2 imagery bands for the Acme, Washington study
area were loaded into SPRING software in order to create to two separate image files. Individual bands
were selected to be incorporated at two levels; first all bands were selected for the eight band image,
then WV-2 bands 7, 5, 3, and 2 were loaded to replicate Landsat TM imagery. Next the resulting fourband and eight-band images were segmented with focus on the spectral values near-infrared, red, and
green spectral bands represented by red, green, and blue bands respectively. Segmentation created
images that were regionalized based upon similar spectral values at a range of 10 with a minimum
mapping unit of 25 pixels was applied in order to represent a dominant cover type area. Following image
segmentation, image segments were classified with an accuracy threshold of 75% using ISODATA
classification (Antonova, 2014). The resulting ISODATA classifications did not produce images desired
for further analysis, so instructor Natasha Antonova provided spectral class images from previous years.
During the fourth step of image processing, spectral classes were assigned to information classes
in order to determine the extent and percentage of cover types in the Acme, Washington study area.

Spectral classes were assigned to information classes based upon indicators of cover type in the truecolor and color-IR images of the WV-2 imagery for Acme, Washington study area. Information classes
were assigned as follows; Unclassified, Residential, Farm Building, Road, Shrubs, Crops,
Pasture, Recent Clear-Cut, Deciduous Forest, Conifer Forest, Water, Non-Forested
Wetland, and Rock/Gravel/Bare Soil. Finally, accuracy assessments for the four-band and eight-band
images were conducted by comparing assigned class locations to ground truth test reference dataset for
the Acme, Washington study area. The coverage and class accuracies for the four-band and eight-band
images were analyzed to determine the similarity and differences between classifications.
RESULTS
Classification of the eight band and four band segmented images resulted in variations in
coverage for information classes (Table 5). Visual inspection of the classification maps (Figures 3,
Figure 4) demonstrates that many class coverage locations were alternated between four band and eight
band imagery. For instance, in examining Shrubs and Crops information class locations, it appears
that they occupy similar regions of the Acme, Washington study are images. This is also true for
information classes of Deciduous Forest and Conifer Forest (Figure 3, Figure 4). Notably, the
location of Water appears in the same location in both images. Visual inspection also demonstrates
that many information classes overlap in location between the classified four band and eight band
images of the Acme, Washington study area. In order to make an information based analysis, the
coverage and accuracy of each information class was calculated for both the four band and eight band
images.
The primary information classes of the eight band image were Deciduous at 35%, Shrubs at
33%, and Conifer at 9% (Table 2). Comparatively, the four band image resulted in information class
coverage of Deciduous at 34%, Conifer at 22.5%, and Shrubs at 11% (Table 4). The coverage for
the Deciduous information class increased by 0.59% with classification inclusion of all eight WV-2
bands. Image classification also resulted in variance between the information classes with the least
coverage. Farm buildings covered 0.151 hectares, or 0.009% of the four band image, and 0.459
hectares, or 0.026% of the eight band image (Table 2, Table 4). Classification also resulted in similar
representation between the two images, where most information classes did not experience more than
3% change in coverage between images (Table 5). Notably, the Residential information class only
change coverage by 0.005%. Even though coverage of information classes did not change significantly
between eight band and four band imagery datasets, the overall accuracy of classification was assessed
to determine the correctness in representation of information classes in the study area.
The accuracy assessment results also varied between four band and eight band classified Acme,
Washington images (Table 5, Figure 5). Most notably, errors in commission resulted in variation in the
producers accuracy for both images. Errors of commission changed depending on the information class
assigned to spectral classes. Five classes did not experience any change in producers accuracy, and
variance in changes ranged between 10 % and 50%. Three classes did not experience a change in Users
accuracy, and all other changes occurred below 1% in image error of commission. In general, the overall
accuracy was similar between classifications of both images at approximately 9.135% (Table 2, Table 4).
It should be noted that the overall accuracy is relatively low and explanations of errors in information
class assignment will be covered in the discussion section (below).

Figure 1. Figure representing a portion of the segmented four-band Acme, Washington study area
image. Segmentation was performed with a similarity value of ten and a minimum mapping unit of 25
pixels.

Figure 2. Figures representing the results of ISODATA image classification of the eight band image in
SPRING software. A. Spectral classes created using image segmentation results (figure 1). B. Image
created in previous course year, from which spectral classes were used to created information classes
and during analysis.

Table 1. Accuracy assessment of information class assignment for the four-band Acme, Washington
study area image. Assigned classes were compared to a test reference dataset, where overall accuracy
presented at 9.13516% correct assignment.

Table 2. Coverage and accuracy of class assignment based upon comparison with test reference dataset
and previously assigned ISODATA spectral classes.
Spectral
class

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Information
Class
Unclassified
Residential
Farm Building
Roads
Shrubs
Crops
Pasture
Recent Clearcut
Deciduous
Conifer
Water
Non-forested
Wetland
Rock/Gravel/Bar
e Soil

Color

Pixels

Area
(hectares)

Coverage
(%)

User
Acc
(%)
99.998
0.037
0.012
0.531
0.001
0.003
0.000
0.000

Prod
Acc (%)

399,567
2672
377
42,874
491,621
299,643
41,173
449,796

159.827
1.069
0.151
17.150
196.648
119.857
16.470
179.918

9.134
0.061
0.009
0.980
11.239
6.850
0.941
10.283

1,501,00
1
983,199
43,192
1,435

600.400

34.314

393.280
17.277
0.574

22.476
0.987
0.033

0.001
0.001
0.016
0

36.84
29.03
77.78
0

117,822

347.129

2.693

0.002

28.57

9.135
25
55.6
25
37.5
56.25
0
5

Information Class
Unclassified
Residential
Farm Building
Roads
Shrubs
Crops
Pasture
Recent Clear-cut
Deciduous
Conifer
Water
Non-forested Wetland
Rock/Gravel/Bare Soil

Figure 3. A map depicting the classification of the four-band image of the Acme, Washington study area.
Information classes assigned based upon image segmentation and ISODATA classification performed in
a previous course year.
Table 3. Accuracy assessment of information class assignment for the eight-band Acme, Washington
study area image. Assigned classes were compared to a test reference dataset, where overall accuracy
presented at 9.13532% correct assignment.

Information Class
Unclassified
Residential
Farm Building
Roads
Shrubs
Crops
Pasture
Recent Clear-cut
Deciduous
Conifer
Water
Non-forested Wetland
Rock/Gravel/Bare Soil

Figure 4. A map depicting the classification of the eight band image of the Acme, Washington study
area. Information classes assigned based upon image segmentation and ISODATA classification
performed in a previous course year.
Table 4. Coverage and accuracy of class assignment based upon comparison with test reference dataset
and previously assigned ISODATA spectral classes.
Spectral
class
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Information
Class
Unclassified
Residential
Farm Building
Roads
Shrubs
Crops
Pasture
Recent Clear-cut
Deciduous
Conifer
Water
Non-forested
Wetland
Rock/Gravel/Bare
Soil

Color

Pixels
399,567
2,451
1,148
158,149
1,460,089
169,897
4,233
35,121
1,526,897
400,674
54,897
3,511

Area
(hectares)
156.827
0.980
0.459
63.260
584.036
67.960
1.693
14.048
610.732
160.270
21.959
1.404

Coverage
(%)
9.134
0.056
0.026
3.615
33.378
3.884
0.0970
0.803
34.904
9.160
1.255
0.080

157,806

63.122

3.608

User
Acc (%)
99.998
0.041
0
0
0.0005
0.004
0
0
0.0009
0.003
0.0128
0
0.004

Prod
Acc (%)
9.135
25
0
0
87.5
43.75
0
0
68.421
38.710
77.78
0
85.714

Accuracy Assessment Results

8 User Acc (%)

8 Prod

4 User Acc (%)

4 Prod

Table 5.
Difference in classification values between four band and 8 band Acme, Washington study area images.
DIFFERENCES
Spectra
l class

Information
User Acc Producer
class
Pixels
Area
Coverage
(%)
Acc (%)
Unclassified
0
3
0
0
0
1
Residential
221
1.013
0.005
-0.004
0
2
Farm Building
-771
-0.829
-0.017
0.012
55.6
3
Roads
-115275
-46.11
-2.635
0.531
25
4
Shrubs
-968468
-387.39
-22.139
0.0005
-50
5
Crops
129746
51.897
2.966
-0.001
12.5
6
Pasture
36940
14.777
0.844
0
0
Recent Clear7
cut
414675
165.87
9.48
0
5
8
Deciduous
-25896
-10.332
-0.59
0.0001
-31.581
9
Conifer
582525
233.01
13.316
-0.002
-9.68
10
Water
-11705
-4.682
-0.268
0.0032
0
Non-forested
11
Wetland
-2076
-0.83
-0.047
0
0
Rock/Gravel/Bar
12
e Soil
-39984
284.007
-0.915
-0.002
-57.144
Differences Equal Classified 4 Band Values minus Classified 8 Band Values
Figure 5. Accuracy assessment results for 4 band and eight band image classification based on
comparison with test reference dataset for Acme, Washington study area image.
DISCUSSION

This focuses of this lab was comparison of classification results for images produced using
World View-2 (WV-2) satellite imagery. The first image classification used four bands similar to Landsat
TM satellite imagery and the second included all eight bands of from WV-2 satellite dataset for Acme,
Washington study area. The images produced during registration looked very similar, and very few
differences were noted in the segmented images (Figure 1). Differences first became visible in visual
analysis of the images resulting from ISODATA classification (Figure 2). However, the image that
resulted from the ISODATA classification that I performed was distinctly different than the ones
provided by the instructor. The reasoning for differences include new software packages. In future
analysis, I hope to achieve an ISODATA classification for spectral classes that will aid in further
delineation of cover types. Using the spectral class images provided, the overall accuracy for image
classification was very low at approximately 9.135% for both four-band and eight-band classifications.
Even though the accuracy of class assignment was low for both the four-band and eight-band
classifications, the similarities and differences between class values gave indication of commonality
between WV-2 and Landsat TM satellite imagery. In assigning spectral classes to information classes, I
first noted that both the four-band and eight-band images had spectral classes that over-lapped cover
types. Most notably, visual inspection of figure 2B demonstrates that the spectral class indicated by the
color yellow is present in both non-vegetated and forested regions of the Acme, Washington study area.
For instance, yellow is present in the upper left corner where crops are dominate but also in the uppermiddle section of the figure where areas appear to have been recently clear cut. These distinctions can be
made by cross examining spectral class assignments with the color-IR image for the study area, where
dark images represent little to no vegetation and bright red for healthy vegetation such as well attended
crops. Also, distinct types of vegetation were further delineated by the coverage of spectral values.
Additional producer efforts can be made in further analysis.
In order to improve image classification accuracy, information classes could also be combined to
account for the variety of spectral values within an individual image and between images. For instance,
Crops and Shrub information classes could be combined to a single Herbaceous information class,
and accuracy would increase for both four-band and eight band image accuracy assessments.
Interestingly, the information classes of Deciduous Forest and Conifer Forest had similar spectral
values in both the four-band and eight-band images, which were miss-classified during assignment of
spectral classes into information classes. Even though much time was spent considering spectral
indicators in the color-IR image, the variance in spectral class coverage in regards to cover type resulted
in incorrect classification, so consideration may be given to combine said classes into a single Forest
information class. However, the depth of analysis is an important factor in classification decisions and
additional inspection of image segmentation values should be considered.
During the process of image segmentation, the bounds of 10 for similarity in spectral values and
25 pixels for mapping units were set. Using these bounds resulted in 38 spectral classes for the fourband image and 30 spectral classes in the eight-band image. This discretion between the number of
spectral classes in the four-band and eight-band images may have resulted in the slight differences in
ISODATA classification (Table 5). A lower similarity value would have resulted in smaller, yet more
similar image segments (Antonova, 2014) to be used in classification. For instance, the spectral values
for Non-Forested Wetlands are expected to present differently than Crops based upon spectral
values in the color-IR image. The mapping unit could also be altered, depending on the depth of
analysis. As noted by Antonova in the Lab 8 instruction (2014), there are no current set values used
during image segmentation, but segment size will affect the spectral ISODATA classification results

(thus affecting information class assignment and coverage results). In any case, attention must be paid to
the difference in spectral values for imagery bands during the all steps of image processing, otherwise,
solid comparisons cannot be made between classified WV-2 and Landsat TM similar images.

LITERATURE CITED
Antonova, Natasha. 2014. Lab 8: Image Segmentation with SPRING II: WorldView-2, 8-band
Challenge.
http://staff.wwu.edu/antonon/envr442/ENVI/442_segmentation_ENVI_acme2.htm
Antonova, Natasha. 2014. Chapter10_natasha.ppt. Western Washington University
server, 02/19/2014.
Accessed on 03/07/2014