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b]z Glt/

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ePsf] /fhgLlts ljZn] i fsx?

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sf/afxLsf nflu k|wfgdGqLnfO{ n]vL

k7fOPsf] 5, lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5 . eufPsf] cf/f]k ;b:o;lrj lji6nfO{


dGqL kf}8n
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k|ltof]lutfdf v]nf8Lsf] cfj/0fdf
rf/ JolQmnfO{ k} ; f vfP/ pt}

cg' ; Gwfg cfof] u n] cfk" m nfO{


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l;fk'/, c:6]lnof cflb h:tf y'k|}
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cfh;Dd cfOk'Ubf s'g} klg /fhf,
g]tf tyf kf6L{ hgtfsf] lxtsf] nflu

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k|lqmofd} c;xdlt eO{ lj/f]wsf] cfjfh a'nGb
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5 . t;y{, hgtfsf] hfoh dfusf] ;'gj' fO{ ug{
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dWogh/ u/]/ tLg bnn] tTsfn ;+ljwfg;ef
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ug'k{ 5{ / ToxL ;Dd]ngaf6 ;du| ;d:ofsf ;dfwfg
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hf] ef/t tyf g]kfnsf zAbsf]ifx?df
kl/eflift 5 . blnt g]kfnL
df6f]df pAh]sf] zAb xf]Og, ef/taf6
cfPsf] tyfslyt zAbfjnL xf] .
@)@$ ;fnkl5 g] k fnsf xfdL
lzNksf/L hflt ;d' b fo dfly
nflbPsf] c;+jw} flgs zAb xf] . blnt
zAb ef/t tyf ljZjsf s'g} klg
d'ns
' sf ;+ljwfgdf pNn]v kfOFbg} .
:jod blnt zAbsf hGdbftf 8f=
eLd /fj cDa8]s/ ;d]tn] ef/tLo
;+ljwfg d:of}bf ;ldltsf] cWoIf
ag]kl5 ef/tsf] ;+ljwfgdf of]
;d'bfosf] klxrfg tyfslyt blnt
pNn]v ug{ ;fGble{s gePsf] dxz';
u/] / cg' ; ' l rt hfltsf] ?kdf
;'lrs/0f u/]sf] ljlbt} 5 . o;
cj:yfdf xfdL lzNksf/L hflt
;d'bfosf] klxrfg tyfslyt blnt
xf]Og, of] k]zf Joj;fo;Fu ufFl;Psf]
jf:tfljs klxrfg lzNkL xf] / lzNkL
klxrfgnfO{ { g} cufdL ;+ l 3o
nf] s tflGqs u0ftGq g] k fnsf]
;+ljwfgdf pNn]v u/.pg ljut b]lv
;+ljwfg ;efsf cWoIf, ;+aw} flgs
tyf /fhgLlts ;Djfb ;ldltsf
;efktL Pjd\ ljleGGf /fhgLlts
kf6L{sf g]tf tyf ;ef;b nufotnfO{{
dfu kq a'emfpg'sf ;fy} ;+ljwfg
;efdf ;d]t k|:tfljt ul/Psf] :ki6}
5 . t/ klg xfd|f] pQm af:tljs
dfunfO{{ nTofP/ ;+l3o nf]stflGqs
u0ftGq g]kfnsf] d'n sfg'gsf] ?kdf
d:of}bf ul/Psf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg k|f/lDes d:of}bf@)&@ df xfdL
lzNkL ;d'bfosf] klxrfg tyfslyt
blnt g} sfod /fv]/ pNn]v ul/Psf]
xfd|f ;fd' 5n{5
} . tTkZrft klg
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg k|f/DeLs d:of}bf
@)&@ af6 hflto lje]b hGo ckdfg
;'rs tyfslyt blnt zAbfjnLnfO{{
x6fpg / ;Ddfg hgs lzNkL
klxrfg pNn]v u/fpg ;+ljwfg ;efsf
cWoIf, ;+ljwfg d:of}bf ;ldlt /
/fi6kl| t, k|wfgdGqL nufotsf lgsfo

;d]tdf 1fkg kq k]z ubf{ klg e/v/}


dfq ;+ljwfg ;efn] hf/L u/]sf]
;+ljwfg kl/dflh{t ljWo]os ;d]tdf
xfdL lzNksf/L hflt ;d'bfosf]

8f] d , d' ; x/, sf] / L, lr8Ldf/,


kTy/sf, jft/, d]xt/, ;/e,
vl6s, snx/, ss}of nufotsf
lzNksf/L hflt ;d'bfosf] hflto

Joj;fonfO{ { cfw' l gsLs/0f,


cf}Bf]lusLs/0f / ljsf; ug{ lzNkL
;d'bfonfO{{ cu|flwsf/ x'g] k|fjwfg
;+ljwfgdf pNn]v ul/g' kb{5 . &_

bfgaxfb'/ ljZjsdf{
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg k|f/lDes d:of}bf Pj+ ;+ljwfgsf]
kl/dflh{t ljWo]os ;d]tdf xfdL lzNksf/L hflt ;d'bfosf]
tyfslyt klxrfg blnt g} pNn]v u/]/ of] ;d'bfonfO{{ cem}
bdg lyrf]ldrf] lje]b / c;dfgtfdf /flvPsf] 5 . hf]
;+ljwfg d:of}bfsf] ;dfgtfsf] xs / df}lnsxs;Fu afemLPsf]
5 eg] ;+oQ
' m /fi6 ;+3f/f ;g\ !(^% df hf/L ul/Psf] ;a}
k|sf/sf hflto e]be
\ fj pGd'ng cGt/f{li6o dxf;lGw /
g]kfnf/f @)^# h]7 @! Uft] 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] hflto e]be
\ fj
5'jf5't d'Qm /fi6sf] dd{ / efjgf ljkl/t 5 . blnt zAbsf]
cy{M bdg ul/Psf], lyrf]ldrf]df /flvPsf] c;dfgtfdf
/flvPsf], kmUnf6} kmUnf6f kfl/Psf], ;tfOPsf] ljWj+z
ul/Psf], gi6 ul/Psf], ;dfhdf xs clwsf/ O~ht k|lti7f
gePsf], lgr agfOPsf] x'G5 . hf] ef/t tyf g]kfnsf
zAbsf]ifx?df kl/eflift 5 . blnt g]kfnL df6f]df pAh]sf]
zAb xf]Og, ef/taf6 cfPsf] tyfslyt zAbfjnL xf] .
)))))
zLk snfsf] k]zf Joj;fo ug]{ dfG5]nfO{{ lzNkL elgG5 eGg] s'/f
zAb sf]ifx?df :ki6 pNn]v 5 . hf] of] ;d'bfosf] k/fDk/fut
k]zf;Fu ufl;Psf] 5 . To;}n] of] ;d'bfosf] af:tljs klxrfg
eg]sf] lzNkL g} xf] / ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfgdf xfdL lzNksf/L hflt ;d'bfosf] ;Ddfghgs klxrfg
lzNkL g} pNn]v u/fpgsf lglDt ;+ljwfg;efnfO{{ Jofks bjfj
lbgsf nflu oxfFx?nfO{{ ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ cfu|x ub{5f} . ;fy} o;}
lj1lKtdfkm{t cfjZos dfu / bjfjsf sfo{qmdx? hf/L ub{5f}+{ .
tyfslyt klxrfg blnt g} sfod
/fv]/ of] ;d'bfonfO{{ bldt t'Nofpg]
sfd u/]sf] 5 . h:nfO{{ xfdL sbfkL
klg :jLsf/ ug{ ;Sb}gf}, hf] xfdL
lzNksf/L hflt ;d'bfosf] dfgjtf,
;dfgtf, df}lnstf dd{ efjgf ljkl/t
/ ckdflgt 5 . h:sf] xfdL s8f
lt/isf/ ug{ jfWo 5f} . dflg;sf]
klxrfg sfd;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . Tof]
g} ;To tYo Gofo ;+ut, lj1fg ;+ut
x'G5 . t;y{ of] ;d'bfosf] k'vp
]{ nL
k];f eg]sf] lzNksfl/tf xf] . lzNk
eg]sf] lzk snfsf] sfd ug'{ xf] .
zLk snfsf] k]zf Joj;fo ug]{
dfG5]nfO{{ lzNkL elgG5 eGg] s'/f zAb
sf]ifx?df :ki6 pNn]v 5 . hf] of]
;d' b fosf] k/fDk/fut k] z f;F u
ufl;Psf] 5 . To;}n] of] ;d'bfosf]
af:tljs klxrfg eg]sf] lzNkL g} xf]
/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfgdf xfdL lzNksf/L hflt
;d'bfosf] ;Ddfghgs klxrfg lzNkL
g} pNn] v u/fpgsf lglDt
;+ljwfg;efnfO{{ Jofks bjfj lbgsf
nflu oxfFx?nfO{{ ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ cfu|x
ub{5f} . ;fy} o;} lj1lKtdfkm{t
cfjZos dfu / bjfjsf sfo{qmdx?
hf/L ub{5f}+{ . ;+ljwfgdf lzNkLx?sf
;Daf]wg ug'k{ g]{ ljifox? !_ ;+ljwfg
d:of}bfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] tyfslyt
blnt zAb x6fP/ To;sf] ;f
lzNkL zAb pNn]v ul/g' kb{5 .
@_ ;+ljwfgdf cg';l" r* yk ul/
pQm cg';l" rdf lzNkL ;d'bfosf
ljZjsdf{, ;fsL{, bdfO{, ufO{g,] jfbL,
df]rL, kf;L, kf;jg, wf]jL, tTdf, vTj],

;" l r pNn] v ul/g' kb{ 5 ;fy}


;+ljwfgsf] kl/efiffdf lzNkL ;d'bfo
eGgfn] k/Dk/fut ?kdf lzNk
;DaGwL k]zf Joj;fo ub}{ cfPsf
cg' ; " r L* adf] l hdsf hflt
;d'bfonfO{{ hgfpF5 eGg] jfSof+z
pNn]v ul/g' kb{5 . #_ lzNkL
;d'bfosf] pTyfg / ljsf;sf nflu
l;+uf] g]kfn sfo{ If]q x'g] ul/ ;+l3o
/fHo, lzNkL ljif]z k|bz
] , lzNkL
ljsf; dGqfno, /fli6o lzNkL
cfof]u, lzNkL pTyfg ljsf; ;ldlt
nufotsf lgsfox?sf] k|fjwfgx?
;+ljwfgdf :ki6 pNn]v ul/g' kb{5 .
$_ ;+ljwfgsf] k|:tfjgf d} hflto
e]befj 5'jf5't d'Qm /fi6 pNn]v
ul/g' kb{5 . %_ /fHosf ;Dk"0f{ tx
/ lgsfox?df lzNkL ;d'bfosf] k"0f{
;dfg' k flts
;dfj] z Lsf]
;'lglZrttfsf] k|fjwfg ;+ljwfgdf
pNn]v ul/g' kb{5 . ^_ lzNkL
;d' b fosf k/Dk/fut k] z f

lzNkL ;d' b fosf dlxnfx?sf]


pTyfgsf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmdsf ;fy}
/fHosf ;a} tx / lgsfox?df
;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zLsf] k|fjwfg
;+ljwfgdf pNn]v ul/g' kb{5 . *_
;lbof}bl] v cfh;Dd /fHof/f lzNkL
;d'bfonfO{{ z'b,| c5't Pj+d blnt
3f]lift ul/ ;dfhaf6 alxis[t,
lt/:s[t ub}{ cfPsf] x'gfn] cj hf/L
x'g] ;+l3o nf]stflGqs u0ftGq
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf Ifdf ofrgf ;lxt
lzNkL ;d'bfonfO{{ Ifltk"lt{ :j?k
/fHosf ;Dk"0f{ tx / lgsfox?df
cu|flwsf/sf] k|fjwfg pNn]v ul/g'
kb{5 . (_ lzNkL ;d'bfosf] nflu
;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTjsf cltl/Qm
If]tLk"lt{ :j?k ;+l3o ;+;b\df #
k|ltzt / k|bz
] ;efdf % k|ltzt
yk k|ltlglwTjsf] ;'lglZrttf /
lgjf{rg If]q cf/IfLt ug]{ k|fjwfg
yk ul/g' kb{5 . cGoyf ;+ljwfg
dfGo x'g] 5}g .

a[xt\ c6f] zf] x'b}

sf7df8f}F . g]kfn c6f] df]afON;


Pzf]l;og ckm g]kfn -gf8f_ n] gf8f
c6f] zf] cfof]hgf ug{] ePsf] 5 .
sf7df8f}+l:yt e[s'6Ld08kdf ebf}
@( ut]b]lv ;jf/L ;fwgsf] s'De
d]nf nfUg] gf8fn] hgfPsf] xf] .
!@) j6f cjnf]sg sIf x'g] d]nfdf
ljleGg #@ a|fG8 ;xefuL x'g] gf8fn]
hgfPsf] 5 . ljutsf] gf8f c6f]
zf]eGbf o; k6ssf] c6f] zf] a[xt\ /
eJo x'g] cWoIf z]v/ uf]N5fn] bfaL

u/] . k|bz{gLdf ^% j6f sDkgLn]


;jf/L ;fwg, kf6{kh
' f{ tyf cGo
;]jfhGo :6nx? /fVg] hgfOPsf] 5 .
c6f] zf]df !$ j6f a|fG8sf $ kf\u]|
;jf/L, !% a|fG8sf @ kf\u]| tyf %
a|fG8sf x]eL sdlz{on e]lxsn
k|bz{gLdf /flvg] k|bz{gL ;+of]hs
zDe'k;
| fb bfxfnn] hfgsf/L u/fP .
^ lbg;Dd rNg] c6f] zf] %)
xhf/eGbf a9L bz{sn] cjnf]sg ug{]
cfof]hssf] ck]Iff 5 .

@)&@ ;fn ebf} @& ut] cfOtaf/

hgtfsf] dfu hfoh 5,


cfGbf]ng Gofok"0f{ 5
;ftfsf] s'/fsfgL
) b] z df lbglbg} dflg;x?sf]
d[ T o' eO/x] s f] 5, aGb,
x8\tfnn] hgtf x}/fg ePsf
5g\ , of] cj:yfnfO{ s;/L
x]l//xg' ePsf] 5 <
b]zsf] kl5Nnf] cj:yf c;fWo}
;+s6u|:t / ;+j]bgzLn aGb} uPsf]
5 . hgtfn] cfkm\gf] ;+ljwfg n]v]/
gofF /fHo Jo:yf :yfkgf u/L cfkm\gf]
clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{] p2]Zon]
ljutdf hgo' 4 , hgcfGbf] n g,
pTkLl8t hflt / If]qsf hgtfn]
;+3if{ u/] . Tof] rfxgf / ;kgf k"/f
x'g] ePg . a? To;sf] lvnfkdf
hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg / /fHo Joj:yf
ha/h:t yf] k g{ ] if8\ o Gq lj?4
:jt:km' t { hgtfn] cfGbf] n g
ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;'vt]{ af6 ;'? u/]sf]
cfGbf]ng h'Dnf, s}nfnL x'bF } t/fO{lt/
s]Gb|Lt ePsf] 5 . hgtfsf] dfunfO{
s]xL ;+;b\jfbL g]tfn] ;'gs
] f 5}gg\ .
o;n] b]znfO{ b'36{ gflt/ nflu/x]sf]
5.
) jt{ d fg cj:yfdf tkfO{ + s f]
kf6L{ s f] e" l dsf klg vf;}
b] l vPg lg <
ha klxnf] ;+ l jwfg;efsf]
lj36g u/] / gf6lso 9+ u af6
if8\ o Gqk" 0 f{ ?kdf bf] ; | f ]
;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ul/of] /
hgtfn] k|fKt u/]sf pknlAwnfO{
vf]:g] sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] kf6L{n]
o;sf] ;' ? jftb] l v clxn] ; Dd
lg/Gt/ ;+3if{ ul//x]sf] 5 . b]znfO{
of] cj:yfdf k'ofpg] slyt bf];|f]
;+ljwfg;efsf] /fhgLlts l8hfOg
xf] . ToxLcg';f/ kl5Nnf] k6s !^
a'bF ] ;xdlt / hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfgsf]
d:of}bf cfPsf] 5 . o;sf] d'Vo
lhDd]jf/ rf/ bnsf rf/ g]tf x'g\ .
) hgtfn] rf/ bn / /fHosf]
lj?4 ljb|f]x ul//x]sf 5g\,
tkfO{+x?n] To;sf] g]t[Tj ug{
;Sg' ePsf] 5}g lg <
rf/ g] t fsf] hglj/f] w L
xs{tlj?4 hgtfn] u/]sf] ljb|fx] k|lt
xfd|f] kf6L{ ;sf/fTds 5 . hgtfsf]
dfu hfoh 5, cfGbf]ng Gofok"0f{
5 eGg] xfd|f] a'emfO{ 5 . hgtfsf]
dfusf] ;Daf]wg ug{'k5{ eGg] xfd|f]
klg dfu 5 . hgtfn] u/] s f]
cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;xof]u / ;+/If0f
ug{k' 5{ eGg] wf/0ff kf6L{n] cfd?kdf
;fj{hlgs u/]sf] g} 5 .
hgtfsf] of] ljb|fx] n] xfd|f] kf6L{sf]
ljZn]if0f ;xL ;fljt ul/lbPsf] 5 .
slyt bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;ef hgtfsf]
;+ljwfg n]Vg] ;+ljwfg;ef xf]Og /
o;n] hgtfsf] alnbfgLaf6 k|fKt
pknlAw vf]:g]5 eGg] s'/f ;To;fljt
ePsf] 5 . of] ;+ljwfg;efn] ;+ljwfg
xf]Og, 7"nf] ;+s6 lgDTofpg]5 xfdLn]
eg]sf lyof}+ Tof] clxn] ToxL ;flat
eO/x]sf] 5 .
) eGgfn] ;+ l jwfg;ef ;a}
sf] 0 faf6 alx:sf/df k/] s f]

xf] t <
;xL s'/f] ug{'eof] . hgtfn]
hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg;efsf] alx:sf/
u/]sf 5g\ . pTkLl8t hflt, If]q /
ju{ s f] k| l tlwTj ug{ ] bn tyf
;ef;b\x?n] alx:sf/ u/]/ ;8sdf
cfO;s]sf 5g\ . ca tLg bnsf
s]xL bnfnx?sf] dfq ;+ljwfg;efsf]
?kdf /x\of] . tLg bnsf tLg g]tfn]
hglj/f]wL xs{t /f]s]/ hgtfsf
dfusf] ;Daf]wg u/]gg\ eg] dfcf]jfbL
x]/]/ a:g] 5}g . xfdL b]z / hgtf
aaf{ b Ldf k/] s f] x] g { ;Sb} g f} F /
cfGbf]ngnfO{ cufl8 a9fpF5f}F .
hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg lj?4sf] ;+3if{
xf];\ of t /fli6otfsf] cfGbf]ng
cufl8 a9fpg] xfd|f] kf6L{ t xf] lg .
) ;+ljwfg;efleq / ;8sdf
dfcf]jfbLn]
ePsf
cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;du| ?k lbg
g;s] s } n ] clxn] hftLo /
If]qLo ?kdf cfGbf]ng b]vf
k/] s f] 5 . tkfO{ + x ?n]
p7fPsf /fhgLlts d' 2 fsf]
Joj:yfkg ug{ sxL g sxL
r'Sg' ePsf] t xf] lg <
xfdL r' s ] s f] 5} g f} F . slyt
;+ljwf;efleq /x]sf] dfcf]jfbLsf]
s'/f 5f]8f}F . p t hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg
/ k|ltqmflGtsf] dltof/ h:t} ePsf]
5 . hglj/f] w L ;+ l jwfgsf]
d:of}bflj?4 hgtfsf] cfGbf]ngdf
lbglbg} cfGbf]ngsf/L / ;'/IffsdL{sf]
d[To' ePsf] /x]sf] 5 . ;of}s
F f] ;+Vofdf
3fOt] eO/x]sf 5g\ . o;df tLg
bnsf g] t fx? lhDd] j f/ 5g\ .
ljutsf cfGbf]ngdf hgtfsf] lj?4
sfFu|]; / Pdfn]n] xTof cft+s
dRrfpg ;'/IffsdL{nfO{ kl/rfng
uy{] . of] kl5Nnf] xTof, cft+s
dRrfpg] v]ndf Pdfcf]jfbL klg
;xefuL eof] . To;sf] s'/f 5f]8f}F .
hxfF;Dd xfd|f] kf6L{sf] s'/f xf] .
clxn]sf] hgtfsf] cfGbf]ng clwsf/
k|flKtsf] nflu :jt:km't{ ?kdf
eO/x] s f] 5 . hgo' 4 sf afF s L
sfo{ e f/nfO{ k" / f ug{ ;du|
cfGbf]ngnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg xfd|f]
kf6L{ nflu/x]sf] 5 .
) ;+ l jwfg;efn ] t o:tf ]
;d:o f lg DTofof ] eg ]
tkfO{ + x ?n] eGb} cfPsf]
;j{ k IfLo /fhgLlts ;efn]
s;/L lgsf; lbg ;S5 <
hgtfsf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;Daf]wg
u/L b]znfO{ lgsf; lbg] xf] eg] of]
;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36g / clwsf/
;DkGg /fhgLlts ;efsf] u7g
ul/g'k5{ . of] ;+ljwfg ;efn] t
;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjdf efu lnPsf
/ clxn] ToxfFleq /x]sf] /fhgLlt
kf6L{ s f ljrf/ / clwsf/nfO{
;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]g . To;}sf] kl/0ffd
xf] , Pskl5 csf{ ] slyt
;+ljwfg;efaf6 /fhgLlts kf6L{ jf
zlQmsf] alx{ u dg . slyt

b]znfO{ of] cj:yfdf k'ofpg] slyt bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;efsf] /fhgLlts l8hfOg xf] . ToxLcg';f/
kl5Nnf] k6s !^ a'b] ;xdlt / hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfgsf] d:of}bf cfPsf] 5 . o;sf] d'Vo lhDd]jf/
rf/ bnsf rf/ g]tf x'g\ .
lxhf] Pshgfsf] d'Ldf /fHo ;Qf lyof] / clxn] tLghgfsf] agfpg vf]Hbf hgtfn] ljb|fx]
ug{k' /]sf] xf] . of] s'/f tLghgf dfG5] dx;'; gubf{;Dd ;d:of ;dfwfg x'bF g
} .
of] ;+ljwfg;efn] hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg lbFbg} eGb} cfPsf] s'/f clxn] cfP/ k'li6 x'bF 5} . clxn] hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg
Nofpg] s;/t eO/x]sf] 5 . pgLx?n] cfkm\gf] vf8n cfkm}F vGb}5g\ . ca hgtfn] k'g{ dfq afFsL 5 .
slyt bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;ef hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg n]Vg] ;+ljwfg;ef xf]Og / o;n] hgtfsf] alnbfgLaf6
k|fKt pknlAw vf]:g]5 eGg] s'/f ;To;fljt ePsf] 5 . of] ;+ljwfg;efn] ;+ljwfg xf]Og, 7"nf] ;+s6
lgDTofpg]5 xfdLn] eg]sf lyof}+ Tof] clxn] ToxL ;flat eO/x]sf] 5 .

k|sf08, k|jQmf g]skf dfcf]jfbL


;+ljwfg;ef s]xL bnfnx?sf] ;Qf
df]xnfO{ k"/f ug{] ynf]sf] ?k ePkl5
o;sf] lj36gsf] ljsNk 5}g .
) ;a} kIfsf] ;xeflutfdf
/fHosf] k'g;{+/rgf ug{] s'g}
lgsfo g/x] k l5 ;j{ k IfLo
/fhgLlts ;efsf] dxTj t
emg\ a9]/ cfPsf] 5 . t/,
clxn] h;/L ;8sdf gf/f
nfu] s f 5g\ , To;nfO{ x] b f{
eGg ;lhnf] eP klg Ps}
7fpFdf a;]/ ;a}sf dfu k"/f
ug{ t ufx|f] xf]nf lg <
/fli6o /fhgLlts ;efn] hgtf
/ ;' / IffsdL{ a Lr em8ksf]
cj:yfnfO{ lgoGq0f u5{ . cv08 /
v08nufot ;fDk| b flos b+ u f
hgtfn] e8\sfPsf] xf]Og . of] t rf/
bnsf g]tfn] cfkm\gf] ;Qf :jfy{ k"/f
ug{ u/]sf x'g . cv08 ;'b"/klZrd
hgtfnfO{ rflxPsf] xf]Og . of] t
z]/axfb'/ b]pjf, eLd /fjnx?nfO{
rflxPsf] xf] . hgtfsf] cfj/0f
lnOPsf] dfq xf] . To;}u/L emfkf /
df]/ cf]nL / l;6f}nfhLnfO{ rflxPsf]
xf] .
PsfTds, s]Gb|Ls[t ;fdGtL
/fHo Joj:yfn] lgb{l] zt u/]sf] /fHo
;+/rgfsf] ?kfGt/0f / kl/jt{g
ug{k' 5{ eGg] s'/f t hgo'4n] :yflkt
u/]sf] dfGotf xf] . klxnf] s'/f ;'uf}nL
;GwLb]lv otf g]kfn h;/L k/flwg
agfOof], o;af6 d'Qm ug{k' 5{ eGg]
xf] / bf];f| ,] g]kfnL hgtfsf] hgjfbL
clwsf/ ;' l glZrt ug' { k 5{ .
cfGtl/s /fli6 o tfnfO{ alnof]
agfpg hgtfsf] hgjfbsf]
;'lglZrttf x'gk' 5{, If]qLo ?kdf b]vf
k/]sf] /fli6otfnfO{ :joQtfsf]
clwsf/ lbg'k5{ eGg] s'/f dfcf]jfbLn]
hgo'4df eg]sf] xf] . of] clwsf/
rf/ bnsf g]tfn] lbg'kb{}g < of]
clwsf/ lbPsf] eP t hgtf
;8sdf cfpg] g} lyPgg\ . d'le/
bnfnx?sf] /fHo;Qf agfpg]
dfcf]jfbLn] eg]sf] xf]Og . /fHo;Qf
pTkLl8t hflt / If]qsf hgtfsf]
x'g] eg]/ hgo'4 / hgcfGbf]ng
ePsf] lyof], Tof] ePg . g]kfnL
hgtfn] rfx]sf] hgjfbL /fHo ;Qf
xf] . ;+ljwfgdfkm{t\ hgjfbL /fHo
;QfnfO{ ;'lglZrt gubf{ ;d:of
cfPsf] xf] . of] d:of}bfcg';f/
g]kfnsf] /fHo;Qf t hgtfsf] geP/
s]xL bnfnx?sf] dfq x'Fb}5 .
lxhf] Pshgfsf] d'Ldf /fHo
;Qf lyof] / clxn] tLghgfsf]
agfpg vf] H bf hgtfn] ljb| f ] x
ug{k' /]sf] xf] . of] s'/f tLghgf dfG5]
dx;'; gubf{;Dd ;d:of ;dfwfg
x'bF g} .
) /fHo;Qf
tkfO { + x ?sf]
?sf ]
lgoGq0fdf 5} g , clxn] s }
cj:yfdf
g ] k fndf
c f T d l g 0 f { o s f ]
clwsf/;lxtsf] :jfoQ k|b]z

agfp F b f ef] l n ;d:of


cfpFb}g eg]/ s;/L Uof/]06L
ug{ ;lsG5 <
ljutsf] /fHo;Qf kl/jt{g ug{]
/ hgtfsf] /fHo;Qf :yfkgf ug{]
;xdltkl5 xfdLn] ;+;b\jfbL;Fu
;xsfo{ u/]sf] xf}F . ;d:of cfpg
;S5g\, ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug{] t
/fHo ;~rfnsx?sf] xf] lg .
hgtfnfO{ clwsf/ glbFbf ;d:of
cfpFb}g eGg] klg 5}g . cfGtl/s
/fli6otf alnof] agfOof] / hgtfnfO{
clwsf/ lbPdf ;d:of cfpFb}g .
cfpg] ;d:ofnfO{ /fhgLlts kf6L{n]
;dfwfg ug{k' 5{ .
) tkfO{ + s f] kf6L{ klxrfgsf]
lj?4df 5 elgFb} 5, o;df
kf6L{sf] wf/0ff s] 5 <
of] cf/f]k xfdLnfO{ cln klxn}af6}
nufPsf] cf/f]k xf] . ls/0fhL;Fusf]
;+3if{sf] a]nfdf klg xfdLnfO{ of]
cf/f]k nufOPsf] lyof] / clxn] klg
5 . of] cf/f]k if8\oGqk"0f{ / k"jf{ux| L
5, o;df ;Totf 5}g . g]kfnsf] /fHo
pTkLl8t ju{sf] x'g'k5{ . pTkLl8t
ju{sf] g]t[Tj ePsf] /fHo;Qfdf
cfGtl/s /fli6otfsf] ;'lglZrttf

/ ;fdflhs pTkL8gsf] cGTo


x'g' k' 5{ . To;sf] nflu dhb'/, ls;fg,
/fli6o pBf]uklt Joj;foLsf] ju2L{o
b[ l i6n] /fHo;Qf x' g ' k 5{ . Tof]
;QfcGtu{t cfGtl/s pTkL8gdf
k/]sf] /fli6otfsf] :jfwLgtfsf] nflu
/ If]qLo ?kdf pTkL8gdf k/]sf]
hgtfsf] nflu :jfoQtfsf]
;' l glZrttf x' g ' k 5{ , dlxnf /
blntsf] nflu ljz]if clwsf/sf]
;'lglZrttf x'gk' 5{ . ;a} pTkL8gdf
k/]sf] hgtfnfO{ pTkL8gaf6 d'Qm
ug{k' 5{ eGg] xfd|f] kf6L{sf] :ki6 wf/0ff
xf] .
) tkfO{+sf] kf6L{leq klg ljjfb
5 eGg] s'
s ' / f k | r f/df
cfO/x]sf] 5 vf; s] xf] <
s] x L ;+ r f/dfWoddf xfd| f ]
kf6L{af/] xf:of:kb ;dfrf/ cfPsf
5g\ . clxn] xfd|f] kf6L{ /fli6o
/fhgLltdf ljrf/, /fhgLlts, ;+3if{,
qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ lgdf{0f / Pstf,
/fli6o :jfwLgtf / hghLljsfsf
d'2f p7fpg] ;a} b[li6n] Pskl5 csf{]
zlQmzfnL / Pstfa4 eP/ cfPsf]
5 . d' l Qm / :jfwLgtf rfxg]
cfdhgtfsf] cfzf / e/f];fsf] s]Gb|

ag] s f] 5 . o;af6 hn] s f


;fd|fHojfbL lj:tf/jfbL / pgsf
g] k fnL bnfnx? / dfcf] j fbL
cfGbf]ngaf6 knfog ePsf] tTjx?n]
xfd|f] kf6L{ lj?4 u/]sf] if8\oGqafx]s
c? s]xL xf]Og . xfd|f] kf6L{sf]
kxnsb\dL / hgtfdf a9\b} uPsf]
nf] s lk| o ftfnfO{ b] v ] / 8/fPsf]
k|ltqmofjfbL bnfnx?n] u/]sf] k|rf/
dfq xf] . o;sf] kl5 gnfUg ;Dk"0f{
Gofok|d] L hgtf / sfo{stfnfO{ cfu|x
ub{5f}F .
) tkfO{ + x ?n] hlt lj/f] w u/]
klg oxL ;+ l jwfg;efaf6
;+ljwfg t cfpg] g} eof] .
ca s] ug{'x'G5 <
of] ;+ l jwfg;efn] hgtfsf]
;+ljwfg lbFbg} eGb} cfPsf] s'/f clxn]
cfP/ k'li6 x'Fb}5 . clxn] hglj/f]wL
;+ljwfg Nofpg] s;/t eO/x]sf] 5 .
pgLx?n] cfkm\ g f] vf8n cfkm} F
vGb}5g\ . ca hgtfn] k'g{ dfq afFsL
5 . hgtfn] hgo'4, hgcfGbf]ng
/ ljleGg ;dodf u/]sf] ljb|f]xsf]
dd{ / efjgfcg';f/ dfcf]jfbLsf]
g]t[Tjdf ;+ljwfg hf/L ug{'k5{ eGg]
dfu hgtfn] u/]sf 5g\ .

hgtfn] cfkm\gf] ;+ljwfg n]v]/ gofF /fHo Jo:yf :yfkgf u/L cfkm\gf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt
ug{] p2]Zon] ljutdf hgo'4, hgcfGbf]ng, pTkLl8t hflt / If]qsf hgtfn] ;+3if{ u/] .
Tof] rfxgf / ;kgf k"/f x'g] ePg . a? To;sf] lvnfkdf hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg / /fHo
Joj:yf ha/h:t yf]kg{] if8\oGq lj?4 :jt:km't{ hgtfn] cfGbf]ng ul//x]sf 5g\ .
;'v{]taf6 ;'? u/]sf] cfGbf]ng h'Dnf, s}nfnL x'Fb} t/fO{lt/ s]Gb|Lt ePsf] 5 . hgtfsf]
dfunfO{ s]xL ;+;b\jfbL g]tfn] ;'g]sf 5}gg\ . o;n] b]znfO{ b'3{6gflt/ nflu/x]sf] 5 .
)))))
hgtfn] hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg;efsf] alx:sf/ u/]sf 5g\ . pTkLl8t hflt, If]q / ju{sf]
k|ltlwTj ug{] bn tyf ;ef;b\x?n] alx:sf/ u/]/ ;8sdf cfO;s]sf 5g\ . ca
tLg bnsf s]xL bnfnx?sf] dfq ;+ljwfg;efsf] ?kdf /x\of] . tLg bnsf tLg
g]tfn] hglj/f]wL xs{t /f]s/] hgtfsf dfusf] ;Daf]wg u/]gg\ eg] dfcf]jfbL x]//] a:g]
5}g . xfdL b]z / hgtf aaf{bLdf k/]sf] x]g{ ;Sb}gf}F / cfGbf]ngnfO{ cufl8 a9fpF5f}F .
hglj/f]wL ;+ljwfg lj?4sf] ;+3if{ xf];\ of t /fli6otfsf] cfGbf]ng cufl8 a9fpg] xfd|f]
kf6L{ t xf] lg .
))))
xfd|f] kf6L{ /fli6o /fhgLltdf ljrf/, /fhgLlts, ;+3if{, qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ lgdf{0f / Pstf, /fli6o
:jfwLgtf / hghLljsfsf d'2f p7fpg] ;a} b[li6n] Pskl5 csf{] zlQmzfnL / Pstfa4 eP/ cfPsf]
5 . d'lQm / :jfwLgtf rfxg] cfdhgtfsf] cfzf / e/f];fsf] s]Gb| ag]sf] 5 . o;af6 hn]sf
;fd|fHojfbL lj:tf/jfbL / pgsf g]kfnL bnfnx? / dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngaf6 knfog ePsf]
tTjx?n] xfd|f] kf6L{ lj?4 u/]sf] if8\oGqafx]s c? s]xL xf]Og . xfd|f] kf6L{sf] kxnsb\dL / hgtfdf
a9\b} uPsf] nf]slk|oftfnfO{ b]v/] 8/fPsf] k|ltqmofjfbL bnfnx?n] u/]sf] k|rf/ dfq xf] .
)))
g]kfnsf] /fHo pTkLl8t ju{sf] x'gk' 5{ . pTkLl8t ju{sf] g]tT[ j ePsf] /fHo;Qfdf cfGtl/s
' k' 5{ . To;sf] nflu dhb'/, ls;fg,
/fli6otfsf] ;'lglZrttf / ;fdflhs pTkL8gsf] cGTo x'g
/fli6o pBf]uklt Joj;foLsf] ju2L{o b[li6n] /fHo;Qf x'gk' 5{ . Tof] ;QfcGtu{t cfGtl/s
pTkL8gdf k/]sf] /fli6otfsf] :jfwLgtfsf] nflu / If]qLo ?kdf pTkL8gdf k/]sf] hgtfsf] nflu
:jfoQtfsf] ;'lglZrttf x'gk' 5{, dlxnf / blntsf] nflu ljz]if clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf x'gk' 5{ .
;a} pTkL8gdf k/]sf] hgtfnfO{ pTkL8gaf6 d'Qm ug{k' 5{ eGg] xfd|f] kf6L{sf] :ki6 wf/0ff xf] .
))))))
cv08 / v08nufot ;fDk|bflos b+uf hgtfn] e8\sfPsf] xf]Og . of] t rf/ bnsf
g]tfn] cfkm\gf] ;Qf :jfy{ k"/f ug{ u/]sf x'g . cv08 ;'b/" klZrd hgtfnfO{ rflxPsf]
xf]Og . of] t z]/axfb'/ b]pjf, eLd /fjnx?nfO{ rflxPsf] xf] . hgtfsf] cfj/0f lnOPsf]
dfq xf] . To;}u/L emfkf / df]/ cf]nL / l;6f}nfhLnfO{ rflxPsf] xf] .

@)&@ ;fn ebf} @& ut] cfOtaf/

hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 a9L b'Mv s;n] kfp5 <


lan u]6\;

s]xL jif{ cl3 d]lnG8f / d


s[ i fsxsf] Ps ;d" x sf ;fy
ef/tsf] laxf/df wfgv]tLsf] af/]df
5f]6f] cWoog ug{ laxf/ k'us
] f lyof}F .
ef/tLo o; /fHo d'ns
' e/s} af9Ln]
a9L ;tfpg] If]q dflgFbf]/x]5 . ToxfFsf
k|foM s[ifsx cToGt} ul/a /
kl/jf/ kfngkf]if0f ug{ cfk"mn] kmnfpg]
wfgd} k|To]s jif{ e/ kg{k' g{] /x]5 .
dg;'gL jiff{;uF } ToxfF ;a} gbLdf af9L
cfpg] / To; af9Ln] wfgv] t
aufpgfn] afnLgfnL ;a} gi6 x'g]
u/]sf] kfOof] . t/ s[ifsx cfkm\gf]
v]taf/Ldf af9L k:b}g sL eGg] cfzn]
x/]s jif{ wfg /f]Kg] xf]8afhL g} ubf{
/x]5g\ . o;/L pgLx k|foh;f] xfl/g]
h'jf v]Ng afWo x'Fbf /x]5g\ .
af9Ln] ;tfPkl5, afnLgfnL gi6
kf/]kl5 cfk"mnfO{{ cg'sn
' x'g] sfdsf]
vf]hLdf ef}tfl/Fb} b]zsf cGoqsf 7"nf
;x/xdf knfog x'gk' g{] pgLxsf]
afWotf /x]5 . csf{] jif{ pgLx
cfkm\g} yftynf]df kmls{g] ubf{/x]5g\ .
t/, klxnf 5f]8]sf]eGbf klg cem}
ul/aL af]s]/, wfg /f]Kg] vr{;Dd
h] g t] g h' 6 fP/ . ;+ ; f/sf
s[ i fsxdWo] cToGt ul/a
s[ifsxsf] ;d"x o:tf] em'nleq a:g
afWo 5, h;leq nfdv'] ;lhn} k;L
/fte/L 6f]S5 t/ pgLx ToxL
em'nleq ;'Tg afWo 5g\ . xfd|f] e|d0fn]
:d/0f u/fPsf] ultnf] kf7 lyof] Tof] .
tL s[ifsx;Fu pGgt aLpaLhg,
pj{/ dn, plrt l;FrfO k|0ffnL /
cGo s[ i fsd} q L k| l jlw tyf

pks/0fxdf ;lhnf] kx'Fr ePsf]


xfdLn] kfPgf} . ha ls ;+;f/sf cGo
ljsl;t d'ns
' sf s[ifsn] oL Go"gtd
;'ljwf k|fKt u/]s} x'G5g\ . o;sf
cltl/Qm, ToxfF afnL ladfsf] Joj:yf
gx'gfn] h] hlt gf]S;fg k/] klg
r'krfk ;xg' kg{] ;d]t afWotf
/x]5 . la8Dagf of] 5 ls clgsfn,
af9L, /f]u jf v8]/L jf o:t} ;fwf/0f
k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] Pp6f ;fgf] b'ef{Uon]
cfqmd0f ubf{ klg tL s[ifsxnfO{{
yk ul/aL / ef]sd/L]sf] vf8nlt/
3r]6\g kof{Kt xF'bf] /x]5 .
pk/L dfly y'k/L eh]h:t} xfn
cfP/ ljZjAofkL hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf]
/f]un] ;d]t pgLxsf] hLjgdf Ps
gofF hf]lvdsf] afSnf] kq ylkPsf]
xfdLn] kfof}F . s]xL jif{bl] v otf lbgx'F
h;f] w/tLsf] tfkdfgdf nuftf/ j[l4
eO/xgfn] ef/th:tf pi0f k|b]zLo
If]qn] cfufdL s]xL bzsd} s[lif /
afnLgfnL pTkfbgdf 7"nf] x|f; Aoxf]g]{
nueu lglZrt 5 . Go'gj[li6 jf
cltj[li6 b'ad} f afnLgfnL /fd|/L pd|g
jf km:6fpg ;Sb}g . pRr tfkdfg
j[l4;Fu} sL/fkm6\of|fsf] klg s8f
k|sf]k ;'? eO{ ltgn] afnLgfnLnfO{{
yk gi6 kfl/lbG5g\ . o; k|sf/sf]
;d:of wgL /fi6df klg gx'g] xf]Og .
hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] ljZjsf ;a}
s[ifsxnfO{{ klg cjZo ;dfg k|efj
kf5{ t/ pgLx;Fu hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf
/ Joj:yfkg ug{] cfjZos pks/0f
tyf afXo e/y]u klg pknAw x'G5 .
;+;f/sf ul/a s[ifsxnfO{{ x/]s
laxfg l/Qf] xft cfcfkm\ g f
v]taf/Ldf k:g' kb{5 . ltg} s[ifsx
hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] lzsf/ aGb5g\
/ cToGt si6s/ hLjgofkg ug{
afWo x'G5g\ . u/La s[ifs kl/jf/nfO{{
g} hnjfo' kl/jt{g?kL cfl/ufnn]
g/fd|/L cem} lrNg] k|foM lglZrt g}
5 . t;y{ clxn] g} To:tf s[ifsnfO{{
;bo ;xof] u ug{ / a9\ b f]
hg;+VofnfO{{ kof{Kt x'g] vfBfGg

h'6fpgtkm{ ;+;f/sf a'l4hLjLsf] Wofg


hfg'kb{5 .
;g\ @)%) sf] cGTo;Dd
ljZjnfO{{ rflxg] vfBfGgsf] dfu
xfnsf] eGbf ^) k|ltztn] a9\g]
cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . afnL pTkfbgdf
x|f; cfpg' eg]s} ljZjAofkL vfB
cfk"lt{ k|0ffnLdf c;Gt'ng cfpg' xf] .
o;af6 ef] s d/Lsf] kl/df0fdf
ck|Toflzt j[l4 x'g uO{ ul/aL pk/
ljZjn] ljutsf cfwf ztfAbL otf
xf;Ln u/]sf] cToflws ljhonfO{{
If0fe/d} tx;gx; kf/L lbg] kIfnfO{{
gsfg{ ldNb}g . d cfzfjfbL 5',
xfdLn] clxn]b]lv g} s]xL 7f]; sfo{
u/]df, s]xL of]ubfg lbPdf hnjfo'
kl/jt{gsf] b'ik|efjaf6 k[YjLnfO{{
hf]ufpg ;lsG5 / w/tLdf vfBfGg
;6 cfpg] 5}g .
o;sf nflu k|ydtM ;a} b]zsf
zf;s jf ;/sf/xn] gjLg :jR5
pmhf{ pTkfbg / k/LIf0f jf k|of]udf
nufgL a9fpg zL3| sbd rfNg'
cfjZos 5 . o;n] gjLg pmhf{n]
xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gnfO{{ Go"gLs/0f
ug{]5 / ;fy;fy} ljZj tfkdfg
j[l4nfO{{ klg lgoGq0f ug{5
] . oxfFg/]
ljrf/0fLo kIf s] 5 eg] ljZj
tfkdfgsf] lg/Gt/ j[l4af6 ljZjnfO{{
kg{] b'ik|efj /f]Sg xfdLn] lanDa u/L
;Sof]F} eGg] tYo g} w|j' ;To xf] /
o;nfO{ ;a}n] :jLsf/ jf /fd|/L dgg
ug{k' 5{ . dflglnpF, csf{] xKtf ljZjdf
:jR5 / ;'ne pmhf{sf] ;|f]t kQf
nfUof] /] t/ w] / } aif{ cl3b] l v
k]6f l] nod jf cGo OGwg k|of]u u/L
cyfx ;'v ;'ljwf pkef]uub{} cfPsf]
;+:sf/n] ulx/f] h/f ufl8;s]sf]
;dfh?kL bfgjnfO{{ To; :jR5
pmhf{n] lj:yfkg ug{ clt nfdf] ;do
nfUg] kSsf 5 .
o;}sf/0f klg ul/a s[ifsju{nfO{{
rfx]/ klg ;boL ;xof]u ug{ ;lhnf]
5}g . ul/a s[ifs ju{sf pTyfgsf
nflu rflxg] w]/h
} ;f] pks/0f jf ;fwg

ljns'n cfwf/e"t 5g\ . pbfx/0ffy{


a9L vfBfGg pTkfbg cfo ;|ft] df
j[l4sf nflu s[lifIf]q ;DalGwt
cfly{ s nufgLdf j[ l 4 pGgt
aLpaLhgsf] ;a{;n
' etf, u'0f:tl/o
dnvfbsf] ;a{;'netf, s[lifhGo
tflndsf] Joj:yf / cfkm\gf] pTkfbg
plrt d"Nodf ;lhn};uF a]rlavg
ug{ kfOg] ahf/ Joj:yfkg OToflbn]
g} k|dv
' :yfg cf]u6]sf 5g\ . o;
cltl/Qm tTsfn} k"lt{ gu/L gx'g]
cfjZostf eg]sf] kl/jt{gzLn
hnjfo'sf] b'ik|efjaf6 hf]ufpg]
k|ljlw;Fu ;fIffTsf/ x'g' jf cfTd;ft\
ug{' xf] .
o;} qmddf, u]6\; kmfpG8];g
gfds Ps cd]l/sL ;+:yf / o;sf
;fem]bf/xn] s[ifsxsf lxtsf
nflu y'k|} ;xsfo{ ub{} cfPsf 5g\ .
o; ;+:yfn] cgfj[li6 jf cltj[li6 af9Lsf] k|efj_ df ;d]t /fd|/L
pTkfbg lbg] k|sl[ tsf gjLg gZnsf,
ljleGg yl/sf wfg afnLsf
aLpaLhgsf] ljsf; u/]sf] 5 .
laxf/df hlt s[ifsxnfO{{ d}n] e]6s
] f]
lyPF, tLdWo] clwsf+z s[ifsxn] xfn
af9Lsf] k|sf]k ;xg;Sg] Ifdtfo'Qm wfg
afnL nufpg] u5{G . :So'af pkgfd
lbOPsf] o; wfgsf] af]6nfO{{ af9Ln]
l;ltldtL aufpg ;Sb}g / of] wfgsf]
af]6 b'O{ xKtf;Dd kfgL d'lGt/ /xg'
k/] klg s'lxbFg} / db{g} klg .
o:tf] wfgsf] aLpaf6 k|zGg /
cfzfjfbL /x]sf laxf/sf s[ifsx
d"nafnL nufpg] df};d -c;f/
;fpgb]lv sflQsdl\;/;Dd_ afx]s
cGo k|lts"n df};ddf klg ;f] wfgsf]
v]tL ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]df k|of; ug{
nfnflot Yj:5g\ . xfd|f] ;+:yfn]
cgfj[li6, cltj[li6, clt708L, ?vf]
df6f] /x]sf] -t'ngfTds ?kn] clDno
jf clt na0f ldl>t_ cj:yfnfO{{
klg ;lhn} krfP/ k"/f afnL pTkfbg
lbg] vfnsf ljleGg lsl;dsf wfgsf]
aLp, aLhgsf] ljsf; ug{ ;kmntf
kfPsf]df dnfO{{ lslGrt uf}/jsf]
cg'e"lt e} /x]sf] 5 . /f;;

sf] x'g\ z]S;lko/ <

sf7df8f}F . sfd ug{df dxfg\ ag,


s'/feGbf a9L sfd u/ oL egfO /fVg]
JolQmTj x'g\ c+uh
]| L ;flxTosf pHHjn
gIfq ljlnod z]S;lko/ . ljZj
;flxTosf] Oltxf;df pTs[i6 gf6sx?
/rgf u/]/ cfkm\gf] k[ys klxrfg agfpg
;kmn z]S;lko/sf] hLjgofqf ;+3if{ g}
;+3if{n] el/Psf] 5 . j8{ ckm Oeg
pkgfdaf6 lje" l ift z] S ;lko/
dfgjhLjgnfO{{ ;hLj tl/sfn] lrq0f
ug{ ;Sg] k|ltefzfnL ;flxTosf/ x'g\ .
gf6s / sljtf ljwfnfO{{ ;zQm ?kdf
cufl8 a9fpg] k|ltefsf wgL ljlnod
z]S;lko/sf] hGd ;g\ !%^$ df
:6f6kmf{8] cg Pegdf ePsf] lyof] . pgsf]
hGd o:tf] kl/jf/df ePsf] lyof], h'g
kl/jf/;Fu /f]u, ef]s, cefj l;jfo s]xL
lyPg . pgsf rf/ lbbLalxgL / tLg
bfh'efO lyP . pgn] k|f/lDes lzIff
:yfgLo u|fd/ :s'naf6 k|fKt u/] . s8f
ldlxg]t ubf{ klg hLjgsf] Ps 5fs
6fg{ d'l:sn pgsf] kl/jf/n] pgnfO{{
k|f/lDes lzIffeGbf dfly k9fpg
;s]gg\ . cfkm\gf] k9fOnfO{{ aLr}df 5f8]/
lktfsf] Jofkf/df ;xof]uLsf]] e"ldsf lgjf{x
ug{ yfn] . pgn] kl/jf/sf] ;d:of 6fg{
cfkm\g} l5d]sLsf] d[usf] aRrf;d]t rf]/] .
pgn] ;g\ !%*@ df ls;fgsL 5f]/L pgL
xfyj];uF ljjfx u/] . t/, pgL ;'Gb/tf
/ ljtfsf] wgL PgL a]6nL;Fu k|d] uy{] .
;g\ !%** df pgL cfkm\gf] hGde"ld
5f8]/ sd{sf] vf]hLdf nG8g uP . 1fgsf
ef]sf z]S;lko/ cfk"mn] w]/} cWoog ug{
g;s]sf]df ;fx|} b'Mv dfGy] . gf6sdf
z]S;lko/sf] cufw ?lr lyof] . pgL

;'?sf] cj:yfdf lyP6/df gf6s x]g{


cfpg]sf] 3f]8fsf] x]/rfx ug{] sfd uy{]
eg] lj:tf/} gf6sdf ;;fgf e"ldsf
lgjf{x ug{ yfn] . x/]s sfddf ulx/f]

cle?lr lnP/ dfq sfd ug{] afgLsf


sf/0f To; a]nfdf k|Voft gf6ssf/
df/nf]jL pgsf] k|ltefaf6 k|efljt lyP .
df/nf]jL tL JolQm x'g,\ h;n]
z]S;lko/leq n'ss
] f] k|ltefnfO{{ phfu/
u/L ljZj k|Voft gf6ssf/ aGg ;xof]u
u/] . pgL;Fusf] ;xsfo{df z]S;lko/n]

cfk"mleq blaP/ /x]sf] l;h{gfTds


IfdtfnfO{{ k|:km'6g ug{] df}s kfP .
df/nf]jLsf] k|/] 0ffaf6 pgn] gf6s / sljtf
n]Vg yfn] . hLjg Pp6f ultzLn 5fofF

xf] eGg] ljrf/ /fVg] z]S;lko/nfO{{ PSnf]


5f8]/ df/nf]jLn] ;g\ !(%# df o;
;+;f/af6 labf lnP .
;]S;lko/n] dflg;n] x/]s b'Mv si6
/ cK7\of/f] df]8x?df cf:yf Pj+
ljZjf;sf] lbof]nfO{{ cljrlnt eP/
k|HHjlnt /flv/fVg'k5{ eGg] dfGotfdf

b[9 eP/ cfkm\gf] ;flxlTos ofqfnfO{{


klxn]sf] eGbf klg cem dha't ?kdf
cufl8 a9fP . pgn] ;j{ky| d ;g\
!%(# df e]g; Pg P8f]lgs gfds
sljtf l;h{gf u/]/ cfkm\gf] ;flxlts
ofqf ;'? u/]sf lyP . To;kl5 ;g\
!%($ df b ofk ckm n;/; gfds
csf{] sljtf k|sflzt u/] . pgsf
sljtfdf dfgjtfjfbL efjgf,
:jR5Gbtfsf] ememNsf], k|d] sf] dxTj
/ dfgj hLjgsf] ;'Gb/ lrq0f kfOG5 .
gf6ssf] t'ngfdf pgn] sljtf ljwfdf
yf]/} dfq snd rnfPsf 5g\ .
z]S;lko/ cfkm\gf] sljtf l;h{gfdf
dfgjhLjgsf ;'Gb/ kIfnfO{{ snfTds
?kdf aflx/ Nofpg ;kmn ePsf 5g\ .
pgn] ;g\ !%($ df nG8gsf] k|l;4
gf6s sDkgL r]Dj/NofG8 gf6\o
sDkgLdf egf{ eP/ gf6sdf cleofg
ug{] / n]vssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{]{ sfd
u/] . c;kmntfaf6 slt klg ljrlnt
geO lg/Gt/ ?kdf gf6\o n]vgdfkm{t\
gf6\o cg'/f]uL nG8gaf;Lsf] la:tf/} dg
lhTg ;kmn eP . pgsf] gf6\o ofqfnfO{{
rf/ vG8df ljefhg u/]/ cWoog ug{
;lsG5 . ljZj gf6\o au}r
F fnfO{{ ;'Gb/
k"mnx?dfkmt{ ;'zf]let ub{} cfkm\gf] If]qaf6
cljid/0fLo of]ubfg u/]sf k|ltefzfnL
gf6ssf/ ljlnod z]S;lko/n] ;g\ !^!^
clk|n @# df o; ;+;f/af6 labf lnP .
cfh pgL xfdLdfem geP klg ljZj
;flxTonfO{{ pRr :yfgdf k'ofpg u/]sf]
of]ubfgsf sf/0f dfgj;Eotfsf]
Oltxf;df pgsf] gfd :j0f{If/n] n]lvPsf]
5 . Ph]G;L

;f]Wg gx'g] k|Zgx


sf7df8f}F . xfd|f cufl8 To:tf y'k}| k|Zgx x'G5g\ h;nfO{ xfdL ;'Gbf
;'Gbf x}/fg eO;s]sf x'G5f}F . cem vf;df s] 5 eg] o:tf x}/fg x'g]
k|Zgx xfdLn] cfkmGtaf6 g} a9L ;'Gg] u5f{}F . cfpg'xf];\, yfxf kfcf}F
To:tf k|Zgx
!_ glthf s:tf] eof] <
sf] xf]nf, h;nfO{ glthfsf] af/]df 8/ gnfuf];\ t/ cfkmGtnfO{ of]
s'/fn] s] km/s kf5{ / < pgLx 3/df cfpFbf glthfsf] af/]df gfgfy/L
k|Zgx ;f]Wg] ub{5g\ . b'ef{Uon] olb tkfO{s
+ f] glthf g/fd|f] cfPsf] 5 eg]
pgLxsf] Jo+ujf0f ;xg d'l:sn x'g] ub{5 .
@_ ltd| f ] tf} n a9] s f] xf] <
cfk"mnfO{ df]6f] eg]sf] s;nfO{ kf] dgknf{ / < o;f] x'bF fx'bF } sf]xL cfkmGtx
k6sk6s o:tf] k|Zg ug{] ub{5g\ . x'g ;S5, s;}n] tkfO{s
+ f] ;fFRr} g}
lrGtf ul//xg' ePsf] xf]nf t/ w]/}h;f] cfkmGtx tkfO{+sf] cg'xf/df
tgfj ePsf] x]g{ kfpFbf cfglGbt dfG5g\ . ca olb tkfO{+n] s;}nfO{
tkfO{+sf] tf}n a9]sf] xf] eg]/ k|Zg u5{ eg] tkfO{+n] o;sf] hjfkmdf xfdL
x'g] vfg] 3/sf] ;b:o xf}F eGb} xfF;]/ hjfkm lbg'xf]nf .
#_ hflu/ kfPsf] 5} g f} + <
olb tkfO{n
+ ] hflu/ vfg'ePsf] 5}g / hflu/ vf]Hb} x'gx' G' 5 eg] tkfO{s
+ f]
cfkmGt of] s'/fdf a9L tgfjdf ePsf] b]lvG5g\ . tkfO{+sf] hflu/sf]
l:yltsf] af/]df ;f]wk'5 ug{ pgLx ;b}j Jo:t x'g] ub{5g\ . o:tf]
cj:yfdf tkfO{+n] pgLxsf] nflu g} sdfpg]h:tf] b]lvG5 . To;sf/0f
ca hlta]nf tkfO{+nfO{ s;}n] hflu/sf] af/]df ;f]w]df tkfO{+ of] eGgsf]
nflu tof/ x'g'xf];\ ls klxnf] l66 tkfO{+nfO{ g} lbg]5' .
$_ ;fyLxaf6 lsg s] x L l;Sb} g f} <
sf]xL cfkmGtxn] tkfO{n
+ fO{ tkfO{s
+ f] ;fyLx;Fu klg t'ngf ug{ kl5
kb{}gg\ . pgLxsf nflu tkfO{+ hlxn] klg Ps d'2f aGg' x'g]5 h;sf]
t'ngf pgLx tkfO{+sf] ;kmn ;fyLx;Fu ug{] ub{5g\ / tkfO{+n] klg
cfkm\gf] ;fyLaf6 s]lx l;Sg'kg{] eGb} ;'gfpg] ub{5g\ .
%_ k} ; f pwf/f] kfpg ;lsG5 <
k};f / ;DaGw slxn] klg ldNg' x'Fb}g . k};fsf] sf/0fn] ;DaGwdf
v6k6 cfpg] ub{5 . ;a}eGbf /fd|f] of] x'G5 ls s;}nfO{ klg pwf/f] lbg]
gug{'xf];\ ljz]iful/ cfkmGtxnfO{ . cfkmGtxaf6 ;fk6L lng' eg]sf]
cfkm}FnfO{ pgLxsf] clwgdf /fVg' xf] / pgLxsf] s'/fx ;'Gg afWo x'g'
xf] . cfkmGtnfO{ pwf/f] lbg' eof] eg] Tof] lkmtf{ kfpg] cfz gug{'xf];\ .
^_ tna slt 5 <
sf/0f rfx] h];s
' } xf];\ t/ g]kfnL cfkmGtxnfO{ cfkm\gf] lk|o dflg;xsf]
tnasf] af/]df hfGg] OR5f ;w}F x'g] ub{5 . pgLx s'g} g s'g} kn]
tkfO{n
+ ] slt sdfpg' x'G5 eGg] s'/f hfGg rfxG5g\ . o;sf] k5fl8 p2]Zo
tkfO{+nfO{ ;fgf] b]vfpg' g} x'g] ub{5 . sf]xL cfkmGtnfO{ tkfO{+ c;xh
cj:yfdf ePsf] x]g{ /fd|f] nfUg] ub{5 .
&_ s'g} k|]dL jf k|]ldsf 5 <
g]kfnL 3/df Pp6f clnlvt lgod 5 h;sf cg';f/ k'?if / dlxnfsf]
ljjfxsf] pd]/ to x'g] ub{5 . of] tf]lsPsf] pd]/df klg s;}sf] ljjfx
ePsf] 5}g eg] t cfkmGtnfO{ of] Pp6f ljifo g} ag]sf] x'G5 . o:tf]
cj:yfdf tkfO{s
+ f cfkmGtx tkfO{s
+ f] k|d
] L jf k|l] dsf eP gePsf] ;f]Wg
pgLx a]/ g} nufpFb}gg\ . crDdsf] s'/f s] 5 eg] pgLx of] k|Zgsf]
pQ/ 5 eGg] ;'Gg rfxG5g\ .
*_ ;f8L lsg nufp b } g f} <
olb tkfO{+ dlxnf x'g'x'G5 eg] zfob tkfO{+n] o:tf] ;jfnsf] ;fdgf
] f] cfkmGtn] ug{] ub{5g\ .
ug{k' /]sf] x'g;S5 . ljz]iful/ o:tf] k|Zg pd]/ k'us
pgLxsf] gh/df g]kfnL dlxnfn] ;f8L / s'tf{h:tf n'ufx dfq nufpg'k5{
h;n] pgnfO{ eb|enfb\dL ePsf] b]lvof];\ eGg] dfGotf /x]sf] x'G5 .
(_ ljjfx slxn] ug{ ] xf] <
g]kfndf ljjfxsf] cy{ x'G5 kl/jf/nfO{ a9fpg' / ;fdflhs rqm
agfO/fVg' . olb tkfO{s
+ f] ljjfx ug{] pd]/ ePsf] 5 eg] tkfO{s
+ f cfkmGtn]
ljjfx slxn] ub{} 5f} eGg] k|Zg ;f]w]/ x}/fg ug{'x'g]5 .
!)_ 3/df gof kfx' g f slxn] cfp b } 5 <
aRrf slxn] x'G5, o;sf] clwsf/ hf]8LnfO{ dfq x'g] ub{5, t/ cfkmGt
of] s'/fdf sxfF kl5 x6\5g\ / < ljjfx u/]sf] Ps jif{ glaTb} aRrf slxn]
x'G5 eGg] k|Zgsf] cf]O/f] nfUg] ub{5 . v';Lsf] va/ eOsg klg o:tf] k|Zg
af]emsf] kdf v8f ePsf] x'G5 .

s'g g k'mNbf s] x'G5 <


sf7df8f}F . s]6fs]6L o'jfo'jtL jf a'9fa'9L ;a}sf] cf}nfsf] g km'n]sf]
kfOG5 . afnaflnsfx g k"mn] gofF n'uf nufpg kfOG5 eGb} /dfpF5g\ .
s] ;fFRr} g km'Ng' ;f}efUosf] ;"rs xf] < s]xL k|rlnt ldysM xfntsf
;a} g Ps} k6s k"mn] To;n] JolQm 7'nf] dfgl;s ;+3if{ em]Nb}5 / pQm
JolQm eljiodf la/fdL k5{ eGg] ;+s]t xf] .
bfofF jf afofF xftsf] a'9L cf}nfsf] g km'n] To;n] lgs6 eljiod} k|]d
ldngsf] ;+s] u5{ eg] gdf sfnf l6sfx b]lvPljk/Lt kmn ef]Ug'kg{] x'g
;S5 .
;flxFnL cf}+nfsf] g k"mn] dfg;Ddfg, wg tyf oz k|flKtsf] of]u
aG5 . To;sf] ljk/Lt sfnf l56fx b]lvP ckdfg, ckh; tyf
abgfdLsf] ;fdgf ug{k' g{] x'g;S5 .
sfG5L cf}nfsf] gdf b]lvg] ;]tf bfu Jofkf/df nfe tyf nIo
k|flKtdf cg's'ntfsf] ;"rs dflgG5 . sfnf bfun] eg] To;sf] ljk/Lt
kmnsf] ;+s]t ub{5 .
rf]/L cf}+nfsf] g km'n] k|]d ljho, dfg;Ddfg tyf wg k|flKtsf] ;+s]t
ldN5 . o;sf] ljk/Lt sfnf l56fx b]lvP wg tyf dfgxfgL x'g;S5 .
dfemL cf}nfsf] g km'n] ofqfsf] of]u k/]sf] dflgG5 . To;ljk/Lt sfnf
l56fx b]lvP ofqfdf gf]S;fgL tyf b'3{6gf;d] ef]Ug'kg{] x'g ;S5 .
g kFx]nf] b]lvP JolQmsf] :jf:Yosf] b[li6n] k|lts'n cj:yfdf /x]sf]
dflgG5 . o;}u/L /ftf] tyf gLnf] /+u b]lvg' klg cz'e dflgG5 . km'n]sf]
gsf] k|efj a9Ldf kfFr dlxgf /xg] ljZjf; 5 .- Ph]G;L

@)&@ ;fn ebf} @& ut] cfOtaf/

g]kfn M l;l/ofd'vL aGb}


Psf laxfg} p7]kl5 cfhsf] tfhf
va/ x]g{nfO{{ km];a'ssf] ln lSns
u/] d] / f] gh/df Pp6f b[ Z o
7f]lsgk'Uof] / d]/f] Wofg To;}df s]lGb|t

rflx/x]5g\, d]nldnfk rflx/x]5g\ t/


lbgfg'lbg l:ylt gfh's aGb} 5 .
ca l;l/of /xnf g/xnf h:t} 5 .
ljr/f l;l/ofnLx? cfh k|af; /f]Hg

dfgjtf sxLF kfOFbg} , of]eGbf ;]jf


ug{] df}sf slxn] kfOFb}g . ;nfd
cl:6 o f h;/L cfh l;l/of
56\k6fO/x]sf] 5 / ljZj;fd' sdhf]/

8LaL rGb
g]kfndf cg'sn
" tf geP/ xf]Og, oxfFsf ;|ft]
;fwgx?sf] ;xL ;b'kof]u ul/of] eg] 7"nf]
dfqfdf Joj:yfkg x'g ;S5 / ug{ ;lsG5 .
t/, oxfFsf :jfyL{ g]tfx? hgtfsf] gfd a]r/]
cfkm\gf] b'gf] ;f]em\ofpgafx]s l;Gsf] klg efFRg
hGb}gg\ . clg g]kfn s;/L ljsf; xf];\ /
g]kfnsf] /fhgLlt s;/L ;'lNemof];\ . oxfF t
;fdfGo sd{rf/Lb]lv xflsd;Dd cfkm\g}
gftfuf]tfsf /fVg kfP x'G5, hgtfsf] s'g} sb/
/ ;Ddfg 5}g . cfkm\gf] clwsf/ dfUbf
hgtfdfly uf]nL a;f{pg] ;/sf/ s] ;fFlRrs}
hgd'vL ;+lawfg agfpFb} 5 t < clxn]sf d'Vo
tLg /fhgLlts bn egfpFbf s]xL g]tfx?n]
hgtfn] kZrufdL ;+ljwfg nfb\g vf]Hb} 5g\, of]
;/f;/ hgtfk|lt a]OdfgL / c/fhs xf] . s]
o:tf] kf/fn] g]kfn :jLh/NofG8 aG5 ls
l;l/of aG5 cfdhgtfx?n] a'em\g ;Sg] /
a'em\gk' g]{ s'/f xf] .
eof] Tof] xf] l;l/ofnL ;/0ffyL{x?sf]
xhf/f}s
F f] n:s/. d]/f] dg Psf laxfg}
:tAw agfof], kmf]6f]df dlng cg'xf/
w]/} lgofn]/ x]/]F . pgLx?sf] d'xf/df
Ps k|sf/sf] cfzfsf] aQL an]em}F
nfUof], Tolt 7"nf] n:s/df d}n] s;}sf]
pu| t f b] l vF g . Tof] b[ Z o
;fdfrf/cg';f/ x]/LeGbf cufl8
cl:6ofsf] e"efusf] xf] . dnfO{{ Tof]
df6f]sf] c;fWo} dfof nfUof], ;fob
pgLx?nfO{ klg nfUof] xf]nf cflv/
h'g;'s} 7fpFdf hGd]x's]{ klg ToxfF
sdf{kfpFbg} eg] hGd]sf] jf:tljs
dxTj x'bF f]/x]g5 . jiff{b+} l] v u[xo'4sf]
;fdgf ug{'k/]sf] l;l/of ljr/f cfh
ljZjsf] g/dfOnf] pbfx/0f aGgk'us
] f]
5 . oxfFsf hgtfn] cgof;} hLjg
u' d fpg' k of] , oxfF s f s} o g
afnaflnsfx? dfl/g k'u], s}og
j[ 4 j[ 4 fx? dfl/g k' u ] , s} o g
cfdfx?sf] sfv l/lQof] , s} o g
afnaRrfx? 6'x/' f x'g ljjz eP,
s}og w/f]x/x? ;vfk eP, w]/}
a:tLx? phf8 eP cfly{s, ef}lts,
;f+:s[lts, wfld{s, af}l4s, /f;folgs
cflbcflb y'k}| Iflt a]xf]b5
}{ l;l/of .
cem} slt;Dd of] sfnv08 u'hfg{'
kg{] xf] l;l/of . of] b'lgofFdf dg{]x?
d/]/ uP klg afFRg]x?sf] ;f:tL
x'Fbf]/x]5 cflv/ hfghfg s;n] kf]
dg{ rfxG5 / cfh tL afFr]sfx?
k| a f; vf] l h/x] 5 g\ Ps 5fs
vf] l h/x] 5 g\ Ps;/f] sk8f
vf]lh/x]5g\, ;bfrf/ / ;b\efj
vf] l h/x] 5 g\ , zfGtL / :yfloTj

afWo eP, sltko t lhpg] cfzf


af]s]sfx? klg ;d'b|L 36gfdf dg{
k' u ] 5 g\ . t/, s' g } b] z cfkm\ g f
hgtfsf] hlts} dfof / :g]x afF8\g
vf]lh/x]5g\ . cfkm\gfem}F cfz / af;
afF8\b} 5g\, cfh o:t}o:t} df}sf
ldn] s f] 5 . cl:6 o fsf nflu,
cl:6ofnLx? xf], df6f] h'g;'s} 7fpFsf]
xf];\ b]z hxfF;'s}sf] xf];\ t/ dfgj
dfgj Pp6} xf] . cfh ljZj ;d'bfon]
gh/cGbfh u/]sf] 5, cl:6ofnfO{{,
h;/L cf>d lbof}F To;/L g} ef}lts
k"jf{wf/ klg k"/f u/ of]eGbf 7"nf]

/ lg/Lx alg/x]sf] 5, oxfF hgtfsf]


ljlw, lawfg hgkIfLo hgfb]z cflb
h:tf hgtfsf cfwf/e" t gLlt
hgtfs} nflu ;Grflnt eOlbPsf]
eP ;fob l;l/of cfhsf] h:tf]
l;l/of x' g ] lyPg . hxfF hxfF
k/Dk/fut bf;Tjsf] h/f km}lnPsf]
x'G5 ToxfF ToxfF lg/+sz
' ;Qfwf/Lx?sf]
ar{:j pNn]Vo x'G5 eGg] s'/f klg
k|:6 x'G5 . cfh b'vsf ;fy eGg'k5{
ls g]kfn klg klg lgs} sl7g df]8df
plePsf] 5 . o;sf] eUo clg
elaiosf] elaiojf0fL s' g } d" v {

sf7df8f}F . cd]l/sfsL Ps dlxnfn]


cfkm\gf] ! s/f]8 % nfv ?k}ofF a/fa/sf]
;DklQ #@ j6f r/fsf] gfddf
n]vfOlbPsf] v'nf;f ePsf] 5 . r/fsf]
gfddf s/f]8sf] ;DklQ n]vfpg] oL
dlxnf Go'of]ss
{ L Joj;foL n]:nL Pg
d]G8n x'g\ . d]G8nsf] ut h'g dlxgfdf

^( jif{sf] pd]/df lgwg e};s]sf] 5 .


pgsf] sf]vaf6 s'g} ;Gtfgsf] hGd
ePsf] lyPg cyf{t\ pgL lgM;Gtfg
lyOg\, To;}n] cfkm\gf] gfdsf] ;DklQ
cfkm\gf] 3/df kfn]sf r/fx?sf] gfddf
u/fPsL lyOg\ . n]vs cfy{/ xhf{u] ;Fu
ljjfx u/]sL n]:nLn] x/hf]usf 5f]/fnfO{{

Hof]ltifn] ug{ ;Sg]jfnf 5}g . cfh


g]kfnL hgtfx? klg lg/fz eO;s]sf
5g\ . nfdf] ;do;Dd rn] s f]
u[xo'4sf] sf/0f k5fl8 kms{] g]kfn
ca aGg] ;+lawfgdf hgtfsf xs
clwsf/ g/xg] kSsfkSsL e};s]sf]
5 . ca ls t g]kfnL hgtf n8\g
tof/ x'gk' g{] 5 ls t l;l/ofnL hgtf
em} k|jflzg afWo x'gk' g{] 5, g]kfnL
hgtfsf] of] b'O{ ljsNkdWo]df ;fob
csf{] s'g} lasNk b]lvFb}g . jt{dfg
;dodf g] k fn csd{ G otfdf
?dlNn/xFbsf] l:ylt / kl/l:yltnfO{
ufDeLo{tfsf ;fy d"Nof+sg ubf{ a8f]
uDeL/ / hl6n aGb} uPsf] 5 .
o:tf] ;+jb] glzn cj:yfdf b]znfO{
lgsf;sf] af6f] b]vfpg 5f]8/] oxfFsf
g]tfx? cfkm\g} :jfy{ k"lt{sf nflu
xf]8afhLsf] /fhgLlt ul//x]sf 5g\ .
g]kfn x/]s pkef]Uo a:t' cfoft ubf{
rsf{] s/ ltg{] /f:6 xf] hf] g'gb]lv
;'g / ;fgf] l;of] klg bf];|f] of t];|f]
d'n'saf6 cfoft ug{'kg{] afWofTds
ca:yf 5 . t/ g]kfndf cg's"ntf
geP/ xf]Og, oxfFsf ;|ft] ;fwgx?sf]
;xL ;b'kof]u ul/of] eg] 7"nf] dfqfdf
Joj:yfkg x'g ;S5 / ug{ ;lsG5 .
t/, oxfFsf :jfyL{ g]tfx? hgtfsf]
gfd a] r ] / cfkm\ g f] b' g f]
;f]em\ofpgafx]s l;Gsf] klg efFRg
hGb}gg\ . clg g]kfn s;/L ljsf;
xf];\ / g]kfnsf] /fhgLlt s;/L
;' l Nemof] ; \ . oxfF t ;fdfGo
sd{ r f/Lb] l v xflsd;Dd cfkm\ g }
gftfuf]tfsf /fVg kfP x'G5, hgtfsf]
s'g} sb/ / ;Ddfg 5}g . cfkm\gf]
clwsf/ dfUbf hgtfdfly uf]nL
a;f{pg] ;/sf/ s] ;fFlRrs} hgd'vL
;+lawfg agfpFb} 5 t < clxn]sf
d'Vo tLg /fhgLlts bn egfpFbf
s]xL g]tfx?n] hgtfn] kZrufdL
;+ljwfg nfb\g vf]Hb} 5g\, of] ;/f;/
hgtfk|lt a]OdfgL / c/fhs xf] .
s] o:tf] kf/fn] g]kfn :jLh/NofG8
aG5 ls l;l/of aG5 cfdhgtfx?n]
a'em\g ;Sg] / a'em\g'kg]{ s'/f xf] .
g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ k'vf{bl] v ef]urng
ub{} cfPsf] cfkm\gf] If]qflwsf/ af6
klg s6f}tL ul/Fb5
} / dfu ;Daf]wgsf]
;f6f] ;g;gLk"0f{ tl/sfn] /fHosf]
;Dk"0f{ zlQms]Gb[t u/]/ skm\o{'sf]
gfddf oftgf lbOb} 5 of] clt
cfklQhgs s'/f xf] . s] o;/L b]zsf]
l:ylt ;fdfGo aGb} hfnf t < sbflk
hfFb}g a? hgtf km]l/ lab|f]xdf
plqG5g\ / oxfFsf zf;s au{ klg
;lhn}u/L hgtfnfO{ clwsf/ lbg]
kIfdf 5}g / b]z sfn x'G5g\ nfvf}F
dfG5]x? dg{]5g\ nfvf}F la:yflkt
x'g]5g\ clg oxfFsf afFsL hgtfx?n]
cf>osf] nflu bf];|f] / t];|f] d'n's
lxF8\g'sf] lasNk x'g]jfnf 5}g .

r/fnfO{{ Ps s/f]8 ;DklQ


r/fsf] gfddf lbPsf] ;DklQsf] ;+/Ifs
;d]t 3f]if0ff u/L dg{c
' l3 as;kq
lbPsL lyOg\ . r/fsf] gfddf lbPsf] !
s/f]8 % nfv ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] ;DklQsf]
as;kqdf pgn] n]vs
] L l5g\ . r/fnfO{{
lbgx'F vfgf v'jfOof];\ eGg] d]/f] OR5f
5 . k|To]s ;f]daf/ tyf lalxaf/ r/f
a:g] 3/ ;kmf ul/of];\ . of] s'/fdf ;d]t
Wofg lbOof];\ ls r/fr'?u+ LnfO{{ v'jfpg]
vfgf s]jn PjL s]S;, Sof/]6, jf6/
tyf kksg{af6 dfq} v/Lb ul/of];\ .
of] /sdaf6 r/f ;Fu;Fu} d]/f] k|m:6L
gfdsf] s's'/ tyf lssL gfdsf]
la/fnf]sf] klg kfng kf]if0f ul/of];\ .
:d/0f /xf];\ n]:nL cd]l/sfsf
wgf9\ox?sf] ;"lrdf Ps lyOg\ . pgL
cd]l/sfsf k"j/{ fi6klt lhDdL sf6{/sf]
r'gfjL cleofgdf ;d]t ;lqmo ?kn]
nfu]sL lyOg\ . To:t} cd]l/sL /fi6klt
/f]gfN8 /]ugsf] sfo{sfndf :kL8
6fOlk:6sf] e"ldsfdf sfd u/]sL lyOg\ .

>LdtLn] kmf]g gp7fPkl5====


sf7df8f}F . k"jL{ rLgsf] z]+u8+u k|fGtsf Ps JolQmn] >LdtLn] kmf]g
gp7fPsf] emf]Fsdf gfs 6f]s]/ vfOlbPsf 5g\ . kLl8t dlxnfsf] k"/}
kl/ro v'nfO{Psf] 5}g / 5f]6s/L pgsf] gfd o]+u atfOPsf] 5 . ;dfrf/

cg';f/ o]+un] clkm;df /ftsf] l;km\6df sfd uly{g\ . /ftsf] b'O ah]lt/
pgsf kltn] pgnfO{{ kmf]g u/]5g\ t/ pgn] p7fpg kfOgg\ . >LdtLn]
cfkm\gf] kmf]g gp7fPkl5 nf]Ug]rfxLF l/;n] cfuf] eP . csf{] laxfg ;a]/} pgL
>LdtLsf] clkm;d} k'u] . ufnLunf}h ub{} l;sf/L hgfj/ emlD6Pem}F u/L
kTgLsf] gfsdf cfkm\gf] bfFtn] wfjf af]n] . cfkm\gf] bfFtn] >LdtLsf] gfs
SjfKk} r'F8fPkl5 pgn] pQm gfsnfO{{ ;n{Ss} lgn] .
>LdtLsf] gfsdf wfjf af]Ng'cl3 pgn] l/;fpFb} eg]sf lyP d}n] kmf]g
ul//x]sf] a]nfdf lsg p7fOg;\ < 36gfkl5 kLl8t dlxnfn] cfk"mnfO{{ nf]Ug]n]
leQftkm{ ws]n]sf] / cfkm\gf] 6fpsf] leQfdf 7f]SsfOlbP/ gfs vfOlbPsf]
atfPsL l5g\ . 8fS6/x?sf cg';f/ o]+usf] gfs k"/} u'd]sf] 5 . ca gofF
s[lqd gfs /fVg' cfjZos x'G5 . >LdtLsf] gfs vfOlbPkl5 tL lx+;|s
nf]Ug] km/f/ ePsf 5g\ / k'ln;n] pgsf] vf]hL ul//x]sf] 5 .

5f]/f;/x 5f]/LnfO{ klg


:s'n k9\g k7fcf}+ .
Joj;flos s[lif tyf Jofkf/ cfof]hgfsf] k|lta4tf
sf7df8f}F . Joj;flos s[lif tyf Jofkf/ cfof]hgfsf] d'Vo p2]Zo g]kfnsf
@% j6f lhNNff -wg'iff, ;nf{xL, dxf]Q/L, /f}tx6, af/f, k;f{, lrtjg, wflb,
sf7df8f},F nlntk'/, sfe]kn
| f~rf]s, gjnk/f;L, tgxF,' ndh', sf:sL, :ofhf,
kfNkf, kGb]xL, slknj:t', bf, ;'vt{] , afFs,] alb{of, s}nfnL / s~rgk'/_
lglb{i6 s[lif pkhxsf] d"No z[v
\ nfdf cfa4 ;fgf s[ifs, s[lif Joj;foL tyf
pBdLsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtfdf ;'wf/ ug{' /x]sf] 5 . of] cfof]hgf @)^%
>fj0faf6 ;~rflnt 5 . of] p2]Zo k|fKt ug{ cfof]hgfaf6 ;Dkfbg ul/g]
sfo{x lgDg s'/fdf s]lGb|t x'g5
] g\
!_ s[ifs ;d"x / ;xsf/L ;+:yfxnfO{ nfek|b ahf/d'vL pTkfbgdf ;xefuL
x'g ;xof]u ug{] . ;fy} cfjZos k|ljlw, ;"rgf, ;]jf / ;fj{hlgs k"jf{wf/sf]
Joj:yfdfkm{t\ ahf/df kxFr
' / s[lif Joj;fo cfa4tfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] .
@_ d"No z[v
\ nfsf] b[li6n] pTkfbs, Jofkf/L, k|zf]wgstf{ / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfxnfO{
;d]t ;d]6L pBf]udf cfwfl/t ;fem]bf/Ltfsf] ljsf; ug{] .
#_ s[lif / vfB Jofkf/df ljBdfg afwf Jojwfg 36fpg] Pj+ s[ifsx / s[lif
Joj;foLxsf] bIftf clej[l4 ub{} cfGtl/s Pj+ cGt/f{li6o ahf/sf] u'0f:t/
cg'ksf] :jR5 / :j:y vfB j:t'xsf] pTkfbg ug{ ;xof]u ug{] .
;Nnf3f/L, dxf/fhuGh, sf7df8f}F
kmf]g M (&&)!$)!&&^%, ofS; M (&&)!$#&#@#^
Email:mail@pact.gov.np,Website:www.pact.gov.np

cGwljZjf; / s'/Lltdf
nfUbf hLjgdf cfOkg]{
b'ikl/0fdaf/]
hg;fwf/0fnfO{ ;r]t /
lzlIft agfpg c;n
gful/sx cu|;/ eO{
dfu{lgb]{zg ug'{kb{5 .

g] k fn ;/sf/
;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno

;"rgf ljefu

@)&@ ;fn ebf} @& ut] cfOtaf/

lrlgof sDo'lgi6 kf6L{;usf] ax;


x:taxfb' / s] = ;L=
rLgsf] /fhwfgL a]Olh\u k'u/]
d}n] lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{;uF g]kfndf
lsg km'6\5g\ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{x? <
g]kfnsf] jt{dfg sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngsf]
ca:yf / g]kfnL gofF hgjfbL
qmflGtsf af/]df Aofks ax; rnfPF .
g]kfndf lgdf{0f ul/g] hgd'lQm ;]gf
/ g]kfnL gofF hgjfbLsf] eljio /
5fkfdf/ o'4sf] af/]df ;d]t Aofks
ax; rnfOof] . ;fy} ;+;b\jfbL
/fhg}lts bnx?n] 3f]if0ff ug]{ tof/L
ul//x]sf] kZrufdL tyf k|ltufdL
;+ljwfg / To; kl5sf] g]kfnsf]
/fhg}lts cj:yf s:tf] xf]nf < eGg]

ljifodf klg Joks ?kdf ax;


rfnfOof}+ . o;sf cltl/Qm blIf0f
Pl;ofsf sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ x ? /
ltgLx?sf] eljiosf af/]df / ef/tdf
ef/tLo sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ : -dfcf]jfbL_
n] ;+rfng ul//x]sf] hgo'4sfaf/]df
klg 7"nf] ax; rfnfof}+ . ;fy} sDkf];f,
qmflGtsf/L cfGt/fli6o cfGbf]ng l/d_ sf af/]df klg Joks ?kdf
ax; rfnfof}+ .
lrlgofF sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f]
lgdGq0ffdf / xfd|f] kf6L{ g]kfn
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dfcf]jfbLsf] lg0f{o
adf] l hd d] / f] g] t [ T jdf g] s kf
dfcf]jfbLsf] kfFr ;b:oLo Ps rLg
cWoog e|d0f 6f]nL !$ h'nfO{{ @)!%
-@)&@ c;f/ @(_ sf lbg rLgsf]
/fhwfgL a]Olh\u k'u]sf] lyof] .
6f]nLsf cGo ;b:ox?df g]skf
dfcf]jfbLsf s]lGb|o ;b:oo b]jG] b|
>]i7 / s'df/L df]Stfg, sf:sL lhNnf
;lrj ch'g{ 5Gt]n / ef]hk'/sL b'uf{
/fO{ x'g' x'GYof] . ;fy} g]skf-dfn]_
g]dlskf / g]kfnL sfFu;
]| af6 kfFr
kfF r hgf k| l tlglwx? klg To;
cj;/df rLgdf k'us
] f lyP .
xfdL lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf]
cGt/f{li6o ljefun] rLgsf] /fhwfgL
a]Olh\udf !$ / !% h'nfO{{ @)!% @( / #) ;fpg @)&@_ df cfof]hgf
ul/g] lrlgofF ljz]iftf ;lxtsf]
;dfhjfb / rLgsf] at{dfg cy{
/fhgLlt laifos ;]ldgf/df efu
lngsf lglDt xfdL rLgsf] /fhwfgL
a]Olh\u k'us
] f] lyof}+ .
!$ h'nfO{{ @)!% sf lbg lrlgofF
sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f] Central
Compilation
and
Transformation Bureau n]
a]Olhdf cfof]hgf u/]sf] lrlgofF
ljz]iftf ;lxtsf] ;dfhjfb sf]
cfly{s gLltaf/] cy{lj1 -Expert_
x?n] rLgsf] ljut, at{dfg /
eljiosf] of]hgf ;d]t k|:t't u/]sf
lyP . pgLx?n] dfcf]sf] g]tT[ jdf ;g
!(^^!(&^ ;Dd ;+rfnLt ;j{xf/f
;fF:s[lts qmflGtn] rLgsf] ljsf;sf]
ultnfO{{ k5fl8 k/]sf], ;g\ !(&*
!(*) df rLgn] ef]udl/sf] ;fdgf
ug'{ k/]sf], !((^ b]lv @))# ;Dd
rLgn] t];f| ] ljZj o'4sf] nflu tof/L
ubf{ cfly{s ?kdf rLg kl5 k/]sf]
t/ @))# df WTO cGt/fli6o

Jofkf/ ;+u7g sf] ;b:otf lnP kZrft


;g @))^ b]lv rLgn] cfly{s ?kdf
b'tu{ ltn] ljsf; u/]sf] / clxn] rLg
ljZjs} bf];f| ] wlg /fi6 ePsf] atfPsf
lyP . / rLgLof hgtf ;/b/ k|ltJolQm
cfo ;ftxhf/ cd]l/sL 8n/ /x]sf]
atfOPsf] lyof] . %! k|ltzt rLgLof
hgtfnfO{{ zx/L sf/0f u/L ;lsPsf]
/ cfufdL !) aif{df &! k|ltzt
hgfnfO{{ zx/Ls/0f u/L ;Sg] lrlgofF
gLtL /x]sf] / l5} ;Dk"0f{ hgtfnfO{{
zx/Ls/0f ul/ ;Sg] / zx/ / ufpFsf]
cGt/nfO{{ l5} x6fpg] rLgLof gLlt
/x]sf] atfO{Psf] lyof] . ;fy} pBf]u
Joj;fodf ^%k|ltzt lghL nufgL

/x]sf] / #% k|ltzt ;/sf/L nufgL


/x]sf] t/ ;/sf/L nufgLsf] Joj:yfkg
nyfln\u ePsf] / gLhL nufgLsf]
Joj:yfkg /fd|f] /x]sfn] l5} ;j}
nufgLnfO{{ lglhs/0f u/L ;Sg] rLgLof
gLtL /x]sf] atfOPsf] lyof] . / Jofkf/
Jojf;fo / ko{6g Jofj;fonfO{{ d'Vo
?kdf a9'jf lbOPsf] atfOPsf] lyof] .
pQm ;]ldgf/df k|:t't u/LPsf]
rLgsf] at{dfg cy{ /fhgLltsf] 8f6fnfO{{
x]bf{ rLgdf ju{ p\tyfg eO;s]sf], rLg
;dfhjfbL lzlj/af6 Psflwsf/
k'hLjfbLlt/ cufl8 al9/x]sf] ljZn]if0f
;lxtsf] kf6L{ ljrf/ d}n] / cGo /fhgLlt
kf6L{ s f ;fyLx?n] cGt/lqmofsf
dfWodaf6 /fv]kl5 Jofks jx; ePsf]
lyof] . rLgofFx?n] rLgof laif]ztfsf]
;dfhjfbsf] cfly{s gLlt ;xL ePsf]
!% h'nfO{{ @)!% -#) c;f/ @)&@_
sf lbg rLgsf] /fhwfgL a]Olhdf
lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] cGt/fli6
ljefusf pkdGqL bfcf] OGof] -DOU
ENYOUNG_ sf] pkl:yltdf /
lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ cG6/lfi6o
ljefusf] Jo"/f] ! sf hg/n 8fO/]S6/sf]
;d]t pkl:yltdf rLlgof sDo'lgi6
kf6L{sf] cGt/fli6o ljefun] cfof]hgf
u/]sf] lrlgofF ljz]iftf ;lxtsf]
;dfhgfds ;]ldgf/df efu lnPsf]
lyof] . d}n] xfd|f] kf6L{sf] wf/0ff k|:t't
u/]sf] lyP eg] cGo kf6L{sf] ;fyLx?n]
cfcfgf wf/0ff /fVg'ePsf] lyof] .
pQm ;]ldgf/df k|:t't ul/Psf]
lrlgofFF ljz]iftf ;lxtsf] ;dfhjfbsf
ljz]iftf / cl3Nnf] lbgdf k|;t't
ul/Psf] cfly{s gLlt ;d]t ;du| 8f6f
x]bf{ rLg ;dfhjfbL d'ns
' geP/
Psflwsf/ k'lhjfblt/ bf}8L /x]sf] d'ns
'
/x]sf] ljZn]if0f k|:t't ul/P kl5 7"n}
ax; rNof] / lrlgofF g]tfx/n] xfdL
rLgnfO{{ ljZjs} ;femf rf}tf/L lgdf{0f
ug{ rxfG5f}F . of] g} lrlgofF ;kgf China Drenam_ xf] eg]sf lyP /
of]hgf kf6L{sf] !^ cf}F /fli6o dxflwj]zgn]
kfl/t u/]sf] atfPsf lyP .
!% h'nfO{{ @)!% -#) c;f/ @)&@_
sf lbg ;fFem a]Olh l:yt d a;]sf]
-WANSHOU HOTEL_ -afG;f]
xf]6]n df lrlgofFF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{
cGt/f{li6o ljefu Pl;of Jo"/f]sf
pklgb]z
{ s tyf blIf0f Plzof OGrfh{
sd/]8 WANG ZHENG / d]/f]
aLrdf nfdf] ax; eof] . pQm ax;df

jfn] g]kfnsf sDo'lgi6 kf6L{x?


km'6g\ s
' f sf/0f af/] 7"nf] rf;f] /
lh1f;f /fVg'ePsf] lyof], d}n] g]kfnsf
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{x? km'6g\ s
' f] d'Vo sf/0f
kf6L{sf] g]tT[ j ug{] g]tfx?sf] ;}4flGts
a}rfl/s :t/ sdhf]/ x'g,' dfS;{jfb
n] l ggjfbdfcf] j fbsf] 6k/6' o fF
tl/sfn] cWoog ug'{ / dfn]dfjfbnfO{{
u|x0f u/]/ Jojxf/df nfu" ug{ g]tfx?
sdhf]/ x'g,' cfdkf6L{ k+lQmleq :s'ln
of]hgfj4 9+un] grnfO{g,' g]tfx?df
;}4flGts a}rfl/s :t/ sdhf]/ ePsf
sf/0f l5} blIf0fkGyL cj;/jfbn]
k| j ] z ug{ ' / Ton] JolQmjfbL
dxTjsf+IffnfO{{ a9fP/ kf6L{ km'6fNg]

tx;Dd k'Ug, kf6L{ leq ;+rfng ePsf]


b'O{ nfO{g{ ;+3if{nfO{{ ljrf/wf/fTds
?kdf ;xL 9+un] xn ug{ g;Sg'sf
sf/0f g} g]kfnsf sDo'lgi6 kf6L{
km'l6/xssf] tYo d}n] k|:t't u/]sf]
lyP . d'Vo u/L g]tfx?sf] ;}4flGts
a}rfl/s :t/ sdhf]/ x'g' g} g]kfnsf
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{x? km'6g\ ] u/]sf 5g\
eg] ljifodf 7"nf] ax; rnfPsf lyof}F .
afn] g]kfnsf s'gs'g sDo'lgi6
kf6L{x? qmflGtsf/L / s'g s'g
sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ x ? blIf0fkGyL
;+zf]wgjfbL x'g\ < eGg] k|Zg ug'{ ePsf]
lyof] . hjfkmdf d}n] xfd}| kf6L{ g]skf
dfcf]jfbL g} d'Vo ul/ qmflGtsf/L
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ xf] / o; jfx]s dft[sf
ofbjn] g]tT[ j u/]sf] g]skfdfcf]jfbL,
dl0f yfkfn] g]tT[ j u/]sf] qmflGtsf/L
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ g]kfn / kl/ yfkfn]
g]tT[ j u/]sf] g]skf -PsLs[t_ klg
qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] k+lQmdf
/x]sf] 5g\ eg] Pdfn] Pdfcf]jfbL
d'Vo u/L blIf0fkGyL ;+zf]wgjfbL /
gj;+zf]wgjfbL /x]sf] / cGo ;fgf
sDo'lgi6 36sx? klg blIf0fkGyL
;+zf]wgjfbL /x]sf] / cGo ;fgf
sDo'lgi6 36sx?df klg blIf0fkGyL
;+zf]wgjfbL lsQfd} /x]sf] af/]df klg
7"n} ax; ePsf] lyof] . pQm e]6jftf{df
g]kfndf xfd|f] kf6L{ ;ftf}F /fli6o
dxflwj]zgaf6 hgo'4sf] hudf
hgljb|f]xsf] sfo{ lbzfaf/]df klg
Jofks ax; ul/of] / xfd|f] kf6L{sf]
kxndf lgdf{0f ul/g] hgd'lQm ;]gfsf]
lgdf{0f af/]df klg Jofks ax; ul/of] .
5fkfdf/ o'4 tyf g]kfnL gofF hgjfbL
qmflGtsf af/]df klg Jofks ax;
ul/of] .
sd/]8 jfn] lh1f;f / rf;f]
/fv] adf]lhd ef/tLo sDo'lgi6 kf6L{
-dfcf]jfbL_ n] ;~rfng ul//x]sf]
;z:q hgo'4 k|lt xfd|f] kf6L{ g]skf
dfcf]jfbLsf] PsSoj4tf /x]sf] t/
pgLx?sf] ultljlw e"ldut / ;z:q
ePsf] cGo ljifosf] cfbfg k|bfg eg]
gePsf] af/]df d}n] kf6L{sf] wf/0ff
/fv]sf] lyof] .
sDkf];f / l/dsf] af/]df klg
jff/f lh1f;f /flvPsf]df sDkf];f
xfd|f] kf6L{s} kxndf dxfg bzjif{]
hgo'4sf] a]nf lgdf{0f ul/Psf] t/
clxn] lgl:qmo /x]sf] / To;nfO{{
k'ghf{u/0f ug{] xfd|ff] kf6L{ of]hgf /x]sf]

d}n] k|i6 kf/]sf] lyP . l/d eg] nueu


lj36g eO;s]sf] / csf{] qmflGtsf/L
cGt/fli6o s]Gb|sf] lgdf{0fsf nflu kxn
ug]{ xfd|f] kf6L{n] lg0f{o ul/ ;s]sf]
atfPsf] lyPF .
pQm ax; / e]6jftf{df d"ntM
g]kfn Pp6f cy{ ;fdflGt / cw{ gj
cf}klgj]lzs d"ns /x]sf] / o;
k|sf/sf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] g]kfndf gofF
hgjfbhL qmflGts g]kfnL qmflGt d'Vo
sfo{qmd /x]sf] af/]df ax; ul/of] .
g]kfnL gofF hgjfbL qmflGtsf nflu
hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] lgdf{0fsf] clgjfo{
cfjZostf /x]sf] af/]df Jofks ax;
ul/of] t/ blIf0fkGyL cj;/jfb /
blIf0fkGyL ;+ z f] w gjfb g] k fnL
gofFhgjfbL qmflGtsf nflu d"No af]ws
/x]sf] ljifodf klg Jofks ax;
rnfO{{of] . lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{
g]kfndf ;+rfng ul/g] gofF hgjfbL
qmflGt k|lt ;sf/fTds /x]sf] kfOof] .
ax;s} qmddf g]kfnL sDo'lgi6
cfGbf]ngdf blIf0fkGyL ;+zf]wgjfbL /
gj;+zf]wgjfbLx?sf] afx'Notf /x]sf] /
g]kfndf qmflGtsf/Lx? sdhf]/ /x]sf]
af/]df klg Jofks ax; rnfPsf] lyof}F .
/ clGtddf g]kfndf gofF hgjfbL
qmflGtsf] j:t'ut cfjZostf sfod
/x]sf] af/]df xfdL b'j} hgf ;xdt
ePsf lyof}F . jfFsL s'/f sd/]8 jfn]
xfd|f] kf6L{ g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf] pRr
g]tT[ j;Fu 5nkmn rnfpF5f}F . eGg'
ePsf] lyof] .
( h'nfO{{ @)!%sf lbg l;r'og
k|fGtsf] /fhwfgL CHENGDU
5]Gb'df lrlgofF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ cGt/fli6
ljefusf pk lgb]z
{ s sd/]8 SHAO
LIANG / d]/f] ljrdf JING
JINYANG xf]6n
] df nfdf] e]6aftf{
ePsf] lyof] .
of]eGbf klxnf] xfdL rLgsf] l;r'og
k|fGtsf] cfKkf lhNnfsf] ;f]odf] ufpFdf
;g @))* d] !@ ut]sf lbg pTkGg
ePsf] zlQmzfnL e'sDkn] k'ofPsf]
If]lt / To; kl5 k'glgdf{0f ul/Psf]
7fpFsf] canf]sg l;+ro' g k|fKtsf]
/fhwfgL 5]0b'sf] cTofw'lgs zx;
lgdf{0fsf] cjnf]sg ldg glbsf] l;rfO{
kl/of]hgf / ko6{sLo Aoj;fosf]
canf]sg / ljB't pTkfbg tyf lj1fg
/ k|ljlwsf] If]qdf ToxfF ul/Psf] ljsf;
/ Oulha];g xnsf] cfGbf]ng / kfG8f
lrl8of vfgfsf] cjnf]sg u/]sf lyof}F .
;fy} km' Rofg og k|fGtsf] /fhwfgL
l;d] g -XIAMEN_ zx/sf]
cjnf]sg / ;d'bL| ttsf] cjnf]sg,
l;e]g laZa ljBfno nufot af}4
u'Djfx?sf] klg cjnf]sg ul/Psf]
lyof] .
a]Olh ;]ldgf/df efu lnP
kZrft u|]6jfn / dfcf]sf] zj
/flvPsf] dfcf] d]df]l/on xn /
t]gd]gog rf]ssf] cnjf]ug e|d0f klg
u/fPsf] lyof] . !& h'nfO{@{ )!% -@@
c;f/ @)&@_ b]lv !& h'nfO{{ @)!%
;fpg @)&@ ;Dd !! lbgdf e|d0f
k"/f u/L :jb]z kms{s
] f lyof}F .
lrlgofFF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] lgdGq0ff
/ lrlgofFF sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] of]hgf,
;dofljwL / ljifox?df ;a} sfo{x?
;Sg' kg{] ePsf]n] h'g h'g 7fpFsf]
cWoo0f e|d0f / cjnf]sg u/fOof] tL
;a}sf] cfcfg} dxTj /x]sf] 5 . rLgn]
u/]sf] csNklgo ljsf; / k|ult tyf
lj1fg k|ljlwsf If]qdf u/]sf] ljsf;sf
af/]df rLgd} k'u/] :jod\ cWoog ug{'
hLjgs} nflu Pp6f dxTk"0f{ cj;/
xf] o;sf afjh't klg lrlgofFF sDo'lgi6
kf6L{sf] cGt/f{li6o Jo"/f]n] cfof]hgf
u/]sf] lrlgofF ljz]iftf ;lxtsf]
;dfhjfb gfds ;]ldgf/df kf6L{sf]
ldzgsf] ?kdf efu lng' / Jofks
ax; ;~rfng tyf lrlgofF g]tfx?;Fu
d]/f 5'} e]6jftf{ / dxfg ax; eof] .
of] g} hLjgsf] nflu Hofb} dxTjk"0f{
ca;/ ldn]sf] dx;'; u/]sf] 5' .

u|6] jfn ckm rfOgfaf/] gof /x:o


sf7df8f}F . cGtl/Ifaf6 b]lvg] k[YjLsf] dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgf rLgsf]
u|]6jfnsf af/]df cGj]ifsx?n] gofF tYo km]nf kf/]sf 5g\ . u|]6jfnsf]
nDafO kfFr xhf/ lsnf]ld6/ egL o;cl3 g} cg'dfg ul/Psf] lyof] . t/,
j}1flgs 9+un] gfkhfFr ul/Psf] lyPg . rLg ;/sf/n] ;g\ @))% b]lv
u|6] jfn;DaGwL cWoog ug{ gofF bn u7g u/L cg';Gwfg ug{ k7fPsf]
lyof] . u|]6jfnsf] jf:tljs nDafO * xhf/ * ;o *! lsnf]ld6/ nfdf]
/x]sf] k|dfl0ft ePsf] rfOgf 8]nL ;dfrf/kqn] hgfPsf] 5 . ljZj ;Dkbf
;"rLdf k/]sf] u|]6jfn a9\bf] ef}lts ;+/rgfx?sf] ljsf; tyf df};dsf
sf/0f eljiodf nf]k x'g;Sg] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 . u|6] jfnsf] klxnf] vG8 @
xhf/ jif{eGbf cl3 lgdf{0f ePsf] lyof] . ljb]zL zq'x? cfkm\gf] d'n'sdf
k|jz
] ug{ g;s'g\ egL tfTsfnLg zf;sn] dflg; xtkt plSng g;Sg]
vfnsf] kvf{n 78\ofpg nufPsf lyP eGg] ts{ 5 . kvf{ndf zq'nfO{{
lgofNgsf nflu ;'/IffsdL{n] kx/f lbg] 7fpF klg klxnf] vG8 lgdf{0fs}
qmddf agfOPsf] lyof] . ;g\ !#^* b]lv ;g\ !^$$ ;Dd ld j+zsf]

zf;gsfndf u|]6jfnsf] bf]>f] vG8 lgdf{0f ul/Psf] atfOG5 . To;a]nf


pQ/L d+uf]lnof If]qsf cflbaf;Lsf] ;Defljt cfqmd0fnfO{{ /f]Sg u]6| jfnsf]
ljsf; / lj:tf/ ul/Psf] rfOgf 8]nLsf] j]a;fO6df pNn]v 5 . u|]6jfnsf]
;+/rgfdf ^ xhf/ @ ;o %( lsnf]ld6/ jf:tljs kvf{n, # ;o %(
lsnf]ld6/ 6]Gr / @ xhf/ @ ;o #@ lsnf]ld6/ kxf8 / gbLh:tf
k|lt/IffTds k|fs[lts cj/f]wx?sf ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . u]|]6jfnsf] b'O{ jif{]
gS;f+sg kl/of]hgf rLgsf] :6]6 x]l/6]rn] u/]sf] lyof] . pQm gS;f+sgdf
cGtl/Ifaf6 e"pku|x4f/f OGk|mf/]8 k|ljlw tyf :yn gS;f+sgdf Unf]an
kf]lh;lg k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] lyof] .
klxn]sf] cg'dfgdf k|To]s vG8sf] ef}lts gfkdf geO ToxfF kfOPsf
P]ltxfl;s clen]vsf] cfwf/df ul/Psf] pNn]v 5 . clxn] ;DkGg dfkg
ljlwdf kj{t / d?e"lddf ul/Psf] vf]hLn] c1ft :ynx? kQf nfu]sf x'g\
egL sNr/n x]l/6]hsf lgb{z
] s ;fg lhl;cfsf] xjfnf lbFb} rfOgf 8]nLsf]
j]a;fO6df elgPsf] 5 . of] ;j{]If0fn] k|frLg /x:osf] nDafOaf/] :k:6 x'g
;xof]u dfq gu/] y'k}| /x:ox?dfly k|sfz kfg{'sf ;fy} ;+/If0fsf] k|of;
u/]sf] pNn]v 5 . rLgn] ;g\ @)!% leqdf u|6] jfn ;+/If0f cleofg ;DkGg
ug{]5 .
o; of]hgfcGtu{t\ xfn;Dd kvf{nsf] ;+/If0f ug{'kg{] vG8sf] gS;f+sg
sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . @# ;o jif{ cufl8sf lrlgofFF o'4lj1 ;'g ;' gLlt
o'4 snfnfO{{ bz{g dfg]/ ztfAbLcf}+ cl3sf lrlgofFF zf;sn] lgdf{0f ug{
nufPsf] u|]6jfnsf] dxTj cfw'lgs ;dodf emg\ a9]/ uPsf] ljZn]if0f
rfOgf 8]nLn] u/]sf] 5 .

;fd;'sf] Uofn]S;L P * g]kfnL ahf/df

sf7df8f}F . sf]l/ofnL :df6{kmf]g pTkfbs ;fd;'n] cfkm\gf] clxn];Ddsf]


;j}eGbf kftnf] :df6{kmf]g Uofn]S;L P * ;f]daf/b]lv g]kfnL ahf/df
laqmL ;'? u/]sf] 5 . %=( PdPd df]6fO /x]sf] of] df]afOn ;fd;'n]
pTkfbg u/]sf :df6{kmf]gdWo] ;j}eGbf kftnf] xf] . %=& OGrsf] Pr8L
l8:Kn]oQ
' m l:qmg /x]sf] of] df]afOndf !^ d]uflkS;]n Sofd]/f k|of]u ul/Psf]
5 . :6fOln; l8hfOg / kfj/km'n Sofd]/fsf sf/0f of] ;]ud]G6df Uofn]S;L
P * ;j}eGbf pTs[i6 kmf]g xf] eGg] xfd|f] ljZjf; 5 ;fd;' df]afOnsf
g] k fn k| d ' v k| 0 fo/Tg
:yflktn] eg] :6fOn /
kfj/sf] of] hlt pTs[i6
;+of]hg c? x'g ;Sb}g\ .
g]kfnL ahf/df %# xhf/ (
;o ?k}ofF kg{] of] kmf]g
:df6{kmf]gsf kl5Nnf 6]G8
k5\ o fpg] o' j fk' : tfnfO{ {
nlIft ul/Psf] 5 .
o:tf 5g\ lkmr/
PG8 f ] O 8 nlnkk %=!=!
e;{ g af6 rNg] of]
:df6{kmf]gdf !=* luufxh{sf]
cS6fsf]/ k|f];/] / @ hLjL
ofd /x]sf] 5 . #@ hLjL
cfGtl/s d]df]/L 5 eg] dfOqmf]P;8Ldfkm{t yk #@ hLjL d]df]/L yKg
;lsG5 . ;'k/ Pdf]n]8 Pr8L k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t %=& OGr l:qmg /x]sf] 5 .
b'Oj{ 6f gfgf] l;dsf nfUg] of] kmf]gdf Pp6f l;d lgsfn]/ To;sf] ;f !@*
hLjL;Ddsf] dfOqmf] P;8L sf8{ k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 .
xf]d a6gd} lkm+u/lk|G6 ;]G;/;d]t hl8t 5 . kl5Nnf l8hfOg 6G] 8nfO{{
k5\ofPsf] of] kmf]gsf] se/ k"0f{ d]6nn] ag]sf] 5 h;n] ubf{ k|of]ustf{
lk|ldod kmf]gsf] cg"e'lt ug{ kfpg]5g\ . !^ d]uflkS;]nsf] /]o/ Sofd]/fn]
tkfO{ lgs} rlDsnf] t:jL/ lvRg ;Sg'x'G5, h;df km]; l86]S;g cnfd{
;'ljwf klg 5 . % d]uflkS;]nsf] k|mG6 Sofd]/fdf laleGg ;]NkmL df]8x?
/flvPsf] 5 . kf]6]6 df]8df o;n] !@) l8u|Lsf] jfO8 ;]NkmL klg lng
;lsG5 cyft{ u|'k ;]NkmLsf nflu of] Sofd]/f pQd 5 . cN6f jfO8 ;6,
hLcfOkm ;'l6, c6f] ;]NkmL df]8, EjfO; ;]NkmL df]8 nufotsf laz]iftf
5g\ . #)%) PdPPrsf] zlQmzfnL Aof6Lsf sf/0f tkfO{n] rfh{ ;lsg]
lrGtf dfGg'kb{}g . g]kfnL ahf/df o;sf] d"No %# xhf/ ( ;o /x]sf] 5 .

@)&@ ;fn ebf} @& ut] cfOtaf/

aLkL ;dfhjfbL geP/ /f]dflG6s cy{jfbL x'g\

aLkLsf] cg'ofoL !)! cf}F aLkL


hoGtL ljleGg sfo{qmd;lxt dgfO/x]sf
5g\ . ;fy} aLkLsf] ;dfhjfbL JofVof
nDaf, rf}8f ?kdf eO/x]sf 5g\ t/
aLkL sf]O/fnf ;dfhjfbL geP/ Ps
/f]dflG6i6 ljrf/wf/f x'g\ eGg] s'/fnfO{{

;fj{hlgs :jfldTj jf ;dfhsf]


:jfldTjdf /flvG5 . oxL ;fj{hlgs
:jfldTjsf] pTkfbgdf pTkfbg, >d,
pTkfbgsf] ljt/0f cflb s'/fx?
kb{5g\ . jL=kL=n] ;dfhjfbdf ;a}
;dfg x'g] s'/f u/]sf 5g\ t/ jf:tljs

;fDojfbdf k|hftGq ylklbof] eg]


;dfhjfb x'G5 / ;dfhjfbaf6
k|hftGq lemlslbof] eg] ;fDojfb x'G5
egL cgf}7f] JofVof u/]sf 5g\ . o;n]
ubf{ pgsf] ;dfhjfb / ;fDojfbsf]
] f] 5 .
af/]sf] lrGtg g} cd"t{ x'g k'us

k|f=8f= uf]kfn lzjfsf]6L


ljZj]Zj/ sNkgfjfbL x'g\ . pgsf
;flxTo k|mfo8jfbL / :jR5GbjfbL
dflgG5 t/ o;f] elgP klg aLkLsf]
of] c/fhs / k|fs[lts cj:yfsf]
lrGtg ePsf] b]lvG5 . oxL
c/fhs / k|sl[ ttkm{ kms{gn
' fO{{ cfbz{
dfg]/ pgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfhjfbLsf]
wf/0ffsf] k|ltjfbg u/L
cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] lj/f]w u/]sf]
b]lvG5 . t/, ;dfhjfb cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] pGgt cj:yf xf] .
of] cfly{s k|0ffnLsf] ljlzi6 ?k xf] . o;df >d, pTkfbg tyf
ljt/0f, pTkfbgsf ;fwgx? lghL lgb{z
] gdf geP/ ;fdflhs
cfjZostf / :jfldTjdf /xg] x'G5 . t/, ljZj]Zj/n]
k|hftGqdf gfddf of] ;fdflhs :jfldTjnfO{{ c:jLsf/ u/L
clwgfosTjsf] ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . ljZj]Zj/sf
;dfhjfb;DaGwLx?nfO{{ cWoog ubf{ pgsf] ;dfhjfb geP/
k|sl[ ts s[lif cy{tGq;Fu ;DalGwt cfly{s /f]dflG6l;hd\ dfq
eGg] s'/f xf] eGg] s'/f oL b:tfj]hx?sf] cWoogaf6 ;lhn}
a'em\g ;lsG5 . t/, pgn] k|jrgx? lbFbf eg] cfkm\gf
/fhgLlts /0fgLltsf] ?kdf ;dfhjfb / k|hftGqnfO{{ ldnfP/
uf]ndfn agfP/ u/]/ cd"t
{
agfP/ cfkm\gf cg'ofoLx?nfO{{
e|ddf /fVg] sfd ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 .
a]jf:tf u/L pgsf] b[li6sf]0fnfO{{ e|ldt
ug{] pgs} cg'ofoLaf6 x'g' b'vt ljifo
ePsf] 5 . x'g t g]kfndf h] hf] 5}g
Tof] g} JofVof ul/G5 / cfkm\gf] cg'sn
'
agfpg] k|of; ul/G5 . aLkLnfO{{ klg
pg}sf] cg'ofoLaf6 cfkm\gf] cg'sn
"
JofVof ug{] / k|of]u ug{] sfd ePsf]
5 . o;}n] aLkL hoGtLsf] cj;/df
pgsf] ;dfhjfbL ljrf/sf] af/]df
uDeL/tf ;fy ;f]Rg' kg{] ePsf] 5 .
lj=;+= !(&! sf] ebf} @$ ut]
hGd]sf ljZj]Zj/ sf]O/fnf g]kfnsf]
/fhgLltdf sl/a &) jif{ ; Dd
s]Gb|ljGb'df /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ljZj]Zj/
sf]O/fnf ljBfyL{ x'Fbf sDo'lgi6
ljrf/wf/fsf lyP t/ kl5 ef/tsf
g]tf tyf lrGts /fddgf]x/ nf]xof tyf
hok|sfzsf] gf/fo0fsf] k|efjdf k/L
;dfhjfbL ePsf x'g\ t/ pgsf]
;dfhjfbL b[li6sf]0f eg] ufGwLaf6
k|efljt ePsf] b]lvG5 . o;}n] g}
ljZj] Z j/ sf] O /fnfn] cfkm\ g f]
;dfhjfbnfO{{ ljz]if k|sf/sf] ;dfhjfb
egL o;sf] JofVof ;d]t u/]sf lyP .
cfdhgtfsf nflu Gofok"0f{ / cfly{s
ljsf;nfO{{ g} ;dfhjfb eg]sf 5g\
oBlk pgn] k|hftflGqs ;dfhjfbnfO{{
eg] pbf/jfbL k|hftGq;Fu ldnfP/
;dfhjfbnfO{{ JofVof u/]sf] kfOG5 .
o;}n] pbf/ k'h
F Ljfbsf] lj?4sf] cjwf/0ff
;dfhjfbnfO{{ oxL pbf/jfb k'h
F Ljfb;Fu
ldnfpg vf]Hbf pgsf] ;dfhjfb g}
/f]dflG6s ;dfhjfb eO{ uf]ndfn x'g
k'us
] f] b]lvG5 . pgn] ;a} 7fpF cfk"m
cg's'n x'g] u/L dfq l;8\gLsf]
;dfhjfbL ;Dd]ngdf lbPsf] kfFr a'bF ]
;dfhjfbL;DaGwL JofVofnfO{{ x]bf{ of]
s'/f k|i6 x'G5 .
;dfhjfb eg]sf] cfly{s k|0ffnL xf] .
of] cfly{s k|0ffnLdf pTkfbgsf ;fwgx?

;dfhjfbdf ;a}n] ;dfgtf ;dfg ?kdf


k|fKt gu/]/ Ifdtfcg';f/sf] >d /
cfjZostf cg';f/sf] k|flKt eGg]
a'emfpF5 . bf];f| ] s'/f j}1flgs ;dfhjfb
k'h
F LjfbnfO{{ cGTo u/]/ :yfkgf x'g]
;j{xf/fju{sf] clwgfoTjdf x'g] Joj:yf
xf] t/ aLkLsf] ;dfhjfb ;j{xf/f ju{sf]
;dfhjfb geP/ s[ifL ;dfhjfbsf]
?kdf /x]sf] kfOG5 .
ljZj]Zj/ sf]O/fnf ufGwLaf6 a9L
k|efljt ePsf] kfOG5 . pgn] cfk"mnfO{{
cy{zf:qL gePsf] ;d]t :jLsf/ u/]sf
5g\ . o;}n] /fli6o of]hgf cfof]usf]
xndf xnf] hflt/x]sf] ls;fgsf] kmf]6f]
/fVg / /fhfsf] lxtdf geP/ ls;fgsf]
lxtdf cfly{s of]hgf tof/ ug'k{ g{]
;Nnfx lbPsf]n] klg pgL dhb'/ /
cGo >lds hgtfsf] geP/
ls;fgx?sf] ;dfhjfbsf] kIfdf /x]sf]
b]lvPsf] 5 . ljZj]Zj/n] ufpFnfO{{
a]jf:tf u/]/ ul/g] ljsf;nfO{{ ljsf;
g} xf]Og eg]sf 5g\ . zx/ s]lGb|t ePsf]
/ ufpFnfO{{ j]jf:tf ul/g] ljsf;, ljsf;
g} xf]Og eGg] pgsf] wf/0ff /x]sf] 5 .
pgn] klZrdf k|f?k g]kfnsf] nflu
pko'Qm gx'g] / pRr :t/sf] k|ljlw
;d]t g]kfnsf] nflu pko'Qm gePsf]
eGg] wf/0ff JoQm u/]sf lyP . pgn]
j}bl] zs ;xof]un] xfd|f] ljsf; x'gsf
;f j}bl] zs ;xof]usf] lxgfldgf ug{] /
d'ns
' nfO{{ xfgL x'G5 eGg] wf/0ff /x]sf]
5 . o;} n ] pgsf] ;dfhjfbsf]
sfo{qmddf cGo ljZjsf] k|f?knfO{{
OGsf/ ug's
{ f] ;fy} pRr k|ljlw tyf
j}bl] zs ;xof]unfO{{ ;d]t d'ns
' sf] lxt
ljkl/t x'g] wf/0ff kfOG5 . o;}n] ubf{
g} /fli6o of]hgfsf] cfof]udf xnf] hf]ts
] f]
ls;fgsf] kmf]6f] /fVg'n] pgL s[lifdf
cf}Bf]lss/0f oflGqs/0f / pRr k|ljlwsf]
lj/f]wdf /x]sf] kfOG5 . jL=kL= n]

aLkLn] k|hftGqnfO{{ g} ;dfhjfbsf] ?kdf


JofVof ug{ k'us
] f]n] pgL oyfy{ eGbf
klg /f]dflG6s / sfNklgs ePsf]
b]lvPsf] 5 .
aLkLsf] cfbz{ gd'gfsf] OsfOnfO{{
xbf{ ;d]t pgL cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg,
oflGqs/0f, cf} l Bs/0fsf] kIfdf
b]lvFbg} g\ . pgsf] cfbz{ ;dfhjfb
;fdfGtjfb cfpg'eGbf cufl8sf]
k|fs[lts cj:yfsf] ;dfhjfb xf] eGg]
a'em\g ;lsG5 . pgn] cfbz{ ufpF,
Oyf]lkofsf] ?kdf g} ;dfhjfbsf]
kl/sNkgf u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] pTkfbgsf]
;fwg ;fd'lxs :jfldTjdf /fVg] kIfdf
b]lvFbg} . pgsf] ;dfhjfbdf ufpFdf
3/ xf];\ / k|To]s 3/df Ps xn uf]?,
b"w vfg nflu ufO{ xf];\ / vfg k'Ug]
v]taf/L xf];\ egL kl/sNkgf u/]sf
5g\ . o;af6 k|To]s kl/jf/ :jtGq,
cfTdlge{/ x'g] kl/sNkgf pgsf] /x]sf]
5 . v]t hf]Tgsf] nflu uf]?, b"w vfgsf]
nflu ufO{, vfgsf] nflu v]tL ug{sf]
nflu ;fgf] v]tL x'g' g} pgsf]
;dfhjfbsf] cfbz{ OsfO{ xf] . o;df
uf] ? , ufO{ / v] t Lsf] cjwf/0ff
cfw'lgs/0f / oflGqs/0fsf] lj?4df
/x]sf] 5 . pgn] 6\ofS6/nfO{{ kl/Tofu
u/L Ps xn uf]?, xnf] hf]Tg ls;fgnfO{{
g} cfbz{ dfg]sf 5g\ / cfk"mnfO{{ rflxg]
;dfg cfkm}nF ] pTkfbg ug{] / cfTdlge{/
x'g] pgs]f ;f]rfO{ b]lvG5 . o;af6 s'g}
s'/f klg k/lge{/ x'g] / ljlzi6s/0f /
ljljlws/0fsf] jt{dfg cjwf/0ffnfO{{
c:jLsf/ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;dfhjfbsf]
df}lns wf/0ffdf s[lif If]qaf6 dfly
cf}lBs/0f, ljlzli6s/0f, oflGqs/0fsf]
cj:yf /xG5 / k|To]sn] cfcfkm\gf]
>dnfO{{ ljlzli6s/0faf6 cToflws
k|of]u u/L ;d[l4 / pGgt ;dfhsf]
kl/sNkgf ub{5 . t/ aLkL o;sf] l7s

ljkl/t k|frLgsfndf /x]sf] s[lifsf]


:jlge{ / s[ l if Joj;fonfO{ { g}
;dfhjfbsf] cfbz{ 7fg]sf] b]lvG5 .
To;}n] pgsf] ;dfhjfb pGgt cf}Bf]lus
;dfhjfb geP/ k|sl[ ttkm{ kms{ eGg]
/f]dflG6l;hd\sf] ;}4flGts cfwf/df
ag]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 .
!& cf}F ztfAbLdf ?;sf] dflg;
:jtGq hGd5 / pm ;fnfn] afFlwg
k'U5 egL k|sl[ tdf dfq dflg; :jtGq
/xG5 ;S5 eGg] kl/sNkgf u/]sf lyP .
o;}sf] cfwf/df o'/f]kdf ;]S;lko/,
cf]N;{jN8{, ;]nL cflbn] ;flxTodf
/f]dflG6s ljrf/wf/f rnfPsf lyP /
To;a]nfsf] gf/f g} k|sl[ ttkm{ kms{ eGg]
/x]sf] lyof] . g]kfndf klg nIdLk|;fbsf]
b]jsf]6fsf] lgaGwdf 38Lsf] lj?4 efn]
af;]sf] jf l9F8f] / l;:g' vfPsf]nfO{{
a9L /f]dflG6s tl/sfn] pNn]v u/]sf
5g\ . ljZj]Zj/sf] ;'lDgdf pkGof;df
k|frLg cj:yfnfO{{ a8f] sfNklgs 9+uaf6
k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ .
ljZj]Zj/ sNkgfjfbL x'g\ . pgsf
;flxTo k|mfo8jfbL / :jR5GbjfbL
dflgG5 t/ o;f] elgP klg aLkLsf] of]
c/fhs / k|fs[lts cj:yfsf] lrGtg
ePsf] b]lvG5 . oxL c/fhs / k|sl[ ttkm{
kms{gn
' fO{{ cfbz{ dfg]/ pgn] cfkm\gf]
;dfhjfbLsf] wf/0ffsf] k|ltjfbg u/L
cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] lj/f]w u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
t/, ;dfhjfb cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] pGgt
cj:yf xf] . of] cfly{s k|0ffnLsf] ljlzi6
?k xf] . o;df >d, pTkfbg tyf
ljt/0f, pTkfbgsf ;fwgx? lghL
lgb{z
] gdf geP/ ;fdflhs cfjZostf
/ :jfldTjdf /xg] x'G5 . t/, ljZj]Zj/n]
k|hftGqdf gfddf of] ;fdflhs
:jfldTjnfO{ { c:jLsf/ u/L

d+ l ;/===
uf]Ko /fVg o;n] d2t k'Ub5 .
xfn;Dd Ps ;oj6f /fi6x? O
kf;kf]6{ sfof{Gjogdf uO;s]sf 5g\ .
tL /fi6sf $@ s/f]8 ;+Vofsf] O
kf;kf]6{x? ;+rfngdf /x]sf 5g\ .
g]kfndf x:tlnlvt kf;kf]6k{ l5 ;g\
@)!) l8;]Da/b]lv d]l;g l/8Pan
kf;kf] 6 { s f] ;' ? jft eof] . of]
kf;kf]6s
{ f] ;'?jft eP;Fu} o;cl3
hf/L ePsf ;Dk" 0 f{ kf;kf] 6 { x ?
cfufdL d+ l ;/sf] * ut] b ] l v
x:tlnlvt x'g] 5}gG. cyf{t d+l;/
* ut]b]lv s'g} klg x:tlnlvt
kf;kf]6{x? rNg] 5}gg\ . /fxbfgL
ljefun] x:tlnlvt kf;kf]6{ ePsf
;Dk"0f{nfO{{ clxn] g} ljefudf uO{
kf;kf]6{ kl/jt{g ug{sf nflu klg
cfu|x u/]sf] 5 .
/fxbfgL ljefu dlGqkl/ifbaf6
Okf;kf]6s
{ f] sfo{ljlw kfl/t eP;Fu}
Okf;kf]6{ k|of]udf Nofpgsf nflu
tof/Ldf h'6]sf] 5 . o;sf nflu
/fxbfgL ljefusf dxflgb{ ] z s
nf] s axfb' / yfkfsf] g] t [ T jdf ^
;b:oLo Ps k|fljlws sldl6 ;d]t
u7g ePsf] 5 . ;ldltsf ;+of]hs
tyf ljefusf dxflgb{]zs yfkfn]
;]tf]kf6Ll;tsf] s'/fsfgLdf casf] @
# dlxgfleq} ;DjlGwt lj1x?sf]
cg'ej;lxt Okf;kf]6s
{ f ;DjGwdf
lj:t[t cWoog x'g] atfP . O
kf;kf]6{sf] PS;g Knfg :jLs[t
eO;s] s f] 5, ca lj:t[ t
cWoognuQ} Unf]an 6]08/ cfXjfg
ug{] ;DjGwdf k|lqmof ;'? x'G5 pgn]
eg] . @# jif{leqdf Okf;kf]6{df
hfg] u/L ljefu cl3 a9]sf] pgn]
atfP . Okf;kf]6d
{ f uPkl5 d]l;g
l/8]an kf;kf]6{ klg rNb} hfg]5 .
sltkon] Okf;kf]6d{ f uPkl5 d]l;g
l/8]an kf;kf]6{ grNg] xNnf rnfPsf]
k|lt yfkfn] cfklQ hgfP . b'j}
kf;kf]6{ jiff{;
} Dd rNb} hfG5, t/
Okf;kf]6s
{ f] lj:tf/nfO{{ eg] a9fpFb}
nlug]5 pgn] eg] . OG6/g];gn
l;len PleP;g cu{gfOh]g; cfO{sfcf]_n] g]kfnnfO{{ Okf;kf]6{df
hfg clxn] g} lgb{z
] g eg] glbPsf]
pgn] hfgsf/L lbP . lgb{z
] g glbP
klg xfdL rfF8} g} o; k|lqmofdf

clwgfosTjsf] ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ .


ljZj]Zj/sf ;dfhjfb;DaGwLx?nfO{{
cWoog ubf{ pgsf] ;dfhjfb geP/
k|sl[ ts s[lif cy{tGq;Fu ;DalGwt
cfly{s /f]dflG6l;hd\ dfq eGg] s'/f xf]
eGg] s'/f oL b:tfj]hx?sf] cWoogaf6
;lhn} a'em\g ;lsG5 . t/, pgn]
k|jrgx? lbFbf eg] cfkm\gf /fhgLlts
/0fgLltsf] ?kdf ;dfhjfb /
k|hftGqnfO{{ ldnfP/ uf]ndfn agfP/
u/] / cd" { t
agfP/ cfkm\ g f
cg'ofoLx?nfO{{ e|ddf /fVg] sfd ePsf]
b]lvPsf] 5 .
ljZj]Zj/ sf]O/fnfnfO{{ l;4fGtdf
k|hftGq,/fi6jfb / ;dfhjfb egL
JofVof ug{] ul/G5 t/ of] klg unt
xf] . k|hftGq eGg] s'/f l;4fGt xf]Og
of] hLjgdf k| o f] u ul/g]
hLjgz}nL,Jofjxf/ xf] t/ ljZj]Zj/
sf]O/fnfn] nf]stflGqs Jofjxf/ u/]gg\
/ pgn] g]tT[ jdf /xFbf Ps JolQmo lg0f{o
u/L kf6L{leq clwgfos rnfPsf]
b]lvPsf] 5 . kf6L{nfO{{ kl/jf/jfbsf]
?kdf rnfPsf] kfOG5 . pgsf]
k|hftGqdf s'lxPsf] sf]O/fnf eg] klg
k|hftGqjfbL x'g] kl/jf/jfbsf] z'4tf
dfkb08 sfod ul/Psf] b]lvPsf] 5 .
pgn] slxn] klg kf6L{nfO{{ nf]stflGqs
;+:yfsf] ?kdf ljsf; ug{ lbPgg\ /
rfx]gg\ klg, Ps JolQm kf6L{sf] ?kdf
rn]sf]n] pgsf] zf;gnfO{{ /fhf dx]Gb|n]
tf;sf] dxn h:t} eTsfP/ kmflnlbPsf]
b]lvG5 . o;}n] ljZj]Zj/n] cfk"mnfO{{
k|hftGqsf] ;d?k dfg]/ cfkm}n
F fO{{
k|hftGq dfg]sf] 5g\ / cfkm\gf lj/f]wLnfO{{
k|hftGqsf] lj/f]wL dfg]sf] s'/f t pgs}
kf6L{sf] leqsf] lj/f]wLk|lt u/]sf]
Jojxf/af6 yfxf x'g ;S5 . o:t} pgsf]
nfUg]5f}F, yfkfn] eg] cflv/ s'g} g
s'g} lbg xfdL Tof] k|lqmofdf hfg' g}
kb{5 . Okf;kf]6d
{ f ljz]if lrk
/xg] / cGo Sjfln6L klg x'g] x'bF f
o;sf] ;/sf/L nfut d]l;g l/8]an
kf;kf]6e
{ Gbf dxFuf] kg{] pgn] atfP .
yfkfn] eg] ;/sf/L nfut dxFuf] kg{'
:jefljs xf], t/ k|of]ustf{nfO{{ slt
dxFuf] k5{ eg]/ clxn] eGg ;lsFbg} .
pgsf cg';f/ ;fwf/0f k|lqmofaf6
d]l;g l/8]an kf;kf]6{ 5kfpFbf Ps
kf;kf]6{sf] nfut # bzdnj %(
cd]l/sL 8n/ nfUb} cfPsf] 5 .
To:t} k|To]If btf{ k|0ffnLaf6
d]l;g l/8Pan kf;kf]6{ 5kfpFbf
Pp6f kf;kf]6s
{ f] nfut $ bzdnj
*( cd]l/sL 8n/ kg{] ub{5. h'g
k|0ffnLnfO{{ /fxbfgL ljefun] rfF8}
;'?jft ug{] qmddf /x]sf]5 .

cf] n Lsf] ===


= ==

r'gfj s]xL g]tfx?sf] /f]xa/df


g]kfnsf] ;}GozlQmsf] b'?kof]u u/]/
@)&) df ul/of] / hgtfnfO{ {
;+qmd0fsfnsf] kmfObf p7fO{ cfFvfdf
5f/f] xfNg] sfd ul/of] / Tof]
tfgfzfxLsf cjz]ifx?sf] ar{:j x'g]
u/L g]kfndf hgtfsf] lxtlakl/t /
g]tfcg'sn
" sf] ;+ljwfgsf] gfddf s]xL
zf;g;Qf yf]kl/Fb}5 .
slyt ;+ljwfg;efsf] gf}6L /
kZrufdL ;+ljwfgsf] d'Vo u|fG8
l8hfOgsf/ k"jL{ bf;Tjsf gfos /
blIf0fkGyL cfTd;dk{0fjfbsf gfos
cf]nL / e/fO{ x'g\ lsgeg] ;fgf] 5Fbf
;fx"sf] xnL a;]sf cf]nL xnL 5Fbfsf]
l/; ca km]g]{ bfpdf 5g\ . hgtfnfO{{
klg cfk"meGbf dfly pDsg lbg' x'bF g}
eGg] dfGotfsf 5g\ / cfk"m of] b]zsf]
/fhf tyf ;Ddflgt x'g rfxG5g\ /
;fdGtL bf;Tjsf] >Lk]r lz/dfly
nfpg rfxG5g\ / of] pgLn] ug{j] fnf
klg 5g\ . otf 8fS6/ afa'/fdhL
k'/fg} blIf0fkGyL;Fu ;fF7ufF7 /x]sf]n]
Tof] gftf 6'6fpg rfxFbg} g\ / pgLx?s}
/f]xa/sf] sfo{sf/L s';L{df a:g
rfxG5g\ . To;}n] t xf]nf pg} 8fS6/
sfo{sf/L x'Fbf g} hgo'4sf] ;]gf
x:tfGt/0f u/], xltof/ x:tfGt/0f
u/], log} sf/0fn] b]zsf] d'Vo zlQm
jf 7"nf] kf6L{ l5ofl5of x'g k'Uof],

/fi6jfb, /fli6o d]nldnfk klg k|Zgsf


?kdf v8f ePsf 5g\ . pgsf]
clwsf+z hLjg ef/tdf laTof] . pgsf]
k|f/lDes hLjg ljxf/sf] ;f];lni6
kf6L{sf] g]tfsf] ?kdf /x\of] . pgn] yf]/}
hLjgdf dfq g]kfndf latfPsf lyP
eg] pgsf] ;a} sfo{ ljb]zLx?sf]
k|efjaf6 ePsf] kfOG5 . pgsf cfkm\gf
kl/jf/nfO{{ ;d]t g]kfndf :yflkt gu/L
cGoq u/]sf]n] pgsf] /fi6kl| tsf] wf/0ff
a'em\g ;lsG5 . hxfF;Dd d]nldnfksf]
s'/f 5, @)## ;fndf ef/t k|jf;df
/xFbf pgnfO{{ OlGb|/f ufGwL ;/sf/n]
l;lSsd ljnokl5 g]kfnsf] t/fO{nfO{{
ljefhg u/L ef/tdf ldnfpg]
of]hgfcg';f/ sfd u/]sf] cj:yfdf
ljZj]Zj/nfO{{ t/fO{ ljefhg u/fpg
OlGb|/f ufGwLn] eg]sf] / gdfg]df kqmfp
u/L y'Gg] wDsL lbPkl5 To;a]nf
lj/]Gb|;uF ;Dks{ u/L ef/t 5f]8/]
g]kfndf cfPsf] eGg] s'/f ;a}nfO{{ yfxf
x'gk' b{5 . of] /fhf;Fusf] d]nldnfksf]
nflu geP/ t/fO{ ljefhgsf] cfGbf]ngdf
gnfu]df ef/td} kqmfp k/L h]ndf
a:g'eGbf g]kfn cfpFbf a9L ;'/lIft
x'g] ePsf]n] ef/taf6 axfb'/Lsf ;fy
efu]sf dfq x'g\ . o;nfO{{ d]nldnfksf]
cfj/0fdf gf6s d~rg ul/Psf] dfq
xf] . o:tf s'/fnfO{{ lnP/ ljZj]Zj/nfO{{
dxfdfgj agfpg' / clt/l~ht ug'n
{ ]
Oltxf;nfO{{ dfq xf]Og ljZj]Zj/ :jod\sf]
nflu klg cGofo x'g uPsf] 5 .
ljZj]Zj/sf] !)! cf}F hoGtLdf k'gM
d"Nof+sg x'gk' b{5 / pgsf] ljZn]if0f /
Jojxf/nfO{{ k'gM efio ul/Pdf dfq o;n]
g]kfnsf] oyfy{ Oltxf; aGg ;Sg]
eGg]tkm{ cf}NF ofpg cfjZos ePsf]n]
of] r]i6f ;"Id ?kdf oxfF ul/Psf] xf] .
cfh ltg} 8fS6/ gofF zlQmsf] vf]hLdf
5g\ lh s'g} t'ssf] 5}g .
otf >L % cf]nLn] cfk"mcg'sn
" sf]
;+lawfg hf/L ug{sf] nflu cfkm\gf
ef8fsf u'G8fx? t/fO{df dw]zL, yf?
;d'bfosf] dfu cfGbf]ngnfO{{ bdg
ug{ kl/rfng ul/of] /] eGg] s'/f
;'g]sf] 5' . o;/L u'G8fsf gfOs]x?
klg hgg]tfdf ;Daf]lwt e}/x]sf
5g\ . s' g } /fd| f ] g] t f eof] ls
;'lgof]lht tl/sfn] ;'6 ug{] klg
hgg]tf < s]kL s]jn u'G8f xf], 8fS6/
s]jn bnfn xf] . ;fFRrL eGg] xf] eg]
g]kfndf clxn];Dd s'g} g]tf g} 5}g .
clxn]sf g]tf egfpFbf t bnfn,
3';vf]/L, 8fsf, rf]/, km6fxf, xTof/f,
ck/fwL, n'6]/f, cftsf/L, b]zb|f]xL
x'g\ . g]tfsf] gfddf hgtfsf] s/
vfg]x? cfh hgtfsf] dfem pbff]
eP/ cfkm\ g f] leqL cg' x f/
b]vfpFb}5g\ . s'g} rf]/ cv08 eG5,
s'g} 8fsf ;Lo eG5 s'g} bnfn
Ps dw]z Ps k|b]z eG5, s'g}
e|i6frf/L hflto eG5 cflv/ s]
rfxG5g\ logLx? < of] b]z s] ltd|f]
afpsf] latf{ xf] < ls ltd|L cfdfsf]
bfOhf] xf] < s] of] /fHo ltd|f] Psnf}6f]
tf]of] xf] < ltdLx?nfO{{ h]h] dg kof]
ToxL ug{ ldN5 < hgtsf] la?4 u'G8f
v6fpg] g]tf < hgtfsf] efjgf
ga'em\g] g]tf < emu8f hgtfsf] xf]Og,
g]tf egfpFbfsf] 5 . ca ;a} hgt
Ps x'g h?/L 5 / hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg
hgtf cfkm}n
F ] lgdf{0f ug{ kfpg'k5{
hgfb]zsf] kfngf u5f{} t u/, xf]Og
t hgtf ltdLx?nfO{{ 5f]8\g]jfnf
5}gg\ . ltdLx?sf] >Lk]r nfufpg]
rfxgf / s';L{df a:g] rfxgf sbflk
k"/f x'g]jfnf 5}g .

;fj{ h lgs
:yfgdf kmf]xf]/
kmfn] d f
hl/jfgfdf
kl/G5 .

sf= lh=ebf}
k|= sf=@&
b= g+ut]
= !^#@)^#^$
@)&@ ;fn
cfOtaf/

v] n s' b===

s;}dfly sf/afxL l;kmfl/; u/]s}


cfwf/df bf]ifL x'g] eP clVtof/sf
k|dv
' cfo'Qm nf]sdfgl;+x sfsL{ klg
bf]ifL x'g] pgsf] egfO{ 5 . /fodfemL
cfof]un] sf/afxLsf] l;kmfl/; u/]sfn]
pgL klg bf]ifL x'g] eGb} km];a'sdf
dGqL kf}8n
] n] o;/L nf]sdfgnfO{ v'Nnf
r'gf}tL lbPsf 5g\ .
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]un] d]/f] af/]df u/]sf] l;kmfl/;
e|dk"0f{ tyf ab\gfd ug{] lgotn]
cfPsf] 5 .
!= s]zj lai6sf] lgo'lQm v]ns'b
ljsf; P]gsf] bfkmf # sf] @ -3_ / #
cg';f/ sfg'gadf]lhd ePsf] 5 .
@= ;Ifd cbfntn] s;'/bf/ 7x/
gu/];Dd s'g} klg JolQm sfg'gsf]
b[li6df cof]Uo x'bF g} . of] cbfntf/f
:yflkt dfGotf xf] .
#= s] z js' d f/ lai6nfO{
clxn];Dd /fli6o v]ns'b kl/ifb\n]
s'g} klg lsl;dsf] sf/afxL u/]sf]
hfgsf/L;Dd u/]sf] cj:yf 5}g . 3
$= hxfF ; Dd sf/jfxLsf]
l;kmfl/;sf] s'/f xf], Tof] Pl;ofnL
v]ns'bdf ;fxefuL x'bF fsf] kbsf] nflu
dfq xf] . Tof] s'g} cof]Uotfsf] ljifo
aGg ;Sb}g .
%= olb sf/jfxLsf] l;kmfl/; g}
cof] U otfsf] k| d f0f x' G 5 eg]
clVtof/sf] k|dv
' cfo'Qm nf]sdfgl;+x
sfsL{ h LnfO{ dgfgLo s[ i 0fh+ u
/fodfemLsf] Goflos cfof]un] bf]ifL
7x/ u/L sf/jfxL lglDt l;kmfl/;
u/]sf] huhfx]/ 5 . pgL s;/L k|dv
'
cfo'Qm ag] <
o;y{ of] k|fof]lht l;kmfl/; dfGg
sf]xL klg afWo x'bF g} , x'g] cfjZostf
klg 5}g . cfjZostf k/] cbfntsf]
af6f] v'Nnf 5 .

Pdfcf/kLaf6
===
Pdfcf/kLaf6===

Pdcf/kLdf kl/0ft ul/;Sg


cGt/f{ l i6 o gful/s p8\ o og
k|flws/0f -cfOsfcf]_ n] tf]s]sf]
;do;Ldfleq} sfd ;Sg s'g} ;d:of
gx'g] dxflgb{]zs yfkfsf] egfO 5 .
t/, b}lgs % xhf/ yfg Pdcf/kL
pTkfbg Ifdtf /x]sf] ljefudf xfn
;/b/ $ xhf/ dfq} cfj]bg cfpg]
u/] s fn] ;do;Ldfleq} ;a}
x:tlnlvt /fxbfgL Pdcf/kLdf
kl/jt{g eO;Sg]df zf plAhPsf]
5 . slt x:tlnlvt /fxbfgL hf/L
ePsf lyP eGg] olsg tYof gePs}
sf/0f ;d:of plAhPsf] yfkfsf] egfO
5 . clxn] x:tlnlvt /fxbfgLsf]
;+ V of s/La @% nfv dfg] /
cfOsfcf]sf] ;do;Ldf e]6g\ ] u/L sfd
eO/x]sf] 5 . To;sf nflu ;a}
Dofg'cn kf;kf]6{jfxsn] Pdcf/kL
agfpg ;dod} lgj]bg lbP/ ;xof]u
ug{ yfkfn] cfu|x u/] . ;g\ @)!%
sf] gf]eD] a/ @$ kl5 Dofg'cn kf;kf]6d{ f
ofqf ug{ gkfOg] ePsfn] ;dod} Wofg
lbg;d]t ljefun] cg'/f]w u/]sf] 5 .
ljb]zdf /x]sf cfkmGtn] Pdcf/kL
agfpg afFsL eP va/ u/L lgj]bg
lbg nufpg ljefun] cg'/f]w;d]t u/]sf]
5 . xfn;Dd !& nfv k|lt x:tlnlvt
/fxbfgL Pdcf/kLdf kl/0ft eO;s]sf
5g\ . ce}m sDtLdf & nfv k|lt afFsL
/x]sf] cg'dfg;lxt ljefun] sfd
ul//x]sf] 5 .
ljb] z df /x] s f g] k fnLnfO{ {
Pdcf/kLsf nflu lgj]bg lbg ;lhnf]
xf];\ eg]/ ljefun] ljleGg !)
d'ns
' af6 cgnfOg kmf/fd eg{] ;'ljwf
yfngL ug{ nfu]sf] 5 . g]kfnLsf]
;+Vof cTolws /x]sf dn]lzof, stf/,
s'j]t, l/ofb, h]2f, xs, n08g,
Go"of]s,{ jflz6g l8;L / ca'wfjLdf
/x]sf g]kfnL s"6gLlts lgof]u tyf
sf7df8f}s
+ f] /fxbfgL ljefudf ;d]t
u/L hDdf %) cf]6f cgnfO{g btf{
s]Gb| -nfOe Og/f]nd]06 :6]zg_
:yfkgf ug{ ut c;f/ #! ut]
cf]jy{/ 6]Sgf]nf]lhh;Fu ;Demf}tf
eO;s]sf] 5 . c;f]h;Dddf k|ToIf
btf{ k| 0 ffnL z' x' g ] ljefun]
hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 .
;g\ @)!) l8;]Da/ @^ b]lv
Pdcf/kL hf/L ug{ yfn]sf] ljefun]
xfn;Dd #$ nfv (* xhf/ ( ;o

(* yfg Pdcf/kL ljt/0f u/]sf] 5 .


tLdWo] !& nfv yfg Pdcf/kL
x:tlnlvt /fxbfgL lj:yfkg ug{
hf/L ePsf 5g\ .

b] z ===
eGg] /fhgLlts ljZn]ifsx?sf] 7x/

5 . b]zdf lbuf] zflGt / ;+ljwfg


Nofpg] xf] eg] ;/sf/ / tLg bnn]
tTsfn ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof /f]sL,
tTsfn cfGbf]ng/t ;a} bn;Fu jftf{
yfNg'k5{ . cfGbf]ng/t bn, zlQm /
;+ljwfg;ef aflx/ /x]sf bnx?;d]tsf]
;xdltdf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof
cufl8 a9fpg' cfjZos 5, cGoyf
cfGbf]ngsf] cfuf] cem blGsg]5, b]zdf
czflGtn] pu|?k lng]5, b]z r/d\
Gdf km:g]5 eGg] cfdgful/ssf]
a'emfO{ 5 .

ljQLo===

5' 6 \ o fP/ afF s L /x] s f] d Wo] s/


k|of]hgsf nflu !=%* k|ltzt gub
nfef+z lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . a}+s
;~rfns ;ldltaf6 ul/Psf] of]
lg0f{o /fi6as
+} af6 :jLs[t eO{ a}s
+ sf]
;fwf/0f;efn] kfl/t u/]kl5 ljt/0f
x'g5
] .
o;cl3 kf]v/fdf s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
/x] s f] u08sL ljsf; a} + s n]
;]o/wgLnfO{ @# k|ltzt af]g; ;]o/
lbg] 3f]if0ff ul/;s]sf] 5 . ut cfjdf
k|lt;]o/ #) ?k}ofF ($ k};f gfkmf
ug{ ;kmn of] a}+sn] af]g; ;]o/df
nfUg] s/ k|of]hgsf nflu !=@!
k|ltzt gub nfef+z klg ljt/0f
ug{] ePsf] 5 .
o;}u/L k|lt;]o/ @* ?k}ofF #$
k};f gfkmf u/]sf] l;l6hG; a}+s
OG6/g];gnn] @) k|ltzt af]g; ;]o/
/ !=)% k|ltzt gub nfef+z afF8\g]
3f]if0ff ul/;s]sf] 5 . of] a}+s rfn"
cfly{s jif{df ;a}eGbf klxn] nfef+z
3f]if0ff ug{] a}+s klg ag]sf] 5 .
l;l6hG;nfO{ g} k5\ofpFb} ;flgdf
a}s
+ n] klg nfef+z 3f]if0ff ul/;s]sf]
5 . ut cfly{s jif{df k|lt;]o/ @#
?k} o fF ^( k} ; f gfkmf sdfPsf]
;flgdfn] klg ;]o/ wgLnfO{ @)
k|ltzt af]g; ;]o/ / !=)% k|ltzt
gub nfef+z afF8g\ ] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 .
k'h
F L a9fpg'kg{] afWosf/L Joj:yfsf
sf/0f of] a}+sn] nfef+z afF8\g ldNg]
k'/fgf] ;l~rltnfO{ klg o; k6s
af]g; ;]o/ afF8\g k|of]u ug{] ePsf]
5 . of] a}+ssf] ;l~rltdf ** s/f]8
&* nfv %# xhf/ ?k}ofF 5 .
/fi6a}+sn] cfufdL b'O{ cfly{s
jif{leq jfl0fHo a}+sx?sf] r'Qmfk'FhL
cf7 ca{ k'Ug'kg{] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
o;}u/L /fli6o:t/sf] ljsf; a}+sn]
;f9] b'O{ ca{, rf/b]lv !) lhNnf
sfo{If]q ePsf] ljsf; a}s
+ n] Ps ca{
@) s/f]8 / Psb]lv tLg lhNnf
sfo{If]q ePsf] ljsf; a}+sn] %)
s/f]8 r'Qmf k'h
F L k'ofpg'k5{ . To:t}
/fli6o :t/sf kmfOgfG; sDkgLn] *)
s/f]8 / Psb]lv tLg lhNnf sfo{If]q
ePsf kmfOgfG; sDkgLn] $) s/f]8
r'Qmf k'h
F L k'ofpg'kg{] Joj:yf df}lb|s
gLltn] u/]sf] 5 .

s;n] ===
= ==
/ ;To 5fglag x'g h?/L 5 .
PG6\ofusf lgb]z
{ s yfkfsf] sfo{zn
} Ln]
ubf{ cfk"mh:tf] lgbf]{if kbflwsf/L
sf/jfxLdf kg{ ;Sg] eGb} pgn] tTsfn
o; ljifodf clVtof/nufotsf ;Da4
lgsfon] 5fglag yfnL sf/jfxL cufl8
a9fpg'kg]{ cGoyf wfg vfg] d';f rf]6
kfpg] Eofu'tf eGg] l:ylt cfpg] eGb}
pgL lrGtf hfx]/ u5{g\ .
o;} ljifonfO{ hf] 8 \ b } csf{
kbflwsf/L eG5g\, xfdLn] sfd u/]sf]
kfl/>lds dfq vfPsf 5f}F . PG6\ofudf
a|xDn'6 5 eGb} ljleGg kqklqsf /
cgnfOgdf ;dfrf/ cfpF5g\, x]bf{ xfdL
klg bf] i fLh:tf] b] l vG5f} F . t/,
jf:tljstf cs}{ 5 . xfdL :jod\
PG6\ofuleqsf kLl8t kbflwsf/L xf}F .
xf], ;dfrf/df cfPsf s'/fx? ;To
5g\ . h:tf] PG6\ofuleq ePsf ;jf/L
;fwg, Nofk6k, OGwg, d;nGb, b}lgs
e|d0feQf / k|rf/k|;f/ sfo{nufotdf
Jofks b'?kof]u ePsf] 5 . oL / o:t}
clgoldttf ePsf ljifodf xfdLn]

;Demgfdf ;'/]z jfUn]


hgo'4sf] qmddf pRr zxfbt
k| f Kt g] k fn sDo' l g:6 kf6L{
dfcf]jfbLsf tTsflng j}slNks
kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o s= ;'/z
] jfUn] jf;'_ sf] hGd uf]/vfsf] cfFklkkn
uflj;% l:yt /ft8fF8f eGg] ufpFdf
lj;+ @)!) ;fn efb| @$ ut]
a' w af/sf lbgdf :juL{ o lktf
ef]h/fh jfUn]sf h]i7 ;'kq' sf ?kdf
:juL{o dftf b'uf{bj] L jfUn]sf] sf]vjf6
ePsf] lyof] . ul/j ls;fg kl/jf/df
hlGdPsf s= ;'/]z afNofj:yfdf
ef}lts ?kdf cToGt} sdhf]/ t/
s'zfu| a'l4sf x'g'x'GYof] . 5 jif{sf]
pd]/df ;+:s[t lzIff k9\gsf nflu
dfjnL 3/ uf]/vfs} aqmf uPsf
s= jf;'n] ToxL dfdf 3/d} j;]/
;flxnf xh'/jf >L u0f]zk|;fb cof{n
-sfgf u'?_ ;Fu sIff & a/fa/sf]
cf}krfl/s lzIff/De xfFl;n u/]sf
ug{e
' Psf] lyof] . kl5 lj=;+= @)@$
;fndf sf7df8f}d
+ f cfP/ /fgLkf]v/L
l:yt efg' dfljaf6 sIff * df
dWodf llto >]0fLdf pQL0f{ u/] .
To;} u /L /fgLkf] v /L ;+ : s[ t
5fqjf;df a;]/ lj;+ @)@* ;fndf
jfNdLsL SofDk;jf6 pQ/ dWodf /
lj;+ @)#) ;fndf zf:qL;Ddsf]
cWoog klg lgoldt ?kdf k"/f
ug{'ePsf] lyof] . To;}qmddf lj;+
@)@& ;fnaf6} pgL g]kfn / g]kfnLsf]
d'lQmsf] nflu / b]zLo ;fdGtjfbL,
;+zf]wgjfbL k'FhLjfbL zf;sx?,
:jtGq /fi6sf] ;fj{ef}d;Qfdfly gff]
x:tIf]k ug{] ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbL
zf;sju{ / cd]l/sL ;fd|fHojfbsf
lj?4 n8\g] Psdfq qmflGtsf/L kf6L{
g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ k|lt cfslif{t
k'Ug'ePsf] lyof] .
Tolta] n } pgn] GfTds
P]ltxfl;s ef}ltsjfb, sDo'lgi6
3f]if0ff kq, dfS;{jfbL lzIff / n]lggsf
qmflGtsf/L u|Gyx?sf] cWoog ug{s
' f
;fy} dfcf]sf ;+slnt /rgfx?sf]
;d]t cWoog u/]/ cfk"mnfO{{ klg
;dfh kl/jt{gsf] dxfg\ qmflGtsf/L
af6f]df bf}8fO ;Sg'ePsf] lyof] .
;[hgzLn Ifdtf / ;xL ljZn]if0f ug{
;Sg] tfut ePsf s= jfUn] ljBfyL{
cj:yf b]lv qmflGtsf/L ;+u7g u08sL ljBfyL{ kl/ifb\_ df cfj4
eO{ To;sf] ;lrj ;d]t x'ge
' Psf]
lyof] .
pxfFn] To;a]nf u08sL ljBfyL{
;+u7gsf] d'vkq nfn'kft]df DoflS;d
uf]sL{sf] af/]df ;+Zn]if0ffTds n]v
;d]t 5kfpg'ePsf] lyof] . lj;+
@)#! ;fndf cfkm\g} u[x lhNnf uf]/vf
kmls{P/ lj;+ @)#@ df cfkm\g} ufpF
cfFkkLknsf] hgtf dfljdf lzIf0f
k]zfdf cfj4 ePtf klg s= jfUn]
tTsflng g]skf d;fndf cfj4 eO{
;s]sf lyP . pgL g} cfFklkkn If]qdf
sDo'lgi6x?sf] lahf/f]k0f ug{] klxnf]
JolQm klg x'gx' G' 5 .
lj;+ @)#$ ;fndf g]skf rf}dsf]
lgb]z
{ s yfkf;Fu oyfy{ ljj/0f dfUg
vf]Hbf ;+:yf rnfpg ufx|f] 5, ;a}sf]
lx;falstfa vf]Hg] sfd gug';
{ ,\ olb
lrQ a'b}g eg] cfgf] lx;falstfa
lnP/ hfg';\ egL wDsfpF5g\ . olb
pgn] ;xL kf/bzL{ sfd u/]sf] eP g
xfdLn] kL8f ef]Ug'kYof]{ g ;+:yfn]
afnaflnsfsf] gfddf NofPsf]
cg'bfgsf] b'?kof]u eof] eg]/ ;dfrf/
aGg'kYof]{ < of] ;a} x'gd' f lgb]z
{ s yfkf
g} k|dv
' bf]ifL ePsf] tL kbflwsf/Lsf]
7x/ 5 . o;} ;Gbe{df pgL cufl8
eG5g\, lgb]z
{ s yfkfsf] 5f]/f cd]l/sf
a:5g\, yfkfn] 5f]/fnfO{ cd]l/sfdf g}
k9fO/x]sf 5g\, ca cfk"m klg s'g}
lbg k'mQ cd]l/sf k'Ug ;S5g\ eGb}
lgb]{zs yfkfn] PG6\ofudf u/]sf]
clgoldttfaf6 g} pgn] 5f]/fnfO{
cd]l/sf k9fpg] vr{sf] hf]xf] ug]{
u/]sf tL kbflwsf/Lsf] 7f]sj' f 5 .
o; ;Gbe{df PG6\ofusf Ps
sd{rf/L eG5g\, PG6\ofudf e|i6frf/
eof] eg]/ ljleGg ;~rf/ dfWoddf

kf6L{ ;b:otf lnPsf jfUn] tTsflng


lzIfsx?sf] 5ftf ;+u7g g]kfn
/fli6o lzIfs ;+u7g tby{ ;ldlt
uf]/vfsf] ;lrj kbdf lj;+ @)#^
;fndf pgL nueu uf] / vfdf
qmflGtsf/L lzIfssf] g] t f
alg;Sg'ePsf] lyof] . lj;+ @)#%
#^ ;fn lt/ uf]/vfsf] x+;k'/ uflj;sf]
1fg Hof]lt dfljdf ;?jf ePsf s=

lgjf{lrt x'gk'Ug'eof] . To;kl5 pgL


g]/flz ;+u7g uf]/vfaf6 s]Gb|Lo
k|ltlglw aGg'eof] . g]/flz ;+u7gsf]
k|To]s a}7sdf s= jfUn] kf6L{sf] nfOg
lnP/ hfg' x'GYof] / k|:tfljt Tof]
nfOgsf] ;xL ljZn]if0f u/L a}7sdf
kf; u/fpg] clu|d /f]n v]Ng' x'GYof] .
o;/L o; If]qdf sDo'lgi6sf] g]t[Tj
u/] s } sf/0fn] tTsflng k~r]

;'/z
] jfUn];uF ToxfF 6'sgfy clwsf/L,
t'n;L vgfn, ljGb]>L ofbj, Clif
clwsf/L cflb ;/x? sfo{/t lyP .
lbpF ; f] pgLx? ljBfnosf]
lzIf0fnfO{{ cg'zfl;t 9+un] cuf8L
a9fpb} ljxfg / a]n'sf :yflgo
hgtfx?nfO{{ cGofo / cTofrf/sf]
lj?4 uf] n aGb u/fpb} ul/j /
lgd'vfsf] /fHo Nofpg] dfS;{jfbL
lzIffn] k|lzIfLt / ;+u7Lt ub{} nfGy] .
pgLx?sf o:tf qmflGtsf/L
ultljlwx?nfO{{ k+rfotsf e/f}6x] ?n]
b]lv ;x]gg\ . cg]s afxgf agfP/
oL ;+ul7t lzIfsx?nfO{{ k+rsf
e/f} 6 ] a f6 if8\ o Gqd" n s 9+ u n]
ltt/ljt/ agfOof] . s= jfUn] k'gM
hgtf dflj cfF k kLknd} ;?jf
x'ge
' of] .
To;kl5 ljBfyL{ s f slnnf
lbdfudf 1fgsf] Hof]ltsf] ;f bdg,
kIfkft, lk8f / oftgf lbOof] .
sf+u|];sf] etL{s]Gb| ag]/ lj/f]wL clvn_ ljBfyL{x?nfO{{ em'f cf/f]k
nufpg] , oftgf lbg] , @# jif{
lgof]lht 9+un] km]n ul/lbg] u'08f
nufP/ lk6fpg], v]bg\ ] h:tf cToGt}
aa{/ bdg ul/of] . lk8f ;x]/ 1fg
Hof] l tdf clvnsf ljBfyL{ x ?n]
cfkm\gf] cWoognfO{{ cufl8 a9fP .
w]/} k|ltsf/ u/]df cfkm\gf] eljio g}
vQd x' g ] 8/n] w] / } ljBfyL{ x ?
qfxLqfxLdf k9\g ljjz eP . lj;+
@)#& ;fndf g]kfn /fli6o lzIfs
;+ u 7g uf] / vfsf] klxnf] lhNnf
clwj]zgdf ;lrj kbdf s= jfUn]
;dfrf/ cfpFbf / ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{
5fglag u/L bf]ifLdfly sf/jfxL ul/kfpF
egL u'xfbf{ klg xfn;Dd s'g} ;'gj' fO{
gePsf] b'Mv];f] JoQm u5{g\ / cufl8
eG5g\, oxfF sfof{no ;dokl5 / ljbfsf]
lbgdf ;d]t a;]/ e|i6frf/ ePsf
sfuhftx? ufoa kfg],{ ldnfpg] sfd
eO/x]sf] 5 . v}, s'g} lgsfosf]
clxn];Dd cfFvf k'us
] f] xf]Og <

;/sf/n] s. jfUn] n fO{ { c:yfoL


lzIfssf] ?kdf /xg afWo kfl//Xof] .
:yfoL x'g} lbPg .
cfkm\gf] 3/fo;L / JolQmut
;d:ofnfO{{ pxfF lzIfs ;+u7g /
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] ;d:ofsf] t'ngfdf
hlxn] klg uf}0f 7fGg'x'GYof] . kf6L{ /
;+u7gsf] ;d:ofnfO{{ k|wfg ;d:ofsf]
?kdf lnGy] . lj;+ @)$! ;fndf
uf]/vf lhNnfsf tTsflng k~r]sf
b'tx?n] pgnfO{{ g]/flz ;+u7gaf6
/fhLgfdf lbP dflj :yfoL lzIfs
agfOlbG5f},+ a? :yfoL ePkl5 tkfO{
k'gM g]/flz ;+u7gsf] lhDd]jf/ ;b:o
eP klg To;df xfdLnfO{{ s'g} dtnj
5}g / tkfO{n] /fhLgfdf lbPsf] s'/f
klg uf]Ko /fV5f}+ eGbf klg s= jfUn]
g]/flz ;+u7gdf /x]/ c:yfoL g} a:g'
k/]klg 7Ls 5, d cfkm\gf] g}ltstfnfO{{
w/f}6L /fv]/ :yfoL lzIfs aGg] d]/f]
g} l tstfn] lb+ b } g egL k~r] s f
b'tx?sf] k|:tfjnfO{{ l;w} c:jLsf/
ug{'ePsf] lyof] . s7f]/ ;fwgf /
tk:ofkl5 lj;+ @)$^ / $& sf]
cfGbf]ng kl5 pxfF :yfoL lzIfs
aGgk'Ug'eof] .
!& jif{ ; Dd lzIf0f k] z fdf
cljlR5Gg ;]jf u/]sf jfUn]nfO{{
k~rfotL zf;sx?n] To;a]nf;Dd
:yfoL x'g lbPsf lyPgg\ . pN6} pxfFn]
pu|jfbL sf] ljNnf leg{k' /]sf] lyof] .
pu|jfbL cf/f]ks} sf/0f lj;+ @)#^
;fndf k|x/L vf]/df k/]sf sf/0f pxfF
:yfoL x'g kfpg'ePsf] lyPg . lj;+
@)$& ;fnsf] k|ltlglw ;efsf]

gff===

klg pgn] atfP . e"sDkkl5 klg


g]kfnsf] ko{6g If]q ;'/lIft 5 eGg]
hfgsf/L cGt/f{li6o ;d'bfo;dIf
k|efjsf/L lsl;dn] k'ofpg g;lsPsf]
cWoIf lnDa'n] atfP .
clwj]zg;Fu} blIf0f Pl;of ko{6g
kl/ifb\sf] bf];f| ] sfo{sf/L a}7s klg x'g]
gffn] hgfPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] ko{6g
If]qsf] cjnf]sg ug{ O6fnL, k|mfG;, 6sL{,
xs, rLg, ef/t, >Ln+sfnufot @)
d'n'ssf kqsf/ Pj+ 6'/ ck/]6/
;xefuL x'g] hgfOPsf] 5 .

r'gfjdf Pstf s]Gb| d;fnn] r'gfj


pkof]u ug{] p2]Zon] 8f= afa'/fd
e/fO{sf] ;+of]hsTjdf agfPsf]
kf6L{sf] j}wflgs df]rf{ ;+oQ' m hgdf]rf{
g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 pxfFnfO{{ uf]/vf If]q
g+= @ sf] pDd]bjf/df 5gf}6 uof] .
r'gfjL snfsf] cefjdf pgL pQm
r'gfjdf !#,^&* dt NofO{ lemgf]dtn]
tTsflng g]kfnL sfFu;
]| sL pDd]bjf/
d}ofb]jL >]i7af6 kf/lht eP .
r' g fjdf k/flht ePkl5 pgL
tTsflng g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{
dzfnsf] k" 0 f{ s flng sfo{ s tf{
aGgk'Ug'eof] . To;} jif{ pxfF lhNnf
kf6L{ ;lrjdf r'lgg'eof] . lj;+
@)$* ;fnaf6 @)%@ ;fn;Dd s=
jfUn] g]skf dfcf]jfbL uf]/vfsf]
lhNnfsf] g]t[Tj txdf x'g'x'GYof] .
dfS;{jfbsf] ulx/f] cWoogn] pxfFsf]
prfO w]/} dfly k'lu;s]sf] lyof] .
dfS;{ j fb, n] l ggjfb /
dfcf]jfbk|lt k"0f{ cf:yf ljZjf; ub{}
o;nfO{ { g} cfkm\ g f] kyk| b z{ s
l;4fGtsf] ?kdf dfGb} g] s kf
dfcf]jfbLsf] sfo{lbzf cg's"n gofF
hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg u/L ;dfhjfb
/ ;fDojfbsf] Wo]o / p2]Zo xfl;n
ug{sf] nflu cfkm\gf] dxfg\ lhDd]jf/L
k"/f ug{ pxfF lj;+ @)%@ ;fn kmfu'g
! ut]af6 g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] yfn]sf]
dxfg\ sfo{qmd z;:q hgo'4df nflu
;f]xL lbgaf6 e"ldut x'g'ePsf]
lyof] .
uf] / vf, /f] N kf, l;Gw' n L,
/fd]5fknufotfsf lhNnfaf6 ;'?
ePsf] hgo'4sf] lemNsf]nfO{{ b]zJofkL
lj:tf/ ub{ } kf6L{ s f] dxQ\ j k" 0 f{
lhDd] j f/L axg ug{ ] , g] k fnsf]
Oltxf;df k'/fgf] lg/'z ;fdGtL
/fhtGqfTds /fHo;Qf Wj+; ub{} gofF
hgjfbL /fHoJoj:yfsf] :yfkgf ug{,]
qmflGtnfO{{ g]kfnL e"lddf ljsf; ug{]
of]hgfsf/x?dWo] dxfg\ of]hgfsf/
ePsf]n] pxfFnfO{{ To;} Ifdtfsf]
sf/0fn] g} lj;+ @)%% df g]skf
dfcf]jfbLn] kf]ln6\Jo'/f]sf] jf}slNks
;b:o agfPsf] lyof] .
lj+;+ @)%^ ebf}df kf6L{sf] l;l;sf]
k" 0 f{ j} 7 s kl5 kf6L{ s } sfdsf]
l;nl;nfdf Knf6'g sdf08/ eLd;]g
kf]v/]n -s]Gb|Lo ;b:o pdf e'hn
] sf
>Ldfg\_ / Ps dlxnf Knf6'g ;b:o
aLgf;Fu uf]/vf hfg] qmddf efb| @#
ut] 5f]k|fssf g]kfn k|x/Lsf] :k]zn
sdf08f] kmf];{;Fu hDsfe]6 eof] .
To;kl5 3]/f tf]8\g vf]Hbf pxfF;Fu}
/xg'ePsf Knf6'g sdf08/ eLd;]g
kf]v/]nsf] uf]nL nfu]/ d[To'eof] .
Knf6'g ;b:o aLgf 3fOt] eP klg
efUg ;kmn x'ge' of] . s= jfUn] pkNnf]
ufFv'df k|x/Lsf] sAhfdf kg{'eof] .
kqmfp k/]kl5 pxfFnfO{{ cfTd;dk{0f
ug{ / cfkm\ g f] kl/ro v' n fpg
elgPsf] lyof] t/ gdfg]kl5 jfUn]nfO{{
klg ToxL uf]nL xfgL k|x/Ln] xTof
u/]sf] lyof] .

;]gf kl/rfngsf] lg0f{o lkmtf{ n]p M dfgjclwsf/


sf7df8f}F . /fli6o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] t/fO{sf ljleGg lhNnf ;]gf
kl/rfng ug{] lg0f{o tTsfn lkmtf{ ug{ cfu|x u/]sf] 5 . dfgj clwsf/
cfof]un] z'qmaf/ lj1lKt lgsfn]/ kl/rflnt ;]gf Aof/]sdf lkmtf{ af]nfP/
jftf{dfkm{t\ ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ ;/sf/;Fu cfu|x u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo k|zf;gn]
zflGt;'/Iff sfod ug{] eGb}
skm\o{' nufpg] tyf b+ufu|:t
If]q 3f]if0ff u/L ;]gf kl/rfng
ubf{ gful/s yk ql;t ePsf]
eGb} cfof] u n] ;] g f
kl/rfngsf] lg0f{o lkmtf{ lng
cfu|x u/]sf] xf] .
b] z sf ljleGg 7fpF d f
nuftf/ e}/x]sf] aGb x8\tfn
tyf cfGbf]ngsf sf/0f dsf{df
k/]sf gful/s k|zf;gn] ;]gf
kl/rfng ubf{ yk ql;t ePsf] cfof]usf] egfO{ 5 . cfGbf]ngsf/Lsf dfu
;Daf]wg ;/sf/n] k|efjsf/L kxn ug{ g;Sbf gful/s ;d:of ef]Ug afWo
ePsf] cfof]usf] egfO{ 5 . cfGbf]ngsf/Lsf] aGb x8\tfn tyf k|bz{g / ;]gf
kl/rfngn] ubf{ gful/ssf clwsf/ xgg ePsfn] jftf{ / ;+jfbaf6 ;d:ofsf]
;dfwfg vf]Hb cfof]un] b'j} kIf;Fu cfu|x u/]sf] 5 .

If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|f/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
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