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IGCSE MATHS transformations

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Transformations
Content
27a1 Transformations
Leaming Outcomes
Itude:
(2). * use the flowing transformations ofthe plane: reflection (M), rotation (R), transition
(Ty,erlargement(E), shea (1), stetzh (3), and thelr combinations (F Ma) = b and Rb)
= cthe notation RMa)~e willbe used invariants under tose transformations may be
‘assumed;
(b) “iden and give precise descritons of transformations connecting given figures
* Critcal areas wich are tin the syllabus but included to make learing of the topics more
competeDefine
Transformation
Transformation (in mathematics) is defined as a function that,
changes the position or direction of the axes of a coordinate
system. It occurs when the position, shape or size of a shape is
changed
2 Transformation can be isometric or non-isometric.
‘+ In /sometric transformations, the shape and size is not changed
Examples of isometric transformations are reflection, rotation
and translation.
+ In non-isometric transformations, the shape and size is changed,
Examples of non-isometric transformations are dilations,
stretching and shearing.
Reflection
Reflection is defined as the operation of exchanging all points of a
mathematical figure with their mirror ima
Under a reflection, the figure and its image are symmetrical about the
line of reflection; area, angles and shape are preserved,
‘+ The line of reflection is defined as the perpendicular bisector of
the line joining any point to its image.
* Toffind the line of reflection, join one point on the object to its
corresponding point on the image, e.g. A to A;. The perpendicular
bisector of this line is the line of reflection.
2 Invariant points are points that remain unchanged after going through
a transformation. The points on the line of reflection are invariant
points.
Reflection
© Reflection in the x-axis
Mi(XY)>(X-¥)
© Reflection in the y-axis
Mz (xy) > (-%Y)
© Reflection in the line y = x
M3 (x,y) —> (YX)
© Reflection in the line y
MQ) (-¥,-X)How to reflect a figure about a line
‘Triangle ABC below is reflected about the line, x = 3to give the image A’B'C’.
Steps
© Note the perpendicular distance from each point of the figure ABC to the
line of reflection.
A (1,3) is 2 units from the line of reflection x = 3
B (1,1) is 2 units from the line of reflection x= 3
© (2,2) is 1 unit from the line of reflection x = 3
© Draw the reflected point of the same distance away on the opposite side
of the line of reflection.
(1,3) is reflected to A’ (5,3), where A'is 2 units away from the line x
B (1,1) is reflected to 8’ (6,1) where B’is 2 units away from the line x =3
C (2,2) is reflected to C'(4,2) where C’is 1 unit away from the line x = 3

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