HeHal1 H. Tao!!'!

HEOJIMTCKA KBA,[(PATYPA KPYfA
HeHal1 H. Tao!!'!
HEOJIJ1TCKA
KBA PATYPA KPYfA
Squaring the Circle - Neolithic Way
3aBO/\ 3a }'I.l6eHIlKe. Beorpa/\
YpeAHYlK U OArOBOprm ypeAIHfK
Cn060AaH r. MapKOBl1n
3a 113AaBalJa
Ml1nolby6 An6l1jalHfn,
AYlpeKTOp YI rnaBHYI ypeAHI1K
CIP - KaTallOrl13aUl1ja y ny6nl1KaUl1jl1,
HapOAHa 6116JBtoTeKa Cp6l1je, SeorpaA
ISBN 978-86 -17-16535-0
© 3AB0l13A YI,IDEHI1KE, Deorpa" 2009.
0BO Aeno ce He CMe YMHO)f(aBaTI1, <pOTOKomlpaTI1 11 Ha 6Y1110 Kojn Ha'lYlH penpoAYKoBaTn,
y uenl1HYI HI1TYI y AenOBYlMa, 6e3 nIICMeHOr oAo6pelba Yl3AaBa'la.
Ca,n;p)Kaj
9
HeOITMTM3al.\Mja MITM YKponeHa zoponaiJ 15
I1cxpaHa Kao M3BOP 3a rrpoyqaBalbe rrp0l.\eca HeOITMTM3al.\Mje 25
Ex Oriente lux? 35
Y rroTpa3M 3a rrOpeKITOM HeOITMTa OaITKaHa 39
o KITMMaTCKMM rrpoMeHaMa 49
Cum grano sallis 53
oeITo CITMKaHM yKpac Ha HeOITMTcKoj rpH'JaPMjM 71
IlpMHl.\MrrM HeOITMTCKe reoMeTpMje 105
CTapqeBaqKe Kymype III
127
3aKlbYQHa pa3MaTpalba 135
Summary 145
JIMTepaTypa 167
rrojMoBa 187
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6e36poj KOMrrnl1KOBaHI1X OIlHoca rrpl1pOIlHOr 11 KynTypHor, 6110nOWKI1
rrpellollpeljeHor 11 CTe'leHOr, Kp03 Ml1pl1jalle Mel)Y3aBI1cHocTI1 11
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Apxeonorl1jl1, I1CTOPl1jl1, cOl.\l1onorl1jl1 11 OCTanl1M XYMaHI1CTl1'1KI1M
HaYKaMa rrao je y IIY)!(HOCT rroKywaj lIa ce OCBeTnI1 TeK rrOHeKa <paceTa.
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KOjl1 HI1Kalla Hehe 1I0611TI1 OBaKO CO'laH KOHTeKCT rra heMO ce 113rnella

)OW lIyro 3allp)!(aBaTI1 Ha rrl1Talbl1Ma Be3aHI1M 3a lberOB 113rnell, rropeKno
I1nl1 HaMeHY. ITa I1rraK CBI1 CMO CBeCHI1 lIa je KOBa'l rroCTojao. CaBpeMeHa
• • •
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KOpI1CTl1nl1. Ha)!(anOCT, jowllyro heMO ce ca I1CTI1M 'IeCTO cY'lelhaBaTI1.
ITa TaKo, C 06311pOM lIa Haj'lewhe pacrrOna)!(eMO I1nl1 HI1KaKBI1M
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Kpajlbl1x rpaHI1l.\a CMO yrryheHI1 Ha MaTepl1jan KOjl1M ce 6aBI1MO 11 Oil lbera
3aXTeBaMO lIa HaM ollroBopl1 Ha CBa rrl1Talba Koja rrOCTaBlhaMO. C IIpyre
CTpaHe oBaj rrp0l.\ec Hl1je Y3anYil YTpoweHo BpeMe. I1rraK, CBaKa 036l1lhHa
• •• •
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•• ••
)e pa3yMlhl1BI1p YKonl1Ko ce I1Ma Ha yMy 'Il1lbeHI1l.\a lIa )e apxeonorl1p
Mnalla HaYKa 11 lIa Benl1Ka Behl1Ha lbeHor rrOlha lIenoBalba rrpl1rralla
rrpal1CTopl1jl1, lIaKne 1I06y 3a Koje cy jelll1HI1 1I0KYMeHTI1 TparOBI1 pacyTI1
rroll lIe6enl1M HacnaraMa 3a60paBa.
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2 n OA OBI1M clI o6oAHO MQ)KeMO o6yxBanlTM 11 3a6opaBlbeH apxeOllOlll Kl1 MaTepl1jaJl y nowe
o6paryeHl1M M 3aWntneHl1M My3ejcKHM AenOHMa.
9
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a TI1Me 11 cprrCKa apxeOJIorl1ja, Ben ce ,n;el\eHl1jaMa 6aBI1 apxeOMeTpl1joM,
• • •
Tl1rrOJIOrI1JOM, CTaTI1CTI1KOM KOJe C BpeMeHa Ha BpeMe YMeJY ,n;a 3aMame

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l1,n;eja 0 lDeMY 611Ba 3aMeIDeHa 60jOM 11 Haql1HOM 06pa,n;e lDerOBe (I1JII1
lDeHe) KepaMI1Ke, 6pojeM CTpMO oKpeCaHI1X KpeMeHI1X aJIaTKI1, rycTI1HOM
MaKp0611lbHI1X OCTaTaKa 11 CJI. CXBaTalDe BpeMeHa Y KojeM cY HaCTaJII1 11
KOpI1IIIneHI1, pa3YMeBaIDe 11 peKoHcTpYKl\l1ja o,n;Hoca Meryy pa3JII1ql1TI1M
rpyrraMa 11 3aje,n;HI1l\aMa Koje cy rroCTojaJIe (CI1HXPOHO aJII1 11 ,n;l1jaxpoHo)
BO,n;11 Hac Ka rroje,n;I1HaqHI1M rrpl1rra,n;HI1l\I1Ma ,n;pylliTBa. I1poyqaBalDe
CBaKo,n;HeBI1l\e (I1JII1 60lbe penl1 lDeHI1X OTKpl1BeHI1X oCTaTaKa) 11 0611QHOr

QOBeKa rrpe,n;cTaBlba 11 ,n;albe He,n;oBolbHO peaJII130BaHY rrpe,n;HocT KOJY
apxeoJIomja I1Ma Ha,n; I1CTOPl1jOM Koja rOTOBO rro rrpaBI1JIy <j>aBopl13yje
eJII1THe ,n;oraryaje 11 rroje,n;I1H lIe. 3
)J.el\eHl1jaMa cy rrl1TalDa 3al1HTepeCOBaHe rry6JII1Ke y CMI1CJIY:
,,113BI1HI1Te, a KOJII1KO BaM je TO CTapo?" ,n;I1KTl1paJIa caM HaQI1H
rrpoYQaBalDa MaTepl1jaJIHI1X OCTaTaKa. ApxeoJIorl1ja, Kao 11 CBaKI1 ,n;pym
caMoopraHI13yjynl1 MeXaHI13aM, ,n;aHac rrpepaCTa cBoje KopeHe.l1rraK, QI1HI1
ce CaCBI1M I1JIY30PHO 11 rrOMI1IIIlbaTI1 ,n;a neMO I1Ka,n;a, Ma KOJII1KO Harropa
YJIo)K 11 JI 11, 611TI1 Y CTalDY ,n;a pa3a6epeMO l\eJII1HY OBe KOMrrJIeKCHOCTI1.
OBa Ql1lDeHI1l\a I1CTI1Qe 3HaQaj rrpoYQaBalDa CBaKor ,n;eJIl1na Kojl1 Hac BO,n;11
OBOM ,n;aJIeKOM l\l1lby.
TOKOM rrpOTeKJII1X ro,n;I1Ha, Moja rralKlDa 611JIa je CKOHl\eHTpI1CaHa Ha
• •
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Ka ,n;pyIIITBy rrpol13BoryaQa xpaHe. OBaj rro,n;YXBaT ce MOlKe YQI1HI1TI1 ca
pa3JII1Ql1TI1X rrOJIa3HI1X rr0311l\l1ja. Moje cy 611JIe oMeryeHe 11 crrYTaHe
cyK060M aYTOXTOHI1CTI1QKe 11 ,n;11<j>Y3110HI1CTI1QKe IIIKOJIe MI1IIIlbeIDa Koje
cy yrrope,n;o rrocTojaJIe, a 11 ,n;aHac rrocToje, y cprrcKoj apxeOJIomjl1. C ,n;pyre
CTpaHe MOj rrpl1CTyrr OBI1M rrp06JIeMI1Ma 6110 je rrpl1JII1QHO Hey06l1QajeH,
Te caM Hal1JIa3110 Ha CaCBI1M Hel1CTpalKeHe 06JIaCTI1 Koje cy MI1 ce QI1HI1JIe
• •
BeOMa 3HaQaJHI1M 3a MOJe KOHaQHO 3aY311MaIDe CTaBa rro rrl1TalDY rrOpeKJIa
HeOJII1Ta Ha BaJIKaHY. CTora caM Ha OBOM MeCTY ce611 y 3a,n;aTaK CTaBI10
,n;a 3a KaJIel1,n;OCKorr 3611BaIDa TOKOM BeJII1Ke TpaH311l\l1je (,n;06a y KojeM
611Bajy rrOJIaraHI1 TeMelbl1 CBer ,n;Ol\Hl1jer pa3Boja OKBI1PHO CMelliTeHO
y BpeMe rrOCJIe 8000. ro,n;I1He CTape epe) rrpl1JIOlKl1M ayTopcKI1 rrpeme,n;
• • •
Mo,n;eJIa HeOJII1TI13al\I1Je, CTy,n;I1JY 0 3HaQaJY COJII1 3a o,n;rOHeTalDe rrOpeKJIa
11 MaTpl1l\Y HacelbaBalDa paHor HeOJII1Ta, Kao 11 06jalliIDeIDe <j>eHoMeHa
• •
reOMeTpl1Je y opHaMeHTaJIHOM cI1cTeMY paHOHeOJII1TCKe rpHQapl1Je.
3 I1CTl-tHH 3a SOJby, 11 apxeonorl1jH 611 ce Morno Aa ce 6asI1 eJIt1THI1M
YTonHKO WTO aHan 11 311pa npe;:VvleTe KOjl1 cy CTl1 nOBO]bH I1X OKOnHOCTl1
ca4ysaHl1, OTKpl1SeHl1 11 TaKO AocneJll1 y <pOKyC npoytlaSalha.
10
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
I10rrraBlbe 0 rrocTojehMM M HOBOj rrepM0l1M3al1MjM HahMhe ce Ha Kpajy
KIbMre M 6Mhe rrocBeheHO YlKe CTpy'lHOj 'IMTaJIa'lKoj rry6nMl1M, rl1e he
XHrrOTe3e H3HeTe y paHHjHM rrorrraBlbHMa 1106HTH CBOj ef3aKTHH H3pa3
Kp03 penaTHBHY H arrconYTHY xpoHonorHjy. Hal1aM ce l1a he 'IHTanal1 Kp03
TaKaB cy6jeKTHBHH 0l1a6Hp H caCBHM nH'IHH rrorrrel1 MohH l1a rrperr03Ha
• • • •
3Ha'laJ HeonHTH3al1HJe, ycnoBe y KOJHMa ce TpaH3Hl1HJa 110r0l1Hna H l1a
CTeKHe yBHI1 y rrraBHM TOK KynTypHHx l1ewaBalba y paHoM HeonHTY
l1eHTpanHor EanKaHa H HeKHX cycel1HHX 06nacTH.
C 063MpOM l1a je Hel10CTaTaK HOBe JIHTepaType H cTpy'lHe
rrepHOI1HKe, 110 rrojaBe 6H6JIHOTe'lKHX HHTepHeT cepBHca
4
I1Yro 6HO
aKYTaH rrp06neM cpncKe HayKe, OBa KIbHra npel1CTaBlba H nOKywaj l1a ce
110Mahoj CTpy'lHOj jaBHocTH y H3B0l1HMa H caCBHM cy6jeKTHBHoM H360py
• •
KPHTM'IKH rrpel1CTaBe HeKM MOl1enH HeonHTH3al1MJe KOJH cy ce TOKOM
rrOCnel1lbHX l1el1eHHja rrojaBHnH y cBeTcKoj nHTepaTypH. v13rrrel1a, HaHMe,
l1a BehHHa rrp06neMa, KOjH ce jaBlbajy y HHTeprrpeTaI1HjaMa Be3aHHM

3a rrepMOI1 HeonHTa, rrOTH'Ie 011 HepeweHor rrHTalba rroJaBe M rrOpeKJIa
3eMlbOpaI1HH'IKMX KylITypa (Zvelebil 2001). KaKo ce TO cal1a jacHo BHI1M,
011 pewaBalba OBor rrp06neMa 3aBMCH H rrepH0l1M3al1HOHM CHCTeM KOjH he
y 6Yl1yhHOCTH 6HTH KopHwheH Kal1a pacnpaBlbaMo 0 paHoM H cpel1lbeM
HeonHTY l1eHTpanHor EanKaHa.
y I1HlbY rrpahelba rrpol1eca HeonMTH3al1Hje H lberOBOr TpaHc¢epa y
06nacT Koja Hac y OBOM pal1Y HajBHwe HHTepecyje, OTKpHBalba lberOBOr

H3BopHwTa H 3aKOHOMepHOCTH, HeOrrXOI1HO Je CTBOPHTH xpOHonowKY

H perHOHanHY cxeMY KynTypHHx rrpOMeHa KOJe, Ha lKaJIOCT, MOlKeMO
rrpaTHTM caMO Ha apTe¢aKTHMa H eKo¢aKTHMa KOjM cy HaM 110crrenH y
pyKe. J1CTHHH 3a BOlby, 110Cal1aWlba HCTpa)((HBalba rrOKa3ana cy l1a ce Ha
OCHOBY KepaMH'IKe rrpOl1yKI1Hje H l1albe Haj60lbe Mory peKOHCTpYHcaTM

reHepanHH TpeHI10BH yKyca H eCTeTCKHX CKnOHOCTH Jel1He rpyrre, a,
KaKO heMO l1albe M3 TeKCTa l1enHMM'IHO BMl1eTM, M CTpyKTypa IbHXOBOr
l1eKopaTHBHor H CHM60nH'IKOr CHCTeMa. Y I..\HlbY Tparalba 3a rropeKnOM
HeonHTa l1eHTpanHor EaJIKaHa rrocnY)((Hhy ce H Tpal1HI1HOHanHHM
apxeonowKHM TeXHHKaMa, rrpe CBera CTHnCKOM aHanH30M. I10Kywahy l1a
TOKOM eJIa60pal..\Hje Koja he ce y HajBehoj MepH oKpeHyTH rr03Hl1HOHHpalbY
eTarra OBor pa3Boja y KOHTeKCT wHper EanKaHCKor rrpoCTopa, l1aM H jel1HO
HOBO TYMa'ielbe CHCTeMa YKpawaBalba.
C 063HpOM l1a ce lbYI1CKe 3ajel1HHl1e He MOry rrOCMaTpaTM M30nOBaHO
y BpeMeHY H rrpoCTopy, He 06pahajyhM rra)((lbY Ha IbHXOB eKOCHCTeM,
y nornaBlbY Koje ce 6aBH HeonHTH3al..\HjoM l1ahy H npHnaro!jeHY cnHKY
KnHMaTCKHX rrpoMeHa Koje cy Morrre HMaTH 'IaK H OI1JIyqyjyhM YTHl1aj Ha
TpaHc¢ep HeonHTa Ha rrpoCTop EanKaHa.
4 KaKBI1 cy Hnp. jstor, SciDirect 11 11H Blackwell
11
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
Bemma rrOMon y pa3pelIlelbY rrp06JIeMa rrOpeKJIa HeOmlTa je
11 ql1lbeHl1lja l1a cy apXeOJIOlIlKa I1CTpa)!(I1Balba y 06JIaCTI1Ma Koja cy
Ba)!(I1JIa 3a 113BOpl1lIlTe HeOJII1TCKI1X KyJITypa BaJIKaHa, Harrpel10BaJIa y

TOJII1KOJ Mepl1 l1a ce cal1a ca MHoro Bl1lIle rrOl1aTaKa MO)!(e paCrrpaBJbaTI1 0
rrOpeKJIY HeOJII1Ta, lberOBI1X Be3a 11 KOHTaKaTa. Y OBOM KOHTeKCTY qeCTO
ny ce rr0311BaTI1 Ha I1CTpa)!(I1Balba Koja cy CrrpOBel1eHa TOKOM rrOCJIel1lbl1X
I1Bal1eCeTaK r0l111Ha y AHaI10JIl1jl1, a Koja Ben l1yrl1 HI13 rol1l1Ha <jJl1rypl1pa
Kao Moryne 113BOpl1lIlTe 3a HeOJII1T BaJIKaHa. 3aCHOBaHO Ha HOBI1M
pe3YJITaTI1Ma I1CTpa)!(I1Balba y 06JIaCTI1 jY)!(He AHa110JIl1je, OI1HOCHO
06JIaCTI1 BeJII1KI1X je3epa, Hel1aJIeKO 011 rpal1a BYPI1YP, 611ne rroHyryeHo
jel1HO HOBO TYMaqelbe KyJITypHI1X Be3a ca BaJIKaHOM.
OBa Klbl1ra HeMa rrpeTeH311ja l1a Ol1rOBOPI1 Ha CBa rrl1Talha y Be311
ca HeOJII1TI13al\l1joM l\eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa I1JII1 l1a KOHaqHO pelIll1
XPOHOJIOlIlKe HeI10YMI1l\e, Ben l1a aHaJII130M HeKOJII1KO 3HaqajHI1X, aKO He 11
KJbyqHI1X rrp06JIeMa, KOjl1 caMO rroBplIlHo rrrel1ajynl1 HI1CY y HerrOCpel1Hoj
• •
Be311, rroKYlIla l1a YKa)!(e Ha IhI1X 11 HarrraCI1 Jel1aH I1pyraql1JI1 yrao rrrel1alha.
I1oce6Ha rra)!(lha 611ne YCMepeHa Ha rroqeTKe HeOJII1TI13al\l1je l\eHTpaJIHOr
BaJIKaHa 11 rrepl1ol1 CTa6l1JIl13al\l1je HeOJII1TCKI1X rrorryJIal\l1ja 11 KyJITypa,
aJII1 ne 110Manoj ql1TaJIaqKoj rry6JII1l\11 611TI1 l1aT 11 rrperrrel1 pa3JII1ql1TI1X
rrpl1cTyrra rrl1Talhl1Ma rrOqeTaKa HeOJII1Ta, He caMO y jyrol1CTOqHoj EBporrl1
Ben 11 y )!(apl1lIlTy OBor rrpOl\eca - y 06JIaCTI1 JIeBaHTa 11 AHa110JIl1je.
Ml1lIlJbelba caM l1a rrl1Talha XpOHOJIOrl1je 11 I1HTepHe rrepl1011113al\l1je
paHor 11 cpel1lber HeOJII1Ta l\eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa I1rraK rrpel1CTaBJbajy
He3a0611JIa3HY CTerreHI1l\Y y pa3YMeBalbY KOMrrJIeKCHI1X OI1HOca y rrepl10l1Y
rrpBor HaCeJbaBalha BaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIYOCTpBa (l\eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa), rra
ne oBaj pal1 rrOCBeTI1TI1 rra)!(lbY 11 TI1M rrl1Talhl1Ma.
I1oce6aH OCBpT Ha HajpaHl1jy <jJa3y HeOJII1Ta, OI1HOCHO Ha "XOPI130HT
6eJIor CJII1Kalha" 611ne yql1lbeH KllaCU'IHUM apXeOJIOlIlKI1M CpeI1CTBI1Ma.
Cal1P)!(aj 11 CI1M60JII1qKO 3Haqelhe CI1CTeMa YKpalIlaBalba 611ne cyqeJbeHI1
ca TpeHyTHo 110cTyrrHI1M pe3YJITaTI1Ma C14 aHaJIl13a, KaKO 611 ce 110611JIa

11 arrCOJIYTHa 11 peJIaTI1BHO-XPOHOJIOlIlKa CJII1Ka pa3BOJa OBor MeTOl1a
YKpalIlaBalha. HOB rrpl1CTyrr OBOM <jJeHOMeHY je cBeCTpaHa aHaJII13a jel1HOf
eJIeMeHTa opHaMeHTaJIHe CTpyKType - KBal1paTa (11 yorrlIlTe CKJIOHOCTI1
JbYI1I1 paHor HeOJII1Ta Ka reOMeTpl130BaHI1M rrpeI1CTaBaMa), 3a KOjl1 ce

MO)!(e TBPI1I1TI1 l1a ce HaJIa311 y caMoJ OCHOBI1 YKpalIlaBalha KepaMI1Ke.
KBal1paT Kao 110MI1HaHTaH 06JII1K rrperr03Haje ce rrpe CBera y apXI1TeKTypl1,
a 3aTI1M 11 y rrporrOpl\l1jaMa <jJl1rypaJIHI1X rrpel1CTaBa, TaKO l1a rrocTaje
HeKa BpCTa l\pBeHe Bprrl\e Koja rroBe3yje reorpa<jJCKI1 BeOMa Yl1aJbeHe
3ajel1HI1l\e ca rrOqeTaKa HeOJII1Ta BaJIKaHa. Y OBOM pa3MaTpalhY 3aJIa)!(eM
ce 3a rrperr03HaBalhe pa3paryeHor CI1CTeMa Mepelha, pa3Mepa 11 rrpOpaqyHa
12
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
KOjM ce rrojaBlbyjy y u;eJIOM CTap'IeBO-KepeIlI-KpMIll KOMrrJIeKCY, aJIM M y
HeOJIMTY 06JIaCTM BeJIMKMX je3epa y jY)l(HOj AHaI10JIMjM.
Y rrOrrraBlbY Koje je HaCJIOBlbeHO Cum grana sallis 6Mhe cKpeHYTa
rra)l(IDa Ha rrMTalDe KopMIlIhelDa COJIM Y HeOJIMTy. OBO je TeMa Koja je, M
• •
rropel1 HeCYMIDMBor 3Ha'Ia)a KO)M co MMa Y CBaKOI1HeBHOM )I(MBOTY 'IOBeKa
M 110MahMx )I(MBOTMIDa, peTKo TpeTMpaHa Y CBeTcKoj apXeOJIOIlIKoj
JIMTepaTypM Koja ce 6aBM HeOJIMTOM.
5
'IMHM MM ce l1a je rrOCJIe aHaJIM3e
KOjy caM crrpOBeo Ha HaJIa3MIlITMMa OaJIKaHa M TIJIOI1HOr rrOJIYMeceu;a
Moryhe rrperr03HaTM rrpaBMJIHOCT y MaTpMU;M HacelbaBalDa y BpeMe paHor
HeOJIMTa M Koja je HeCYMIDMBO Be3aHa ca M3BOpMIlITMMa COJIM. TIMTalDa
TprOBMHe COlbY rrOCJIeI1Mu;a cy OBaKBor yrrra rrrel1aIDa M 6Mhe MM rrocBeheH
rroce6aH l1eo y OBOj KIDH3H.
TeMe Koje caM OBl1e OTBOPHO Ha rrpBH rrorrrell he HeKOMe MO)l(l1a
l1eJIOBaTH Kao He06w!aH crroj . HeOJIMTM3aU;Hja, co, KJIHMa, 6eJIo CJIHKalDe
MrraK HMajy 3ajel1HH'IKy pe3YJITaHTY, a TO je rrO'IeTaK )I(MBOTa y BehMM
3ajeI1HHu;aMa, yrryheHocT IbYI1H jel1HHX Ha I1pyre, 3ajeI1HM'IKO rrJIaHHpalDe
M 'IOBeKOB jel1HHCTBeH Ha'IHH ocaMOCTalbHBalDa 011 rrpHpOl1e. OBaj rrpou;ec
3arrO'IeT je KpajeM JIel1eHMx 1106a rrpOM3B0l1IDOM xpaHe M cTBapalDeM
HOB or aM6MjeHTa M yp6aHor MMlbea, a Tpaje, ca rroBpeMeHMM rral10BMMa
• •
M rroBpeMeHMM Y3JIeTMMa CBe 110 TpeHYTaKa y KO)MMa HaCTa)e OBa KIDMra.
Taj I1YX 6YHTOBHMIlITBa Hac I1MpeKTHo rroBe3yje ca I1PYIlITBMMa Koja cy
Ol1aBHO HeCTaJIa ca JIMu;a 3eMlbe M rrOCTaJIa l1eo apXeOJIOIlIKOr 3arrMca.
5 113Y3eTaK je)K. HeHKeH O. Nenquin 1961) KOjl1 ce 6aBH OBI1M nepHoAoM, ami Y 0611aCTl1
3anaAHe 11 Espone.
13
IhlHl1 MI1 ce I\a ce pa3Boj CaBpeMeHOr '-IOBeKa (Homo sapiens-sapiens)
Cll060l\HO MO)Ke rrOl\elll1TI1 Ha I\Be OCHOBHe eTarre 11 TO Ha BpeMe rrpe 11
rroclle rrO'-leTKa rrp0l13BOl\lhe xpaHe! OBaj I\oral)aj, 111111 cepl1ja Mel)yc06HO
YClloBlbeHI1X 11 rrOBe3aHI1X 1\0ral)aja!cIlY'-lajeBa CaCBI1M cy rrpeoKpeHyll11
CYl\611HY '-IOBe'-laHCTBa, pal\l1KallHO 113MeHI11111 Ha'-lI1H )KI1BOTa HajBener
6poja lbYI\CKI1X 3ajeI\HI1l\a, Te cy I1X rypHyll11 y OHO UITO l\aHaC CMaTpaMO

l\I1BI1I1113al\I1JOM, rrpOMeHI1Bllll1, 1\0HeKlle, 'IaK 11 perrpOl\yKTI1BHI1
l\I1KllyC BpCTe. OBaKO 3Ha'lajHe rrpOMeHe 113T11el\a rr06yl)yjy 11 l\aHaC
• •
CTpaCT ca KOJOM ce I1CTpa)KI1Ba'll1 yrrYlllTaJY Y rrpoY'laBalhe rrpella3a
ca 1I0Ba'lKo-caKyrrlba'lKe Ha rrpol13Bol)a'lKY CTpaTerl1jy y I1CXpaHI1,
lllTO rrOHeKal\ 1\0BOl\I1 1\0 OlllTpl1X rrOl\ella 11 )KeCTOKI1X Hay'lHl1x
cYK06lbaBalha. lllTaBI1111e, rOTOBO CBaKI1 I1CTpa)KI1Ba'l KOjl1 ce 6aBI1
rrp0611eMI1Ma Heolll1Tl13al\l1je CKIIOH je I\a, rrpe 111111 KaCHl1je, rrpel\1I0)K11
.» .
CBOJ "Op"rIHaIlHI MOl\ell rrO'leTaKa 3eMlbOpal\lhe 11 Cel\eHTap"3al\IJe.
01\ f. qajlll\a (Childe) 1\0 l\aHaC, Kp03 l\eo BeK I1CTpa)KI1Balha, MOl\e1l11
•• •
HeOIlI1TI13al\I1Je Ol\pa)KaBaJY He caMO pe3YIITaTe 11 1\0MeTe rrOJel\l1HI1X
I1CTpa)KI1Ba'la Ben 11 CTalhe Teop"jcKe MI1CIII1 y Hallloj HaYl\I1, Te ce TaKO
• •
pel\OM CMelhYJY KOMrrapaTIBHO-ICTOP"JCKI, CTpYKTypalll1cTl1'1KI1 11
rrpOl\ecyalll1cTI1'1KI1 11 rrOCTrrpOl\ecyalll1cTI1'1KI1 rrpl1cTyrrl1: HeKI1M
MOl\elll1Ma je rrp"rr"CIBaHO rrpeBI1111e l\eTepMI1HI1CTl1'1KO Bl1l)elhe, HeKI1Ma
• •
I\a cy MOHOKaY3aIlHI1, OI\HOCHO I\a rrpOI1CTl1'1Y 113 Jel\He rrpeMI1Ce, alll1 Je
'Il1lheHI1l\a I\a cy Benl1HOM ycrreBall11 I\a rrOHYl\e rro HeKY HOBY Bl13ypy.
Y CBaKOM clly'lajy 113 IhI1X ce MO)Ke 'II1TaTI1 IcTop"jaT rrpalCTop"jcKe

apXeOIlOfI1Je.
011110 I\a ce Orrpel\elll1MO 3a Ml1rpaTopHy, aYTOXTOHI1CTI1'-1KY

111111 HeKY MelllOBI1TY TeOpI1JY, caM rrOI\YXBaT rrpellaCKa ca 1I0Ba'-lKO-
caKyrrlba'-lKe Ha rrpol13Bol)a'-lKY I1cxpaHy, rrpel\CTaBlba orpOMaH KopaK y
6 YHTajytil1 AOMany apXeOJlOwKY nI1TepaTYPY tlaK caM CKlIOH Aa TBPAHM Aa je 611110 I1
ayntCTl1
l
lKHX 11 EaJIKaHO-l\eHTpl1l.J.HI1X.
15
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
ocaMOCTalbMBalDY qOBeKa w\ rrpMpOl\e. OBaj HeM3MepHO 3HaqajaH rroMaK'
he Y BPJIO Carnel\MBoj 6YI\yhHOCTM KOHaqHO oMoryhMTM 3ajel\HMu;aMa I\a
M3a6epy MeCTO 3a )!(MBOT, TpajHo ra HaCeJIe M y TOM rrpou;ecy M3 KopeHa

rrpOMeHe HaBMKe, I\pYIlITBeHY opraHM3aU;M)y, OI\HOC rrpeMa OKOJIMHM
(eKOCMCTeMY), OI\HOCe Mel')y 3ajel\HMu;aMa M CTBope caCBMM HOB aM6MjeHT.
Lla je CBeCT 0 3Haqajy OBe TpaH3MU;Mje 6MJIa rrpMcyTHa M KOI\ caMMX aKTepa
6Mhe rrOKa3aHO Kal\a 6Yl\e peQM 0 rrMTalDY opHaMeHTaJIHOr CMCTeMa paHor
HeOJIMTa BaJIKaHCKO-aHaI\OJICKOr rrpOCTopa.
OCMM orrIlITMM rrMTaIDMMa 0 rrOpeKJIY, HaCTaHKY M pa3Bojy
HeOJIMTa, apXeOJIOrMja HeOJIMTa Cp6Mje orrTepeheHa je M 1\0l\aTHMM

HeI\OYMMu;aMa Be3aHMM 3a rrOpeKJIO HeOJIMTCKMX 3a)eI\HMu;a Ha OBOM TJIy.
CprrCKM HeOJIMTI1Qapl1 I1Majy rrpel\ C060M jel\aH 3HaQajaH rrp06JIeM KOjl1

)e rrOCJIel\l1u;a 113Y3eTHOCTl1 MOl\eJIa HacelbaBalDa y paHOM 11 Cpel\IDeM
HeOJII1TY KOjl1 je crreU;l1<!ll1KYM 6aIlI u;eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa. Pal\M ce 0
yrral\lbl1BOM OI\CYCTBY BI1IlIeCJIojHI1X Hacelba Tl1rra TeJI (tell) 11 6pojQaHoj
• •• • • •
1\0MI1HaU;I1)11 )eI\HOCJIO)HI1X 11 KpaTKOTpa)HI1X HaJIa3l1IlITa 3a KO)e )e BeOMa
• • •
TeIlIKO YTBpl\l1TI1 TaQHY rr0311U;I1)y y reHepaJIHO) XPOHOJIOIlIKO) CXeMI1,
QI1Me ce ry611 MoryhHocT Carnel\aBalDa in situ rrpou;eca TpaH311U;l1je 11/I1JII1
TpaHc¢OpMaU;l1je.
KaKo 6l1x Ha IlITO 60lbl1 HaQI1H QI1TaJIaQKoj rry6JII1U;11 rrp116JII1)!(110
3HaQaj rrl1TalDa HeOJII1TM3aU;Mje 11 cKpeHyo rra)!(IDY Ha 6pojHe oTBopeHe
rrp06JIeMe, I\ahy Ha OBOM MecTY KpaTaK rrpernel\ OHora IlITO je TOKOM XX
BeKa o6eJIe)!(I1JIo 6aBlbeIDe HeOJIMTI13aU;l1joM M ¢eHOMeHI1Ma HeOJII1Ta y
EBporrM. OBaj 11360p He rrpel\CTaBlba HMKaKaB KOHaQaH rrpl1Ka3 6pOjHMX
MOl\eJIa HeOJIMTI13aU;l1je, Beh cy6jeKTl1BHM 11360p, KOjM CBaKaKO Ol\pa)!(aBa
11 Moje a¢I1HMTeTe y OBOj 06JIaCTl1 apxeOJIorl1je.
Jel\aH 01\ rrpBI1X rroHyl')eHI1X MOl\eJIa HeOJII1TI13aU;l1je je MOl\eJI Oa3a
(Oasis) I1JII1 PajcKI1 BpT (Garden of Eden). lhera je y CBOjl1M 6pOjHl1M
TeKCTOBI1Ma 11 KIDMraMa rrporrampao r. '-!ajJII\ (Hrrp. Childe 1929, I1nl1
1958), a 3aCHl1BaO ce Ha rrpeTrrOCTaBU;11 I\a cy KpajeM JIel\eHOr 1\06a, y
BpeMe Kal\a je I\OJIa3l1JIO 1\0 parrl1l\HOr I1cYIlII1BalDa y 06nacTM JIeBaHTa,
IbYI\I1, 6l1lbKe 11 )!(MBOTI1IDe rrpOHaIlInl1 I1l\eaJIHI1 Xa6l1TaT y OKOJII1HI1
CJIaTKOBOI\HI1X 113Bopa/oa3a. '-!ajJII\ je y CBOjl1M pal\OBI1Ma 113HOCl10
YBepelDe I\a cy KOpeHI1 eBporrcKe U;I1Bl1nI13aU;l1je y 6JIl1CK0l1CTOQHl1M
U;I1BI1JII13aU;l1jaMa MecorroTaMl1je 11 Erl1rrTa. CMaTpao je I\a cy yTI1u;ajl1
113 OBe 06JIaCTl1 rrpeHOIlIeHI1 y 06JIaCT jyrOI1CTOQHe 11 u;eHTpaJIHe EBpone
1\0JIl1HOM LlYHaBa, a He nYTeM Mel\l1TepaHCKI1X OCTpBa.
MOl\eJI KOjl1 je Cpel\l1HOM XX BeKa npel\JIo)!(l1o P. Bpejl\BYI\
(Braidwood 1963), ayTOp I1CKOnaBalDa Ha l)apMy (Jarmo) npel\Bl1l\eO
7 ... KOjl1 ce Ha ElIl1CKOM I1CTOKY AoroA110 HeWTO paHl1je, a Ha EallKaHY ca nojaBoM
BI1H1.J.aHCKe KyllType KpajeM VI i\II1J1eHl1jYMa CTape epe.
16
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n: paTypa Kpyra
je HajpaHMje eKCrrepMMeHTe ca KYJITMBal\MjoM )!(MTapMl\a y 6Pl\OBMTMM
30HaMa. llierOB MOl\eJI Ha3BaH Xunome3a 30He je3zpa (Nuclear Zone
Hypothesis) rrpeTrrocTaBlba rrocTojalDe KYJITypHor rrpara, KOjM ce caCTojM
01\ TeXHOJIOIIIKMX 3HalDa ()!(pBlDeBM), rr03HaBalDa rrpMpOI\He Cpel\MHe M
rrOCTerreHe Cel\eHTapM3al\Mje. E. EocepyrrB (Boser up 1965) je 6MJIa rrpBa Koja
je rrpMMeTMJIa I\a 6M HarrrM rrpMpOI\HM rrpMpaIIITaj Morao I\a rrpel\CTaBlba
He3aBMCHM areHC y rrpoMeHM cy63MCTeHl\Mje (CTpaTerMja 06e36eljMBalDa
Cpel\CTaBa 3a )!(MBOT), Koja je I\MpeKTHo YTMl\aJIa Ha rrpoMeHe y HaBMKaMa
M rroqeTaK 3eMlbOpal\lDe KaKO 6M ce HaXpaHMJIa 6pojHa rrral\Ha YCTa.
J13BaH lDeHor rrOlba MHTepecoBalDa OCTaJIO je nMTalDe UlTa je Y3poKOBaJIO
TaKaB rrorrYJIal\110HI1 6YM.
KOMrrJIeKCHl1jl1 MOl\eJII1, Kao IIITO cy TO PeBollyu,uja UlUpOKOZ
cneKmpa (The Broad Spectrum Revolution) 11 Xunome3a MapzuHallHe 30He
(Marginal Zone Hypothesis) lI. EI1HqlOpl\a 11 K. <DJIeHepl1ja npemOCTaBlbajy
BI1IIIe Y3poKa 3a Cel\eHTapl13al\l1jy 11 HeOJIMTI13al\l1jy. EYl\ytll1 I\a cy y
CBOjl1M pal\OBMMa (KaKo Binford 1968, TaKO 11 Flannery 1969) Y3eJIM Kao
• • •
BepOI\OCTOJHY npeTilOCTaBKY I\a cy JIOBl\M-caKynlbaqM HaJBepoBaTHMJe
1\06po npMJIaroljeHM npMpOI\Hoj CpeI\MHM, OBM ayTopM cy nOKYIIIaJIM I\a
YTBpl\e Y3poKe KOjl1 cy Me30JIMTCKe (enMnaJIeOJIMTcKe) JIOBl\e-caKynlbaqe
HaTepaJIM Ha rrpOM3BOl\lDY xpaHe. MOl\eJI PeBollyu,uje UlUpOKOZ cneKmpa
rrpel\CTaBlba rroKYIIIaj 06jallilDelDa HaqMHa al\arrTal\Mje lbYI\CKMX 3ajel\HMl\a
Ha Kpaj JIel\eHMX 1\06a. CMaTpa ce I\a ce OHa OI\MrpaJIa y MMJIeHMjYMMMa
rrocrre l3000. rOI\MHe CTape epe y 06JIaCTMMa EJIMCKOr MCTOKa M HelliTO
KacHMje Ha EBporrCKOM KOHTMHeHTy. 3a pa3JIMKy 01\ al\arrTal\Mje Ha TelliKe
YCJIOBe JIel\eHor 1\06a Kal\a je Ha pacrrOJIaralDY 6MJIO peJIaTMBHO MaJIO
pecypca 3a al\eKBaTHY McxpaHY HaCTyrrajyhe 1\06a HYI\MJIO je 06Mlbe C
KOjMM ce 3ajel\HI1l\e JIOBal\a-caKyrrlbaqa rro rrpBI1 rryT cpehy: y TorrJIMM
BOl\aMa, Y3 06aJIe, 6yjao je )!(MBOT, a KOJIMqMHOM 11 pa3HOJIMKOllihy )!(MBor
CBeTa I\paCTMqHO je YBehaH M 6poj jecTMBMX )!(MBOTMlDCKMX M 6MlbHl1X
BpCTa Koje cy cTajaJIe Ha pacrrOJIaralDY. PeqHM TOKOBM 6MJIM cy ycrropeHM
lDl1XOBMM pa3JIMBalDeM y MHoro IIIMpa KopMTa, TaKO I\a cy 6pojHe BpCTe
pM6a 6MJIe y rrpl1JIMl\11 I\a y CBOM ce30HCKOM rrOXOI\Y CaBJIal\ajy MaTI1l\e
M nojaBe ce y 06JIaCTMMa y Kojl1Ma MX paHl1je Hl1je 611JIo! EoraTCTBO
)!(I1Bor CBeTa yrroTrrYlDaBajy M 6pojHe BpCTe rrTMl\a Koje cBoja HOB a
CTaHMIIITa HaJIa3e y MOqBapHMM 06JIaCTMMa HaCTaJII1M TOKOM rrpOl\eca
TorrlbelDa JIel\HMqKMX MaCMBa. OI\JIyqyjyha rrpOMeHa, l\aKJIe, HaCTaJIa je
rro 3aBpIIIeTKY JIel\eHMX 1\06a M orrrel\aJIa ce y rrpOMeHM <j>OKyca y 0l\a6Mpy
rrJIeHa. BeJII1KMx Cl1capa je 6l1BaJIO CBe MalDe TaKO I\a cy JIOBl\M rrOCTerreHO
8 HHa 4 e n o 3aHHMa tby eKOHOMI1CT
9 Moryne je Aa je ynpaso OBO 11 BpeMe KaAa ce no npBl1 nyT noj aBlhyjy pl16e 11 3 nopOAl1ue
acipenseridae TaKO Ay6oKO Y YHYTpaWlhOCTI1 6aJI KaHCKor nonYOCTpBa.
17
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
rrpena3MnM Ha nOB Ha Malbe )!(MBOTMlbe, KOjMX je, 360r rrOBOJbHMX ycnoBa
M perrpOIlYKTMBHMX l\MKnyca, 6MBano CBe BMIIIe.
ITo EMH<j>oPIlY ce rrorrynal\Mja Koja ce ycrreIIIHo 6aBMna
eKcrrnOaTal\MjoM rrOMopCKMX pecypca "rrpenMna" y rile je 6Mna
lIa ce ocnOHM Ha nOKanHe KynTMreHe M Ha lbMMa 6a3Mpa
CBOjy CTpaTemjy cy63MCTeHl\Mje. AllarrTal\Mja nOBal\a-caKyrrJba'Ia, rro
OBMM aYTopMMa, HajBepoBaTHMje ne ce 1I0rOllMTM YKonMKO 110
CMalbelba y KOnM'IMHM 1I0CTyrrHe xpaHe. OHM O'IeKyjy lIa cy l\eHTpM
rrorrynal\MoHor 6yMa y xpaHoM 60raTMM 06nacTMMa, a lIa ce rrpenMBalbe
CTaHOBHMIIITBa HapO'IMTO ocena y MaprMHanHMM 06nacTMMa, Koja, rrOTOM,
y l\MJbY 3allOBOJbaBalba HapacnMx rroTpe6a y xpaHM, eKcrrepMMeHTMIIIY ca
• •
KynTI1Bal\M)OM 11 ycrreBaJY lIa ce rrpl1narOlle HOBI1M ycnOBI1Ma.
BpeMeHoM cy ce I1CKpl1CTanl1Canl1 rrapaMeTpl1 Koje 611 Tpe6ano
Y3l1MaTl1 y 063MP rrpl1nl1KOM pacrrpaBa 0 HeOnl1Tl13al\l1jl1 11
lheHOr rropeKna. 0 TOMe rOBope [pl1r (Grigg 1982) M EapKep M [eM6n (Barker
and Gamble 1985) 11 yKa3yjy Ha HeorrXOIlHOCT pa3MaTpalha Cnellenl1X
eneMeHaTa: eKoc<j>epa, TexHonorMja, rrpMTMcaK rrorrynal\Mje M COl\MjanHa
KOMrrneKCHOCT. KoeH (Cohen 1989) je rrpMKa3ao rraneorraTonOIIIKe 1I0Ka3e
KOjM lberoBY Te3Y lIa je pa3Boj 3eMJbOpaillhe 6MO 3arrpaBo
MHTeH3MBMpalhe cy63MCTeHl\Mje, IIITO je 1I0IIInO Kao peaKl\Mja Ha KPM3Y y
McxpaHM KOjy je rrpoY3poKoBao rrorrynal\MOHM 6yM.
I1HTepecaHTHM cy, anM M Malhe rr03HaTM MOllenM HeBe3aHM 3a
McxpaHY (non-nutritional), Koje rrpellna)!(y HeKM aYTopM, KOjM rroKYIIIaBajy
lIa Y3POK 3a HeonMTM3al\Mjy y BMIIIe-Malhe er30TM'IHMM
JbYIICKMM rroTpe6aMa. HaBeIIIny HeKe Oil lbMX, He caMO KypM03MTeTa
pallM, Ben M KaKO 6MCMO CTeKnM yBMIl y IIIMPMHY MorynMx rrpMCTyrra.
BOllnM M MapTMH (Wadley, Martirr 1993) cy CBeCHM 'IMlbeHMl\e lIa je
3eMJbOpaillba rrpMxBaneHa Kao 1I0MMHaHTHM MOllen cy63MCTeHl\Mje
yrrpKoc HeKMM 3Ha'IajHMM OrpaHM'IelhMMa (Flannery 1973; Henry 1989)
Koja neMo rrpolIMCKYTOBaTI1 Kalla 6Ylle pe'I 0 rrpena3y ca Me30nMTcKor
Ha HeonMTCKM Ha'IMH McxpaHe. YKpaTKO, BOllnM M MapTMH rrpey3MMajy
pe3ymaTe rpyrre cTpY'IlhaKa (Zioudrou et al. 1979; Brant! et al. 1979), KOjM
• •
cy y )!(MTapMl\aMa, KyKypy3y M ) e'I MY, OTKpMnM rrOCTO)albe rrCMxoreHe
cyrrCTaHl\e ef30prrMH (exorpin) Koja M3a3MBa rroja'IaH ocenaj 3aIlOBOJbCTBa.
ITo OBI1M aYTOpMMa orrojHo lIejCTBO er30prrMHa rrpl1ByKno je JbYlle lIa ce
• •
Hacene OKO HI1IIIa y KO)I1Ma cy pacne III1BJbe )!(I1Tapl1l\e 11 TaKO HarrYCTe CBO)
HOMallcKM Ha'II1H )!(I1BOTa. )J;ollaTHM KBanl1TeT ce rrpOHana311 y HaBollHo
• •• •
M3pa)!(eHO) TOnepaHl\I1)11 KO)y 1I0HOCl1 KOH3YMal\l1)a OBe cyrrCTaHl\e
(HacrrpaM rrpMpOIlHe arpeCI1BHOCTI1), a Koja je 6l1na HeorrxollHa 3a rrO'IeTaK
)!(I1BOTa y Benl1M 3ajeIlHMl\aMa. Y OBOM MOlleny Hl1je jacHo 360r 'Iera 611
18
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyr a
ce rrOIlHOCMne BenMKe )!(pTBe M "Ie Kana HeCMrypHa neTMHa 3apall ManMX
KOnM'lMHa enoprrMHa y BenMKMM KOnM'lMHaMa )!(MTapMI.ja Kalla cy y MCTO
• •
BpeMe 1I0CTyrrHe pa3He IIpyre orrOMIlHe cyrrCTaHl\e Kao IIITO Je MHIIMJCKa
KOHOmDa (Cannabis sativa), 3a KOjy rrocToje rrOllal\M lIa je KopMIIIheHa Kao
orrMjaT Oil HeonMTa (Hui-Lin Li 1974). JOIII jellaH enOTM'lHM MOllen je oHaj
rrpellnO)!(eH jOIII 1953. rOIlMHe (Braidwood et al. 1953) M peaqmpMMcaH 1986
(Katz, Voigt 1986) KOjM Tpa)!(M Y3POK HeonMTM3al\Mje, M3Mel)y oCTanor, y
OTKpMhy anKoxonHMX rrMha, a rrpe CBera rrMBa. OBaKBe rrpMMepe HaBOIIMM
ca orraCKOM lIa jellHM IIpyre He MCKlby'lyjy Beh, HarrpOTMB, rroKa3yjy Ha

rrpBM rrornell cKpMBeHe rrpellHocTM eKcrrnOaTal\MJe )!(MTapMl\a, a TMMe M
cellena'lKOr Ha'lMHa )!(MBOTa.
3Ha'lajHo MeCTO y pacnpaBaMa 0 nO'leQI1Ma HeOnJolTa I1Ma pall BaH
AHllena 11 PaHenca (Runnels and van Andel 1988: 83-109), KOjM pa3MeHY
11 CI1CTeMe pa3MeHe YCTaHoBlbeHe TOKOM enl1naneOnl1Ta Ha BenMKOM
npoCTopy Oil AHallonMje 11 nnaHI1Ha 3arpoc 110 ErMnTa nocMaTpajy Kao
113BOP M ycnoB IIIl1pelha HeOnl1Ta. IlpeMa OBI1M ayTopMMa TproBMHa 11

pacnoJaBalhe IIpYIIITBa 1I0rOllMnM cy ce BMIIIe MnM Malhe cMMynTaHo y
pa3nM'lMTl1M lIenOBMMa MCTO'lHOr Melll1TepaHa npe nojaBe eKoHoMMja
3aCHOBaHMX Ha ceocKoj 3eMlbopalllhM. OBa ¢opMynal\Mja CMeIIITa
TproBMHy Ha 'leno nMCTe ¢aKTopa KOjM cy nocneIIIMBanM npMxBaTalhe M
• • • ••
pacepBalhe 3eMlbopaillhe M y On03Ml\MJM Je ca CTaHOBMIIITMMa lIa Je pa3BoJ
KOMnneKCHMX IIpYIIITaBa nOCnellMl\a cny'lajHor oTKpMha MnM eBonYl\Mje
3eMlbopalllhe. OBM ayTopM cy rrp06neM rrOCTaBMnM 06pHYTO. TproBMHa
Mel)y MCTO'lHO-MeIlMTepaHcKMM IIPYIIITBMMa 06e36ellMna je rrpeTrrocTaBKe
3a eKcrrepMMeHTMcalhe ca 1I0MeCTMKaTMMa KaKO 6M ce 06e36ellMo
• ••
BMIIIaK BpellHOCTM 3a TproBMHy MnM lIa ce M311p)!(aBaJY 3aHaTnMJe KOJe
cy rrocBeheHe rrpoM3BolllhM 1I06apa HaMelheHMX TproBMHM. EpojHe cy
KpMTMKe Koje cy CTMrne ayTopMMa OBor MOllena.
IO
Y OBOM IIYxy rrMIIIe M
XajlleH (Hayden 1990), KOjM cMaTpa lIa cy paHM 1I0MeCTMKaTM M 06jeKTM
pa3MeHe MManM BMIIIe ynory rrpeCTM)!(He Hero yrroTpe6He p06e. OH je
lIalbe rrpellnO)!(MO MoryhHOCT lIa je 3eMlbopaillha rrO'lena rrOIIITO cy y Beh
pacnojeHoM IIPYIIITBY MohHMl\11 KopMCTMnM cBoje rrpOM3BOile 3a jaBHe
r036e 11 rrOKa3l1Balhe 6narOCTalha.
CBe)!( npl1CTyrr rrl1Talhl1Ma HeOnl1Tl13aQl1je 1I0Heo je )K. KOBeH y
CBOjOj Klh11311 The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture (Cauvin
2000). OBa Cl1HTe3a pa3MaTpa npoQec KOjl1 je nO'leo rrpe OKO 14000 rOIlI1Ha.
3a pa3nl1KY Oil eKOnOIIIKI1X, allarrTaQMOHI1CTM'lKMX 11 MaTepl1janl1CTl1'lKI1X
MHTepnpeTaQMja OH lIe¢I1HI1IIIe HeOnl1TcKY peBonYQl1jy Kao "peBonYQl1jy
y cMM60nMMa" Koja nOllpa3YMeBa peCTpyKTypMpalhe I1l1eja, penMrMje M
10 norne,u;anl Dickson 1989 J.1 nOneMItIKY y Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 2/ 1112/2
19
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
c11M60JIa. 3a'leTI1 y CelleJIa'lKI1M 3ajellHI1I.jaMa Ha EJII1CKOM I1CTOKY OHI1 ce,
no OBOM aYTopy npe OKO 9000 rolll1Ha, y Beh pa3BI1jeHoM 06JII1Ky 6p30 11
CHa)!(HO llIl1pe Kp03 EaJIKaH 11 lIalhe y EBpOlly. KOBeHY ce 3aMepa Ha'll1H Ha
• • •
KOJI1 1l0cMaTpa Me30JII1TCKe nonYJIaU;I1Je, KOJe cy npl1Ka3aHe Kao naCI1BHI1

nOCMaTpa'l11 npou;eca HeOJII1TI13aU;I1Je.
-
- .
- -
- -
-
-
.... .... .:: ~ -
- ~ -
- - --
-
- ---
- -
- -
--
-_ .. -
- --
- - --
--
-=. - =-.--.:-
- - -- -.
--
-.
- - --
-- - - -.
.. -. .
- ~ -
- _ --.
- --
- - -- -- - ....
--- - - - ---.:c - ::,.-...... ...
- --- .. - . -
~ - --------: --- --- ~ - --.. :
=---. -- -.
~ .. -.-:- - : : - ~ - .. --....... - -,
....... - •

'"-:7--::-
• •

• •

-
- ~
Cnl1Ka 1 - IIhtpeli>e Heomna 113 30He npJ.1MapHe HeOlIJ.1T143al.l}1je (npeMa Zvelebil et al. 1991)
Y HOBl1je BpeMe 1I0llaTHY nOMeTIny, aJII1 11 CaCBI1M HOB CeT 1I0Ka3a
nOHYlll1JIa je reHeTI1Ka. Ca nl10HI1pCKI1M pallOM AMepMaH 11 KaBaJII1-
C<jJopu;a (Ammerman, Cavalli-Sforza 1984) nO'leJIO je fueHO YBol)efue y
apxeoJIorl1jy, aJII1 11 lIe6aTa 0 1I0MeTI1Ma OBe III1CU;l1nJII1He Koja nocTaje
He3a0611JIa3Ha y pacnpaBaMa 0 nOpeKJIY 11 Ha'll1HY Ull1pefua HeOJII1Ta
(O'Connell 1999). OBa III1CU;l1nJII1Ha ce CBe 'IeUlhe Ha311Ba 11 apxeOreHeTI1Ka.
LlOMeCTI1KaU;l1ja, Kao npou;ec y KOMe ce nOBehaBa Mel)Y3aBI1CHOCT
lhYIICKI1X 11 611lhHI1X 11 )!(I1BOTl1fuCKI1X 3ajellHI1u;a je Beh lIy)!(e BpeMe jellaH
Oil I1HTepeca reHeTl1'1KI1X I1CTpa)!(I1Bafua. EKcnepTI1 Tpa)!(e MapKepe

1I0MeCTI1KaU;I1Je y reHOMI1Ma 1I0MeCTI1KOBaHI1X BpCTa, 113 npOUlJIOCTI1 11
113 caBpeMeHI1X Y30paKa. ilOBpaTHa I1H<jJopMaU;l1ja apxeOJIora cacTojl1
ce y TOMe lIa OTKpl1jy KOHTeKCTe KOjl1 611 eBI111eHTl1paJII1 lhYIICKO
rrOHaUlafue Be3aHO 3a rrpou;ec 1I0MecTI1KaU;l1je. Y oBaj rrpou;ec yKlhy'lyjy
ce 11 apXe0300JI0311 KOjl1 npaTe MOp<jJOJIOUlKe rrpOMeHe Ha )!(I1BOTl1fuCKI1M
KOCTI1Ma TOKOM rrpou;eca 1I0MeCTI1KaU;l1je (Zeder et al. 2006).
20
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
OBaKaB rrpl1cTyrr 11 rrpoy'laBaIne MI1TOXOHI\Pl1jCKI1X CeKBeHl\11 Ha
Y30pl\I1Ma 1\0cTyrrHI1M 113 apXeOJIOIllKI1X 11 CaBpeMeHI1X KOHTeKCTa Ben
1\0HOCI1 orr 11 rrlbl1 Be pe3YJITaTe (Renfrew 2001) KOjl1 yKa3yjy Ha 3ajel\HI1'1KO
rrOpeKJIO HOCI1JIal\a TaJIaCa HeOJII1TI13al\l1je Ha EBporrcKoM KOHTI1HeHTY
ca rrorrYJIal\l1jaMa 113 06JIaCTI1 JIeBaHTa 11 AHal\OJIl1je (Cavalli-Sforza,
Ammerman 1984). AHaJII13e cy BpllleHe 11 Ha Y30pl\I1Ma )!(I1BOTI1IDCKI1X
KOCTl1jy (B. Ha rrpl1Mep Edwards et al. 2004: 707) ca l\l1lbeM I\a ce YTBpl\11
rrOpeKJIO 1\0MeCTI1KaTa, a pe3YJITaTI1 rrOHOBO yrrynyjy Ha 6JII1CKOCT L(HK
CeKBeHl\11 ca caBpeMeHI1M 6JII1CK0I1CTO'lHI1M, eBpOrrCKI1M 11 a</Jpl1'1KI1M
rOBe'leTOM (Bos taurus). MOl\eJIY Hanpeo08aIVe y mallaCUMa (Wave
of advance) AMepMaHa 11 KaBaJII1-C</J0pl\e Haj'lelline ce 3aMepa Ha
peKoHcTpYKl\l1jl1 6p311He llIl1pelDa HeOJII1Ta Kp03 EBporry, Ha rrorpelliHO
rrOCTaBlbeHI1M rrpeMI1CaMa 0 MaTpl1l\11 HacelbaBalDa y Me30JII1TY 11
HeOJII1TY 11 Ha IDI1XOBOj I1HTeprrpeTal\l1jl1 reHeTCKI1X MaTpl1l\a. OBaj MOl\eJI
I\OKa3yje rrOpeKJIO lbYI\CKI1X 11 )!(I1BOTI1IDCKI1X 3ajel\HI1l\a EBporre 11 yKa3yje
Ha JIeBaHT Kao Cl1rypHO 113BOpl1ll1Te l\eJIa eBporrCKe rrorryJIal\l1je. TOKOM

rOl\I1Ha OBa) MOl\eJI ce 1\0rrYIDaBa HOBI1M Ca3HaIDI1Ma 11 TeXHOJIOlllKI1M
1\0CTI1rHynl1Ma (KOMrrjYTepCKe CI1MYJIal\l1je, Hrrp. Edmonds et al. 2004)
TaKO I\a ne y cKopl1je BpeMe 611TI1 Moryne l\e</JI1HI1TI1BHO 3aKlbY'll1TI1

I\I1CKyCI1)y 0 rrOpeKJIY eBporrcKor HeOJII1Ta.
[eHepaJIHO Y3eBllII1 MOl\eJII1 HeOJII1TI13al\l1je ce Mory CBPCTaTI1 y

I\Be )aCHO Orrpel\elbeHe rpyrre HaY'lHI1Ka: aYToxToHl1cTe 11 rrpl1CTaJII1l\e
Ml1rpal\110HI1X Teopl1ja 01\ KOjl1X CBaKa I1Ma 6pojHe Hl1jaHce y rrpl1CTyrry,
06jalliIDeIDI1Ma 11 apryMeHTI1Ma. Y caBpeMeHoj cBeTcKoj JII1TepaTypl1 je
caMO TOKOM OCaMl\eCeTI1X 11 l\eBel\eCeTI1X rOl\I1Ha 06jaBlbeHo Bl1ll1e 01\
Tpl11\eCeT TaKBI1X MOl\eJIa. Mo)!(e ce rrpl1MeTI1TI1 I\a je aYTOXTOHI1CTl1'1KI1X
rrpl1CTyrra CBe MalDe (Hrrp. CpejoBl1n 1998; 2001), llITO He 3Ha'll1 I\a ce
yTI1l\aj oBor Ha'll1Ha Ml1ll1lbelDa 11 I\albe He ocena BpJIO CHa)!(HO y cprrcKoj
apxeOJIorl1jl1 (Hrrp. Bogdanovic 2004).
Y rrOCJIel\IDe BpeMe 06jaBlbeHe cy cTYl\l1je Koje rrocBenyjy Bl1ll1e
rra)!(lDe JIOKanHOM rrpl1xBaTalDY HeOJII1TCKI1X Tpal\l1l\l1ja/rraKeTa 11 cTaBlbajy
• •
HarJIaCaK Ha KOHTaKTe KO)11 cy OCTBapl1BaHI1 TOKOM I1HTepaKl\I1)e JIOKaJIHe
JIOBa'lKo-caKyrrlba'lKe rrorryJIal\l1je ca </JapMepl1Ma KOjl1 cy y Hal\l1palDY
(BI1I\I1 KOI\ Whittle 1996; Price et al. 2001; Gronenborn 1999). [eHepaJIHO
Y3eBllIl1, aYToxToHI1CTl1'1KI1 MOl\eJII1 ce 6a311pajy Ha Tpl1 rrpeTrrocTaBKe:
• •
• TOKOM Me30JII1TCKOr rrepl1ol\a rrOCTO)aJIe cy Cel\eHTapHe 3a)eI\HI1l\e ca
rrorrYJIal\l1jaMa Koje cy 611JIe crrpeMHe I\a rrpl1XBaTe HeOJII1TCKI1 Ha'll1H
)KUBOTa;
• rYCTI1Ha HacelbaBalDa rr03HOMe30JII1TCKI1X
3ajel\HI1l\a 611JIa je CJIl1'1Ha y l\aTI1M 06JIaCTI1Ma;
• •
paHOHeOJII1TCKI1X
• rrOCTO)aO)e KOHTI1HYI1TeT y HacelbaBalDY llII1pOM perl10Ha.
21
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
CnltlKa 2 - 06naCT nnoAHor nonYMeceu;a
.',

OBaKBa pa3Mwllllhafba nOTKpenlheHa cy OTKpwheM caCBWM oc06eHe

KynrypHe TpaAWl\w)e y ceBep03anaAHOM Aerry npocmpafba Kynrype
rrwHeapHe KepaMwKe (JIEK) rAe ce Ha npwMepy JIa XoreT (La Hoguette)
BWAW KaKO rrOKarrHe Me30rrWTCKe rpyne nO'lwfbY Aa ce 6aBe KyrrTWBal\wjoM
W AOMeCTWKal\wjoM lKWBOTWfba npe nojaBe JIEK Kynrype (Liinnig 1989;
Price et al. 2001). npeMAa cy OBe npeTnOCTaBKe HajBepOBaTHwje
Ta'lHe 3a 06rracTw l\eHTparrHe W ceBep03anaAHe EBpone W Aalhe oCTaje
'IWfbeHwl\a Aa HW y 06rracTw [p'lKe HW y jyrowcTo'lHoj EBponw OBO Hwje
6wo crry'laj.
MnaK, BerrWKa BehwHa caBpeMeHWX 06jalllfbefba Be3aHWX 3a nWTafba
HeorrWTW3al\wje nOAYAapHa je y perWOHa y KojeM je nO'leo
npOl\ec HeorrWTW3al\wje W Harra3W ra y 06rracTw jyr03anaAHe A3wje (B.
Hnp. Bar Yoseph 1998 wrrw J. Cauvin 2000). OCWM 06rracTw KOjy 'IeCTO y
HaYl\W Ha3WBaMO JIllOOHU nOllYMeceu, 'IWfbeHWl\e rOBope Aa ce CrrW'IaH W
• •
caCBWM He3aBwcaH pa3BO) AorOAWO Ha )Olll HeKorrWKO MeCTa Ha nrraHeTW.
HajpaHwjw HeorrWT y jylKHOj A3wjw, y cKrraAY ca TpeHyTHwM CTafbeM
wCTpalKeHocTw, je y TIaKwcTaHY, Ha Harra3wlllTY Mexprapx W AaTyje ce
OKO 7000 rOAWHa cTape epe (Fuller 2006: 20). Y KWHW je nOCTojarro
lKapwlllTe HeorrWTW3al..\wje y AorrWHW peKe JaHrl\e. Y OBOj 06rracTw HaCTarra
je TIeHrTYlliaH Kynrypa (Pengtoushan), Koja je AaToBaHa 7500
22
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n

pa3JIMKOBafuY IIBa BeJIMKa HeOJIMTCKa KOMrrJIeKca: JellHor OJIMqeHOr y
KepaMMl.\M AH3a6erOBO - fypa BahyJIyj CTMJIa (BaJIKaHcKO-aHaIlOJICKM
KOMrrJIeKC) M IIpyror KOjM KapaKTepMIlIe rpy6a KepaMMKa M KOjM ce YKJIarra
y fuerOB ITollYHaBcKM KOMrrJIeKC. OBaKaB rromell lIeJIyje BeOMa 3aCHOBaHO

Kalla cTYIIMpaMO Macy KepaMMqKOr MaTepMJaJIa HeOJIMTCKe erroxe.
A. BMTJI je y CBOjOj KfuM3M Europe in the Neolithic: the Creation
of New Worlds (Whittle 1996) Kao M y qJIaHKY Fish, faces and fingers:
presences and symbolic identities in the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in
the Carpathian basin (1998) rrpellcTaBMo je TpM MOlleJIa rro KojMMa ce MOlKe
pa3MaTpaTM rrp06JIeM HeOJIMTM3al.\Mje M OIlJIyqyje ce 3a XM6pMIIHM MOlleJI.
OH je Kao maBHM HellOCTaTaK KOJIOHM3aTopcKMX MOlleJIa HaBeo qMfueHMl\Y
lIa je npocrop, 3a KOjH ce paHMje CMaTpaJIO lIa je HeHacelbeH y 1I06a
rrOqeTaKa HeOJIHTa jyroMCTOqHe EBpone, HrraK HacelbeH H HaBOIlM lIeceTaK
JIOKaJIMTeTa Ha KojHMa ce MOlKe npaTMTH Me30JIHTCKH pa3Boj. ITopell
ljepllancKHx HaJIa3HIlITa Ha KojHMa ce MOlKe camellaTH pe3YJITaT pa3Boja
H TpallHl\Hje Me30JIMTCKe erroxe, BHTJI HaBOIIH jOlli <DpaHKTH, rrehHHY
TeorrTepa, HeKOJIMKO rrojaBa Ha 3arrailHOM BaJIKaHY Ha3MBa the Dinaric
chain from Montenegro to Slovenia, 3aTMM HaJIa3MIlITa Ha ceBepHoj cTpaHM
ITaHoHcKe HM3Mje y Jacary (Jaszag), ceBepHo Oil COJIHOKa M jyr 1I0JIMHe
Byr-,[(fuecTap MCTOqHO Oil Kaprram, IlITO qMHM IIBalleceTaK rrojaBa.
11
OH je

OlliTpO rrpoTMB l.\pTafua Kapam pacrrpocTMpafua rroJellMHMX KyJITypHMX
¢eHoMeHa Ha KojMMa ce IlIpa¢Mpa rrpa3aH rrpocTop M3Meljy HaJIa3MIlITa
M aYToMaTcKM ce cMaTpa lIeJIOM KyJIType. I1rraK M BMTJI HeXOTMl.\e yrralla
y CJIMqHY 3aMKY Kalla lIoKa3yje lIa rrpocTop jyroMCTOqHe EBporre HMje 6e3
• •
TparoBa Me30JIMTCKMX rrorrYJIal.\MJa, JellMHO IlITO, Kao 3a pa3JIMKy Oil OHMX
Koje KpMTMKyje He lIaje KapTy ca IlIpa¢MpaHMM rrpOCTopOM Me30JIMTa.
3aHMMlbMBO je BMljefue r. BejJIMja (Bailey 1995), KOjM YCTaJIaCaHM
BaJIKaHCKM rrpelleo He BMIIM Kao "aYTOCTpally" 3a IlIMpefue HeOJIMTCKMX
Mlleja ca BJIMCKOr MCTOKa Beh BMIlIe Kao ,,¢MJITep" KOjM je MOIIM¢MKOBao,
cKpeTao, a He Kalla M 6JIOKMpaO rrOKpeTe lbYIlM M Mlleja.
3a CTMl.\afue YBMlla y 6p3MHy rrp0l.\eca HeOJIMTM3al.\Mje, BpellHa
rrOMeHa je H CTYIIMja J. )KMJIay (Zilhao) KOjH HaM lIaje OCHOBa 3a
pa3MaTpafue rrMTafua IlIMpefua HeOJIMTa rrOMopCKMM rrYTeM. OH oBaj
pa3Boj rrpaTM Ha rrpMMepy 3arrailHor MellMTepaHa. ITo fuerOBM MMllilbefuY,
rrOTKperrlbeHOM C14 lIaTYMMMa 6MJIO je rroTpe6Ho CBera IIBa BeKa lIa
HeOJIHTCKH HaCelbeHHl\H cTMrHY 110 3anallHHx rpaHHl\a KOHTMHeHTa.
06aK6a 6p3uHa Ulupelba, Koja ce 00200ulla 3a C6e2a Ulecm 2eHepau,uja,
MOJICe ce Haj60lbe 06jacHumu y OK6Upy nOMopcK02 nuoHupcK02
KOlloHu3amopcK02 Mooella (maritime pioneer colonization model)
(Zilhao 2001).
11 Koje, npw TOMe, He Mopaj y HeonxOAHO 6WTl1 XPOHOJI OWKI1 01HxpOHe - npHMeA6a H.H.T.
24
!1cxpaHa KaO J13BOP 3a rrpoyqaBalhe rrpou;eca
J1aKo je ,[(eHen (Dennel 1979) 6HO Bpno CKenTW!aH no nHTaIhY

ca3Halha Y Be3H ca npaHCTopHJCKHM HaBHKaMa Y HcxpaHH, CKOPO ca
cHrYPHoIllhy MOlKeMO TBpl\HTH I\a je npelIa3aK Ha HeOlIHTCKH Ha'lHH
HcxpaHe H cel\ena'lKH Ha'lHH lKHBOTa 1\0HeO oceTaH nal\ Y HyTpHTHBHHM
Bpel\HOCTHMa y HcxpaHH (Hnp. Nestle 2000), Koja je rrOCTana 60raTHja
YrJbeHHM xHl\paTHMa, a cHpoMaIllHHja rrpoTeHHHMa. Me30nHTcKH
1I0Bal..\-cKY!1Jba'l KOjH he Ha Kpajy rrp0l..\eca TpaH3HI..\Hje rrOCTaTH
HeonHTCKH <papMep, HMao je rrpel\ C060M Herrpernel\HH rrpoCTop JIeBaHTa
y eKocHcTeMY 03Ha'leHOM Kao parkland rl\e My je Ha pacrronaralhY
cTajano rrpeKO CTOTHHY jecTHBHX 6HlbHHX BpCTa 60raTHX rrpOTeHHHMa,
MHHepanHMa H yrlbeHHM XHl\paTHMa. Y3 TO, 6pojHe I\HBlbe lKHBOTHIhCKe

nOBHe BpCTe HMane cy 3Ha'lapH Yl\eo y HcxpaHH, OI\HOCHO lheHOM
rrpOTeHHCKOM I\eny. Ce30HCKO MHrpHpalhe 3a 6HlbKaMa (y rrpH06anHOM
rrojacy rrepHOI\ 1\03peBalha lKHTapHl..\a H jecTHBHX 6HlbaKa je rrap MeCel..\H
HCrrpel\ OHor y rrnaHHHCKHM 06naCTHMa) H lKHBOTHlhaMa YTHl..\alIO je Ha
pa3HOBpCHOCT HcxpaHe, anH H Ha OrpaHH'Ielhe caBpeMeHHX apxeonora
• •
Y OTKpHBalhY IhHXOBHX rrpHBpeMeHHX lIoropa, KOJH ce peTKO ca'lYBaJY y
apxeonOIllKOM 3arrHcy. J13Y3eTaK y OBOM cMHcny rrpel\CTaBlba Hana3HIllTe
Oxano II (Nadel, Hershkovitz 1991). Ca Cel\eHTapH3al..\HjoM H ocnalhalheM
Ha HcxpaHY 3aCHOBaHOM Ha lKHTapHl..\aMa 1\01Ia3H 1\0 ocnalhalha Ha
xpaHy 60raTY MHHepanHMa, IllTO ce MOlKe BHl\eTH H Ha aHTporronoIllKoM
MaTepHjany (B. Ha rrpHMep Mikic 1981) KOjH rroCTaje 3HaTHO rpal..\HnHHjH,
IllTO ce H 06jaIlllhaBa CBe MalhHM Cal\plKajeM rrpoTeHHa lKHBOTHIhCKor
rropeKna y HcxpaHH.
ITpoY'laBalhe rraneo-HcxpaHe rrOCTalIO je y rrOCnel\lhHX I\Bal\eCeTaK
rOI\HHa, ca YBol)elheM TeXHHKa <plIoTaI..\Hje, pa3BHjeHHx Crrel..\HjalIHcTH'IKHX
HCTpalKHBalha MaKp06HlbHHX OCTaTaKa H reHeTH'IKHX aHalIH3a, pecypc
25
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
jel\HaKO 3HaqajaH 3a rrpoyqaBalhe IbYI\CKMX 3ajel\HMl1a Kao IIlTO je TO Y 1\06a
CTMnCKO-TMrronOIIlKe apxeonorMje 6Mna rpHqapMja. EpOjHMM CTYI\MjaMa je
I\OKa3aHO I\a je, aHanM30M OCTaTaKa McxpaHe Moryne peKOHCTpYMcaTM He
caMO jenoBHMK IbYI\M Y rrpOIIlnOCTM Ben M lhMXOBe COI1MjanHe MaTpMl1e,
lhMXOBe rroTpe6e, HaBMKe, KpeTalha M Y Kpajlhoj nMHMjM, KapaKTep (Hrrp.
Smith 1973). CTYI\Mje OCTaTaKa IbYI\CKe McxpaHe, Koje rrpoHana3MMo
• •
Ha apxeonoIIlKMM MCKorraBalhMMa 1\0rrpMHOce CBe OIIlTPMJOJ CnMI1M
Ha KOjOj ce BMI\M oBaj rn06anHM pa3Boj. feHepanHo Y3eBIIlM Y l\yroM
rrepMOI\Y 01\ XOMO xa6MnMca 1\0 Hac, l\aKne Y TMX BMIIle 01\ I\Ba MMnMOHa
CnHKa 3 - flopeljelhe naneOnIHCKOr 11 caBpeMeHor HaqJ1Ha J1CXpaHe
rOI\MHa 1\0IIlnO je 1\0 CBera HeKonMKO peBonYI1MOHaPHMX I\oral)aja. ITpBM
je CBaKaKO rrOqeTaK rrnaHMpalha M opraHM30BaHor 6aBlbelha nOBOM, a
I\pyrM je rroqeTaK rrpOM3BOl\lhe xpaHe. 06a OBa rrpena3a (CKOKa) MMana cy
l\aneKOCelKHe YTMl1aje Ha TOK IbYI\CKe rrOBeCTM. ITpBM je qOBeKa M31\MraO

ca HMBoa neIIlMHapa Ha HMBO rrpel\aTOpa M HaTepao ra I\a ce YI\PYlKYJe,
rrnaHMpa, pa3BMja CBe eqlMKacHMje CTpaTerMje rrpelKMBlbaBafba, a I\pyrM
ra je rrpOMeHMO M Y 6MonOIIlKOM cMMcny M 01\ lhera HaqMHMO y rrpaBOM
cMMcny peqM 1\0MeCTMKOBaHY BPCTY (Hodder 1990). KaKo TO l\aHaC
M3rnel\a, jOIIl caMO jel\aH I\oral)aj ca TaKO l\aneKOCelKHMM rrOCnel\Ml1aMa
3al\eCMO je HaIIlY BPCTY, a TO je MaCOBHO KopMIIlnelhe MHI\YCTpMjcKe xpaHe
(MHCTaHT xpaHa, TV dinners, junk food). HOBO Y TOM HaqMHY McxpaHe
je YBol)elhe xeMMjcKMx al\MTMBa KOjM rro rrpBM rryT yqeCTByjy y IbYI\CKOM
MeTa60nM3MY, a y rrOCnel\lhMx rrel\eCeTaK rOI\MHa jacHo ce BMl\e rrOCnel\Ml1e
TaKBor HaqMHa McxpaHe. ,[(a CBaKM pa3BMTaK M M306Mlbe HMje HeMMHOBHO
M "KopaK y 1\06pOM rrpaBI1Y" BMI\M ce M M3 CBe BMIIlMX CTorra CMPTHOCTM
01\ rrOCnel\Ml1a paKa M roja3HocTM y Cjel\MlheHMM AMepMqKMM ,[(plKaBaMa,
OI\HOCHO Ha rn06anHoM HMBOy. ITocnel\Ml1a roja3HocTM M3a3MBa 3HaqajaH
rropeMenaj 31\paBlba M oceTHY rrpoMeHY y rroHaIIlalhy. OCTeoapTpMTMC,
KopoHapHe 60necTM, CpqaHM Yl\ap MnM I\Mja6eTec cy caMO HeKe 01\
60necTM Koje I\Ona3e ca M306MlbeM M nOIIlMM 0l\a6MpOM xpaHe. HeraTMBHe
• •
rrOCnel\Ml1e KOJe cy ycnel\Mne M KOJe 1\0BOl\e 1\0 TonMKe CMPTHOCTM HMKaKO
26
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
HMCY Morne 6MTM /10 Kpaja rrpe/1BMljeHe-" HeKM he pehM /1a, Ha cpehy rro
•• •
pa3BoJ U;MBMJIM3aU;MJe, HM HeOJIMTCKM 'WBeK HMJe Morao /1a rrpe/1BM/1M
peJIaTMBHM rra/1 y HyTpMTMBHOM KBaJIMTeTY McxpaHe y TpeHyTKy Ka/1a ce
O/1JIY'lMBao 3a ce/1eJIa'lKM M 3eMJbOpa/1HM'IKM )KMBOT.
MeIjYTMM, rrocToje M rrpMMepM 3aje/1HMu;a M3 eTHorpa<pCKe rpalje
M M3 apXeOJIOUlKMX M3Bopa Koje HMCY 6MJIe crrpeMHe /1a ce "rrperryCTe"
HeOJIMTY, 'IeMY je /106ap rrpMMep HOCMJIau;a XapM<pMeH KyJIType KOjM cy
)KMBeJIM yrrope/10 ca HeOJIMTCKMM JbY/1MMa (Marks, 1976: 43-60; Bar-Yoseph
1998: 147-149). MeHM ce MrraK 'IMHM /1a cy M rrope/1 rra/1a y McxpaHM Kojer
cy rrOCJIe rrap ce30Ha CBaKaKO MOpaJIM 6MTM CBeCHM M /1aJbe MMaJIM BeOMa
MohaH MOTMB KOjM MX je 3a/1p)KaO Ha MeCTY M Harno rrOTerao 06apa'l M

cmlpaJIY HarrpeTKa M U;MBMJIM3aU;MJe.
J1MIIlIJ.1KaU;J1je yBo1)elba AOAaTHe J1CXpaHe oAojQaAJ1
• •
J1 lheH 3HaQaJ 3a rrpou;ec HeOJIJ1TJ13aU;J1Je
HOBMja reHeTCKa MCTpa)KMBalha cy HaM rrOKa3aJIa /1a je HaUl reHOM
joUl YBeK 6JIM)KM HaBMKaMa y McxpaHM KaKBa je 6MJIa y BpeMeHY rrpe
rrO'leTaKa HeOlIl'lTa (Cordain 1999: 19-73; Simopoulos 2003: 1-22), UlTO H
• • •
HHJe 'lY/1HO aKO ce HMa y BH/1Y /1a Je BHUle /1eCeTHHa rryTa /1Y)KH pa3BOJ
BpCTe npOTeKao YTaKBHM YCJIOBHMa. HaBHKe y HcxpaHH rr03Hor naJIeOJIMTa
H errMnaJIeOJIMTa peKOHCTpYHcaHe cy y BeJIHKoj MepH 3aXBaJbyjyhH
MHHYU;H03HHM HCKonaBalhHMa, aHaJIH30M MaKp06MJbHHX OCTaTaKa,
naJIHHOJIOrHjH, aJIH H CTalhY H xeMHjcKor caCTaBa 3y6a H 3y6He rneljH KO/1

aHaJIH3MpaHMx MH/1MBM/1ya, y OBOM CJIY'laJY caxpalheHMx Ha HeKpOnOJIaMa
y 06JIaCTH L\lhenapcKMX 6p3aKa y YKpajMHM (Lilly 1997). ITa MnaK, M /1aJbe
HMje jacHo KOjM cy pa3JI03M HaTepaJIM nocMaTpaHe nonyJIaU;Mje ITJIO/1HOr
• •
nOJIYMeceu;a - 'IMJa Je JIOBa'lKo-caKynJba'lKa HcxpaHa npeMa CXBaTalhMMa
caBpeMeHMx HYTPMU;HoHMcTa rrpe/1CTaBJbaJIa M/1eaJI KOMe BaJba Te)KMTH M
• •
/1aHaC, /1a ce npeopMJeHTMUlY Ha 3HaTHO OCKY/1HMJY HeOJIMTcKY McxpaHy.
(CJIMKa 3). Ce/1eHTapM3aU;MjoM M OrpaHM'IaBalheM rrpoCTopa C Kojer
caKyrrJbajy xpaHY, Me30JIMTCKM JIOBU;M-caKyrrJba'lM )KpTByjy /106ap
/1eo cBoje Tprre3e Koja je 6MJIa pe3YJITaT reHepaU;MjcKMx MCTpa)KMBalha
rrpMpO/1HMX pecypca, CTaHMUlTa 6MJbHMX M )KMBOTMlhCKMX BpcTa M
lhMXOBMX ce30HCKMX rrpoMeHa. 0 OBOMe rOBopM M P. XaJIaH/1 (Haaland
1995: 167) M 'IaK M3HOCM rrpeTrrocTaBKY /1a je rrpMJIMKOM rrpeJIaCKa Ha
Ce/1eHTapHM Ha'lHH )KMBOTa MOpaJIO /10hM /10 cyK06a MHTepeca M3Meljy

MYUlKor M )KeHCKor /1eJIa rrorryJIaU;HJe ca /1aJIeKOCe)KHHM rrOCJIe/1Mu;aMa
12 I1Ma, cpenoM, H Ao6pHX cTpaHa y caBpeMeHoj HcxpaHH, a Ty flpe csera BI1 AI1 M
KyxHlhe, Koja AOnpl1 HOCI1 yno3Hanatny 11 pa3Yi\IeBathy pa3J1 l1
t
ll1Tl1 X KyllTypa.
27
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
KOjM he ce OqMTaBaTM qaK M Y CTMJIY YKpaIlIaBalha rrocyl)a. JIoBaqKO-
caKyrrJbaqKM HaqMH cy63MCTeHl\Mje, KOjM je 6MO KapaKTepMCTMqaH 3a
JbYIICKY BPCTY crroc06HY 3a arrCTpaKTHo MMIlIJbelhe, YllppKMBalhe M

KOJIeKTMBHO rrJIaHMpalhe M KOJM ce ycaBpIlIaBao TOKOM BMIlIe lIeceTMHa
• • •
XMJballa rOIlMHa - TOKOM HeKOJIMKO reHepal\MJa 3aMelheH Je cTpaTerMJoM
• •
rrpexpaHe KOP Je lIeJIMMMqHO 3HaqMJIa ocaMOCTaJbMBalhe Oil rrpMpolle
(lloMeCTMKal\Mja 6MJbaKa M lKMBoTMlha), a lIeJIOM OCTaJIa 3aBMCHa Oil
lheHMX hYIlM (cYIlIHe rOIlMHe, Harna rrpoMeHa KJIMMaTCKMX YCJIOBa ... ). 3a
OBaKaB rrpeJIa3, KOjM he HeIlITO KacHMje pe3YJITMpaTM rrojaBoM cjajHMx
• • • • •
KyJITypa M l\MBMJIM3al\MJa, Mopao Je rrocToJaTM M3Y3eTHo JaK pa3JIOr, KOJM
cy, KaKO he ce lIaJbe y TeKcTY BMlleTM, rrpBe rrperr03HaJIe lKeHe.
KJIMMaTCKe rrpoMeHe HMCY caMe rro ce6M pa3JIOr 3a rrpM-
rrMTOMJbaBalhe 6MJbaKa. Y rrpeTxolIHMM KOJIe6alhMMa KJIMMe JbYllcKa
BpcTa je CBOj orrCTaHaK 06e36el)MBaJIa allarrTal\MjoM M MMrpal\MjaMa. Ca
• • •
IIpyre cTpaHe rr03HaTM cy cJIyqaJeBM lIa Je M y BpeMe rrpe HeOJIMTM3al\MJe
6MJIO eKcrrepMMeHTMcalha ca pa3JIMqMTMM BpcTaMa IIMBJbMX l\epeaJIMja Ha
ce30HcKoj OCHOBM. 3Halhe 0 XpaHJbMBoj BpellHOCTM lKMTapMl\a CBaKaKO je
• •
rrocToJaJIO lIyrM HM3 rOIlMHa rrpe HO IlITO cy ce JbYllcKe 3aJe1lHMl\e OIlJIyqMJIe
•• •
lIa CBOJY cTpaTerMJY McxpaHe 3acHYJY Ha lhMMa.
JellHO Oil HajBalKHMjMx rrMTalha Kalla rOBopMMO 0 3Haqajy M

lIaJIeKOCelKHOCTM rrpeJIaCKa Ha HeOJIMTCKM HaqMH McxpaHe Je yrrpaBo
MOTMB 3a oBaj KopaK! HMje Moryhe YTBPIIMTM lIa JIM cy JbYllcKe 3ajellHMl\e
6MJIe CBeCHe JIOIlIMX CTpaHa Be3aHMX 3a OBY TpaH3Ml\Mjy. OIlJIYKa lIa ce
3ajellHMl\a celleHTapM3yje M rrpel)e Ha rrpOM3BOillhY xpaHe HajqeIlIhe ce
06jaIlIlhaBa BehoM KOHTPOJIOM y cHa611eBalhY HaMMpHMl\a y3 HarropaH M
MYKOTprraH pall (BMIIM Ha rrpMMep Tudge 1998). ITo TaI,ly 3aqapaHM Kpyr
HapacTajyhe rrorrYJIal\Mje, KOjM je 6MO rrOCJIeIlMl\a pelloBHor cHa611eBalha
xpaHoM pe3YJITMpaJIa je rroTpe60M 3a KYJITMBMCalheM CBe BMIlIe M BMIlIe
3eMJbe. ITo HeKMM ayTopMMa (yKJbyqyjyhM M K. TaI,la) yqMHaK KOjM
cy JbYllcKe 3ajellHMl\e MMaJIe Ha eKOCMCTeM rrOHeKall je 6MO (rrpMMepM
AycTpaJIMje M AMepMKe) lIeBacTMpajyh. J1rraK OBO rrpellCTaBJba M lIeo
06jaIlIlhelha 3a parrMIlHO IlIMpelhe HeOJIMTa M rrpeJIa3aK Ha 3eMJbOpalllhY.
Ha OBOM MeCTY Tpe6a YBeCTM jellHy 3HaqajHY qMlheHMl\Y KOjy T.
TejJIop eJIa60pMpa y CBOjOj KlhM3M Prehistory of sex (Taylor 1996). OH Kp03

rrpMMepe caBpeMeHMx JIOBaqKO-caKyrrJbaqKMX 3aJe1lHMl\a M celleJIaqKMX
IIpYIlITaBa rroKa3yje lIa je rrpOCeqaH MHTepBaJI M3Mel)y IIBa rropol)aja
• •
y rrpBMM 3aJe1lHMl\aMa OKO TpM 110 qeTMpM rOIlMHe IIOK Je y rrOTOIhMM
cKpaheH Ha rrepMOIl Oil jellHe 110 TpM rOIlMHe. i3 OBO ce 06jaIlIlhaBa
KpahMM rrepMolloM 1I0jelha/JIaKTal\Mje TOKOM Koje rrocToje MHoro Malhe
IlIaHce 3a OrrJIOIlIhY. C 063MPOM lIa ce IlIMpelhe HeOJIMTa qeCTO Be3MBaJIO
13 3a AOAaTHe 0 oABHKasalhY OA Aojelha BHAeTH H KOA: Clayton et a1. 2006
28
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
3a nonYJIaU;WOHW 6YM MO)l(eMO npeTnOCTaBWTW ,n;a je OBO pa3MWllIJbafue

MOrJIO WMaTW W peaJIHe OCHOBe Ka,n;a ce pa,n;w 0 BpeMeHY TpaH3WU;WJe
Me30JIWT/ HeOJIWT. MCTO CTaHOBWIlITe 3aCTyna W B. TpeBaTaH (Trevathan
1987), Koja je YBepeHa ,n;a ce MO)l(e ,n;OKa3aTW YCJIOBJbeHOCT nonYJIaU;WOHOr
• •
pacTa nopBOM ,n;o,n;aTHe wcxpaHe 3a WH,n;WBw,n;ye Y3paCTa Je,n;He ,n;o neT
ro,n;WHa. 0Ha CMaTpa,n;a je ca nO'IeU;WMa npWXBaTafua 3eMJbOpa,n;fue CBeTCKa
nonYJIau;wja panw,n;HO YBenaHa, Te ,n;a je, npeMa fueHWM npOpa'IyHwMa
)I(eHa, npOCe'IHO pal)aJIa no OCMOPO ,n;eu;e. 0Ha ,n;aJbe nOBJIa'IW napaJIeJIY
• • •
ca )I(eHaMa Y caBpeMeHOM CBeTY 'IwJa ce oByJIaU;WJa nOHOBO YCTaJbYJe CBera
12 ,n;o 15 Meceu;w o,n; 3a'Iena. M3Y3eTHo BWCOK MOpTaJIWTeT ,n;eu;e cTapocTw
w3Mel)y je,n;He W neT ro,n;WHa Y JIOBa'IKO-caKynJba'IKWM 3aje,n;Hwu;aMa MO)l(e
ce Bw,n;enl Ha CJIe,n;eneM rpa<jJWKOHY (CJIWKa 4).
70
60
50
40
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20
IS
10
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Il M6eH
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.. T. _ , /- __ "
KapncTOH-AtUH:: '"-,
1-<5
" HaHve'AOj
5-<10 10-<20 20-<40
ClIHKa 4 - M OpTaJll1'reT y pa3J1 H4 HTl1M JI OSa1.J. KO-caKYnJh alIKItIM
KaKO ce TO W ,n;aHac MO)l(e np0'IWTaTW W3 6pOjHWX npwpy'IHWKa
3a wcxpaHY HajMJIal)wx 'IJIaHOBa 3aje,n;Hwu;e npBa xpaHa Koja ce yBO,n;W
Ben ca llIeCT Meceu;w CTapOCTW ,n;eTeTa je Kallia o,n; )I(WTapWu;a (Hnp.
Thomson et al. 2009). 0Ha ce ,n;aHac Mewa ca MJIeKOM W npoKYBaHa ,n;aje
,n;eTeTy. ,1J;Be 'IWfueHWu;e cyrepwwy ,n;a ce WCTa cTBap ,n;oral)aJIa o,n; KaKO je

'IOBeK OTKPWO XpaHJbWBe Bpe,n;HocTw )I(WTapWu;a, a HapO'IWTO o,n; KaKO Je
Morao ,n;a npe,n;Bw,n;w W CeJIeKU;WoHwllIe/ MaHwnYJIWllIe noro,n;He BpcTe. M3
29
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
apXeOJIOlliKe JII1TepaType BI1I\I1MO I\a cy I\I1Blhe )!(I1Tapl1l\e Haj'lellihe paCJIe
y 1130JIOBaHI1M HI1IlIaMa (Hillman 1996) 11 CKJIal\l1IlITeHe y pel\111II1jeHTI1Ma
(rrI1TOCI1Ma I1JII1 CI1JIOCI1Ma) KOjl1, KaKO Behl1Ha I1CTpa)!(I1Ba'la rroTBpl)yje,
HI1CY 611JII1 I\OBOlhHI1 I\a rroxpaHe KOJIl1'1l1He HeOrrXOI\He 3a I1cxpaHY
l\eJIOKyrrHe 3ajeI\HI1l\e. OTYl\a ce 11 rrpeTrrOCTaBlhaJIO I\a cy )!(I1Tapl1l\e
CmlKa 5 - KOplllUnetba y McxpaHM oAoj4aAl1 (npeMa: Holland 1989)
Y3rajaHe y pl1TyaJIHe CBpxe, 3a rrp0l13BOl\lhY aJIKOXOJIHI1X rrl1ha (Katz,
Voigt 1986) I1JII1 Kao I\Ol\aTaK y yo611'1ajeHoj I1CXpaHI1. AJITepHaTl1Ba
pa3MI1IlIlhalhl1Ma Koja rroKYlliaBajy I\a o6jacHe eKCKJIY311BHOCT )!(I1Tapl1l\a
y paHI1M <j>a3aMa HeOJII1TI13al\l1je Moma 611 611TI1 CTaHOBI1IlITe I\a cy
OHe 3arrpaBO HaMelheHe I\Ol\aTHoj I1CXpaHI1 ol\oj'lal\l1, a Moryhe je 11 Kao
I\Ol\aTHa I1cxpaHa CTaPl1jl1x (KOjl1 cy 360r npl1pOl\e I\OTal\aIlIlhe I1cxpaHe
- opaCI1, BJIaKHaCTe HaMl1pHI1l\e, 11 360r pal\HI1X aKTI1BHOCTI1 Koje 'IeCTO
yKlhy'lyjy 11 3y6e) oCTajaJII1 BeOMa paHO ca YHI1WTeHI1M (a6pal\l1paHI1M)
3y611Ma.
Kao IlITO heMOBl1l\eTI1, MaHl1nYJIal\l1ja I\I1Blhl1M BpCTaMa nO'leJIa
je I\OCTa npe nO'leTKa HeOJII1Ta. 3Halhe ce cKynlhaJIO reHepal\l1jaMa, a
'Il1lheHI1l\a I\a cy )!(I1Tapl1l\e YKYCHe 11 Kao 3eJIeHe (Tacl1h 11 MapKoBl1h
pers. comm.) Momo je 611TI1 OI\JIy'lyjyhe 3a rrO'leTKe MaHl1rrYJIal\l1je, a

nOTOM 11 KYJITI1Bal\I1Je I\I1Blhl1X BpCTa.
)KpBlheBI1, I\OI\YIlIe OHI1 3a YCI1TlhaBalhe OKepa, rroCTojaJII1 cy
MI1JIeHl1jYMI1Ma rrpe KyJITI1Bal\l1je )!(I1Tapl1l\a y AyCTpaJIl1jl1 18000 rol\l1Ha
rrpe H. e. I1JII1 y Bal\l1 Ky6alha (Wadi Kubbaniya) (Wendorf 1988) y 06JIaCTI1
30
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
AcyaHa y ErWIITy. 14 OHO lIITO je HelloCTajaJIO 3a rrpwrrpeMy 06pOKa lIeTeTY
Koje je W3 HeKOr pa3JIOra OCTaJIO 6e3 1I0jelba WJIW je y rrpOl.\ecy rrpeJIaCKa Ha

qBPCTY xpaHy Je MJIeKO.
TIpeMa lIaHalIIlbWM ca3HalbWMa rrpwrrWTOMlbaBalbe KarrpOBWlla
KaCHW 3a 1I0MeCTWKal.\wjoM )!(wnpWl.\a. C 063WpOM lIa cy pa3JIWKe Ha
CKeJIeTWMa IIWBlbe W rrWTOMe OBl.\e W lIaHac BpJIO MaJIe (W CBOlle ce Ha
IIwMeH3wje CKeJIeTa Koje ce Mory 06jacHwTw W pa3JIWqWTWM Y3paCTWMa
WHllwBwllye), Te lIa je HeorrxOllaH Behw lIeo CKeJIen 3a rrpel.\W3HO
YTBpl)wBalbe, MO)!(e ce rrpeTrrOCTaBWTW lIa je CKeJIeT paHWX 1I0MeCTwKaTa
6wo y CBeMY CJIWqaH CKeJIeTY IIWBIbWX jeIlWHKW, Te lIa ce MO)!(lIa W3 Tor
• •
pa3JIOra jaBlba IIWCKperraHl.\wJa y BpeMeHY rrpwrrWTOMlbaBalba KarrpOBWlla.
Y OBOM MOlleJIY OHW cy WCTOBpeMeHW, a rroCToje W rraJIeOHTOJI03W KOjW
3aroBapajy paHl1jl1 lIaTYM 1I0MeCTl1Kal.\wje OBl.\e (Barker 1985). YrrOTpe6a
MJIeKa 11 MJIeqHI1X rrpow3Boila y BpeMe HeOJIWTCKOr rrepl10lla 6l1JIa je
1I0BeileHa rrOIl 3HaK rrWTalba Oil KaKO je A. IIlepaT (Sherratt) 1981. rOlll1He
YBeo TepMI1H "PeBOJIYl.\wja ceKYHllapHI1X rrp0113BOlla" (Secondary Products
Revolution). OH je CBOjwM pallOM Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the
secondary products revolution rrpeIlJIO)!(WO cBe06yxBaTHw MOlleJI rrOqeTaKa
KOpl1lIIhelba )!(WBOTWlba 3a IIPyre HaMeHe OCWM Kao W3BOP rrpoTewHa y
wcxpaHw. Haw Me, rrpeMa OBOM MOlleJIY rroCToje IIBa KlbyqHa MOMeHTa:
OTKpwhe W pacejaBalbe WHOBal.\wja Be3aHWX 3a ceKYHllapHe rrpOW3BOile Oil
)!(WBOTWlba W rrOTOM lbWXOBa lIIl1pOKa yrroTpe6a, Koja he KOHceKBeHTHO
TpaHc<p0pMwcaTw eBporrcKe 3ajellHWI.\e W IIpYlliTBa. EYllyhw lIa je oBaj pall
• •
KOHI.\WrrWpaH KpaJeM cellaMlleceTwx rOllwHa y BpeMe Kalla apXe0300JIOrWJa
jOlli YBeK Hwje 6wJIa TaKO pa3BwjeHa W lIIWPOKO rrpwxBaheHa Kao y HOBwje
BpeMe, W Kalla je Ha pacrrOJIaralbY 6wJIO 3HaTHO Malbe lIaTYMa 1I06wjeHwx
pallwoyrlbeHwKoM WJIW HeKWM IIpyrwM BWIIOM arrCOJIYTHor lIaTOBalba,
IIlepaT je rrOqeTKe peBOJIYl.\wje ceKYHllapHWX rrpOW3BOila CTaBWO y BpeMe
IV-III MWJIeHwjYMa CTape epe. r1aKo je Oil Talla oBaj pall He6pojeHo rryn
I.\I1TWpaH, IIlepaToB TeopeTcKw MOlleJI 1I0)!(WBeO je 6pojHe KpwTwKe Koje
• •
cy yrrraBHoM I.\wlbaJIe Ha HellOBOlbaH Y30paK Ha OCHOBY KOJer Je MOlleJI
HaCTao, aJII1 W Ha lberOBO peJIaTWBHO rr03HO lIaTOBalbe OBor <peHoMeHa. Oil
rrojaBe IIlepaToBor MOlleJIa 6pOjHW apXeOJI03W, apXe0300JI03W, XeMWqapW,
aJIW W MOJIeKYJIapHW 6WOJI03W rroKYlliaBajy lIa lIajy CBOj 1I0rrpwHoc y OBOM
rrpaBI.\Y. TaKo X. [PI1H<PI1JIII rroTBpl)yje KOpl1lIIhelbe MJIeKa W MJIe'lHI1X
14 vhl'repeCaHTHo je Aa ce y eKcnepHMeHTanHoj apXeOllOfl1jl1 rJla4aHe KaMeHe anaTKe
npaBe Ha "AeHT114HHM )f(pBl-beBt1Ma Ha Kojl1Ma 611 ce Morne MlIeTH 11 )fUtTap"l1,e. Hl1j e
HeTlOfl1
l
lHO nOMl1ClII1Tl1 Aa je mallaBO KaMeHO opyrye HaCTaJlO Kao HycnpOAYKT (byproduct)
MJleBel-ba )1<t1Tap11l1,a 11J111 OKepa, a Moryha je t1 o6pHyTa npeTrIOCTaBKa. Mnesel-be )fOITapl1l1,a
CBaKaKO je 6t1o MHOI'OCTPYKO AY)f(M 11 peAOBHl1jl1 nocao OA MJleBeH>a OKepa KOjl1 ce, 6t1J1o y
pl1TyallHe, ecreTCKe HlIM npaKTl1'-fHe/MeAJlllI,HHCKe CBpxe KOPltlCTHO cnOpaAHl.JHO. OBO 614
Morno o6jacHHTItI pa3JlOr 1IITO ce AD fna4aHJIIX KaMeHJIIX opyl)a HJ.1je AOWJlO MHoro paHJ.1je, ca
nojasoM KOpJ.1Wnett.a OKepa.
31
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
npOM3BO)W 01\ n03Hor HeonMTa (Greenfield et al. 1988), I\OK HeKM CKOpMjM
pal\OBM (Copley et al. 2003; Copley et al. 2005; Burger et al. 2007) I\alhe
nOMepajy nOqeTKe ynoTpe6e MneKa M MneqHMX npepal)eBMHa y BpeMe
paHor HeonMTa, OI\HOCHO y BpeMe 1\0naCKa HeonMTCKor naKeTa y EBpony.
Bpel\aH nOl\aTaK 3a l\aTOBalhe noqeTaKa ynoTpe6e MneKa, Kal\a je peq 0
TepMTopMjM oanKaHa, I\aje 11. MMpaKn (Miracle 2006), KOjM je Ha OCHOBY
TeMelhHe apxe0300nowKe aHanM3e KOWTaHor MaTepMjana M3 l1ynMtlMHe
netlMHe y MCTpM y6el\lhMBO nOKa3ao I\a je TOKOM cpel\lher HeonMTa OBa
nehMHa 6Mna KopMwheHa Kao 3aKnOH 3a CTal\a OBalla Koje cy 6Mne Y3rajaHe
3a npOM3BOl\lhY MneKa/CMpa. MHTepeCaHTaH je M 3aKlhyqaK I\a ce TOKOM
KacHMje, n03HOHeonMTCKe oKynallMje OBe MCTe nehMHe 1\0rOl\MO 3aOKpeT
y CTpaTerl1jM eKCnnOaTallMje OBalla, Te cy Tal\a 6Hne qYBaHe HCKlhyqHBO
360r Meca, WTO je no MHpaKny nOTBpl)eHo H Ha I\pyrHM Hana3HWTHMa
• •
WMPOM ceBepHo Jal\paHCKe perHJe.
3a nOTpe6e npHnpeMalha 1\0l\aTHOr (HnH OCHOBHor) 06poKa 3a
ol\ojqe HeOnXOI\HO je 6Hno l\aKne ceneKlIHoHHcaTH )KHTapHlIe, nO)KlheTH
MX y l\aTOM TpeHyTKy, caMneTM MX, nOMewaTM MX C MneKOM MnM qaK
C BOI\OM M npoKYBaTM, a OHl\a OCMMcnMTM HaqMH Ha KOjM he l\eTe Kawy
KOH3YMMpaTM. L\a 6M ce 1\06Mna Kawa 01\ )KMTapMlIa 6Mno je, l\aKne,
HeOnXOI\HO OCMMcnMTM M HOB pellMnMjeHT KOjM je Morao MhM I\MpeKTHO
Ha BaTpy. fpHqapMja je y OBOM cMMcny MMana, M jow YBeK MMa, 3HaqajHMx
npel\HOCTM y OI\HOCY Ha CBe oCTane pellMnMjeHTe, WTO MO)Ke I\a 06jacHM
pa3nor lheHe KacHMje nonynapHOCTM. YnoTpe6a KepaMMKe, KaKO je TO
jow 1995. rOI\MHe npel\nO)KMna P. XanaHI\ (R. Haaland) , Koja je TaKOl)e
• •
BenMKM HarnacaK CTaBMna Ha 3HaqaJ 1\0l\aTHe McxpaHe ol\oJqal\M y
npenacKy Me30nMT/HeonMT, WMpM 6a3y McxpaHe M oMoryhaBa ynoTpe6y
)KMTapMlIa. XanaHI\OBa TBpl\M I\a je oTKpMhe TexHonorMje KepaMMKe
MMano l\eMorpa<jJcKe MMnnMKallMje now TO je KYBaHa xpaHa, no 1h0j,

nOrOI\Ha 3a npena3aK OI\OJqal\M Ha qBPCTY xpaHY, WTO Kao nOCnel\MlIY
MMa 3HaTHO cKpaheH nepMOI\ I\ojelha M Ha Kpajy nOBehaHY nnOI\HOCT KOI\
)KeHa. Y CBOM qnaHKY Sedentism, cultivation and plant domestication in the
holocene middle Nile region, OHa I\OKa3yje I\a je OBO oTKpMhe pe3yITTMpanO
MHTeH3MBHMjOM ynoTpe60M 6MlhHMX pecypca. Y OBOM KOHTeKcTY MO)KeMO
ce npMceTMTM M 6pOjHMX Hana3a KOWTaHMX cnaTyna, Koje y CTapqeBaqKoj
KynTypH npel\CTaBlhajy caM BPX 3aHaTCKor YMeha. 06HqHO cy y Hawoj
nHTepaTypH TYMaqeHe Kao I\eo "ToaneTHor npH60pa". Moryhe je I\a cy OHe
3anpaBO KopHwheHe 3a nocnY)KHBalhe l\eqHje xpaHe.
lbYI\H cy npe nojaBe 3eMlhOpal\lhe 6HnH npHMopaHH (H
npojeKToBaHH) I\a jel\y pa3nHqHTY xpaHY, OI\HOCHO CBe qera cy ycneBanH I\a
• ••• •
ce 1\0qenaJY, a qYBalhe BHwaKa HaMHpHHlIa HaJBepOBaTHHJe HHJe nOCTOJano
32
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
Kao ,n;OMI1HaHTHa CTpaTerl1ja. TeK ca rrojaBoM 3eMlbOpa,n;lbe 11 CTOqapCTBa
,n;Ona311 ,n;0 rrojaBe BI1IIlKOBa Koje je 611no HeOrrXO,n;HO KOH3epBI1paTI1 11
CMeCTI1TI1. I1naHl1palbe rrOTpOIIllbe rrocTaje y HeOnl1TY aKTyenHo rra ce TaKO
Bpno 6p30 jaBlbajy rrpBa crrpeMI1IIlTa 11 TparrOBI1 (EI1HaH).
):(a nl1 je MO)!(,n;a rroCTojana ,n;wpepeHl\l1jal\l1ja y Haql1HY I1cxpaHe
3aCHOBaHa Ha PO,n;HOj rrpl1rra,n;HOCTI1, rrl1Talbe je Ha Koje heMO CBaKaKO
CaqeKaTI1 o,n;rOBOp. I1p06neMI1 cy HeMoryhHocT rrOY3,n;aHor xpOHonOIIlKor
CI1HXPOHI130Balba nOBHI1X KaMrrOBa 11/l1nl1 6aql1ja 11 l\eHTpanHI1X Hacelba
11/l1nl1 3I1MOBHI1Ka. "13 eTHorpa<jJCKe nl1TepaType MO)!(e ce Ca3HaTI1 ,n;a ce
rrpaBI1 pa3nl1Ka 113Mel)y MyIIlKe 11 )!(eHCKe I1cxpaHe (Hagen et al. 2001; 11
Kennedy 2003). I1oCToje rrpl1Mepl1, KaKaB je 11 oHaj KO,n; A3aH,n;e
Hapo,n;a y jY)!(HOM Cy,n;aHY, r,n;e cy MylliKapl\11 11 )!(eHe YBeK o,n;BojeHI1
npl1 06e,n;y (Braithwaite 1982). Moryhe je npeTIIOCTaBI1TI1 ,n;a je "MylliKa
I1CXpaHa" TOKOM rrepl1o,n;a Ka,n;a je 6110 O,n;CYTaH 360r nOBa, YKOnl1KO je TO
6110 Mo,n;en cy63I1CTeHl\l1je, BepOBaTHO 6l1na 6a3l1paHa Ha npOTel1HI1Ma
60raToj I1CXpaHI1, lIITO je 11 6l1no Heonxo,n;HO lberOBOM Xa6l1TYcy
113nO)!(eHOM ,n;HeBHI1M HanOpl1Ma y nOTpa311 3a nOBI1HOM. ,,)KeHcKa
I1CXpaHa", C ,n;pyre CTpaHe 611 BepOBaTHO npe,n;CTaBlbana ynpaBo OHO

lIITO BI1,n;I1MO 113 OCTaTaKa KOJI1 HaM ce Hy,n;e ca I1CKOnaBalba Hacelba r,n;e
11 ,n;ona311 ,n;o Benl1KI1X npoMeHa nOqeTKOM 11 TOKOM HeOnl1Ta. Ha OCHOBY
CBor npoyqaBalba M. IbInI1 naK TBp,n;11 ,n;a He nocToje npaBI1 ,n;OKa311 KOjl1
611 nOKa3l1Banl1 pa3nl1Ql1Tl1 npl1CTyn pecypCI1Ma KOjl1 611 nOTOM 113a3Banl1
CMalbelbe KBanl1TeTa I1CXpaHe KO,n; )!(eHa (Lilly 1997: 223). JIl1nl1 ,n;albe
HanOMl1lbe,n;a nOCTojl1 yBepelbe,n;a ce npena3aK Me30nI1T/ HeOnI1T y EBporrl1
rrocMaTpa Kao npena3 113 nOBaQKO-caKyrrlbaQKOr HaQI1Ha rrpl1Bpel)I1Balba
Ha HeOnl1TCKI1 HaQI1H )!(I1BOTa rrYTeM KonOHl13al\l1je ca Enl1CKOr I1CTOKa.
'leCT je cnYQaj ,n;a ce nOBl\I1-caKynlbaQI1, KOjl1 611Bajy aKymypl130BaHI1,
• •
rrocMaTpaJY Kao naCI1BHI1 npl1MaOl\11 OHora IIlTO Je 3aMI1IIllbeHO Kao
cynepl1opHI1 HaQI1H )!(I1BOTa (Zvelebil, Dolukhanov 1991). Ml1lI1lbelba
caM ,n;a npl1XBaTalbe HaQI1Ha 3a e<jJI1KaCHl1je npo,n;y)!(elbe BpCTe Hl1je 6l1no
Heorrxo,n;HO noce6Ho 06pa3naraTI1 11 HaMeTaTI1 nOBaQKO-caKyrrlbaQKI1M
3aje,n;HI1l\aMa Koje cy ,n;ona3l1ne y KOHTaKT ca Beh ce,n;eHTapHI1M
3eMlbopa,n;HI1QKI1M ,n;PYIIlTBI1Ma 11 CTeKne yBI1,n; y npe,n;HOCTI1 ce,n;enaQKOr
HaQI1Ha )!(I1BOTa. OB,n;e npeBacxo,n;HO MI1Cnl1M Ha 6pOjHOCT lbl1XOBI1X
3aje,n;HI1l\a, no,n;eny nocna, e<jJI1KaCHOCT 11 yna,n;lbl1BO MHOlliTBO ,n;el\e.
):(aKne, npe)!(I1BlbaBalbe HajMnal)I1X 6110 je Hajy6e,n;lbl1Bl1jl1 pa3nor
11 Bl1lI1e Hero ,n;OBOlbaH MOTI1B 3a )!(pTBOBalbe 06l1lba 11 pa3HoBpCHOCTl1

Me30nl1TCKe I1CXpaHe, HanYlliTalbe paHI1JI1X HaBI1Ka 11 nOQeTaK
ce,n;eHTapI13al\l1je. JaCHo je ,n;a ce OBO Hl1je ,n;eCl1no y je,n;HOM TpeHyTKy Te
,n;a je Mopano 6l1Tl1 ,n;OCTa eKCnepl1MeHTI1Calba TOKOM OBor npOl\eca, na cy
33
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
ce CBaKaKO HeKe 3aje,n;HHl1e Bpaharre paHHjoj CTpaTerHjH cy63HCTeHl1Hje
(O'Connell 1999), a HeKe je YHarrpel)HBarre H Ha Taj HaqHH ce CBe BHlIle
Be3HBarre 3a ce,n;erraqKH HaqHH )KHBOTa.
34
Ex Oriente lux?
Oil BenWKe je Ba)!(HOCTW pa3YMeTW rrpellwCTopwjy TpaH3Wl\wje
Oil nOBaqKO-caKyrrlbaqKe Ha 3eMlbOpallHWqKY rrpWBpellY y 06nacTw
IlnollHor rrOnYMeCel\a, C 063WpOM lIa ce Y3POl\W HeOnWTW3al\wje EBpOrre
HajBepOBaTHwje KPWjy yrrpaBo Ha TOM rrpoCTopy. Mo)!(e ce penw lIa je l\eo
crrneT eKonOlllKWX W cOl\wjanHwx qWHwnal\a 0llpellWO <jJwHanHw WCXOII
OBor rrpol\eca. lJecTe W Harne rrpOMeHe KnWMe KpajeM rrocneillher nelleHor
1I06a, rrOBpeMeHO 6yjalhe rrpwpOlle Ha MeCTWMa rile je 6wna rrYCTWlha (W
06pHyTO), 6nW3WHa Cpell03eMHor Mopa, 1I0nWHa JopllaHa, COlbY 60raTO
MpTBO Mope W )!(WBa KOMYHWKal\wja rrorrynal\wja Ha TpoMeryw A3wje,
A<jJpWKe W EBporre, 6wnw cy, W3rnella, Oil rrpeCYIlHor 3Haqaja 3a HaCTaHaK
HeOmlTa yrrpaBo Ha OBOM MeCTY, rrap XWlballa rOIlWHa rrpe HO llITO ce
CnWqaH rrpOl\ec (He3aBWCHO) 1I0rOilWO W Ha IIpyrwM MeCTWMa. XpOHonorwja
1I0raryaja KOjW cy 1I0Benw 110 KyITTWBal\wje IIWBIbWX )!(WTapWl\a y 06naCTW
JIeBaHTa/ilnOIlHor rronYMeCel\a W3rnella OBaKO: rrpBW TparOBW yrroTpe6e
• •
IIWBIbWX )!(WTapWl\a 3a IbYIICKY wcxpaHy Ha KOJe Hawna3WMO JOlli y rr03HOM
rraneonWTY lIona3e ca 06ane [anwnejcKor je3epa W Hana3WllITa Oxano II
(Nadel, Hershkovitz 1991), a HelliTO KacHwje W W3 oa3e BallW Ky6alha (Wadi
Kubbaniya) HallOMaK AcyaHa y Erwmy (Wendorf 1988).
Hana3wllITe Oxano II oTKpwBeHo Ha 06anw [anwnejcKor je3epa
rrpellCTaBlba CTanHO Hacelbe nOBal\a-pw60nOBal\a-caKyrrlbaqa lIaTOBaHO
y 23000 BP.15 3axBalbyjynw aHaep06HwM ycnoBwMa OQysaHo je MHOlliTBO
(Ha xwlballe) 3pHeBlba, ceMeHKW, Bona W OCTeonOlliKor MaTepwjana KOjW
cy 6wnw W3BaHpeilaH W3BOP 3a rrpoyqaBalhe HaQWHa wcxpaHe OBWX IbYIIW
ca BpxyHl\a rrocneillher nelleHor 1I06a. Ben y OBO BpeMe eBwlleHTHO je
15 Ha OBOM MecTY Kopl1CHtny C14 AaTYMe KaKO je yo6l1
t
lajeHo y lIwrepaTypH Koja ce OBI1M
nepl10AOM 6a811. Petl je 0 HeK3J1116pl1paHI1M AaTYMl1Ma 6e3 na60paTOpl1jcKor 6poja. OBaKBo
HaBo!jel-be je CaCBl1M HeKopeKTHo, ami ce npaBAa HenocTojal-beM Kpl1Bylhe 3a
OBaKO .rW60KY npoillllocT.
35
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
KOpl1IIlhelbe I1I1Blbl1X BpCTa 3pHeBiba Koje he Xl1lballaMa rOlll1Ha KacHl1je
611TI1 KYITTI1BI1CaHo y lIoMahy BpCTy. 16
TOKOM rrellaHTHO Bol)eHI1X apxeOlIOIIlKI1X I1CTpa)!(I1Balba Ha
rroMeHYToM HalIa311IIlTY Balll1 Ky6alba OTKpl1BeHO je o611lbe 611lbHI1X
OCTaTaKa Mel)y Kojl1Ma 3HaqajHo MeCTO I1Majy u;epealIl1je. Pall110Kap6oH
lIaTYMI1 KOjl1 cy pal)eHI1 113 rapa aCOU;l1paHor ca )!(I1Tapl1u;aMa rroKa3yjy lIa
ce palll1 0 BpeMeHY 113Mel)y 18500-17000 rOlll1Ha BP (Wendorf 1988). OCI1M
)!(I1Tapl1u;a rrpoHal)eHI1 cy 11 6pOjHI1 )!(pBlbeBI1 3a Koje ce rrpeTrrocTaBlba lIa
cy KOpl1IIlheHI1 3a MlIeBelbe. J1HTepecaHTHo je lIa cy OTKpl1BeHI1 OCTaU;11
yrlbeHl1caHor lIeqjer <j>eu;eca y KOMe cy OTKpl1BeHI1 TparOBI1 <j>I1HO MlIeBeHe
611lbHe KaIIle. Llalbe rroTBplle CTpaTeIIlKor rrpl1Kyrrlbalba )!(I1Tapl1u;a CTI1)!(Y
ca HalIa3111l1Ta Ke6apaH KylIType file ce TOKOM rrepl10lla lIaTl1paHOr y
BpeMe 113Mel)y 18000-14500 BP jaBlbajy CeQI1Ba ca Cl1lIl1KaTHI1M cjajeM
KapaKTepl1CTI1QHI1M 3a Ty aKTI1BHOCT .

CpeiJ03eMHO _'lope
MC,il nj a
nanCCTHH8
.......
CJlJIIKa 6 - CBeTJlJlljoM 60jOM 03Hal.feHe cy 30He ca AHBlbJIIM )f(JIITapJllLI,aMa y BpeMe
npe,n; KepaMJIIl.fKOr HeOJlJIITa A (npeMa Wendorf 1988)
Ha HalIa3111l1TY EI1H feB OTKpl1BeHI1 cy TparOBI1 Hacelba Ha
oTBopeHoM rile ce TaKol)e jaBlbajy )!(pBlbeBI1 11 IIBa TYQKa, Kao 11 KpeMeHI1
HO)!(l1hl1 ca Cl1lIl1KaTHI1M cjajeM (Moore 1978). OBa rrojaBa MO)!(e ce
rrpaTI1TI1 11 y o61IacTI1 3arpoc rrlIaHI1Ha. J13Mel)y 14500 11 12500 BP
16 XPOHollowKa no,n;YAapHocT ce MO)f(e BJII,n;eTJ!I Y nojaBJ!I a1l3TKJII o,n; rJlalfaHor KaMeH3 JII
ynoTpe6e )f(pBfheBa. OKO 18000 BP Y MMABOHY (Midwan) M ApHeM (Arnhem) y 0611acTM
3anaAHe AyCTpanMje! (B. Langlon 1994)
36
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
nOBehaHa nallaBMHa oMoryhMna je JbYIICKMM 3ajellHMu;aMa
lIa eKCnnOaTMIIIY MHOrO Behy TepMTopMjy, Te lIona3M 110 nonynaU;MoHor
paCTa TOKOM reoMeTpMjcKor nepMOlla Ke6apaH KynType. TOKOM cnellehMx
IIBe XMJballe rOIlMHa 1I0na3M 110 Harne npOMeHe KnMMe Ka MHoro CyBJbMM
ycnoBMMa IIITO ce 1I0rOilMno OKO 10500 BP.
MopcKa 06ana ce y TO BpeMe nOBnaqM eKcnoHMpajyhM npM TOM
HOBe npOCTope 3a 6MJbHe (xano<pMTe/halophyte) M )!(MBOTMlhCKe BpCTe. Taj
nepMOIl Haj60Jbe ocnMKaBajy Hana3MIIITa HaTy<pMjeH Kymype (Bar-Yoseph,
Valla 1991), Ten A6y XypeMpa (Tell Abu Hureyra) (Moore, Hillman, and
Legge 2000) y CMPMjM, lIaTOBaHO OKO 10200 BP M AMH Manaxa (Ain
Mallaha - 'Enyan) y roplheM TOKY JOPllaHa. 3a 06a HaCeJba MMa MHIIMU;Mja
lIa cy 611J1a HaCeJbeHa TOKOM Beher lIena rOIlI1He. Ha pacrronaralhY 11M je
611J10 150 BpcTa jeCTI1BOr ceMelha 11 Boha. AI1H MaJlaxa je 611J1a rrpaBa
Bapolli ca rrelleceTaK Kyha KpY)!(He OCHOBe rrpeqHMKa Oil 7 110 9 MeTapa
(Perrot 1957; Bar-Yosef, Valla 1991). HaqMH rpaillhe HaCTaM611, Oil qBpCTOr
• •
MaTepl1Jana, YKa3YJe lIa ce Ha OBOM MeCTY MOrJlO )!(MBeTM nepMaHeHTHo.
Y OBOM TpeHyTKy nojaBJbyjy ce npBe jaMeiTparroBM, Koje jacHo yKa3yjy
• • •
Ha CTpaTerMJY qYBalha xpaHe KOJa HarOBelliTaBa celleHTapM3aU;MJY.
I1HTepecaHTHa je qMlheHMu;a lIa Beh Oil 12000 BP cpeheMo rnaqaHe KaMeHe
311eJle M IIIOJbe. Y OBOM nepMollY Mory ce rrpaTMTM M rrpou;ecM pa3MeHe,
na je YCTaHOBJbeHO lIa ce TOKOM Beher lIena HaTY<PMjeH KynType pellOBHO
pa3Melhyjy oncMIIMjaH M IIIKOJbKe M3 Cpell03eMHor M U;pBeHor Mopa (Bar-
Yosef 1999).
BehM 6poj CellenaqKMX 3ajellHMu;a no npBM nyT npen03HajeMo TOKOM
HaTY<PMjeH Kymype (Bar-Yosef, Valla 1991; Bar-Yosef 1999). QMlheHMu;a lIa
IIMBJbe )!(MTapMu;e 1I0crreBajy y npM06anHoM nojacy y paHO nponehe, npe
• •
OCTanMX BpCTa KOJe ce CTpaTeIIIKM caKynJbaJY, Kao M lIa MX MMa M TOKOM
u;enor neTa y 6p1IMMa, Morna 6M lIa 06jacHM penaTMBHO 6p30 YCBajalhe OBe
HaMMpHMu;e (npaKTMqHO Oil KaKO ce npOIIIMpMna no JIeBaHTY).
OKO 11000 BP 06nacT JIeBaHTa norOIlMno je noropIIIalhe KnMMaTCKMX
ycnoBa M y TO BpeMe HeCTajy HaCeJba y MaprMHaMa Cpell03eMHe 30He. HeKe
3ajellHMu;e (XapM<pMeH) ce qaK Bpahajy Ha paHMjM HaqMH CTpaTerMje y
cy63McTeHU;MjM. Oil OBor 1I06a BpeMe M3Meryy HOBMX KymypHMx <peHoMeHa
ce cKpahyje M nojaBJbyjy ce 6pojHa HOB a HaCeJba y 06nacTM nnollHor
rroJlyMeceu;a. OKO 10300 BP rrOql1lhe npeKepaMl1qKM HeOJlI1T A (PPNA)
ca Bapl1jaHTaMa KXl1aMl1aH 11 CYJlTaHl1aH (Bar-Yosef 1999: 169). To je
BpeMe OCHMBalha JepI1XOHa, rile ce 6ene)!(e rrpBI1 1I0MeCTMKaTl1 (cBera 6%),
a TaKorye 11 BpeMe Kalla rrorrynaU;Mje JIeBaHTa HenOBpaTHO Kpehy nYTeM
HeOJlI1Ta.
37
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
CmtKa 7 - fleBaHTCKJ1 KOpJ1Jl;Op Y BpeMe Xl J1 X MJ1neHJ1jYMa CTape epe
(npeMa: Bar-Yosef 1999)
DoraT 11 pa3HOBpCTaH pa3Boj HeOJlI1TCKI1X KyJlTypa TIJlOI\HOr
nOJlYMeCe1\a, Cl1rypaH CaM, OCTane 11 Hal\albe 113BOP I1HCnl1pa1\l1je 3a

caBpeMeHe apxeoJlore KOJI1 Tpa)((e Ol\rOBOpe Ha nl1Talha npeHoca TeKOBI1Ha
HeOJlI1Ta 11 "HeOJlI1TCKOr naKeTa" 11ll1pOM EBponCKor KOHTI1HeHTa.
38
Y IIOTpa3M 3a IIOpeKlIOM HeOlIMTa EalIKaHa
Y apXeononljM HeOnMTa jyroMcTo'lHe EBpOrre Cel1aMl1eCeTe
M OCaMl1eCeTe rOI1MHe XX BeKa 06ene)!(eHe cy He caMO y6p3aHMM
MCTpa)!(MBalbeM HeonMTCKMX Hana3MUlTa UlMPOM OBe 06naCTM, Ben
M TeopMjcKMM pacrrpaBaMa 0 rropeKny OBe rrojaBe." MaKO je TeopMja 0
MMrpaTopHOM (MnM 'IaK KonOHM3aTopCKOM) rropeKny l1aHac rrOTKperrJbeHa
MHorMM 110Ka3MMa 360r rrpMpOl1e apxeonOUlKor MaTepMjana, 6pOjHMX
CTMnCKMX M perMOHanHMX BapMjaHTM M Hel10BOJbHOr 6poja CMCTeMaTCKM

MCTpa)!(eHMX Hana3MUlTa, JOUl YBeK ce HMCMO ycarnacMnM 0 M3BOPMUlTY
KynTypa paHor HeonMTa Ha EanKaHCKOM rronYOCTpBY. OCMM rrpeTXOI1HMX,
pa3nore 3a OBaKBO CTalbe MO)!(eMO Tpa)!(MTM Ha BMUle CTpaHa. Jel1Ha 6M 6Mna
Hel10CTaTaK rroTBpl)eHMx Hana3MUlTa Ha Tpa'iKoj 06anM. Ta HeHaCeJbeHOCT
MO)!(e 6MTM npMBMI1Ha, HaCTana Kao rrOcnel1l1l1a Hel10BOJbHe CI1CTeMaTCKe
I1CTpa)!(eHOCTI1, anl1 11 Kao nOcnel1l1l1a nopaCTa HI1BOa ErejcKor Mopa
rrocne 8000. rOl1l1He cTape epe. Y nepl1ol1Y 011 8000. 110 4500. rOl1l1He CT.
epe HI1BO Mopa rropaCTao je y npoceKy 40 MeTapa, a 110 HaUlI1X l1aHa 3a
jOUl 10 MeTapa (Todorova, BajcoB 1993; [oBel1apl1l1a 2004). HaceJba Koja
cy Morna nocTojaTI1 Ha 06anl1 ErejcKor Mopa Ha nyTy Ka 110nl1Hl1 Mapl1l1e,
MeCTe 11/l1nl1 CTpYMe cal1a ne)!(e I1crrOI1 rrOBpUlI1He Mopa Ha l1y6l1Hl1 Ha
KOjOj 611 11 rrOI1BOI1Ha apxeonorl1ja TeUlKO 6l1na 011 rrOMOnl1. Y rrpl1nor

rrpeTrrOCTaBl1l1 0 rrocToJalbY TaKBI1X Hana3l1UlTa rOBOpl1 11 MaTpl1l1a
HaCeJbaBalba paHO-HeOnI1TCKI1X HaCeJba Ha rrpM06anHoM l1eny EanKaHCKor
rronyocTpBa. TaKBa cy 6l1na 3Ha'lajHa HeOnl1TCKa HaCeJba CecKno, JaHl1l1a
(Giannitsa), anl1 11 HaCeJbe TpaH31111MOHe cpa3e Me30nI1T/HeOnI1T KaKBO je
6l1no <t>paHKTI1 (Franchti).
C I1pyre CTpaHe apXeOn03l1Ma je 110 CKOPO 6l1no Ha pacrronaralbY TeK
l1eceTaK HeOnl1TCKI1X Hana3l1UlTa Ha Tepl1TOpl1jl1 'II1TaBe TypcKe, Koja ce
17 OSAe neMo, sa oay npl1mlKY, OCTaSI1TH no CTpaHI1 pa3He J10KaJlHe TeOpl1jcKe MOAeJle
KOjW nOKywasaj y Aa o6jacHe Y3poKe HaCTaHKa Beom-tTa H YCMepl1TH ce caMO Ha l-herOBO
113BOpI1WTe.
39
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
CMaTpa 3a HajBepoBaTHMje M3BOpMllITe HeOJIMTCKMX KyJITypa OaJIKaHCKOr
rrOJIyoCTpBa. OBaKBo CTalhe /lyro je CTpyqlhaKe yrrynMBaJIO Ha qaTaJI
XMjMK (Gata! Hiiyiik), KOjM je 6MO Haj60lbe MCTpa)!(eHO HaJIa3MlIlTe y
AHa/lOJIMjM M Koje MMa caCBMM oc06eHY M je/lMHCTBeHY MaTepMjaJIHY
'"
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·20 -
-40
-
-60
-
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-100 -
-120 -
·140
20 15 10 o
8p Me ( 1000
Cm1Ka 8 - llieMaTcKM npHKa3 npoMeHe HUBoa Mopa y nocne.n; lhl1X 20000 rO,D;H Ha
KyJITypy. CaMMM TMM, rroperyelhe HeOJIMTa OaJIKaHa M MaTepMjaJIHMX
OCTaTaKa ca qaTaJI XMjMKa /laBaJIO je HeraTMBaH pe3YJITaT, rra je rrOTpara
HaCTaBlbaHa MJIM y OKBMpMMa JIOKaJIHe Me30JIMTCKe Tpa/lMI.\Mje OaJIKaHa
MJIM Ha HeKOM /lpyroM MeCTy.
Tpe6a Ha nOqeTKY HarnaOlTM /la je TepMTopMja /laHallllhe TypcKe
BeOMa pa3HOJIMKa. qecTo je Ha3MBajy 11 3eMlba 'Iemupu 200uLUiba oo6a.
J!IHTepecOBalhe 3a OBY 06JIaCT je /lyro rO/ll1Ha 6MJIO y ceH 1.\ 11 MHTepeCOBalha
3a apXeOJIOrMjy JieBaHTa. Y Klh11311 Neolithic in Turkey ayTopl1 cy noce6Ho
• ••
113/1BOJI1JII1 HeKOJII1KO perl10Ha KOJI1 cy 0/1 3HaqaJa 3a npoyqaBalhe
HeOJII1TI13al.\l1je. To cy 06JIaCTI1: Ypcpa-,i'\l1jap6aKMp (Urfa-Diyarbakir),
40
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
KOlna-AKcapaj (Konya-Aksaray), 06nacT Bem1KWX je3epa (EYP/lYP) W
perWOH MpaMOpHOr MOpa (Ozdogan and 1999: ll).
IlpeMa HaBO/lWMa M. 03/10raHa AHa/lOnwja W OCTanw /lenOBW TypcKe
/lyro cy 6wnw 3aHeMapwBaHw rrpwnwKoM pacrrpaBa 0 rropeKny HeOnWTa
(Ozdogan and 1999: 9). OBe 06nacTw cy /10 CKOPO 6wne y CeHl.\w
BenWKWX WCTpa)!(WBalDa y JIeBaHTY. Llo MenapToBwx WCTpa)!(WBalDa y
XaJ,mnapy (Ha<;ilar) W rrOTOM '-[aTan XWjWKy rre/leCeTwx rO/lwHa rOTOBO /la
ce Hwje HW 3Hano 3a rrocTojalDe HeonWTCKWX KynTypa y AHa/lOnwjw (Mellart
1970). 0/1 Ta/la rra /10 /laHaC y '-\enoj TypCKOj je WCTpa)!(eHO '-IeTp/leCeTaK
Hana3WWTa paHor W rr03Hor HeonWTa, WTO je W /lalbe penaTwBHo Manw 6poj
3a /le<j>wHwTwBHO rr03Wl.\WOHWpalDe HeonWTa TypcKe y OKBWPY rn06anHwx
/leWaBalDa rrO'-leTKOM Xono,-\eHa. IlopeljelDa pa/lw y 06nacTw JIeBaHTa,
Koja je /lyro 6wna y <j>OKYCy CBeTCKe apxeonorwje, WCTpa)!(eHO je rrpeKo
400 nOKanwTeTa, /10K je y 06nacTw JyrowcTo'-lHe EBporre CWCTeMaTCKW
wnw 6ap COH/la)!(HO WCTpa)!(eHO Bwwe CTOTWHa HeonWTCKWX Hacelba.
J1CTpa)!(WBalDa cy HapO'-lWTO wHTeH3wBwpaHa y rrocne/llDwx /lBa/leCeTaK
rO/lwHa Ka/la je W WCTpa)!(eHa BehwHa /laHaC rr03HaTWX Hana3WWTa HeonWTa
y TYPCKOj. OCWM WHTeH3WBHWX TepeHcKwx pa/lOBa Balba HarroMeHYTw /la
cy pe3yJITaTW WCTpa)!(WBalDa rrno/l MO/lepHe MeTO/lOnorwje, a 06jaBlbeHw cy

wnw y ,-\enwHw Ha cTpaHwM Je3Wl.\WMa wnw ca eKCTeH3WBHWM pe3wMewMa.
*
'-[WlDeHWl.\a je wrraK /la rroCTojw rrpeKW/I y HacelbaBalDY Ha
Hana3WWTWMa y 06nacTw BenwKwx je3epa y AHa/lOnwjw, Te /la ce OHa, KaKO
heMO BW/leTw, rrOKnarra y BenwKoj Mepw ca rrO'-lel.\wMa HeOnWTa y Tecanwjw,
MaKe/lOHwjw W /lOnWHW peKe CTpYMe. KaKO 6WCMO WTO 60lbe pa3YMenw
6nwCKOCT KynTypHwx <j>eHOMeHa KOjW rroBe3yjy AHa/lOnwjy W EanKaH,
O/IHOCHO TepMwH 6anKaHCKO-aHa/lOnCKW KynTypHw KOMrrneKC '-Iwjw je
ayTop MwnyTwH fapawaHwH (1998) Ha OBOM MeCTY /laheMO OCHOBHe
WH<j>OpMal.\wje 0 Xa6WTaTY W MaTepwjanHoj KynTypw Hana3WWTa 3Ha'-lajHwx
3a /lalbW cne/l /loraljaja Ha EanKaHY.
IloCTojalDe CTanHWX Hacelba ca nOBa'-lKo-caKyrrlba'-lKwM Ha'-lWHOM
rrpwBpeljwBalDa W 6e3 Tpa/lWl.\wje rrpOW3BO/lIDe KepaMwKe, KaKBa cy
HeBanw '-[opw, XanaH '-[eMW, fe6eKnw (Nevali <;ori, Hallan <;emi,
Giibekli) wnw AwwKnw XWjWK Hiiyiik) rOBope y npwnor TBp/llDW
/la 6w 06nacT AHa/lOnwje Tpe6ano CBaKaKO yKlby'-lWTW y 30HY rrpwMapHe
HeonWTW3al.\wje. J1rraK, 0/1 rroce6Hor wHTepeca cy HaM Hana3WWTa W3
06nacTw BenwKwx je3epa Koja ce, KaKO he ce BW/leTW, Mory /lWpeKTHo
rrOBe3aTW ca MaTepwjanHoM KynTypoM paHor HeonWTa EanKaHa.
41
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
R •
r ak d
Cnl1Ka 9 - 06naCT jY)I<He AHap;OJB.fje ca Haj3HaqajmfjJ1M paHOHeOnI1TCKJ.1M Hana31111ITJ.1Ma
Kypyqaj XMjMK H6yuk), TeJI Hacelbe, HaJIa3M ce HallOMaK
MeCTa Kypyqaj HellaJIeKO Oil je3epa EYPIlYP y jyr03arrailHoj
AHaIlOJIMjM. MCTpa)!(MBalba, qMjM je ayrop 6MO P. ):(ypy (Duru 1999)
crrpoBelleHa cy y rrepMollY Oil 1978. 110 1988. MCTpa)!(eHa je rroBpIlIMHa
Oil CKOPO 3500 m ' M oTKpMBeHo rrocTojalbe KYJITypHor cJIoja Oil rOTOBO
8 MeTapa. HajHM)!(M CJIoj 03HaqeH Kao 13, lIe6lbMHe 0,6-0,8 m, rrpMrralla
paHo HeOJIMTcKoj (Early Neolithic) ¢a3M )!(MBOTa Ha OBOM MecTY KOjM ca
HeKOJIMKO rrpeKMlla, (3a Hac je Oil 3Haqaja oHaj M3Mel)y EN CJIoj 13 M EN
CJIoj 12) Tpaje 110 rroqeTKa paHor 6poH3aHor 1I06a. Y HajHM)!(eM CJIojy HMje
rroTBpl)eHo rrocTojalbe apxMTeKToHcKMX OCTaTaKa, 1I0K ce Ben y CJIojy 12
rpalle Hall3eMHe Kyne Oil neprrl1'Ia ca jellHMM pellOM KaMeHor TeMelba. Y
rr03HOHeOJIMTCKOM CJIojy 11, lIaTOBaHOM MeTOIlOM pallMoyrlbeHMKa Ha
5990±95 KaJIM6pMpaHMx rOIlMHa cTape epe, oTKpMBeH je lIeo MMrrpecMBHe
YTBplle ca rrOJIYKpYlKHMM KYJIaMa. 3a MCTpa)!(MBalbe OIlHoca paHor
HeOJIMTa jyr03arrailHe AHallOJIMje M Ereje M, y Kpajlboj MHCTaHQM,
l.\eHTpaJIHOr EaJIKaHa Ba)!(HM cy CJIojeBM paHor HeOJIMTa 13, 12 M 11, KOjM
rro C14 lIaTYMMMa HerrocpellHO rrpeTxolle M lIeJIMMMqHO ce rrOKJIarrajy ca
pa3BojeM HeOJIMTa EaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIyoCTpBa.
):(pyro HaJIa3MIlITe, Koje ne 6MTM Oil 3Haqaja y HaIlIoj pacrrpaBM je
XyjqeK CMeIlITeHO TpMlleCeTaK KMJIOMeTapa jY)!(HO Oil Kypyqaja
42
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
...
1"'<
5ft;I$h'
"'.
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X" o:t: P P E pi

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e I

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- - - -
C mt Ka to - Pen aTI1BHO-Xpm IOJlOlUKitI DAHOC HeOJl I1TCKl1 X HaJI a 3l1WTa y A HaAom1jl1
(npeM.: Duru 1999: 189)
TaKol)e y 06JIacn! BeJIWKWX je3epa. Ha OBOM HaJIa3wIlITY (Duru 1999)
cpeneMo aCKOWI\He rrocYl\e, rrocYl\e ca rrpocorroMop<pHOM" rrpel\CTaBOM
Ha BpaTy W 0pHaMeHTaJIHW CWCTeM BpJIO 6JIW3aK OHOMe KOjW Kp03 rrap
l\eCeTWHa WJIW CTOTWHY rOI\WHa MO)KeMO BWl\eTW Ha HaJIa3WIlITWMa JaHWl.\a,
EJIeIlIHWl.\a, PaKwToBo WJIW AH3a6eroBo.
Ba)KHO je HarroMeHYTw I\a ce 1\0rOl\WO xwjaTYc Y )KWBOTY rOTOBO
CBWX Hacefua W3 rrepWOl\a aKepaMWqKOr W paHor HeOJIWTa OBe 06JIaCTW
OCWM Ha 'IaTaJI XWjWKY, HacefuY Koje Y TO 1\06a rrocTaje 1\0BOfuHO CHa)KHO
• •
W opraHW30BaHO I\a ce 3aIlI TWTW 01\ orraCHOCTW KOJa Je OqWrrrel\HO rrpeTWJIa.
IIlTo ce CWCTeMa yKpalliaBalba TWqe Ha XyjqeKY ce jaBfuajy CJIWKaHW MOTWBW
• •
CTerreHWl.\a, CTpaTerwp YKpalliaBalba rr03WTWB-HeraTWB, I\wprOHaJIHa
• • •
opWJeHTal.\WJa yKpaca W l.\pBeHW CJIwrr , IlITO cy eJIeMeHTW KOJe MO)KeMO
rrpaTWTW W Y pa3Bojy paHor W cpel\lber HeOJIWTa EaJIKaHa.
CTYl\wje HeOJIWTa 06aBfueHe Y rrOCJIel\lbwx I\Bal\eCeTaK rOI\WHa,
a Koje ce 6a3wpajy Ha MaTepwjaJIy W3 06JIaCTW ceBepHe W 3arral\He
AHal\OJIwje rOB ope 0 TOMe I\a ce HaCTaHaK HeOJIWTCKWX KyJITypa WJIW
rrOI\Yl\apa WJIW qaK KaCHW 3a HaCTaHKOM HeOJIWTCKWX KyJITypa Ha
EaJIKaHY, W3Y3WMajynw Ty KapaHOBO ca KOjWM 0 31\0raH W HaJIa3W HajBwIlIe
3ajel\HWqKWX eJIeMeHaTa. 360r Tora 6w ce MOrJIO 3aKfuyqWTW I\a, Kao IlITO
W 0 31\0raH TBpl\W (Ozdogan, 1999), W3B03 HeOJIWTCKWX KyJITypa
Ha EaJIKaHCKO rrOJIyoCTpBO Hwje 6wJIa TaKO JIWHeapHa rrojaBa KaKO ce 1\0
cKopa CMaTpaJIo. Mel)yn!M, JIorWqHO rrWTalbe Koje ce rrOCTaBfua rrraCWJIO
6w OBaKO: 3aIlITO 6w OHW KOjW cy KpajeM VII MWJIeHwjYMa 6wJIW rrOTaKHYTW
I\a HarrYCTe OBY 06JIaCT OI\Max HaCTaBWJIW rryT EBporre? L\e<pwHwTwBHWX
OI\fOBOpa Ha OBO rrWTalbe 3a cal\a HeMa, aJIW ce Ha3wpy 6ap I\Be CTpyje Koje
18 nOCYAa ca npeAcTaBoM
43
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
cy HarrYCHwe jY)!(HY AHaI\OJIMjy. Jel\Ha ce yrrynwa Ka ceBepy KorrHeHHM
rrYTeM H 3aYCTaBHna ce y 06nacTH MapMape rl\e je 3aCHOBana HeonHTCKY
Kymypy THrra <PHKpHTerre. Apyra CTpyja HIlWa je rrOMopCKHM rrYTeM
(BHI\H Hrrp. Efstratiou 1985; H Madella and Efstratiou 1998 ca I1HTHpaHoM
nHTepaTypoM) rra je rrpeKo ErejcKHx oCTpBa CTHrna 1\0 TecancKe paBHHl1e
H rrOTOM HaCTaBHna rrpeMa ConYHcKoM 3anHBY, OCTaBHBlIlH Hacelba Kao
lIlTO cy Hea HHKOMeI\Hja, CepBHa H JaHHl1a H rrOTOM Ka 1\0nHHH CTpYMe
KOjOj rpaBHTHpajy PaKHToBo, EnelIlHHl1a, KOBa'IeBO rl\e ce 3al\p)!(ana H
rrOTOM lIlHpHna Ka l1eHTpanHoM oanKaHY. Pal\HOKap60H l\aTYMH caCBHM
rrOl\p)!(aBajy oBaKBY rrpeTrrocTaBKY, a xHjaTyc H3Mel)y aKepaMH'IKor
HeonHTa H paHor HeonHTa (EN I H EN II) Y jY)!(HOj AHal\OnHjH 1\0BOlbHO
je BenHKH 3a oBaKBY ce06y/KonOHH3al1Hjy (CmlKa 10). Jel\aH 01\ pa3JIOra 3a
HanYlIlTalDe Hacelba y AHaI\OnHjH, MO)!(l\a H Haj3Ha'IajHHjH, 6Hna je KnHMa,
OI\HOCHO olIlTpe KnHMaTCKe rrpoMeHe Koje cy ce 1\0rOl\Hne Cpel\HHOM VII
•• •
MHneHHJYMa, Kal\a Je HaCTymlO rrepHOI\ KOJH ce 'IeCTO Ha3HBa ManHM
nel\eHHM 1\060M (The Little Ice Age - Greenland Ice Core Project). Moryne
je I\a KnHMa HHje Mopana 6HTH jel\HHH Y3POK, Ben I\a ce Mopa pa'IYHaTH
H ca I\pyrHM Y3P0l1HMa Kao lIlTO cy nOBenaHa rYCTHHa HacelbaBalDa
H3a3BaHa Harno nOBenaHHM npHpOI\HHM npHpalIlTajeM nonynal1Hja
HOCHnal1a HeOnHTa. Ca I\pyre CTpaHe, npaBI1H KOjH cy KopHlIlneHH 3a
KonOHH3al1Hjy Ka oanKaHY MopanH cy 6HTH Ben Ol\aBHO n03HaTH, Kao lIlTO
ce TO HMnnHI1HTHO Mo)!(e pa3YMeTH H3 MOl\ena KOjH npel\na)!(y PaHenc H
AHl\en (Runnels, van Andel 1988) H KOjH rOBopH 0 TproBHHH ca Yl\albeHHM
06nacTHMa Kao rrpel\ycnoBY 3a HeonHTH3al1Hjy.
I10CTaBlba ce rrHTalDe: 3alIlTO rrorrynal1Hje Koje cy 3a C060M OCTaBHne
TaKO BHCOKe 1\0MeTe I1HBHnH3al1Hje Kao lIlTO je TO cny'Iaj y Xal,mnapy
HnH l.J:aTan XHjHKy HnH y I\pyrHM 06nacTHMa I1nOI\HOr rronYMeCel1a HHCY
rrOTpa)!(Hne HeKO I\pyro rrpH6e)!(HlIlTe 3a 6er 01\ H3HeHal\a npOMelDeHHX
KnHMaTCKHX ycnoBa Kao lIlTO 6H TO 6Hne jY)!(He 06naCTH H3 KOjHX je
HeonHTH3al1Hja H rrOTeKna Ben cy ce Ol\ny'IHnH 3a MHoro HeH3BecHHjH
rrOMopCKH rryT y Herr03HaTO? Ol\rOBOp MO)!(e 6HTH 'IHlDeHHl1a I\a cy jY)!(He
06naCTH 6Hne l\enOM Ben npeHacelbeHe 360r 'Iera ce H 1\0rOl\HnO oCBajalDe
ceBepHHx 06nacTH HnH 'IHlDeHHl1a I\a ce Ben y TO BpeMe I\oral)a lIlHpelDe
• • •
apHI\HHX rrpel\ena KOJH CMalDYJY TepHTopHJY HeOrrXOI\HY 3a orrCTaHaK
nOKanHHX 3ajel\HHl1a. C I\pyre CTpaHe, Hel\OBOlbHa HCTpa)!(eHOCT 06naCTH
ceBepHe A¢pHKe He 1\0nYlIlTa HaM I\a 1\0HeCeMO l\e¢HHHTHBHe CTaBOBe
y Be3H ca BpeMeHOM HacelbaBalDa OBHX 06naCTH, anH rrpeMa HeKHM
ca3HaIDHMa HeonHTH3al1Hja ce I\oral)a y 1\06a Bna)!(He ¢a3e Caxape OKO
6000. rOI\HHe npe HalIle epe. HeKa cKopHja HCTpa)!(HBalDa Y-XpOM030MCKHX
AHK BapHjal1Hja y norrynal1HjaMa ceBepHe A¢pHKe nOKa3yjy I\a je roplDa
44
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
•• •
rrpeTIIOCTaBKa HaJBepOBaTHI1Je Ta'lHa, Te lIa cY ce paCepBalbe HeOJII1TCKOr
rraKeTa 11 Ml1rpaU;l1ja rrorrYJIaU;l1ja llIl1PI1JII1 11 Y rrpaBU;y jyra (Arredi et
al: 2004).
ITo MI1IlIlbelbY M. 03110raHa (Ozdogan, B a ~ g e l e n 1999: 211)
HacelbaBalbe EaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIyocTpBa 1I0BOlll1 ce y Be3Y ca rrpl1110IlIJII1u;aMa
113 AHallOJIl1je 11 TO BepOBaTHO He 113 caMO jellHe 06JIaCTI1 Ben BepOBaTHO
113 BI1IlIe lbl1X, IlITO 611 Momo lIa 6Ylle 06jallilbelbe 3a rrocTojalbe Tpl1
pa3JIWII1Ta aJII1 cpOIlHa HeOJII1TCKa KOMrrJIeKCa - CeCKJIO, AH3a6eroBo,
KapaHoBo, aJII1 11 lbl1XOBO lIeJII1MI1'lHO BpeMeHCKO pa3MI1M0I1JIa)Kelbe. C
IIpyre CTpaHe OH rrOKYlliaBa lIa rrpY)K11 OllrOBOp Ha rrl1Talbe IlITa je 6110
Morynl1 Y3POK 3a rrOKpeTe rrorryJIaU;l1ja 11 He rrpOHaJIa311 rroBoll y 611JIO
KaKBI1M KaTacTpo<paMa 611JIO y AHallOJIl1jl1 611JIO y jyrol1CTO'lHoj EBporrl1.
OH je MI1IlIlbelba lIa je Y3POK 3a I1celbaBalbe/HacelbaBalbe 6110 OllrOBOp Ha
IIpYlliTBeHe Typ6YJIeHU;l1je 113a3BaHe celleJIa'lKI1M Ha'lI1HOM )KI1BOTa.
He 611 npellCTaBlbaJIO BeJII1KO 11 3HeHal)elbe YKOJII1KO 611 ce y
npl106aJIHOM lIeJIY HeKI1X Oil ErejcKl1x OCTpBa Koja ce HI1)KY Ha nFY
Oil 3anailHe 06aJIe AHallOJIl1je 110 BOJIOCKOr 3aJII1Ba Ha 20 110 30 MeTapa
lIy611He OTKPI1JII1 TparOBI1 OBI1X paHOHeOJII1TCKI1X I1CelbeHI1Ka. Bapl1jaHTy
OBaKBor CTaBa npellJIO)K110 je HellaBHO K. EpYll6eHK y 360PHI1Ky Neolithic
society in Greece. OH je MI1IlIlbelba lIa je KOJIOHI13aU;l1ja 113 AHallOJIl1je 611JIa
• •
rroCTynHa 11 lIa Je nocTOpo KOHCTaHTaH npl1JII1B CTaHOBHI1IlITBa TOKOM
lIyror BpeMeHcKor nepl10lla (Broodbank 1999).
HeoJII1T [p'lKe je Oil 113Y3eTHor 3Ha'laja 3a pa3YMeBalbe rrOpeKJIa
HeOJII1Ta u;eHTpaJIHOf EaJIKaHa 11 jyrol1CTO'lHe EBporre. MO)Ke ce penl1 lIa
je HeOJII1T TecaJIl1je, Te rrJIOIlHe paBHI1u;e HallOMaK Mopa, IIYro 6110 113BOP

HOBI1X rrOllaTaKa 0 pa3BoJY HeOJII1Ta, aJII1 11 113BOP HeCJIaralba ayTopa 0
lberoBoM rrOpeKJIY 11 yTI1u;ajy Ha YHYTpallilbOCT EaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIyoCTpBa.
PacnpaBe 0 rroCTojalbY aKepaMI1'lKOr HeOJII1Ta y Aprl1cl1 (Argissa Magoula),
c:lJpaHKTl1jy 11 KHOCOCY 611JIe cy rrOJIl1rOH Ha KOMe cy ce cYK06lbaBaJII1
apryMeHTI1 aYTOXTOHI1CTa 11 III1<PY3110Hl1cTa. Oil KaKO cy 06jaBlbeHI1 rrpBI1
pe3YJITaTI1 I1CTpa)KI1Balba Ha Aprl1cl1 11 CeCKJIY (Milojck 1960; Teocharis
1967), HOBI1M rrOllaU;I1Ma je OCBe)KeHa pacrrpaBa 0 rrOpeKJIY HeOJII1TCKI1X
KyJITypa Ha rp'lKOM KorrHy. l..[l1lbeHI1u;a lIa cy OBa IIBa ayTopa HajpaHl1je
CJIojeBe ca rroMeHYTl1x JIOKaJII1TeTa CTaBI1JII1 y I1HI1U;l1jaJIHy <Pa3Y HeOJII1Ta
- OIlHOCHO, KaKO ne ce KacHl1je Bl1l1eTI1, y crropHY <Pa3Y aKepaMI1'lKOr
• •
HeOJII1Ta - y BeJII1KoJ Mepl1 Je Ollpelll1JIa lIalbl1 TOK I1CTpa)KI1Balba OBor
rrepl1olla. Y3 OBY, CTOjl1 11 'll1lbeHI1u;a lIa 110 lIaHac Hl1je OTKpl1BeHO BI1IlIe

Oil IlIeCT HaJIa311IlITa KOJa ce Mory CMeCTI1TI1 y Me30JII1TCKI1 nepl1oll, Te lIa
ce lbl1XOBe JIOKaU;l1je He nOKJIarrajy ca OHI1M 113 HeOJII1TCKOr rrepl1olla. OBO
je 3a Benl1HY I1CTpa)KI1Ba'la 611JIO 1I0BOlbHO lIa ce YBepelbe 0 Ml1rpaTOpHoM
45
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
rrOpeKJIY Heom1Ta OP;P)!(M P;O HaUIMX p;aHa. Kao My CJIy'lajy YHYTpaUHbOCTM
EaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIYOCTpBa M y rp'lKoj Hep;oCTajy P;MBlbM rrporeHMTopM
p;OMeCTMKOBaHMX BpCTa )!(MTapMI.\a (Halstead 1999).
BaH AHp;eJI M K. PaHeJIC (van Andel, C. Runnels 1995), paHMje
• • •
rrOMMlbaHM Kao ayTopM Jep;He op; 3Ha'laJHMx TeopMJa 0 HacTaHKY HeOJIMTa,
6MJIM cy 3aMHTpMrMpaHM umpelbeM HeOJIMTa y 06JIaCTM rp'lKe M
jyroMcTo'lHe EBporre. OHM cy ce TaKol)e orrpep;eJIMJIM 3a MOp;eJI p;McpY3Mje
rrorryJIal\Mje. Kao M AMepMaH M KaBaJIM-Ccpopl\a (Ammerman, Cavalli-
Sforza 1984) M OHM 3aKlby'lyjy p;a je HeOJIMT EaJIKaHa rrOCJIep;Ml\a rrpop;opa
CTaHOBHMlllTBa M3 AHap;OJIMje. CBoje HaJIa3e 6a3Mpajy Ha OCHOBY MaJIor
6poja Me30JIMTCKMX Hacelba y rp'lKoj M 'IMlbeHMl\M p;a He rroCTojM HM
KOHTMHYMTeT, HM CJIM'IHOCT Y MaTpMl\M HacelbaBalba M3Mel)y Me30JIMTCKMX
M HeOJIMTCKMX nonYJIal\Mja, HM y rp'lKoj HM y06JIaCTM jyroMcTo'lHe EBpone.
Ca OBaKBMM CTaHOBMlllTeM ce yrJIaBHOM CJIa)!(e M K. TIepJIec (Perles 2001),
MHa'le eKcnepT 3a oKpecaHY KaMeHY HHP;YCTpHjy. OCJIalbajynH ce y CBOjOj
KlbH3H HajBHllle Ha rycTo HacelbeHY TeCaJIMjy H ycaMlbeHo Hacelbe y M OKO
nenMHe <llpaHKTM Ha TIeJIOnOHe3Y, TIepJIeCOBa cMaTpa p;a HeOJIMT y rp'lKoj
• •
npep;CTaBlba TeMelbHM pacKMp; ca Me30JIMTCKMM Tpap;Ml\MpMa, KOJM ce
omep;a He caMO y M360py MeCTa 3a )!(MBOT Ben M y Ha'lMHY M3pap;e KaMeHMX
aJIaTKM. I1naK, y cKopMje BpeMe CTM)!(Y M p;pyra'lMja pa3MMllllbalba. Y CBOM
pap;y nOCBeneHOM TeopeTCKMM nMTalbMMa TpaH3Ml\Mje M3Mel)y Me30JIMTa
M HeOJIMTa y rp'lKoj K. KOl\aKMC (Kotsakis 2003) pa3MaTpa np06JIeMe
HaM3mep; peTKe HacelbeHOCTM TeCaJIMje y rrepMop;y rrpe HeOJIMTCKOr 6yMa M
rrpaBp;a je p;eJIMMM'IHO Hep;OBOlbHOM MCTpa)!(eHolllny, cTaBlbajynM p;o 3Halba
p;a cy M TMX HeKOJIMKO p;o p;aHac oTKpMBeHMx HaJIa3MlllTa Me30JIMTCKe
erroxe P;OBOlbHM p;a ce rrOCTaBe HeKa Ba)!(Ha rrMTalba, rrpe CBera 0 Morynoj
MHTepaKl\MjM JIOKaJIHMX M HOBorrpMp;OIllJIMX rrorryJIal\Mja. Y CBOjOj
KpMTMl\M 3Ha'lajHor p;eJIa K. TIepJIec 0 paHoM HeOJIMTY rp'lKe, KOl\aKMC ce
rrpoTMBM jep;HocMepHMM TYMa'lelbMMa 3aCHOBaHMM Ha rrpep;y6el)elbMMa
Koja ce oCJIalbalbY Ha KOMrrapaTMBHo-McToPMjcKM rrpMcTyrr (Kotsakis
2002: 373-376). Ha OCHOBY HaJIa3a M3 rrenMHe TeorrTepa Ha ceBep03arrap;y
TeCaJIMje, Koja CBep;O'lM 0 60paBKy JIOBa'lKo-caKyrrlba'lKMx 3ajep;HMl\a
y p;y)!(eM BpeMeHcKoM rrepMop;y (Ha OCHOBY pap;MoKap60H p;aTYMa OBO
BpeMe ce rrpOl\elbyje M3Mel)y 9780 M 6700 cal BC), KOl\aKMC, Kao M
HelllTO paHHje nOMHlbaHH A. BHTJI, rrpol\elbyje p;a HH TeCaJICKa paBHHl\a
HHje 6HJIa HeHaCTaibeHa y BpeMe rrpe p;OJIaCKa HeOllumCK02 naKema. OH
TaKol)e nOKYlllaBa p;a YKa)!(e Ha KOMnJIeKCHOCT TpaH3Hl\Hje, npHxBaTalba,
HanYlllTalba H/HJIM rrpHJIarol)aBalba eJIeMeHaTa KOjH 'IHHe HeOllumCKU

naKem H HHcHcTHpa Ha pa3YMeBaibY p;HHaMHKe OBor npol\eca, KOJH,

HCTHHH 3a BOlbY, HHJe OCTaBHO npeBHllle TparoBa.
46
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
Ho, KaKO HeOJIMTMqapM Beh lIeu;eHMjaMa He Mory lIa ce 1I0rOBope
M YCBoje KOHaqaH CTaB 0 rrOpeKJIY HeOJIMTa y EBporrM, y rroMoh je
rrpMTeKJIa reHeTMKa, Koja he CBOjMM 1I0CTMrHyhMMa HajBepoBaTHMje
pa3pelIlMTM OBY BeqMTY IIMJIeMy. HaMMe, HajHoBMja CTYIIMja (Bramarrti
et al. 2009), Koja je MMaJIa 3a U;MJb yBMIl Y reHeTcKY CJIMKY cTapMx
••
. .--,
.....

. -.

IIKT"

,
CmfKa 11 - H eOllHTCKa Hana3HlllTa y fp"lKOj Koja ce CnOMI1lbY Y TeKCTY
_ JI
-

rrorryJIaU;Mja EBporre, 1I01IlJIa je 110 BeOMa 3HaqajHMx pe3YJITaTa Ha OBOM
rrOJby. OHM cy, rropellehM MMTOxoHllpMjcKe L\HK (mtDNA) ceKBeHu;e,

rrpMKyrrJbeHe M3 aHTpOrrOJIOlIlKOr MaTepM)aJIa JIOBaqKO-caKyrrJbaqKMX
3ajellHMu;a u;eHTpaJIHe EBporre C jellHe M HeOJIMTCKMX <j>apMepa C IIpyre
cTpaHe, 1I01IlJIM 110 3aKJbyqKa lIa cy IIpeBHM JIOBU;M-caKyrrJbaqM HOCMJIM
MI1TOXOHIIPl1jcKe L\HK Tl1nOBe KOjl1 cy 113Y3eTHo peTKM y caBpeMeHI1M
u;eHTpaJIHOeBpOnCKI1M nonYJIaU;l1jaMa. TaKol)e je nOTBpl)eHo BeJIMKO
HeCJIarafue reHeTCKor MaTepl1jaJIa 113Mel)y JIOKaJIHI1X JIOBau;a-caKyrrJbaqa 11
<j>apMepa KOjl1 cy I1Ml1rpl1paJIM C nOqeU;MMa HeOJII1TCKOr rrepl10lla.
47
o KJIJ1MaTCKJ1M rrpOMeHaMa
YKOJII1KO ce CJIa)!(eMO ,n;a je lby,n;CKI1 pO,n; rrOqeTKOM HeOJII1TCKOr

rrepl1o,n;a rrOqeO ,n;a ce OCaMOCTalbYJe O,n; rrpl1po,n;e, OH,n;a Y I1CTO BpeMe
•• •
rrpl13HaJeMO KOJII1KI1 YTl1l1aJ OKOJII1Ha I1Ma Ha if>erOB OrrCTaHaK, pa3BOJ ...
fIaJIeOKJII1MaTOJIOrl1ja ce 6aBI1 rrpoyqaBaif>eM KmiMaTCKI1X YCJIOBa 113
BpeMeHa rrpe CI1CTeMCKor Mepeif>a TeMrrepaType, rra,n;aBI1Ha 11 OCTaJII1X
peJIeBaHTHI1X rrO,n;aTaKa. fpaqll1KoHI1 KJII1MaTCKI1X 3arrl1Ca (proxy) ce
KOpl1CTe 3a peKOHCTpYKl1l1jy KJII1MaTCKI1X YCJIOBa y rrpOlUnOCTI1. 3a OBY

CBpXy rrpoyqaBaJY ce KO,n;OBI1 OqYBaHI1 y ,n;eH,n;poxpOHOJIOlUKI1M 3arrl1CI1Ma,
3ap06lbeHI1 y CKeJIeTI1Ma TpOrrCKI1X KOpaJIHI1X rpe6eHa I1JII1 <j>OCl1nHOr
rroneHa 113Bal)eHor rrpl1JII1KOM KapOTa)!(e y JIe,n;HI1I1I1Ma I1nl1 je3epcKI1M 11
MOPCKI1M ce,n;I1MeHTI1Ma.
Je,n;aH o,n; rrl10HI1pa y rrpoyqaBaif>Y rraneOKJII1Me 6110 je M.
Ml1naHKOBl1n, MaTeMaTl1qap CBeTCKor peHOMea 11 rrpo<j>ecop oeorpa,n;cKor
YHI1Bep3I1TeTa. OH je KOpl1CTenl1 Tpl1 Op611TanHe Bapl1jal1l1je <j>0pMYJII1CaO
• •
CJIo)!(eHI1 MaTeMaTl1qKI1 Mo,n;eJI KOJI1M Je 113paqYHao pa3JII1Ke y oCYHqaif>Y
11 o,n;roBapajynoj rrpOMeHI1 KJII1MaTCKI1X YCJIOBa y <j>yHKl1l1jl1 reorpa<j>cKI1X
lUl1pl1Ha. Y CBOM errOXaJIHOM ,n;eJIy Kanon der Erdbestrahlungen und seine
Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem, MI1JIaHKOBl1n (1941) je 06jaCHI10
11 ,n;aTl1paO HaCTaHKe, pa3Boj 11 rrOBJIaqeif>a mal111jaJIHI1X <j>a3a y TOKY
rrpOTeKJII1X 600000 ro,n;I1Ha. r1 KaKO TO rrOHeKa,n; 611Ba ca reHl1jaJIHI1M
OTKpl1nl1Ma 11 errOXaJIHI1M pe3YJITaTI1Ma, if>erOBa Teopl1ja je rOTOBO rrOJIa
BeKa 611JIa rrpl13HaTa TeK o,n; MaJIOr 6poja rroCBeneHI1Ka. fIpeoKpeT 11
CBeTCKO rrpl13Haif>e MI1JIaHKOBl1neBOr ,n;eJIa ce ,n;oro,n;l1o Ka,n;a je J')l Xej3
(J.D. Hays), y qacorrl1cy Science 1976. ro,n;I1He, rrpoyqaBajynl1 6YlUoTI1He
(KapOTa)!(e) ca MopcKor ,n;Ha rrOTBp,n;110 MI1JIaHKOBl1neBe Teopl1je 113HeTe y
rrOMeHYToj Kif>11311 (Hays et al. 1976).
3a peKoHcTpYKl1l1jy rraJIeOKJII1MaTCKI1X YCJIOBa KOpl1CTe ce 11
I1CTOPl1jCKI1 113BOPI1, KOjl1 Mory 611T11 ,n;parOl1eHI1 y peKoHcTpYKl1l1jl1,
49
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
aJIW nOKpwBajy caMO nOCJIelllhWX nap xWlballa TOllwHa, npel\W3Hwje 5000,
KOJIWKO nocTojw nWCMO (Embree 1987: 75-76). 3a KJIWMaTCKe YCJIOBe lIy6lbe
y npOlllJIOCT KopwCTe ce HeKW Oil CJIellenWX rpa<jJwKoHa (Lorius et aI.1985).
C 063WpOM lIa je pacT 6WlbHor nOKpWBa'la IIwpeKTHO YCJIOBlbeH
KJIWMOM, npOY'laBalhe IIpBeHwx npCTeHOBa Ha jOlll )I(WBOM IIPBeny W
50
,.

;t

CHI ...

. . ,... !
• •
I, •
I
ilIlOBP
• •
N." , .","*_11 ..
n l' .... ~
...
".
..
..
..
Cm1Ka 12 - IlpeKnonJbeHItl rpa<i>ItI KOHItl ca pe3YJITaTItIMa naneOKJIItIMaTOnOllIKJ1X
ItI CTpa)f(ItI Balha (npeMa Lorius et al. 1985)
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
HaJIa3HMa I-\pBeTa H3 apXeOJIOlIlKHX CJIojeBa rrpy)!(a I-\parOI.jeHY MoryhHOCT
YBHI-\a y rraJIeOKJIHMaTCKe YCJIOBe. "KOI-\OBH" KOjH ce 'IHTajy y crrel-\y
rrpCTeHOBa pa3JIH'IHTe lIlHpHHe, rYCTHHe H H30TorrCKor CaCTaBa I-\HpeKTHO
OCJIHKaBajy KJIHMaTCKe rrpHJIHKe y l-\aTOM TpeHyTKy y rrpOlIlJIOCTH. Y
• ••
YMepeHOM rroJacy HaCTaJe rro Jel-\aH I-\pBeHH rrpCTeH rOI-\HlIllDe, Te ce Ha

TaJ Ha'lHH CTBapa CJIHKa KJIHMaTCKHX rrpOMeHa Ha rOI-\HlIllDeM HHBOy.
'-[HIDeHHl1a I-\a rroCToje H3pa3HTO l-\yroBe'lHe BpCTe I-\pBeha (Pinus Aristata,
Sequoia Gigantea, Quercus HTI-\) H MoryhHocT cTBapalDa KOMrr03HTHHX
HH30Ba I-\pBeHHX rrpCTeHoBa (master tree ring sequence) rrpy)!(ajy HaM
MoryhHocT I-\a 1-\06HjeMo rrpel1H3He pe3YJITaTe rraJIeOKJIHMaTCKHX rrpOMeHa
l-\y60KO y rrpOlIlJIOCT, a CBaKaKO 1-\0 BpeMeHa HajpaHHjHx 3eMlbOpaI-\HH'IKHX
3ajel-\HHl1a OaJIKaHa H OJIHCKOr HCTOKa (Petit et al. 1990).
Y HaCJIaraMa CHera H JIel-\a Ha BHCOKHM rrJIaHHHaMa, rJIe'lepHMa HJIH
Ha rrOJIOBHMa, KpHjy ce TparoBH KOjH TaKol)e 1-\0rrpHHOce HalIleM 60lbeM
pa3YMeBaIDY KJIHMaTCKHX OCI1HJIaI1Hja. HaHMe, OBe HaCJIare cal-\p)!(e

rOI-\HlIlIDe aKYMYJIal1HJe rrpalIlHHe, Ba31-\YlIlHe l,lerrOBe ca H30TorrHMa
• ••
KHceOHHKa, xeMHJCKHX rrpHMeca ca Mopa HJIH KorrHa, KOJH ce rrpOY'laBaJY
KaKO 6H ce 1-\06HJIa CJIHKa JIOKaJIHe TeMrrpaType, BJIa)!(HOCTH Ba3llYxa,
rral-\aBHHa, rra 'IaK H 6p3HHe BeTpa! KapOTa)!(OM JIel-\HHKa ce Mory
1-\06HTH HHcjJopMal1Hje 0 caCTaBY aTMoccjJepe H KJIHMaTCKHM YCJIOBHMa
TOKOM BHlIle 01-\ 250000 rOI-\HHa 3eMlbHHe rrpOlIlJIOCTH. 0YlIloTHHe
pal)eHe y OKBHPY rrpojeKTa "BOCTOK",19 KOjH ce OI-\BHjao Ha AHTapKTHKy
01-\ Cel-\aMl-\eCeTHX rOI-\HHa XX BeKa rra 1-\0 l-\aHaC, a Koje cy rrOCTaBHJIH
cTpY'lIDal1H Tal-\alIllDer COBjeTcKor caBe3a, rrpBe cy rrpY)!(HJIe rrOl-\aTKe 0
l1eJIOKyrrHHM rnal1HjaJIHHM H HHTeprnal1HjaJIHHM I1HKJIycHMa. TpeHyTHo
CTaHHl1a BOCTOK I-\P)!(H peKOpl-\ y l-\y6HHH KapOTa)!(e 01-\ 3100 MeTapa
HCrrpel-\ CTaHHl1e Ha fpeHJIaHl-\y.20 Pe3YJITaTH Ha OBHM rrpojeKTHMa 6e3

I-\HJIeMe rroKa3YJY I-\a ce Harne KJIHMaTCKe rrpOMeHe Mory OI-\HrpaTH y CBera
• • •
rrap l-\el1eHHJa lIlTO Je 01-\ H3Y3eTHe Ba)!(HOCTH Kal-\a pacrrpaBlbaMO 0 YTHl1aJY

KJIHMaTCKHX rrpOMeHa Ha lbYI-\CKe 3aJel-\HHl1e y rrpOlIlJIOCTH.
JOlIl jel-\Ha 01-\ TeXHHKa 3a pa3YMeBaIDe H rrpahelDe KJIHMaTCKHX
rrpOMeHa je rrpOY'laBalDe cjJOCHJIHOr rrOJIeHa, KOjH rrOTH'Ie H3 Cel-\HMeHaTa
ca'lYBaHHX Ha I-\Hy je3epa HJIH OKeaHa. Kao lIlTO je rr03HaTO, CHTHa 3pHa
rrOJIeHa HMajy crroco6HocT I-\a 6Yl-\y o'lYBaHa 1-\0BOlbHO I-\yro, a Ha OCHOBY
6HlbHe BpCTe ca Koje rrOTH'Ie rrOJIeH MO)!(e ce ca BeJIHKOM rrpel1H3HolIlhy
YTBpl-\HTH CJIHKa KJIHMaTCKHX 1-\0ral)aIDa l-\aJIeKO y rrpOlIlJIOcT. YKOJIHKO

ce rrpel1H3HO YTBpl-\H XPOHOJIOlIlKH rroJIo)!(aJ Y30paKa, lIlTO ce H 'IHHH
19 Earth in Space, Vol. 8, No.3, November 1995; 9;
http;//www.agu. org/sci_soc/vostok.html#vostfig21
20 Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) j e 3aycTaBlbeH Ha nap MeTapa W3Ha,n; CTeHa Ha Ay61t1HItI
o,u; 3028,8 MeTapa J.1CnOA nOBplllJ.1He neAa.
51
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
HeKOM Oil caBpeMeHMX <jJM3M'IKo-xeMMjcKMX MeTolla, Hajrrpe MeToiloM
pallMoyrJbeHMKa C14, oHlla ce rranMHonOlliKe MHTeprrpeTal\Mje Mory
KOPMCTMTM y apxeonOlliKOM KOHTeKCTy. OHe he HaM rrOKa3aTM caCTaB
<jJnope y lIaToM rrepMOIlY, IlITO je Oil M3Y3eTHor 3Ha'laja 3a peKOHcTpYKl\Mjy

eKOCMCTeMa rroJellMHMX HeonMTCKMX HaCeJba.
CBe rrpeTxollHO HaBelleHe MeTolle McrrMTMBafua rraneOKnMMaTCKMX
rrpoMeHa rroTBpl)yjy lIa je TOKOM 3eMJbMHe, a rrOTOM M 'IOBeKOBe MCTopMje
rroBpeMeHo lIona3Mno 110 BeOMa HarnMX M IIpaCTM'IHMX rrpoMeHa y
eKocMcTeMy/6Moc<jJepM. Ha CnMl\M 12 MO)!(e ce BMlleTM lIa cy ce OBaKBM
1I0ral)ajM ollBMjanM C ollpel)eHoM rrpaBMnHollihy rrocnellfuMX 20000
rOIlMHa M TO Y reHepanHOM TpeHIlY (rropaCT MnM rrall cpellfue rOIlMllifue
TeMrrepaType), ami M rrpaTehl1x Kone6afua. 3eneHl1 rraIlIfual\11 Mnl1 ryCTe

'IeTMHapcKe IlIyMe ce ca CTaHOBI1IlITa reonorl1Je, a rroHeKall, Kao IlITO TO
cyrepMIlIe /1,ozaljaj 8200 (BI1I1I1 cnMKY 12) 11 ca CTaHOBI1IlITa MHIII1BMllye,
,,3a'laC", rrpoMeHe y HerrnOIlHe CTerrCKe I1nl1 rrycTMfucKe rrej3a)!(e. TeK he
ce 6Yllyhl1M I1CTpa)!(I1Baful1Ma 11 aHanl130M pe3ynTaTa 110 KOjl1X 1I0na3e
KnMMaTon03M YTBPIIMTM KonMKO ce rrpoMeHa y KynTypM MO)!(e 06jacHMTM
HarnMM rrpoMeHaMa y eKocMcTeMY. Ha rrpBM rrornell HeKe Oil KnMMaTCKMX
KpMByJba M3 BpeMeHa 8000-4000 cTape epe MlleanHO ce rroKnarrajy
ca KynTYPHo-McToPMjcKMM Ta6enaMa Ca'iMfueHMM apxeonoIlIKMM
CpellcTBMMa.
52
Cum grana sallis
Kao UITO CMO Bl11\elHI 113 npeTXOI\HI1X nOrrraBJba TOKOM nepl10l\a
Knl1MaTCKOr OnTI1MYMa, y BpeMe 113Mel)y 6500. 11 6200. cTape epe npBe

rpyne CTOqapa 11 3eMJbOpal\Hl1Ka noqene cy I\a HaCeJbaBaJY perl10H
jyrOI1CTOqHe EBpone I1l..\eHTpanHor EanKaHa. lbl1XOBa HaCeJba OTKpl1BaMO
Ha Benl1KOM nOl\pyqjy 01\ [pqKe Ha jyry 1\0 Mal)apcKe Ha ceBepy. L\aJbI1
pa3Boj HeOnl1TCKI1X 3ajel\Hl11..\a oMoryhl1o je nojaBY CTOTI1Ha HaCeJba 11
npl1nl1qHO rycTo HaCeJbaBalhe. Ha BPxYHI..\YHeOnl1TCKOr pa3Boja OBa perl1ja
je npl1nl1qHO rycTo HaCeJbeHa. ITo TpeHyTHI1M nOl\al..\l1Ma caMO y penlOHY
l..\eHTpanHor EanKaHa OTKpl1BeHO je npeKo 200 Hana3l1WTa CTapqeBaqKe
KynType paHor 11 Cpel\lher HeOnl1Ta. OBaKaB 6yM 11 Wl1pelhe HeOllumCKOZ
naKema KpajeM VII 11 noqeTKOM VI Ml1neHl1jYMa CTape epe 3a6ene)!(eH je
11 y MaKel\OHl1jl1 (Peny6nl1Ka MaKel\OHl1ja 11 [pqKa MaKeI\OHl1ja), 1\0nl1Hl1
CTpYMe y 3anal\Hoj EyrapcKoj 11 y TpaHCl1nBaHl1jl1 y PyMyHl1jl1.
C 063l1pOM I\a je I..\I1Jb OBe Klhl1re nOKywaj peKOHCTpYKl..\l1je I\ena
)!(I1BOTa HeOnl1TCKI1X 3ajel\Hl11..\a 11 nOCTaBJbalhe HeKI1X np06neMa, KOjl1 611
MOrnl1l\a nOKa)!(y KOMnneKCHOCT 11 I\I1HaMI1KY 1\0ral)alha y OBOM nepl10l\Y,
pacnpaBa 0 con 11, Ma KOnl1KO Ha npBI1 nornel\ CnOpel\Ha y OI\HOCY Ha
•• •
KnaCWlHa nl1Talha nepl101\113al..\l1Je 11 xpOHOnOrl1Je I1nl1 HeWTO MOl\epHI1Ja

nl1Talha 0 I1l\eHTI1TeTY, KOHTI1HYI1TeTI1Ma I1nl1 nepl..\enl..\l1JI1 CBeTa OBI1X
• •
3aJel\Hl1l..\a, I1naK MO)!(e I\a 1\0npl1HeCe pa3YMeBalhY pa3BOp HeOnl1Ta Ha
npOCTOpl1Ma l..\eHTpanHor EanKaHa 11 jyrol1CTOQHe EBpone. IToKywahy
I\a 11 Kp03 OBO nOrnaBJbe YKa)!(eM Ha OnpaBl\aHOCT Te3e 0 Ml1rpaTOpHOM
nopeKny HeOnl1TCKI1X KynTypa EanKaHa 11 TO TaKO WTO hy YBeCTI1 jel\Hy
He3a06l1na3HY 11 Hal\aCBe KOPI1CHY HaMl1pHl1l..\y Koja je, KaKO he ce TO
l\aJbe 113 TeKCTa Bl1l\eTI1 y MHorOMe Ol\pel)l1Bana 11360p MeCTa HaCeJbaBalha
TOKOM HeOnl1Ta, a TO je 06l1QHa KYXl1lhCKa CO.
TOKOM I1CTOpl1je QOBeQaHCTBa MHoro Tora je 3aBl1Cl1nO 01\ conl1!
EpOjHI1 CaBe311, pl1BanCTBa, anl1 11 paTOBI1 BOl\l1nl1 cy ce 360r conl1. CaMo
53
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
jel\aH 01\ MHor06pojHMX rrpMMepa Morao 6M 6MTM HerrpMjaTelbcTBO M3Mel)y
AYTapMjaTa M Apl\Mjeja qeMY je Y3POK 6MO ce30HCKM M3BOP CJIaHe BOl\e
KOjM je rrocTojao Y rpaHMqHoj 06JIaCTM M3Mel)y OBa I\Ba MJIMpCKa rrJIeMeHa.
OBO je, KaKO HaC 06aBeliITaBa CTpa60H 6MO pa3JIOr 3a HerrpeCTaHa
HerrpMjaTelbcTBa M cyK06e (BMl\eTM KOI\: Papazoglu 1969: 71-72). Co je
6MJIa M3BOP 60raTcTBa M pa3JIOr 3a ycrroH M rrporracT 6pOjHMX 3ajel\HMl\a M
I\p)!(aBa. r1aKo je M I\albe jel\Ha 01\ CTpaTewKMx HaMMpHMl\a, TeK y MOl\epHO
BpeMe CMO y rrpMJIMl\M I\a He 06panaMo MHoro rra)!(lbe Ha lby M cMaTpaMo
je HOpMaJIHOM rrojaBoM y HaWMM CBaKOI\HeBHMM )!(MBOTMMa. YrrpKOC TOMe
WTO 3a cel\eJIaqKe 3ajel\HMl\e CO rrpel\CTaBlba BMTaJIHY M He3a06MJIa3HY
HaMMpHMl\Y, OHa je 360r cBoje XMl\pOCKOrrHOCTM HajqeWne HeYXBaTlbMBa Y
apXeOJIOWKI1M KOHTeKCTI1Ma. Kao TaKBa, CO je HajqeWne rrpeHe6peraBaHa
11 rOTOBO CaCBI1M 1130CTaBlbaHa Y I\I1CKYCl1jaMa 0 np06JIeMl1Ma 11 reHe311
HeOJII1Ta (N.N. Tasic 2000).
3Ha'laj TprOBI1He 11 pa3MeHe, TOKOM HeOJII1TCKOr nepl10l\a, 6110 je
OnWl1pHO TpeTl1paH Y apXeOJIOWKoj JII1TepaTypl1 (BI1I\I1 KOI\: Runnels,
van Andell 1988), a apXeOJI03M cY ce qeCTO 6aBMJIM npoMeToM KpeMeHa,
OnCMI\MjaHa, 6MTYMeHa, CnOHI\MJIyca MJIM l\MHa6apMTa, aJIM HMje 6MJIO
1\0BOlbHO rra)!(lbe rrocBeneHo HM ynoTpe6M COJIM HM TproBMHM OBOM
HaMMpHMl\OM. HajBepOI\OCTojHMje 06jawlbelbe 3a OBY qMlbeHMl\Y je Ben
nOMeHYTa HeYXBaTlbMBa npMpOl\a COJIM, aJIM M peJIaTMBHO 06Mlbe COJIM Y
06JIaCTM npB06MTHe HeOJIMTM3al\Mje. r1naK nOCToje 6pOjHM HaqMHM Ha
• • •
KO)e)e HeOJIMTCKM qOBeK CBaKaKO Mopao I\a KOPMCTM CO, Te rrpOM3JIa3M I\a)e
OHa, HajBepoBaTHl1je, 6MJIa He3a06MJIa3aH I\eo HeOJIMTCKe eKOHOMl1je. Co ce
• •
KOPMCTI1 Y lbYI\CKO) 11 )!(MBOTMlbCKO) McxpaHM, 3aTMM Kao KOH3epBaHC, aJIM
M Kao Cpel\CTBO HeOrrXOI\HO Y rrpepal\M M WTaBlbelbY KO)!(a, a BepOBaTHO M
Y pl1TyaJIHMM M Mel\l1l\MHCKMM 3aXBaTI1Ma.
CJIaTMHe, CJIaHM 113BOPM 11 PYI\HMl\M KaMeHe COJIM, Kao M MeCTa

Ha KO)MMa ce l\eWaBaJIa pa3MeHa COJIM cy OCTaBMJII1 1\0BOlbHO TparOBa Y
caBpeMeHoj TorrOHOMaCTI1l\I1, I\a 6MCMO MOf}lM I\a HarrpaBI1MO rrpeKJIarralbe
caBpeMeHI1X TOrrOHI1Ma 11 apXeOJIOWKI1X HaJIa3I1WTa. r1MeHa MeCTa M
rpal\OBa Kao WTO cy Salzburg, Salona, Salisbury (113 JIaTMHCKor KopeHa sal,
-is) I1JIM Hallstatt, Hallein, Halle (rpqKI1 KopeH hall), I1JIM TY3JIa, Tuz Gdld
(TYPCKM Ty3 = co) CBa MMajy y OCHOBI1 peq co. Ha rrpMMep, rrocTojM BI1We
01\ I\Bal\eCeT MeCTa y Cp6l1jl1, PyMyHl1jl1, ByrapcKOj 11 MaKel\OHl1jl1 Koja
ce 30BY CJIaTI1Ha, a y 6JIl13l1Hl1 HeKI1X 01\ lbl1X cy OTKpl1BeHa HeOJII1TCKa
Hacelba (Hrrp. VetniC 1972).
3Ha'laj COJII1 Kao BMTaJIHe HaMMpHI1l\e je rroMeHYo jow f. 'IajJII\
(Childe 1929: 244), KOjl1 je nOKywao I\a 06jaCHl1 3JIaTHe HaJIa3e 113
MepceH6ypra pa3MeHoM 11 KOMepl\l1jaJIHI1M 3Ha'lajeM COJII1. 1l0CTOjl1
54
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
06MMHa JIMTepaTypa 0 eKCrrJIOaTaU;MjM COJIM y XaJIlilTaTY, XaJIaMHYM XaJIey.
MrraK, OBa HaJIa3MlllTa rrpMrral\ajy MHOrO MJIal)oj errOXM rrpaMcTopMje. Kao
rrapal\OKC MO)!(e ce Y3eTM 'IMIDeHMu;a I\a je 3Ha'laj COJIM 6MO 3aHeMapMBaH
y CTYI\MjaMa rrocBeheHMM HeOJIMTY - BpeMeHY Cel\eHTapM3aU;Mje lbYI\CKMX
rrorryJIaU;Mja M BpeMeHY 1\0MeCTMKaU;Mje 6MlbaKa M )!(MBOTMlDa. M3Y3eB
KpaTKMX OCBpTa KOjM ce TM'Iy TprOBMHe COlbY (Hrrp. Runnels, van Andel
1988; Gimbutas 1991; Sherrat 1997) HMje 6MJIO rroKYlllaja I\a ce 06jacHM
OI\HOC M3Mel)y KopMlllhelDa COJIM M rrO'leTaKa HeOJIMTa. BehMHa cTpY'llDaKa
KOjM cy ce 6aBMJIM rrMTaIDMMa COJIM, CJIa)!(e ce I\a je cJI060l\aH rrpMCTyrr COJIM
•• •
Y lbYI\CKOJ M )!(MBOTMIDCKOJ McxpaHM rrO'leo ca rrO'leU;MMa HeOJIMTM3aU;MJe
(Nenquin 1961: 11, 126, 156; Adshead 1992: 26). Mel)yTMM, OBO je 06M'IHO
6MO M Kpaj pacrrpaBe 0 COJIM. MeTOI\OJIOlliKe nperrpeKe M3TJIel\aJIe cy
npeBeJIMKe I\a 611 ce 113BYKao 6MJIO KaKaB KOpl1CaH 3aKlbY'laK: I\OKa3a 0

eKCnJIOaTaU;I1JM COJIM y HeOJII1TY MJIM HeMa I1JIM cy nOCpel\HI1 - Kao lIITO
• •
Je CJIY'laJ rJIa'laHMX KaMeHI1X CeKl1pa OTKpl1BeHMX y PYI\HI1U;I1Ma KaMeHe

COJII1 11 rrOJel\l1Ha'lHMM HaJIa3l1Ma HeOJII1TCKe KepaMMKe Hel\aJIeKO 01\
MHCTaJIaU;Mja 3a eBanopaU;Mjy COJIM M3 BOl\e ca CJIaHMX M3Bopa (Nenquin
1961: 127, 128).
I1poY'laBalDeM paHOT HeOJIMTa jyroMcTo'lHe EBpone M IDerOBMX
Be3a ca HeOJIMTOM AHal\oJIMje M EJIMCKOr MCTOKa, ManMpalDeM HaJIa3MlIITa
M npeKJIanalDeM ca ManaMa M3BopMlIITa COJIM (npeMa TpeHyTHo
n03HaTMM JIe)!(MlllTMMa M TonOHOMaCTMU;M) I\OJIa3M ce 1\0 3aKlbY'lKa I\a cy
paHOHeOJIMTCKa Hacelba rOTOBO YBeK rrOBe3aHa ca COlby. CTora hy ce Ha
OBOM MeCTY 3aJIO)!(MTM I\a ce y 6Yl\yhMM MCTpa)!(MBaIDMMa M cTYI\MjaMa
Y3Me y 063Mp 'IMIDeHMu;a I\a je MaTpMu;a HacelbaBalDa HeOJIMTCKMX
3ajel\HMu;a y I\MpeKTHoj Be3M ca l\oCTyrrHollihy COJIM (3eMlbMlIITa 60raTa
COlbY, CJIaHM M3BOPM, CJIaTMHe, PYI\HMU;M KaMeHe COJIM).
Ho, rrpBo 6M Tpe6aJIo I\OKa3aTM I\a je CO 3aMCTa 6MJIa y yrroTpe6M
TOKOM HeOJIMTa. l.[eCTo cy ce y HyTpMU;MOHMCTMU;M BOI\MJIe pacrrpaBe
I\a JIM je rroTpe6a (MJIM 'IaK 3aBMcHocT) 3a OBOM HaMMpHMU;OM
<pM3MOJIOlliKa MJIM je OHa rrCMXOJIOlliKe rrpMpOl\e MJIM rraK caMO
KyJITypHM <peHOMeH. 3aKlbY'leHO je I\a je 11 lbYI\MMa 11 )!(MBOTMlDaMa
HeOrrXOI\Ha CO y MeTa60JIM'IKMM rrpou;eCMMa. OHa je HeOrrXOI\Ha 3a KpB,
HepBHM CMCTeM M rrpaBMJIaH pal\ cpu;a. Hal\albe, co yrrpaBlba rrpou;ecoM
OCM03e Mel)yheJIMjcKe Te'lHOCTI1, ca KaJIl1jYMoM CO Mrpa HajBa)!(Hl1jy
yJIory y l\enOJIapl13aU;l1jl1 HepBHor 11 Ml1l11l1hHOr TKI1Ba, y Cal\ejcTBY ca
MarHe3l1jYMoM perYJIMllie aKTMBHOCT au;eTMJIXOJII1Ha M TaKO yTl1'1e M3Mel)y
OCTaJIOr Ha I1HTeCTI1HaJIHY rrepI1CTaJITI1KY, OI\HOCHO rrpaBI1JIaH pal\ u;peBa
(Hrrp: Hall 1999). CaBpeMeHe nperropyKe HYTPI1U;110HMCTa M3Hoce 3 rpaMa

COJII1 I\HeBHO, lIITO Ha rOI\MlIIIDeM HI1BOY 113HOCl1 OKO Jel\HOr KI1JIOrpaMa.
55
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
I10CTOjM MrraK M rrpMJIM'IHa KOH<PY3Mja Y I1M<ppaMa Kalla ce rrpOpa'lyHaBa
rOIlMIIHba KOJIM'IMHa COJIM rro maBM. Pa3JIM'IMTM aYTopM lIajy pa3JIM'IMTe
rrpOpa'lyHe, KOjM MIlY Oil jellHor 110 7,2 KMJIorpaMa rOIlMllilbe (Multhauf
1978: 3-7). MCTMHa je, TaKol)e, lIa ce ca yrroTpe60M COJIM y caBpeMeHOM,

aJIM M y TpallMI1MOHaJIHMM IIPYllITBMMa rrpeTepYJe.
M3yeTHo je 3Ha'lajHa 'IMlbeHMl1a, rroTBpl)eHa caBpeMeHOM

MeIlMI1MHOM, lIa YKOJIMKO He'lMJM Ha'lMH McxpaHe CaIlP)!(M 1I0BOlbHe
KOJIM'IMHe CMpOBor MJIM rre'leHor Meca, pM6e MJIM 'IaK MHceKaTa He rrocTojM
<p113110JIOlliKa 1l0Tpe6a 3a YHOCOM 1I0ilaTHl1X KOJIl1'1l1Ha COJII1. OBO je
BepOBaTHO M 6MO cJIY'Iaj ca 3ajellHMl1aMa Koje cY rrO'lMBaJIe Ha JIOBa'lKO-
caKyrrlba'lKoj cy63MCTeHI1MjM. C IIpyre CTpaHe Kalla rrorryJIal1Mja )!(MBM
ymaBHoM Ha )!(I1Tapl1l1aMa, rroBphy I1JII1 KYBaHoM Mecy - HeollxollHO je
YHollielbe 1I0ilaTHe KOJIl1'1l1He COJII1. OBO 611 Morao lIa 6Ylle YllpaBO cJIy'laj
y IIpeJIaCKY ca JIOBa'lKo-caKYlllba'lKe Ha paHY 3eMlbopailibY (Adshead 1992: 7).
YrroTpe6a COJII1 y cTo'lapcTBY je jOlli 3Ha'lajHMja Oil yrroTpe6e y
lbYIICKOj I1CXpaHI1, C 063l1POM Ha 'IMlbeHI1I1Y lIa III1Blbe )!(I1BOTI1IbCKe BpcTe
06e36el)yjy 1I0BOlbaH YHOC COJIM rralliOM Ha BeJIMKMM rroBpllIMHaMa, IIOK ca
1I0MeCTl1KOBaHl1M )!(I1BOTMlbaMa TO Hl1je CJIy'laj. Y MOMeHTY Kalla cy 6l1JIe
CllYTaHe lbYIICKI1M HaBI1KaMa 11 IIpl1Hyl)eHe lIa )!(MBe Ha OrpaHl1'1eHOM

IIPOCTOPY, llITO ce M 1I0rOllMJIO ca 1I0MeCTMKal1MJOM TOKOM paHor HeOJIMTa
1I0ilaTHe rropl1Mje COJIM cy MOpaJIe 6MTM YBol)eHe y IbMXOBY McxpaHy.
OBO je Momo 6MTM YCllelliHO OCTBapeHO HarracalbeM Ha COlbY 60raTMM
rrallilbal1MMa llITO je BepOBaTHO M 6MO CJIy'laj y 06JIaCTM JIeBaHTa. Y

CJIY'laJY COlbY-CMpOMallIHMX 3eMlbMllITa, KaKBa cy OHa y l1eHTpaJIHOM
OaJIKaHY 1I0ilaTHa CO je MOpaJIa 6MTM 06e36el)MBaHa Ha IIpyrM Ha'lMH, MJIM
ce30HCKMM rrOKpeTMMa CTaila y COlbY 60raTe 06JIaCTM MJIM TprOBMHOMI
pa3MeHoM. Kalla je pe'l 0 rroTpe6aMa 3a COlbY y )!(MBOTMIbCKOj McxpaHM
rrocToje pa3JIM'IMTe rrperropyKe. Mory ce rrpoHahM rrpopa'lyHM lIa je 3a
McxpaHY KpaBa, rroce6Ho OHMX ca TeJIeTOM rroTpe6Ho OKO 36 kg. COJIM
rOIlMllilbe, aJIM rrocToje M rrpopa'lyHM lIa je HeorrxOIlHO CBera OKO 10
KMJIorpaMa (Adshead 1992). CaBpeMeHe rrperropyKe 0 KopMllIhelbY COJIM
y McxpaHM lbYIlM 11 )!(MBOTMlba 6M Mome lIa HaM rrOMorHY y rrpopa'lyHy
o KOJIM'IMHM COJIM Koja je 6MJIa HeorrxOIlHa jellHOj HeOJIMTcKoj 3aje1lHMI1M,
y 06JIaCTM y KOjOj HeMa rrpMpOIlHMX M3Bopa COJIM, 3a 3allOBOlbaBaibe
IbMXOBMX rroTpe6a y 1I0MahMHCTBY. I1peTrrocTaBlbaM lIa cy KOJIM'IMHe Koje
cy 3aMCTa 6MJIe KopMllIheHe y HeOJIMTCKOM rrepMOIlY 6MJIe 3HaTHO Malbe,
• •
aJII1 11 TaKBe cy rrpellCTaBlbaJIe 3Ha'laJaH HallOp 11 11311aTaK 3a 3aJeIlHMI1Y.
Tpe6a CBaKaKO 1I0llaTl1 lIa 1l0cToje 6pojHe KyJITypHe I1MrrJII1Kal1l1je
YIIOTpe6e COJII1. JellHa Koja MI1 ce 'II1HI1113Y3eTHO 3Ha'lajHoM je, a y TOMe he
ce CBI1 CJIO)!(I1TI1, lIa je 1l0'leTaK yrroTpe6e COJII1 HallpaBl10 BeJII1KI1 1l0MaK
56
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
y raCTpoHoMl1jl1: He caMO IlITO je xpaHy YQl1HI10 yKyCHl1jOM, Ben 11 360r
Tora IlITO je oMorynl1o KOH3epBI1paIDe HaMl1pHI1l\a, Meca 11 pl16e. C I1pyre
CTpaHe yrroTpe6a COJII1 y KYJII1HapCTBY Moma je 03HaQaBaTI1 11 pa3JII1Ky
1 1 3 M e ~ y 3ajeI1HI1l\a: OHI1X KOjl1 KOpl1CTe co 11 OHI1X KOjl1 je He KOpI1CTe.
--

ClTl1Ka 13 - TlocTpojelbe 3a enanopal\ltIjy COJlJ.1 143 Hana3HWTa COJlHHl\aTa
(npeMa HHKonoB 2008)
57
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
Kao UITO CMO TO CBW CBeCHW jellaH Oil HajwCTpajHwjwx W HajOqWTwjwx
Ta6ya TWqe ce yrrpaBo wcxpaHe.
21
Y 06JIaCTW EaJIKaHa rile cy ce rpyrre
• •
3eMlbOlleJIal.\a, KOJe CTW)f(y ca Jyra, cycpeTaJIe ca JIOBI.\WMa-caKyrrlbaqWMa
CJIJ1Ka 14 - MeTo,n; eBarrOpaIJ;J1je COJIJ1 TpaAJ1IJ;J10HaJIHoM TeXHJ1KOM eBarrOpaIJ;J1je
"3 eTHOrpaq,CKe ""reparype (Connah 1991)
• •
KOJW cy Je ce30HCKW HaCelbaBaJIW W BepOBaTHO HWCY pellOBHO KOPWCTWJIW
1I0llaTHY co y wcxpaHw, OBa pa3JIWKa, y3 6pojHe IIpyre, CBaKaKO je 6wJIa
. "c,
BPJIO 3HaqaJHa y rrOlleJIw Ha "MW W "OHW .
J1CTOpwjy KopWllInelDa W rrpOW3BOilIDe COJIW y 3arrailHoj EBporrw
rrpWKa3ao je :>K. HeHKeH (T. Nenquin). lherOBa WCTpa)f(WBaIDa 6wJIa cy
CKOHl.\eHTpWCaHa Ha <PpaHI.\YCKY, HeMaqKY, AyCTpwjy W EHrrreCKY, rile je
rrpOHallIao BWllIe Oil 30 JIOKaJIWTeTa KOjW cy Morrrw 6WTW KopwllIneHw 3a
rrpow3BoilIDY COJIW TOKOM HeOJIWTCKor rrepwolla. Kao qBpCTe 1I0Ka3e OH
Y3wMa HaJIa3e 6pWKeTa)f(e (briquetage), llITO je TepMwH KOjW 03HaqaBa
BeJIWKe KOJIWqWHe <pparMeHaTa rpy6e KepaMwKe y acol.\wjal.\wjw ca
JIO)f(WllITeM. OBe l.\eJIWHe ce rroHeKall 06jallIIDaBajy Kao rpHqapCKe
• •
paIlWOHWl.\e, aJIW Je lIaHac W3BeCHO lIa ce pallW 0 rroCTpoJeIDwMa 3a
wCKYBaBalDe (eBarrOpal.\wjy) CJIaHe BOlle (Nenquin 1961). Jow jellHa rpyrra
1I0Ka3a Koja 6w rrOTBplIWJIa lIa ce co KOpWCTWJIa TOKOM HeOJIWTa 6wJIa 6w
MaTpWl.\a HacelbaBalDa y 1I0JIWHaMa 3aJII.\ax (Salzach) W 3aJIax (Saalach).
I1peMa HeHKeHY qWHW ce lIa je 06wlbe CJIaHWX w3Bopa 6wJIO 1I0BOlbHO
21 CBaKo KO je OpraHJ130BaO apXeOJIOLUKa MCKonaBalha l1JIM l1CXpaHY 3a Behy rpyny lhYAl1

CBeCTaH Je Te tll1lheHMu;e.
58
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra

npWMaMlbWBO 3a npBe 3eMlbOpal\HWKe W CTOqape KOJW CY W HaCeJIWJIW OBY
W WHaqe roCTOlby6wBY 06JIaCT (Nenquin 1961: 52).
CnJ1Ka 15 - PeKoHcTpYKQJ1ja nO)l(J1111Ta cnpeMHor 3a 6pHKeTa)KY, Y pacTep, KOjW TBope
061IH u;e ApneTa, nOCTaBJbajy ce KOH ItI '-I He nOCYAe Kao OHe J.13 fopi'be TY3ne.
3a npeTIIOCTaBKY I\a je co KOpWIllneHa Y HeOJIWTY jyrowCTOqHe EBpOne
WMaMO 6pojHe I\WpeKTHe W WHI\WpeKTHe I\OKa3e. Me!jy OHe npBe MOmO 6w
ce CTaBWTW OTKpwne HaJIa3WIllTa CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType JIYHKa, I10waHa
CJIaTWHW (Lunca, Poiana Slatini) y I\OJIWHW peKe CwpeT, Ha KpajlbeM WCTOKY
EaJIKaHCKOr nOJIYOCTpBa, rl\e je Cpel\lbOHeOJIWTCKa KepaMWKa npOHa!jeHa
y KOHTeKCTY CJIaHOr W3Bopa KOjW je CBe 1\0 Hel\aBHO 6wo y ynoTpe6w
(Dumitroaia 1987: 253-258). CJIyqaj foplbe TY3JIe, Cpel\lbOHeOJIWTcKor
• • ••
Hacelba KOJe ce HaJIa3W Hal\OMaK HaJ3HaqaJHwJer pYI\HwKa KaMeHe COJIW Ha
l\eHTpaJIHOM EaJIKaHY 1\0 CKOPO je 6wo jel\WHCTBeH y HeOJIWTY EaJIKaHa.
TOKOM WCKonaBalba Ha TOM MeCTY OTKpWBeHa je caCBWM aTWnWqHa KJIaCa
KepaMWKe - nocYl\e Y 06JIWKY KopHeTa Koje ce nOBe3yjy ca npOW3BOl\lbOM
COJIW (CoviC 1961; Chapman 1988: 12). Ha OCHOBY aHaJIorwja ca KacHwjwM
HaJIa3WMa 6pWKeTa)!(e, nOMeHYTw ayTopw cy KOHWqHe nocYl\e W3 fOPlbe
Ty3JIe aTpw6ywpaJIw ynpaBo eBanOpal\wjw COJIW.
,ll;pyrw npwMep CTW)!(e ca WCTOKa EyrapcKe, Hel\aJIeKO 01\ MeCTa
I1poBal\Wa y 06JIaCTW BapHe, rl\e je TWM ApXeOJIOIllKOr WHcTwTYTa W My3eja
EyrapcKe aKal\eMwje HaYKa nOI\ PYKOBOI\CTBOM B. HWKOJIOBa WCTpa)!(WO
JIOKaJIWTeT ca WHI\WKaTWBHWM Ha3WBOM COJIHWl\aTa (HWKOJIOB 2008). Peq
59
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
je 0 jellMHOM n03HaTOM JIe)!(MnITY KaMeHe COJIM y ByrapcKoj, Koje je, Kao

IllTO BMIIMMO, OTKpMBeHO M eKCnJIOaTMCaHO Oil caMMX nOqeTaKa Tpa)HOr
HacelhaBalba OBor lIeJIa BaJIKaHCKOr nOJIYOCTpBa. qMHM ce lIa oBaj nOllaTaK
• •
M3BaHpeilHO MJIycTpy)e 3Haqa) COJIM, aJIM M MCTpa)!(MBaqKM M nMOHMpCKM
KapaKTep HeOJIMTCKMX 3ajeIlHMl.\a. HajCTapMjM CJIojeBM OBor HaJIa3MIllTa
lIaTOBaHM cy y BpeMe KapaHoBo III-IV KylIType, lIaKJIe OKO 5400. rollMHe
cTape epe, a 6MJIO je HacelheHO M TOKOM Bener lIeJIa XaJIKOJIMTCKor
nepMolla. I1peKo OBor HaJIa3MIllTa TMna TeJI TOKOM TpaqKOr nepMolla HacyT
je TyMyJI KOjM ce lIampa y BpeMe IV BeKa CTape epe. Ha 060llY Hacelha
je M M3BOP CJIaHe BOlle ca 160-190 rpaMa COJIM no JIMTpy (HMKOJIOB 2008:
49). LlMpeKTaH 1I0Ka3 3a eBanOpal\Mjy COJIM M3 CJIaHor M3Bopa cy, no B.
HMKOJIOBY, Ha XMlhalle <pparMeHaTa rpHqapMje TaHKMX 3MIIOBa TMnMqHMX
caMO 3a OBO HaJIa3l1IllTe (HI1KOJIOB 2008: 135-154).
I1oCToje 6pOjHM npl1MepM "npMMI1TI1BHe" npoM3Boillbe COJII1 3a
• • •
KO)y )e HeonXOllaH caMO CJIaHI1 113BOP 11 1I0BOlhHO rOpl1Ba, 1I0K )e y HeKI1M
cJIyqajeBI1Ma nOTpe6aH caMO MaHyeJIHI1 pall YJIO)!(eH y npl1Kynlhalbe
rpYMelba M 6JIOKOBa COJIM ca, TOKOM JIeTlbMX MeCel\M MCYIlleHMx, CJIaHMX
je3epa M MOqBapa. Be3 HeKe HapOqMTO CJIo)!(eHe TeXHOJIOrMje Koja je Moma
6MTM npenpeKa paHMM HaCelheHMl\MMa 6MJIO je, lIaKJIe, Moryne 1I0nM 110
OBe OCHOBHe )!(MBOTHe HaMMpHMl\e. HaBeIllny jellaH OllroBapajynM npMMep
y KojeM ce onMcyje npoM3Boillba COJIM ca 06aJIe [BMHeje Ha nOqeTKY XVIII
BeKa. B. B03MaH (V Bosman) je cBojeBpeMeHo M3BeCTMO lIa ce: ,,3eMlhaHe
nocYlle nopel)ajy Y TYl\eTMMa jellHa nopell IIpyre; Kalla ce HanpaBM IIBa
pella CBe ce 3aJIMje mMHoM, CKOPO Kao Kalla ce rpallM Kyna Oil l\MraJIa, a
oHlla ce Mcnoll lbMX HanpaBM HeIllTO IllTO JIMqM Ha JIO)!(MIllTe MJIM ne n
"
(npeMa Multhauf 1978: 21). Ha OCHOBY OBaKBMX onMca M Ha OCHOBY
OCTaTaKa 6pMKeTa)!(e, M3mella lIa je OBO 6MJIa maBHa npoM3Bol)aqKa
TeXHMKa 3a 1I06Mjalbe COJIM IllMpOM CBeTa M TO Kp03 BeKOBe Oil HeOJIMTa
110 nojaBe HeIllTO CJIO)!(eHMjMx M e<pMKacHMjMx TeXHMKa pMMCKe enoxe. Y
HeKMM lIeJIOBMMa EBpone oBaj MeTOII, aJIM M HeKM jOIll npMMMTMBHl1jM,

Kao IllTO )e TO CMnalbe CJIaHe BOlle IIMpeKTHo Ha yrlheBlhe - IllTO ce 110
XIX BeKa pallMJIO y BYKOBMHM, PyMyHMja, npe)!(MBeJIM cy 110 caBpeMeHor
1I06a (Multhauf 1978: 20). Y 06JIaCTMMa me HMje 6MJIO nOBpIllMHcKe COJIM
nOCTojaJIe cy IIpyre TeXHMKe Koje He yKlhyqyjy pYllapelbe, aJIM cy 6MJIe
e<pMKaCHe Illl1pOM CBeTa. Ben y TpeneM MI1JIeHl1jyMy CTape epe KMHe311

cy OTKPI1JII1 IIBe rJIaBHe TeXHI1Ke: eBanOpal\l1)a y nJII1TI1KI1M nocYllaMa
M eBanOpal\l1ja MopCKe BOlle nOMeIllaHe ca jell HOM BPCTOM arrrl1. Y
npM06aJIHl1M 06JIaCTl1Ma Hl1je Hey06l1qajeHo lIa ce CO 1I06l1ja TaKO IllTO ce
cnalhyjy aJIre I1l1pyre XaJIMo<pMTHe 6l1lhKe, a lbl1XOB neneo ce KOPI1CTM Kao
CO. OBa TeXHI1Ka MOrJIa je 6l1Tl1 KOpl1IllneHa 11 y OCTaJII1M 06JIaCTl1Ma ca
60
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
je 0 jellMHOM n03HaTOM JIe)!(MnITY KaMeHe COJIM y ByrapcKoj, Koje je, Kao

IllTO BMIIMMO, OTKpMBeHO M eKCnJIOaTMCaHO Oil caMMX nOqeTaKa Tpa)HOr
HacelhaBalba OBor lIeJIa BaJIKaHCKOr nOJIYOCTpBa. qMHM ce lIa oBaj nOllaTaK
• •
M3BaHpeilHO MJIycTpy)e 3Haqa) COJIM, aJIM M MCTpa)!(MBaqKM M nMOHMpCKM
KapaKTep HeOJIMTCKMX 3ajeIlHMl.\a. HajCTapMjM CJIojeBM OBor HaJIa3MIllTa
lIaTOBaHM cy y BpeMe KapaHoBo III-IV KylIType, lIaKJIe OKO 5400. rollMHe
cTape epe, a 6MJIO je HacelheHO M TOKOM Bener lIeJIa XaJIKOJIMTCKor
nepMolla. I1peKo OBor HaJIa3MIllTa TMna TeJI TOKOM TpaqKOr nepMolla HacyT
je TyMyJI KOjM ce lIampa y BpeMe IV BeKa CTape epe. Ha 060llY Hacelha
je M M3BOP CJIaHe BOlle ca 160-190 rpaMa COJIM no JIMTpy (HMKOJIOB 2008:
49). LlMpeKTaH 1I0Ka3 3a eBanOpal\Mjy COJIM M3 CJIaHor M3Bopa cy, no B.
HMKOJIOBY, Ha XMlhalle <pparMeHaTa rpHqapMje TaHKMX 3MIIOBa TMnMqHMX
caMO 3a OBO HaJIa3l1IllTe (HI1KOJIOB 2008: 135-154).
I1oCToje 6pOjHM npl1MepM "npMMI1TI1BHe" npoM3Boillbe COJII1 3a
• • •
KO)y )e HeonXOllaH caMO CJIaHI1 113BOP 11 1I0BOlhHO rOpl1Ba, 1I0K )e y HeKI1M
cJIyqajeBI1Ma nOTpe6aH caMO MaHyeJIHI1 pall YJIO)!(eH y npl1Kynlhalbe
rpYMelba M 6JIOKOBa COJIM ca, TOKOM JIeTlbMX MeCel\M MCYIlleHMx, CJIaHMX
je3epa M MOqBapa. Be3 HeKe HapOqMTO CJIo)!(eHe TeXHOJIOrMje Koja je Moma
6MTM npenpeKa paHMM HaCelheHMl\MMa 6MJIO je, lIaKJIe, Moryne 1I0nM 110
OBe OCHOBHe )!(MBOTHe HaMMpHMl\e. HaBeIllny jellaH OllroBapajynM npMMep
y KojeM ce onMcyje npoM3Boillba COJIM ca 06aJIe [BMHeje Ha nOqeTKY XVIII
BeKa. B. B03MaH (V Bosman) je cBojeBpeMeHo M3BeCTMO lIa ce: ,,3eMlhaHe
nocYlle nopel)ajy Y TYl\eTMMa jellHa nopell IIpyre; Kalla ce HanpaBM IIBa
pella CBe ce 3aJIMje mMHoM, CKOPO Kao Kalla ce rpallM Kyna Oil l\MraJIa, a
oHlla ce Mcnoll lbMX HanpaBM HeIllTO IllTO JIMqM Ha JIO)!(MIllTe MJIM ne n
"
(npeMa Multhauf 1978: 21). Ha OCHOBY OBaKBMX onMca M Ha OCHOBY
OCTaTaKa 6pMKeTa)!(e, M3mella lIa je OBO 6MJIa maBHa npoM3Bol)aqKa
TeXHMKa 3a 1I06Mjalbe COJIM IllMpOM CBeTa M TO Kp03 BeKOBe Oil HeOJIMTa
110 nojaBe HeIllTO CJIO)!(eHMjMx M e<pMKacHMjMx TeXHMKa pMMCKe enoxe. Y
HeKMM lIeJIOBMMa EBpone oBaj MeTOII, aJIM M HeKM jOIll npMMMTMBHl1jM,

Kao IllTO )e TO CMnalbe CJIaHe BOlle IIMpeKTHo Ha yrlheBlhe - IllTO ce 110
XIX BeKa pallMJIO y BYKOBMHM, PyMyHMja, npe)!(MBeJIM cy 110 caBpeMeHor
1I06a (Multhauf 1978: 20). Y 06JIaCTMMa me HMje 6MJIO nOBpIllMHcKe COJIM
nOCTojaJIe cy IIpyre TeXHMKe Koje He yKlhyqyjy pYllapelbe, aJIM cy 6MJIe
e<pMKaCHe Illl1pOM CBeTa. Ben y TpeneM MI1JIeHl1jyMy CTape epe KMHe311

cy OTKPI1JII1 IIBe rJIaBHe TeXHI1Ke: eBanOpal\l1)a y nJII1TI1KI1M nocYllaMa
M eBanOpal\l1ja MopCKe BOlle nOMeIllaHe ca jell HOM BPCTOM arrrl1. Y
npM06aJIHl1M 06JIaCTl1Ma Hl1je Hey06l1qajeHo lIa ce CO 1I06l1ja TaKO IllTO ce
cnalhyjy aJIre I1l1pyre XaJIMo<pMTHe 6l1lhKe, a lbl1XOB neneo ce KOPI1CTM Kao
CO. OBa TeXHI1Ka MOrJIa je 6l1Tl1 KOpl1IllneHa 11 y OCTaJII1M 06JIaCTl1Ma ca
60
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
I1oce6Ho je Bpel\Ha rrOMeHa jOlIl jel\Ha TeXHMKa Bal)eIDa conM, Koja
6M Morna 6MTM KopMlIlneHa TOKOM HeonMTa HapO'lMTO y TpaHCMnBaHMjM.
HaMMe, anaTKe 3a PYl\apelDe conM HMCY TMrronOlIlKM pa3nM'lMTe 01\
TpaI\Ml\MOHanHMX HeonMTCKMX rna'laHMX KaMeHMX ceKMpa. OBe anaTKe
cy Morne I\a ce KopMCTe TaKO lIlTO 6M Yl\apl\MMa 6MnM Ol\nOMlbeHM
KOMal\M conM rrOrOI\HM 3a M3Bna'lelDe M l\albM TpaHcrropT. KacHMje TOKOM
rrpaMcTopMje, TOKOM 6pOH3aHor M rB031\eHOT 1\06a YCTaHOBlbeH je Cnel\enM

...


CmtKa 17 - npOCHlpat-ha c rapqenatlKe KyllType
(TaMHa nJ.1HJ.1ja 03HaQaBa COlbY CJ.1pOMalllHe 06naCTJ.1)
pal\HM rrpOl\ec: OKHa cy 6Mna YKorraBaHa Y l\err03MTe conM ca MeCTa rl\e
ce co rrojaBlbMBana Ha rrOBplIlMHM; KaKO 6M OCn060l\MnM 6nOKOBe conM
KopMlIlneHM cy KaMeHM M I\pBeHM KnMHOBM. L\peBHM PYl\apM rrpaTMnM
cy Hacnare conM M rrOHeKal\ rrpaBMnM Bene ranepMje Ha MecTMMa rl\e
ce rrojaBlbMBana co 60lber KBanMTeTa. L\pBeHM rroTrropHM cTy60BM
KopMlIlneHM cY 3a 06e36el)MBaIDe pal\HOr rrpocTopa Y PYI\HMl\MMa.
Haj'lelIlne I\MMeH3Mje 6noKoBa 6Mne cY 80x1Sx1S l\M. KOMal\M conM cY
MCel\aHM M M36al\MBaHM Ha rroBplIlMHY y3 rroMon rroce6Ho HarrpaBlbeHMx
I\pBeHMX HOCMlbKM MnM cY y6al\MBaHM Y KO)[(He PYKcaKe M M3HOlIleHM
(Nenquin 1961: 118-119).
62
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
rpyrra lIoKa3a KOjW crrallajy y rrocpellHe, a rOB ope y rrpWJIor Te3W lIa je
co KopWIlIheHa TOKOM HeOJIWTa cy W JIOKal\wje paHWX 3eMlbopaIlHW'IKWX W
CTO'lapCKWX Hacelba. OHa cy CKOHl\eHTpWCaHa y ITJIOIIHOM rrOJIYMeCel\Y Oil
JIeBaHTa, AHallOJIwje W 3arpoc rrJIaHWHa - 06JIaCTWMa w3Y3eTHO 60raTwM
JIaKO 1I0cTyrrHoM COlby. ITpwMep '-IaTaJI XwjwKa, jellHor Oil HajpaHwjwx
yp6aHwx l\eHTapa, 06jaIlIlhaBa caM ce6e. OH ce HaJIa3W y 1I0JIWHW KOlha
(Konya) Ha rrap caTW xOlla Oil OHora IlITa je rrpeOCTaJIO Oil je3epa TY3
reJIe (Tuz Gala), CJIaHor je3epa Koje TOKOM JIeTa wcrrapaBa oCTaBlbajyhw
CJIaHY KOPY Ha rroBpwwHW 3eMlbe. TOKOM HeOJIWTa je3epo je 6wJIO Behe a
CJIaHa MO'IBapa ce IlIWpWJIa 110 caMor Hacelba. LlOJIWHa KOlha y l\eHTpaJIHoj
AHallOJIwjw je W3rJIeila 6wJIa rycTo HacelbeHa TOKOM Me30JIWTa, HeOJIWTa
W XaJIKOJIWTa. AWWKJIW XWjWK Hiiyiik) W Kow XWjWK (Kosh
Hiiyiik) CMeWTeHW cy HellaJIeKO Oil Tpeher no 3Ha'lajy W3BOPWWTa COJIW
Y OToMaHcKoM ,-\apcTBy - Xal,lw oeKTaIlI (Haji KOjW ce HaJIa3W
HellaJIeKO Oil rpalla Kajcepw (Adshead 1992). Jow jellaH eKCrrJIW,-\WTHW
npwMep je JepwxoH, HaJIa3WIlITe ca BWIlIe XWlballa lIyrwM KOHTwHywTeToM,
a Koje ce HaJIa3W y HenocpellHoj 6JIW3WHW MpTBor Mopa y Koje peKa JOPllaH
CBaKOIIHeBHO YJIWBa HOBe TOHe COJIW. OpOjHW JIOKaJIWTeTW y COlbY 60raTwM
perwoHwMa, Kao IlITO cy 1I0JIwHa peKe JOPllaH, CJIaHa nycTwlha AJIeno
W rrollHolKje 3arpoca, rrollPlKaBajy rrpeTrrOCTaBKY lIa je CO KopwIlIheHa
• •
y rrpwrrpeMalhy W KOH3epBal\wJw xpaHe W lKWBOTWlhCKOJ wcxpaHw W lIa
je 6wJIa Oil BeJIWKOr 3Ha'laja 3a w360p rrpe6WBaJIWIlITa Oil HajpaHwjwx
HeOJIWTCKWX lIaHa. rOTOBO lIa HeMa HW jellHor Hacelba paHor HeOJIWTa y
06JIaCTW ITJIOIlHOr rrOJIYMeCel\a WJIW y AHallOJIwjw lIa Hwje 6wJIO y Be3W ca
rroBpIlIwHCKOM COlbY WJIW CJIaHWM W3BopwMa.
*
KOMrrJIeKC paHor W cpeillher HeOJIWTa CTap'leBO-KepeIlI-KpwIlI
IlIWpWO ce Ha rOTOBO 500000 KBallpaTHwx KWJIOMeTapa. Y reorpacpcKoM
CMWCJIY CpellwIlIlha 06JIaCT OBor KYJITypHor KOMrrJIeKCa 6wo je l\eHTpaJIHW
OaJIKaH ca lIeceTwHaMa Hacelba Koja cy ce OBlle pa3BwjaJIa TOKOM xWlballY
rOllwHa. Kao IlITO je rrpwKa3aHo Ha KapTw, 06JIaCT l\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa
je w3Y3eTHo cwpoMawHa COlbY (CJIWKa 17). Marra pacrrpocTWpalha OBe
KyJIType OTKpWBa lIa cy rpaHw,-\e OBor KYJITypHor KOMnJIeKCa oMe!jeHe
60raTwM W3BOpwwTwMa COJIW. Ha WCTOKY cy 1I0JIWHe CwpeTa W ITpyTa W
TpaHCWJIBaHwja ca 6pOjHWM HaJIa3WWTWMa paHor W cpeillher HeOJIWTa.
OIlJIW'IHa WJIyCTpa'-\wja 3a 60raTcTBo TpaHCWJIBaHwje COlbY cy pe'lw jellHor
rrYTHwKa ca nO'leTKa XIX BeKa KOjW je W3BeCTWO lIa ce KaMeHa co jaBlba Ha

rroBpIlIwHW Ha MHorWM MeCTWMa W lIa "lIeBelleceT 'IyBapa HWJe 1I0BOlbHO
63
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
lIa 6M ce Crrpe'lMJIa OBor KpalbeBCKor BJIaCHMIlITBa" (Adshead
1992). 'leCT je M cJIy'laj lIa Kyne y TpaHCMJIBaHMjM MMajy rrollpYMe KOjM cy
YKorraHM IIMpeKTHo y co!
Y l.\eHTpy 06JIaCTM TaKO 60raTe COlbY CMelliTeHO je HaJIa3MIlITe
rypa BanyJIyj, Koje rrpellcTaBlba HajpaHMjM HeOJIMT y OBOj pemjM, ca
MHTeH3MBHOM rpH'IapCKOM rrpollyKI.\MjoM M 60raTMM KyJITypHMM CJIojeM,
ca YB03HMM CrrOHIIMJIYCOM, orrcMIIMjaHoM M orraJIOM (Lazarovici, Maxim
1995: 154, 156, 158). OBO HaJIa3MIlITe 3Ha'lajHo je M rro TOMe IlITO ce y
• •
apXe0300JIOlliKOM MaTepMJaJIY MO)!(e YTBPIIMTM 1I0MMHal.\MJa rOBe'leTa y
OIlHOCY Ha K03Y M OBl.\y, IlITO je HeO'leKMBaHO C 063MpOM Ha paHo lIaTOBalbe
rype BanyJIyj. lIlTo ce TM'Ie lIaTMpalba OBor HaJIa3MIlITa MMa M IIpyra'lMjMx
MMllilbelba, aJIM OHa He Melbajy 6MTHO lberOB KapaTKep (Thiessen 2000),
HMTM lberOB 3Ha'laj y paHoj rrOBeCTM CTap'leBO-KpMIlI KOMnJIeKca. C
063MPOM lIa je co 6MJIa TaKO JIaKO 1I0cTyrrHa, Moje je MMllilbelbe lIa 6M 6MJIO
rrorpelliHo MCKlbY'lMTM rrpoM3BoillbY COJIM Ha OBOM HaJIa3MwTY caMO Ha
OCHOBY M30CTaHKa 6pMKeTa)!(e. reHepaJIHO ce y JIMTepaTypM He IIOMMWlba
Ha MorynHocT eKCIIJIOaTaI.\Mje KaMeHe COJIM y PYIIHMI.\MMa. MrraK, 'IaK M lIa
je TaKBMX rrOKYIlIaja y OBOj 06JIaCTM 6MJIO, He 6MCMO 6MJIM Y MorynHocTM
lIa je rrOTBpllMMO IIOlliTO CO MMa OC06MHy "pereHepMcalba" OIlHOCHO
CTBapalba HOBMX KpMCTaJIa KOjM cKpMBajy 1I0Ka3e 0 paHOM pYllapCTBy. Y
CJIy'lajy lIa pailMOKap60H lIaTYMM IIOTBplle lIa ce y CJIy'lajy rype BanyJIyj
MrraK pallM 0 HajpaHMjoj ¢a3M HeOJIMTa l.\eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa, Momo 6M ce
• • •
ca JOlli BMIlIe aprYMeHaTa rrOTKperrMTM Te3a 0 1I0CelbeHMl.\MMa KOJM TparaJY
3a COlbY Kao CTpaTewKMM pecypcoM HeorrxOIIHMM 3a lIalbe HacelbaBalbe

OBe perMJe.
Ha ceBepy, HellaJIeKO Oil 0poIlIxa3e, 1I0JIMHa peKa TMce,
Mypewa M Kepellia rrocTojM "lIerrpecMja Koja je rrorrJIaBlbeHa TOKOM
jeceHM a y JIeTO je rroKpMBeHa 1 110 3 cm lIe6eJIMM CJIojeM KpMCTaJIM30BaHe
COJIM rrOMewaHe ca 6JIaTOM" (V. Chapman 1974: 31). OBa cMTyal.\Mja je
MlleaJIHa 3a eKCTpaKI.\Mjy COJIM KopMwnelbeM HeKe Oil TpallMI.\MOHaJIHMx
eBarrOpal.\MOHMX TeXHMKa MJIM Ben rrOMeHYTMX MeTolla ¢MJITpal.\Mje
Kao y cJIy'lajy paHMje rroMeHYTor KpalbeBCTBa Bylbopo. HailoMaK
Opowxa3e HaJIa3M ce HeOJIMTCKO Hacelbe CapBaw, Kao M amOMepal.\Mja
Oil BMwe Oil 'IeTplleCeT HeOJIMTCKMX JIOKaJIMTeTa. OBa 06JIaCT rrpellcTaBlba
ceBepoMcTo'lHY rpaHMI.\Y CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType rile ce OHa MeWaJIa ca
JIOKaJIHOM HeOJIMTCKOM Kepew KyJITypOM M ¢OpMMpaJIa CTap'leBO-Kepew

BapMJaHTY·
Ha 3arrallY, 60raTM PYIIHMI.\M KaMeHe COJIM rropell roplbe Ty3JIe
MapKMpajy rpaHMI.\Y CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType. JY)!(Ha rpaHMl.\a je
ca HeKOJIMKO TorrOHMMa Ty3M, TY3 M CJIaHMl.\e (S\lanice) y jyroMcTo'lHoj
64
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
l\pHOj [OpM, OIlHOCHO MCTOqHOj AJI6aHMjM, HO 3a Calla HeMa OTKpMBeHMx
HeOJIMTCKMX HaJIa3MIlITa aCOU;MpaHMx y3 OBe TorrOHMMe. .D:a JIM cy
CTapqeBaqKa (CTapqeBO-MMrrpeco) HaJIa3MIlITa yTOj perMjM MMaJIa HeKaKBe
• • •
Be3e ca rrpMMopCKMM rrOCTpOJeInMMa 3a KOJe ce 3Ha lIa cy rrocTOJaJIa rropell
BaJIOHe M .D:MpaxMjyMa (Adshead 1992) KacHMje TOKOM MCTopMje jOlli YBeK
• •
HMJe caCBMM pCHO.
'IMIneHMu;a je lIa ce rrpeMa aHaJIM3M apXeOJIOlliKOr MaTepMjaJIa,

KepaMMKa, oKpecaHM KaMeH, apxMTeKTypa, MO)!(e YTBPIIMTM rrocToJaIne
rrpaBMJIa lIa y perMoHMMa 60raTMM JIaKO 1I0cTyrrHoM COlbY 1I0JIa3M 110
MHTeH3MBHor rrpeKJIarraIna M MelliaIna KyJITypa rra TaKO MMaMO KyJITypHM
¢eHoMeH Ha3BaH CTapqeBo-Kepelli y 1I0JIMHaMa Kepellia M MopMIlIa,
perMOHaJIHY BapMjaHTy CTapqeBo-KpMIlI y TpaHCMJIBaHMjM M 1I0JIMHaMa
CMpeTa M ITpyTa M CTapqeBO-MMllpeco y AJI6aHMjM (KOJIIlI) M IIY)!( CPllCKO-
aJI6aHCKe rpaHMu;e. OBaKBa MeIlIaBl1Ha KyJITypa Moma 611 lIa cyrepl1IlIe
• •
lIa HI1Je 1l0CTOJao MOHOllOJI Hall 113BOpl1IlITl1Ma COJII1 y OBOM rrepl10llY Te
• • •
lIa 1l0CTOJl1 3aJellHl1qKl1 I1HTepeC 3a OBY CTpaTewKY HaMl1pHI1U;y KOJI1
je cpolIHe, aJIM 1I0HeKJIe pa3JIMql1Te KyJIType CTOrrl10 y jellHy rroce6Hy
Bapl1jaHTY. ITOCTOjM 11 I1HTepeCaHTHa eTHorpa¢cKa 6eJIelliKa Oil JI ITa)!(
II ITpau;a (Le Page du Pratz) 113 1758. rOlll1He Koja llpeTxollHO 113HeTOj

XI1110Te311 lIaJe 113BecHY Te)!(I1HY:
MHoujaHLlu oOlla3e U3 BeOMa yoalbeHux 06llacmu Ha OBO Mecmo
(Great Salt Spring) oa mOKOM 3UMe llOBe U npaBe co. IIpe HO Ulmo
cy cJ)paHLlY3U OCBOjUllU OBY 06llacm U oOHellU 6aKapHO nocylje,
MHoujaHLlu cy Ha llULlY Mecma npaBUllU 3eMlbaHO nocylje HeonxooHO
3a OBY aKLlujy: nomOM cy ce BpanallU Kynu ca mOBapOM COllU U
KOH3epBupaHUM MeCOM (U;MTl1paHO rrpeMa Adshead 1992).
TpeHyTHo 113mella CaCBI1M jacHo lIa cy HeOJIMTCKe 3ajellHMu;e y COlbY
6oraTl1M 06JIaCTl1Ma EaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIyoCTpBa, Kao IlITO je TO CJIyqaj ca
HaJIa3MIlITl1Ma y [ypa EanyJIyj, [opInoj Ty3JIM 11 CapBaIlIY 6MJIe MMynHl1je
Oil OCTaJII1X I1CTOBpeMeHI1X 3ajeIlHI1u;a. 06l1lbe rpHqapMje (Koja MO)!(e 6MTl1
11 lIeo rroCTpojeIna 3a eBarrOpaU;l1jy), JIYKcY3Ha p06a 11 pacKolli TeXHI1Ka
YKpalliaBaIna 11 pa3HoBpcHOCT MOTI1Ba cy OHO IlITO I1CTpa)!(MBaql1Ma
0IlMax rralla y OqM .
.D:aTOBaIne apXeOJIOlliKOr MaTepMjaJIa 113 [opIne TY3JIe, Koja je
yjellHO 11 Haj3allallHl1ja TaqKa CTapqeBaqKe KyllType, Moma 611, MO)!(lIa,
• •
lIa HaM 1l0MorHe lIa CXBaTI1MO JellHY CTpaHy CTpaTerl1Je HaCelbaBaIna y
OBOM perl10Hy. HajpaHl1ja ¢a3a [opIne Ty3JIe Vlb rrpl111alla CpellIneM
HeOJII1TY u;eHTpaJIHOr EaJIKaHa (OIlHOCHO ¢a311 MNCB II 110 N.N.
Tasic 1997. I1JII1 Tpalll1U;110HaJIHo CTapqeBO IIb rro D. Arandelovic-
Garasanin 1954). CJII1KaHa lIeKOpaU;l1ja yKa3yje Ha 6JIl1CKe Be3e ca
65
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
jyroM u;eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa. 0pHaMeHTaJIHW CWCTeM cal1P)!(W CJIWKaHe
• •
U;WK-u;aK JIWHW)e W OCTaJIW rrpaBOJIWHW)CKW perrepToap rl1e ce rrOHeKal1
• • •
)aBlba)y TpoyrJIOBW, TaHKe BepTWKaJIHe JIWHW)e ca Mpe)!(OM rrOCTaBlbeHOM
wcrrOI1 06011a, Kao W BWCOK rrpou;eHaT CJIWKaHe KepaMWKe, Hey06wqajeH
3a HaJIa3WllITa y OBOj 06JIaCTW (roToBo 20%). lIlTo ce TWqe pa3BwjeHe
CJIWKapCKe TeXHWKe W KOM6wHau;wje pa3JIWqWTWX TeXHWKa YKpalliaBalha
rpy60r rrocylja, aHaJIOTwje 3a oBaj XOPW30HT MOTJIW 6WCMO rrpoHanw Ha
PYI1HWKY y MeTOxwjw W y AH3a6eroBY II, a HapOqWTO Kal1a je y rrwTalhY
Kopwilinelhe TeXHWKe "apKal1HOr 6ap60TwHa". OBa CJIWqHOCT cyrepwilie
l1a je HajBepoBaTHwje y TO BpeMe 11011IJIO 110 jel1HOr 6p30r rrOKpeTa Kal1a je
foplha Ty3JIa YCTaHOBlbeHa Kao CTaHwu;a CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType Ol1aKJIe ce
OBa KyJITypa llIWpWJIa l1albe Ka ceBepy, aJIW W rrOBpaTHO npeMa IlIyMal1wjw.
ITpeMa pacrrOJIO)!(WBWM C14 l1aTYMwMa W3 OBe 06JIaCTW HenOCpel1HO
rrOCJIe rrpBe <pa3e HacelbaBalha Ha fOplhOj Ty3JIw, TOKOM cpel1lher HeOJIWTa
u;eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa 11011IJIO je 110 rycTor HacelbaBalha u;eHTpaJIHOr
BaJIKaHa llITO ce MO)!(l1a MO)!(e 06jacHwTw oTKpwneM HOBor W3BopwlliTa
COJIW W CTwu;alheM YCJIOBa 3a l1albe HacelbaBafbe.
YBoljefbeM COJIW y apXeOJIOlliKY wHTeprrpeTau;wjy, Kao jel1He 011
HaMwpHwu;a qwja je Ha6aBKa HeOrrXOI1Ha y pel10BHWM W rrpel1BWl1lbWBWM
WHTepBaJIWMa, 1106wjaMo eJIeMeHT HeOrrXOl1aH rrpw 06jallIfbaBafbY

qWfbeHWu;e l1a rrOCTO)W rrOI1Yl1apaH W CWHXPOHW30BaH pWTaM rrpOMeHa y
MaTepwjaJIHoj KyJITypW CTapqeBo-KepellI-Kpwlli KOMrrJIeKCa Ha orpOMHOM
rrpoCTopy 011 jyroWCTOqHe AJI6aHwje 110 ceBepOWCTOqHe PyMyHwje.
CJIel1enw KopaK je rrpanelhe KOMyHwKau;wja W rrYTeBa pa3MeHe KaKO 6w
ce YCTaHOBWJIO l1a JIW je KOHTpOJIa Hal1 CJIaHWM W3BopWMa MOTJIa 6WTW
eJIeMeHT KOjW je 110Beo 110 cou;wjaJIHe CTpaTw<pwKau;wje. HWKaKO MW Hwje
HaMepa l1a TBPI1WM l1a je co 6wJIa jel1WHW rroTwu;aj Mwrpau;wja WJIW jel1WHW
W3BOP aKyMyJIau;wje W 60raTCTBa y HeOJIWTCKWM 3ajeI1HWu;aMa, aJIW CBaKaKO
rrpel1JIa)!(eM l1a 6w Tpe6aJIo l1a ce Y3WMa BpJIO 036wlbHO y pa3MaTpafbe Kal1a
• •
ce pacrrpaBlbaJY rrWTafba HeOJIWTa W HeOJIWTW3aU;W)e.
JyroWCTOqHa EBporra je 60raTa pa3HOBpCHWM MWHepaJIHWM
CwpoBwHaMa. Marra, Koja je pe3YJITaT l1eTalbHOr WCTpa)!(WBalha I,I.
'-IerrMeHa (Chapman 1981) 0 6aJIKaHCKWM HeOJIWTCKWM KYJITypaMa W
W3BopwMa CwpoBwHa, rroKa3yje MOTyne TprOBaqKe rrYTeBe MaTepwjaJIa
KOjW ce rrojaBlbyjy y apXeOJIOlliKoj 110KYMeHTau;wjw (CJIWKa 16). Ha fbOj je

rrpwKa3aH reHepaJIHW TpeHI1 npOMeTa CwpoBwHa W JIYKCY3HWX MaTepW)aJIa
Ha TepwTopwjw u;eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa. HapaBHo, pal1w ce 0 CwpoBwHaMa W
MaTepwjaJIy KOjW je 3a6eJIe)!(eH TOKOM apXeOJIOllIKWX WCTpa)!(WBafba. To cy
pa3He BpCTe KaMeHa Kao llITO je orrCWl1wjaH, BYJIKaHCKO CTaKJIO Koje je, 360r
CBOjWX W3BaHpel1HWX KapaKTepWCTWKa aJIW W JIenOTe, 6WJIO Ha W3Y3eTHoj
66
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
l\eHI1 TOKOM Beher lIena rrpal1CTOpl1je, 3aTI1M IIpyre BpCTe KBanl1TeTHI1X
Cl1pOBI1Ha rrorollHl1x 3a 113pailY anaTKI1 11 yKpaca (ana6aCTep, MepMep,
KpeMeH, rpaHI1T, ropCKI1 Kpl1CTan, 6a3anT). OCI1M OBI1X MaTepl1jana y
• •
pa3MeHI1 y'lecTBy)y y 3HaTHO) Mepl1 11 IIIKOlbKe crroHlIl1nyc 11 rnl1l\eMepl1C,
3aTI1M lIeHTanl1jYM (11 <pOCl1nHI1 11 pel\eHTHI1), a BepOBaTHO 11 KOCT 11
pmKI1Ha III1Blbl1X )!(I1BOTl1lba. TI1Me ce CBaKaKO He I1Cl\prrlbyje nl1CTa
Moryhl1x apTI1Kana pa3MeHe, Beh Mel')y lbl1X Balba yKlby'll1TI1 11 OHe Koje
HI1CY OCTaBl1nl1 Tpara y KynTypHI1M cnojeBI1Ma. Pa3nl1'111Te BpCTe IIpBeTa,
rrp0l13BOlll1 Oil KO)!(e 11 TeKCTl1na, pa3nl1'111Te CMone, BocaK, Mell, cYllieHe
rre'lypKe 11 Meco MOrnl1 cy 611TI1 y Kpyry pa3MeHe. Mel')y OBe Cl1pOBI1He
11 HaMl1pHl1l\e CBaKaKO Balba yKlby'll1TI1 11 co Koja je, 6Yllyhl1 lIa je Oil
• •
BI1TanHOr 3Ha'la)a 3a rrpe)!(I1BlbaBalbe cellena'lKI1X 3a)ellHl1l\a 11 lbl1XOBI1X
CTalla, Mopana I1MaTI1 11 rroce6HY BpeIlHOCT.
l1aKo pel\l1rrpOl\l1TeT He rrpellCTaBlba YBeK ol\foBapajyhy
lIe<PI1Hl1l\l1jy 3a MOllanl1TeT TproBI1He 11 pa3MeHe, TaKol')e He MO)!(eMO
rrpl1XBaTI1TI1 06pa3nO)!(elbe lIa je KOHTI1HYl1paHo cHa611eBalbe COlbY
611no pe3ynTaT caMO pl1TyanHe pa3MeHe KaKO ce y HeKI1M cny'lajeBI1Ma
rrpellna)!(e (Nenquin 1961; Adshead 1992). TPOlliKOBI1 1I06aBlbalba 11
TpaHcrropTa MOpanl1 cy 6e3 cyMlbe 611TI1 KOMrreH30BaHI1 Ha HeKI1 Ha'lI1H.
To Hac CYO'laBa ca rrl1TalbeM: IIITa je Morao 611TI1 apTI1Kan 3a pa3MeHY?
Ko)!(e, KepaMI1Ka, 3aHaTCKO YMehe, pallHa CHara, 6pa'lHI1 rrapTHepl1 I1nl1
HeKI1 IIpyrl1 MaTepl1jan KOjl1 Hl1je olloneo 3y6y BpeMeHa - MO)!(eMO caMO
lIa Haral')aMo. '-II1HI1 ce lIa 611 jelll1HI1 MaTepl1janl1 KOjl1 611 Kao CpellCTBa
pa3MeHe MOrnl1 lIa rroTI1'1Y ca l.\eHTpanHor oanKaHa, a lIa KacHl1je 6YllY
apxeOnOIIIKI1 rroTBpl')eHI1 611nl1: MepMep, ana6aCTep I1nl1 MO)!(lIa rOpCKI1
Kpl1CTan. 3a rroTpe6e OBor palla Kao 11 y 1\I1lbY pa3YMeBalba Xl1rrOTeTl1'1KOr
MOllena MeXaHI13Ma pa3MeHe COlbY crroMeHyheMo orrcl1l1l1jaH 11 CrrOHlIl1nyc,
• •
KO)11 rOBope y rrpl1nor rrOCTO)alba pa3MeHe Ha Benl1Ke YllalbeHocTI1
(Dimitrijevic, Tripkovic 2003: 47-62). OBI1 MaTepl1janl1 HI1CY, HapaBHo,
jelll1HI1 TprOBI1HCKI1 apTI1Knl1 Tor BpeMeHa, anl1 OHI1 I1Majy rroce6aH
3Ha'laj 3a HeOnl1TCKe 3ajellHl1l\e. <t>yHKl\l1ja orrcl1l1l1jaHa je YTl1nl1TapHa
1I0K crroHlIl1nyc cnY)!(11 Y lIeKOpaTI1BHe cBpxe, a OHO IIITO I1X '1I1HI1
3Ha'lajHl1jl1M Oil IIpyrl1x MaTepl1jana je MoryhHocT nOl\l1palba lbl1XOBOr
rropeKna rrYTeM <p11311'1Ko-xeMl1jcKl1x aHanl13a. ITopell crroHlIl1nyca 11
OrrCl1l1l1jaHa, 0 MoryhHocTI1 pa3MeHe HeKI1X IIpyrl1x Cl1pOBI1Ha, rrorrYT
He<pPI1Ta, rpaHI1Ta I1nl1 ceprreHTI1HI1Ta, IIl1cKyTyje ce y rrocneillbe BpeMe
(Bogosav!jevic-PetroviC 2004). CTpy'llba'-\l1 TaKol')e 06pahajy rra)!(lbY Ha
anaTKe Oil rna'laHOr KaMeHa 6e3 TparoBa yrroTpe6e Koje 611 rrOTBplll1ne,
611no rrocTojalbe crre,-\l1janl130BaHl1x paIl110HI1,-\a, 611no rrp0l13BOile
HaMelbeHe TprOBI1HI1. Y CBOM pallY y KOM rra)!(lbl1BO aHanl1311pa KOHTeKCTe
67
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
HaJIa3a OrrCHI1HjaHa Ha l1eHTaJIHOM BaJIKaHY, B. TpHrrKoBHn (2001) je
CKJIOH BHl)eIDY OrrCHI1HjaHa He HCKlbyqHBO Kao 06jeKTa rrpeCTH)I(a, Ben H
apTHKJIa rrOrOI1HOr 3a TproBHHy 3axBalbyjynH H3aHpel1HHM <j>H3HqKHM
CBojcTBHMa. 11rraK, y 06JIaCTHMa cycel1HHM CTapqeBaqKoj rrocTojH BPJIO
MaJIH 6poj HaJIa3HIIITa OrrCHI1HjaHa. OHaj y KaprraTHMa je HajBepOBaTHHje
H3BopHIIITe OrrCHI1HjaHa OTKpHBeHor Ha l1eHTpaJIHOM BaJIKaHY, HaKO He
6H Tpe6aJIo 3aHeMapHBaTH HH erejcKa HaJIa3HIIITa. Ha CTapqeBaqKHM
JIOKaJIHTeTHMa, OrrCHI1HjaH ce HaJIa3H y CBHM <j>a3aMa, aJIH y BeOMa
OrpaHHqeHHM KOJI WlH HaMa y rropel)eIDY ca HCToBpeMeHHM HaJIa3HIIITHMa
y ErejH HJIH AHaI10JIHjH. 113Y3e11H cy HaJIa3HIIITa JIHBal1e-KaJIeHHn,
l1eHTpaJIHa Cp6Hja (6,45%) H fOJIOKYT-BH3Hn, BojBOI1HHa (18,51%), 110K
yKynHa 3acTynlbeHocT Ha OCTaJIHM HaJIa3HIIITHMa BapHpa H3Mel)y 0,08% H
2,22% (Saric 1999; TpHnKoBHn 2001). OBaKo HH3aK HHBO 3aCTynlbeHocTH
MO)l(e ce rrpOTYMaqHTH HJIH 3al10BOlbaBajynHM KBaJIHTeTOM JIOKaJIHHX

CHpOBHHa 3a OKpecaHY HHI1YCTPHJY HJIH 0I1CYCTBOM pel10BHe pa3MeHe
OnCHI1HjaHa ca 06JIaCTHMa l1eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa.
ApTe<j>aKTH 011 CrrOHI1HJIyca HaM OBl1e Mory nOMonH Ha HHI1HpeKTaH
HaqHH. OBH l1eKopaTHBHH npel1MeTH HaJIa)l(eHH cyy jyroHCTOqHoj EBporrH
jOlli 011 nOqeTKa CTapqeBaqKe KyllType. AHaJIH3e CTPOHI1HjYMOBHM
H30TonOM cy nOKa3aJIe l1a IIIKOlbKe nOTHqy ca 06aJIa Jal1paHCKOr H ErejcKor
Mopa. I10CTaJIe cy, HHaqe, BpJIO rrorrYJIapHe KpajeM VI MHJIeHHjYMa ca
noqeTKOM BHHqaHCKe KyJIType (Muller 1997). 113 BpeMeHa rrOqeTKa
HeOJIHTH3al1Hje jyroHCTOqHe EBporre rrocTojH BPJIO MaJIO HaJIa3a OBor
THna H TO H3 AH3a6erOBa y Perry6JIHl1H MaKel10HHjH H fypa BanyJIyj y
PyMyHHjH (Dimitrijevic, Tripkovic 2006). OBl1e je 6HTHO HanoMeHYTH
l1a 06a HaJIa3HIIITa rrpel1CTaBlbajy HHHI1HjaJIHy <j>a3y HeOJIHTa H l1a ce
HaJIa3e y perHoHHMa 60raTHM COlby. I10jaBa JIYKCY3HHX rrpel1MeTa norrYT
CrrOHI1HJIyca OBaKO l1aJIeKO Ha ceBepy rroTBpl)yje TprOBaqKe Be3e ca ErejoM.
TprOBaqKH nYTeBH OBor MaTepHjaJIa 6H Mome 6HTH 110JIHHe peKa CTpYMe,
Bapl1apa, MopaBe H LlYHaBa y rrpaBI1Y ceBepa.
HaJIa3H rOBope l1a cy OnCHI1HjaH H CrrOHI1HJIYC 110rrpeMaHH Ha
l1eHTpaJIHH BaJIKaH H3 pa3JIHqHTHX rrpaBal1a. Mal)apcKH OnCHI1HjaH H
erejcKH CnOHI1Hrryc rroTBpl)yjy l1a je TproBHHa nocTOjaJIa 011 caMor rroqeTKa
HeOJIHTa jyroHCTOqHe EBpone. TaKol)e HaM Mory paCBeTJIHTH H npHpOI1Y
caMe TprOBHHe H eKOHOMCKor CTalDa CTaHOBHHKa QeHTpaJIH06aJIKaHCKOr
perwoHa. MaJIH 6poj HaJIa3a OBor THna ca HaJIa3HIIITa Ha QeHTpaJIHOM
BaJIKaHY yrrynyje Ha TO l1a HeOJIHTCKO CTaHOBHHIIITBO nOI1Pyqja 6e3 COJIH
HHje Momo l1a npHylliTH jOlli jel1Hy er30THqHY CHPOBHHY y CBOM ,,6yl,leTY".
YBol)eIDeM COJIH y pacnpaBy 0 HeOJIHTY BaJIKaHa 110JIa3HMO 110
HOBor 3HaqajHor eJIeMeHTa KOjH yqeCTByje y pa3MeHH. fOpIDH npHMepH
68
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
rrpel1CTaBlbajy TeK rrOqeTHY <jJa3Y y rrpoyqaBalbY TprOBHHe COlbY Y HeOJIHTY
jyroHCTOqHe EBpOrre. Pa3MeHa CHpOBHHa H rrOJIy<jJa6pHKaTa 3a CO je
• •
)OW YBeK XHrrOTe3a, a 3a rrOCTaBlbalbe BaJIHI1HHX 3aKlbyqaKa He110CTa)e
HCTpalKHBalbe Koje 6H YKlbyqHJIO MHHepaJIOWKe aHaJIH3e CHpOBHHa H
lbHXOBHX HaJIa3HWTa, MarrHpalbe H, HapaBHO, KPHTHqKO Camel1aBalbe
110 calla rr03HaTor apXeOJIOWKOr MaTepHjaJIa. Y cKopHje BpeMe jaBlba
ce HHTepec 3a HCTpalKHBalbe YJIore COJIH y HeOJIHTCKHM I1PywTBHMa
(Chapman et al. 2001; HHKOJIOB 2008), rra OBO rromaBlbe Tpe6a mel1aTH
Kao rroKywaj l1a ce Ol1pel1H CMep 6Yl1ylier HCTpalKHBalba H l1a rrpHByqe
rralKlbY Ka OBOM BHI1Y MeljyKymypHe H MeljyperHOHaJIHe KOMYHHKal\Hje y
OKBHPY 6aJIKaHCKOr HeOJIHTa.
69
nelIO ClIMKaHM yKpac Ha HeolIMTcKoj rpHqapMjM
PeTKO Koja TeXHI1Ka YKpawaBalba rpw!apl1je, KOjy Mo)!(eMO CpeCTI1
y npal1cTopl1jl1 jyrol1cTo'lHe EBpone 0lll1we TaKBOM elIeraHU;l1joM,
npeU;113Howhy 11 npe¢l1lbeHowhy Kao WTO je TO clIy'laj ca 6elII1M
ClIl1KalbeM Ha KepaMI1U;11 paHor HeOlII1Ta. OBaKO YKpaweHe nocYlle,
OTKpl1BaHe WI1POM OBor npocTopa, ynopello ca MOHOXPOMHI1M,
npellcTaBHI1U;11 cy HajpaHl1je rpH'IapCKe npollyKU;l1je. M nopell Tora,

OHe peTKO Kalla ollaJY YTl1caK eKCnepl1MeHTa 111I11 Hal1BHe YMeTHocTI1.
HanpOTI1B, IbI1XOBI1 311110BI1 Oil CBera nap Ml1lIl1MeTapa lIe6lbl1He 11

OlllIl1'1HO OCMI1WlbeH yKpac cyrepl1wy IIY)!(y Tpalll1U;I1JY OBor 3aHaTa.
MaKo 3HaTHO pel)e, OBaKO YKpaweHa KepaMI1Ka jaBlba ce 11 y CTap'leBa'lKoj
KylITyPI1 u;eHTpalIHor EalIKaHa. MHora nl1Talba cy nOCTaBlbaHa y Be311 ca
OBOM opHaMeHTalIHoM TeXHI1KOM: lIa 1I11 je TO CTl1lICKa MaHI1¢ecTaU;l1ja
Koja je 06elIe)!(l1lIa nO'leTaK HeOlIl1TCKor pa3Boja jyrol1cTo'lHe EBpone
111I11 lIa 1I11 je nOCTojalIa npeTxollHa MOHoxpoMHa ¢a3a? L\a 1I11 ce 6elIO
• •
ClIl1KaHI1 opHaMeHT nOJaBlbYJe caMO 11301I0BaHO 111I11 y I1CTOM KOHTeKcTY
ca OCTalIl1M lIeKOpaTI1BHI1M TeXHI1KaMa ¢I1Hor nocyl)a? L\a 1I11 je 6elIO
ClIl1Kalbe XPOHOlIOWKI1 OCeTlbI1Bo? OBa nl1Talba cy, Kao WTO heMO
Bl1l1eTl1, Oil BelIl1KOr 3Ha'laja 3a pa3pewelbe MHOrl1X 611THI1X 3arOHeTKI1 y
npoy'laBalby HeOlIl1TCKOr nepl10lla jyrol1cTo'lHe EBpone, nonYT nl1Talba
• •
HeOlI11T113aU;I1Je 111I11 ollHoca HeOlIl1TCKI1X 11 Me301II1TCKI1X nonYlIaU;I1Ja,
alIl1 11 npoCTopHor pacnopella npBI1X ¢apMepa 11 CTO'lapa. TIojaBa 6elIO
ClIl1KaHOr opHaMeHTa YHelIa je MHore np061IeMe y Hanope lIa ce CTBOPI1
nOY311aHa 11 cBe06yxBaTHa nepl1011113aU;l1ja CTap'leBa'lKe KylIType I1I1Pyrl1x
HeOlIl1TCKI1X KylITypa EalIKaHcKor nOlIYOCTpBa.
Ha)!(alIOCT, 3a OllroBope Ha rope nOCTaBlbeHa nl1Talba 1I0cTynHI1 cy
HaM caMO peTKI1 TparOBI1, CBI1 pa36au;aHI1 Ha nap lIeCeTI1Ha ¢parMeHaTa ca
6elIO ClIl1KaHI1M MOTI1BI1Ma y OKBI1PY CTap'leBa'lKe KylIType 11 nap CTOTI1Ha
Ha HalIa311WTI1Ma jyrol1cTo'lHe EBpone: Oil JaHI1u;e 11 Hea HI1KoMelll1je Ha
71
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
jyry ,[10 )J;Olbe BpalbeBMHe M CapBallIa Ha ceBepy, M 0,[1 KaprraTa Ha MCTOKY
,[10 I10,[lrOpM Ha 3arra,[ly. I1oKYllIaheMO ,[Ia YCTaHOBMMO 06pa3al\ CTMJICKOM
aHaJIM30M ca,[lp)!(aja yKpaca CJIMKaHOr Ha KepaMMl\M KaKO 6M pa3YMeJIM
lberOB CMCTeM M OCHOBHe TpeH,[IOBe. KaKo he ce McrrOCTaBMTM, OBO he 6MTM

M BeOMa 3Ha'la)HO y TparalbY 3a KopeHMMa paHOHeOJIMTCKMM KYJITypaMa
BaJIKaHa.
'IMlbeHMl\a Koja HallIY rroTpary 3a 06paCl\eM M MoryhMM
3Ha'ielbeM YKpallIaBalba rrocY,[la 'IMHM jOllI Te)!(OM je HeMoryhHocT ,[la,
'IaK M M3,[1aJIeKa, HaCJIYTMMO 6MJIO KOjM rrO,[laTaK KOjM 6M pa3jacHMo
rrMTalbe eTHM'IKe rrpMrra,[lHOCTM HOCMJIal\a paHOHeOJIMTCKMX KyJITypa
jyroMcTo'lHe EBporre. I1ope,[l OBor OrpaHM'Ielba TaKol)e HaM He,[lOCTajy
• •
MHorM rrO,[lal\M 0 ,[IpYllITBeHOM yCTPO)CTBy lbMXOBMX 3a)e,[lHMl\a, TaKO ,[Ia
je TellIKO M 3aMMCJIMTl1 ,[Ia 6l1JIO Koje 06jallIlbelbe cl1M60JIa MO)!(e 6l1Tl1
,[IaTO 6e3 orraCHOCTI1 ,[Ia ce Hal)eMo y ,[IOMeHY Tpa,[lI1l\110HaJIHOr (11 'IeCTO
rrpl1MaMlbl1Bor) rroje,[lHOCTaBlbl1Balba Tl1rra Eozufba-3eMlba, BelluKa
MajKa, I1JII1 IIpeoa'iKu Kyllm. Ha pacrrOJIaralbY HaM je, ,[IaKJIe, caMO ,[leo
MaTepl1jaJIHe KyJIType paHMX 3eMlbOpa,[lHI1Ka 11 ¢apMepa jyrOI1CTO'lHe
EBporre KOjl1 je O,[lOJIeo 3y6y BpeMeHa 11 I1rraK rrOCTaO ,[leo apXeOJIOllIKOr
3arrl1Ca. Pa,[lM ce 0 HaJIa3l1Ma KepaMI1Ke, rrpe,[lMeTa 0,[1 KOCTI1 11 pora, 0

I1H,[IYCTpl1)M KaMeHa, apxMTeKTypl1, MaTpl1l\11 HacelbaBalba 11 peTKI1M
rp060BI1Ma. l1aKo OrpaHl1'1eHI1 He3HalbeM, 113TJIe,[la ,[Ia je I1rraK Moryhe

,[IO,[laTI1 KO)e 3pHO 11 rrOHY,[lI1TI1 O,[lTOBOP Ha rrl1Talbe 0 KapaKTepy
• •
YKpallIaBalba rpH'Iapl1)e - )ecy JIM OBe rrocY,[le caMO YKpallIeHe I1JII1 OHe
rrpeHoce YKpallIeHY rropyKy. Y CI1Tyal\Mjl1 ca rroCTojehMM OrpaHM'Ielbl1Ma
'II1HI1 ce ,[Ia 611 3aKlbY'laK OBor Tl1rra 6MO ,[IOBOlbaH,[Ia HarrpaBMMO jOllI je,[laH
KopaK Ka pa3YMeBalbY Ha'lMHa pa3Ml1llIlbalba OBI1X ,[IaBHMX rrpl1MelbeHMX
YMeTHMKa.
I1rraK, KaKO 6M CMO rrOCTMTJII1 oBaj l\l1lb, MopaMO Hajrrpe rrperr03HaTM
Koje 0,[1 CTI1JICKI1X rrojaBa Mory yorrllITe 6l1Tl1 rropel)eHe, O,[lHOCHO, MopaMO

ycrroCTaBI1TI1 lbl1XOBY rrpel\113Hy XPOHOJIOllIKY rr0311l\I1)y 11 O,[lHOC KaKO
6l1CMO MX rrperr03HaJIl1 Kao CI1CTeM 11 eBeHTyaJIHO pa3YMeJIl1 lbl1XOBY
TpaHC¢OpMal\l1jy. aBa TeXHI1Ka Hl1je MHoro pa3JIM'IMTa 0,[1 KllaCU'iHOZ
CTI1JICKO-Tl1rrOJIOllIKor MeTO,[la, aJIM heMo I1MaTM Ha yMy XO,[lepOBO
yrr030pelbe ,[Ia je "munollozuja OKOCHUl{a pa360ja KOHmeKcmyallHoz
npucmyna y apxeollozuju Kao 11 ,[Ia HI1 y KOM CJIy'lajy He HeCTaje nompe6a
oa ce KllacugJUKyje U KamezopuUle" (Hodder 1991: 136).
72
H eOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyr a
I I
H
H
~
,
CJn1Ka 18 - Ta6ena pa,o:J1oKap6oH AaTYMa 3a Y30pKe ca Hana31111ITa ca 6eJn1M CJn1KatbeM
73
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
XpOHOJIOrHja H IIepH0,I1H3aI:(Hja
KaKO neMO BH,I1eTl!( ,I1albe Y TeKCTY, opHaMeHTaJIHa TeXHHKa H3Be,I1eHa
CJIHKalDeM 6eJIOM 60jOM IIO TaMHHjoj OCHOBH IIOCY,I1e Be3aHa je 3a roTOBO

l.\eo pa3BO) CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType y umpeM CMHCJIY pe'lH, O,I1HOCHO 3a
KOMIIJIeKC CTap'leBO - AH3a6erOBO - WBPP (3aIIa,I1Ho6yrapcKa CJIHKaHa
KepaMHKa). 22 Y1naK, y paHHjHM nepH0,I1H3al.\HjaMa YBeK joj je ,I1aBaHa
--
I .. rllJ!'dI1i NJI ..
• 6p .... altl'

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rip; f). K)'Ca ruJl • '. -
., hJl
-
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CmlKa 19 - KapTa Hana3HWTa ca 6eno Cll ltI KaHHM yKpacoM paHor HeOmlTa

,
-'
-
caCBHM O,I1pel)eHa n03Hl.\Hja y pa3Bojy CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType. TaKo ce Ha
npHMep npeMa nepH0,I1H3al.\HjH B. MHJIoj'lHna 6eJIo CJIHKalDe nojaBlbyje
y q,a3H CTap'leBO II, 3aje,I1HO ca CBHM THnOBHMa rpy60r nocyl)a, l.\pBeHOr
MOHOxpOMHor nocyl)a H MpKO CJIHKaHor npaBOJIHHHjcKor opHaMeHTa. ):(.
rapawaHHH (Arandelovic-Garasanin 1954) naK, CTaBlba 6eJIo CJIHKaHH
opHaMeHT HCKlbY'lHBO y q,a3Y CTap'leBO IIa, TaKol)e KapaKTepHCTH'lHY no
ynoTpe6H TaMHHX 60ja Ha l.\pBeHoj n0,I1JI03H, 6HKOHH'lHHM npoq,HJIHMa
H o6e BpCTe MOTHBa, npaBOJIHHHjcKHM H KPHBOJIHHHjCKHM. EeJIo
CJIHKalDe ca MpelKacTHM MOTHBHMa H TpoymoBHMa je THnH'lHO 3a q,a3y
22 W(est) B(ulgarian) P(ainted) P(ottery)
74
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
I1poToCTapqeBO II Y XpOHOnOIliKOM CHCTeMY ,1J;. CpejoBHha. I1peMa OBOj
nepHOp;H3alV1jH, OBO je BpeMe Kap;a ce no npBH nYT nojaBlbyje 6ap60THH
p;eKOpal.\Hja H YTHCHYT MOTHB 3pHa nllIeHHl.\e (Srejovic 1971). CTapqeBO -
JIHHeapHa A <\.>a3a je npeMa C. ,1J;HMHTpHjeBHhy nepHop; CnHKalha 6enHM
• •
KanlbHqaCTHM opHaMeHToM, a KapaKTepHllIe Je H p;OMHHaI.\HJa nceyp;o-
HMnpeco p;eKOpal.\Hje (DimitrijeviC 1974: 83). M. fapallIaHHH y CBOM
xpOHonOIliKOM CHCTeMY CTaBlba 6eno cnHKaHH opHaMeHT y <\.>a3Y CTapqeBO
IIa (fapallIaHHH 1972; Garasanin 1979: 118-120), a npeMa r. JIa3apoBHhHjy
CTapqeBo-KpHIlI Ib je <\.>a3a 6eno cnHKaHor opHaMeHTa (Lazarovici 1979:
43).
3ajep;HHqKa TaqKa CBHX rope nOMeHYTHx CHCTeMa je nojaBa 6enor
CnHKalha y OKBHPY jep;He <\.>a3e CTapqeBaqKe KYITType H nOCTojafue
MOHoxpoMHe <\.>a3e Koja joj npeTXop;H. MeI)YTHM, BehHHa aYTOpa pa3nHKyje
6eno cnHKafue no KBanHTeTY 6ene 60je, na no jep;HHMa (Hnp. Srejovic
1971) paHHjy nojaBY npep;CTaBlba 6eno cnHKafue ca nOpl.\enaHCKHM cjajeM,
a KacHHjy 6ena 60ja Koja ce Ibycna H oTHpe. OBa npeTllOCTaBKa he TaKol)e
6HTH npeHCnHTaHa Kp03 aHanH3Y cap;plKaja 6eno cnHKaHor opHaMeHTa.
HelliTO p;albe y OBOj KfuH3H (p;eTalbHHje Ha CTp. 113-116) npep;nolKeH
• •• •
Je xpoHonolliKH CHCTeM KOJH pa3nHKYJe p;Ba rnaBHa nepHop;a y pa3BOJY
CTapqeBaqKe KynType l.\eHTpanHor EanKaHa: <\.>a3a paHor HeOnHTa H <\.>a3a
cpep;fuer HeonHTa (ENCB H MNCB p;albe y TeKCTY). cfla3a cpep;fuer HeOnHTa
je nop;elbeHa y TpH nop;-<\.>a3e (I-III) ca p;albOM nop;enOM 3aBpllIHe <\.>a3e
KyITType Ha MNCB IIIa H IIIb (N.N. Tasic 1997: 43-44; 1998). Kao IlITO
he TO 6HTH cnyqaj y KOHCTpYHcafuY nepHOp;H3aI.\HOHOr CHCTeMa H OBp;e

Je I..\HIb p;a HCKOPHCTHMO npep;HOCTH MeTop;a p;aTOBafua pap;HoaKTHBHHM
yrlbeHHKOM H oTKpHjeMo HCTOBpeMeHe 6eno cnHKaHe yKpace. Y OBOM
cnyqajy heMO fueroBY npel.\H3HOCT H anconYTHe p;aTYMe ynoTpe6HTH Kao

cpep;CTBO npHnHKOM ycnoCTaBlbafua penaTHBHo-xpOHonOIliKe cepHJe.
*
Mel)y BHllIe op; 150 perHCTpoBaHHx H npeKo 80 HCTpalKHBaHHx
Hana3HIlITa, caMO Ha TepHTopHjH l.\eHTpanHor EanKaHa OBa BpcTa
p;eKOpal.\Hje nojaBlbyje ce caMO Ha 11 Hana3HIlITa. To cy:23
• AjMaHa - Mana Bp6Hl.\a
• EHcepHa 06ana - Hoca
• Epp;o - KycoBal..\
• Eyl,laK - JIYP;OIlI
• ,1J;HBOCTHH
23 OBaj em-teaK ce O ~ H O C I 1 Ha Hana3HWTa ca KOjl1X je MaTepl1jan o6jaBlbeH y HajMal-bY pyKy y
Ij>OpMI1 npeJlI1MI1HapHOr 113BewTaja.
75
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
• ):(Olha - ):(epOlhe
• rpl1Bal\
• Marapehl1 Mnl1H - AnaTI1H
• CTapqeBO
• CajaH - ):(oM60lII
• 3MajeBal\ - CMe):lepeBCKa I1anaHKa
OBOM cnl1CKY ):IO):lajeM 11 AH3a6erOBO - je):ll1HO YI1CTI1HY Bl1lIIecnojHo

Hana311lIITe KOJe no TI1ll0nOlIIKI1M 11 CTl1nCKI1M O):lnl1KaMa KepaMI1Ke
npl1na):la BpeMeHY 11 rnaBHI1M KapaKTepl1CTI1KaMa CTapqeBaqKOr
KOMllneKca. YllpaBO 360r Bl1lIIecnojHe llpl1pO):le OBor Hana311lIITa 11
• •
lherOBor 113Y3eTHor 3HaqaJa 3a pa3YMeBalhe TOKOBa pa3BOJa yKpaca y
l\eHTpanH06anKaHCKOM llpOCTOpy AH3a6eroBY he 611TI1 llocBeheHo HelIITO
Bl1lIIe llpoCTopa y OBOM pa):ly.
Tpe6a I1MaTI1 Ha yMy ql1lheHI1l\Y I1cTaKHYTY paHl1je ):la, Ma KOnl1KO
Ba)KaH, 6eno Cnl1KaHI1 yKpac npe):lCTaBlba llpe 113Y3eTaK Hero llpaBl1nO
y rpHqapcKoj llpO):lyKl\l1jl1 paHor 11 Cpe):llher HeOnl1Ta EanKaHa. J1naK,
6y):lyhl1 ):Ia je ):10 ):IaHaC 06jaBlbeHo HeKOnl1KO ):IeCeTI1Ha C14 ):IaTYMa,
MO)KeMO ):Ia llpl1CTYlll1MO aHanl1311 opHaMeHTa 11 llOCTaBI1MO ra y peanaH
xpOHOnOlIIKI1 OKBl1p. OBaKaB lloCTynaK oMoryhl1he HaM ):Ia llOTBP):ll1MO
I1nl1 O):l6al\I1MO HeKe 0):1 XI1nOTe3a llO lll1TalhY llopeKna 11 pa3Boja OBor
Haql1Ha YKpalIIaBalha (Hllp. JOBaHOBl1h 1966). Y aHanl1311 pe3ynTaTa
C14 ):IaTyMa llOlIITOBaHe cy YTBpl)eHe llpOl\e):lype (Waterbolk 1983) 3a
eBanyal\l1jy KBanl1TeTa Y30pKa 11 lheroBY KanI16pal\l1jy, Te cy llpe CBI1X
O):l6aqeHI1 pe3ynTaTI1 KOjl1 cy ):IaBanl1 eKCTpeMHe Bpe):lHOCTI1. HalIIa
6a3a llO):laTaKa 3a oBaj llepl10):l je I1llaK Bpno cKpoMHa 11 OrpaHI1QeHa Ha
):IaTyMe ca ):(olhe EpalheBI1He, JIY):lOlIIa, EI1CepHe 06ane - Hoca, CTapQeBa,
):(I1BOCTI1Ha, ):(oM60lIIa 11 AH3a6eroBa, TaKO ):Ia heMo ce 3a lloTpe6e OBor
pa):la llocnY)KI1TI1 11 C14 ):IaTyMI1Ma 113 OKOnHI1X nO):lpYQja.
Y TeKCTY KOjl1 cne):ll1 HaBeo caM KapaKTepl1CTI1'!aH MaTepl1jan ca
lloje):ll1HI1X Hana311lIITa KaKO 611CMO 611nl1 y npl1nl1l\11 ):Ia I1X Mel)yc06HO
ynope):ll1MO 11 KOH<PPOHTl1paMO ca pe3ynTaTI1Ma C14 aHanl13a.
76
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
AjMaHa, Mana Bp611l\a, 1)epllarr
Ca OBor Hana3HIIITa Ha o6anH )J,YHaBa Y o6nacTH 1)epllarra rroTwlY
<pparMeHTI1 ca 6eno Cnl1KaHHM opHaMeHToM KOjH je arrnl1l\HpaH Ha
1
ClIMKa 20 - fpHtlapHj a H 6eno CJH1 KaHt1 yKpac 11 3 A j MaHe
l\pBeHoj HnH l\pBeHKaCTo-6paOH nOBpIIlHHH rrOCYlle, a opraHH30BaH je

Y MOTH Be MpelKe, TpoyrnoBa ca BepTI1KanHHM nHHH)aMa, 113nOMJbeHHX
nl1Hl1ja Hnl1 MeaHllapa y XOpl130HTanHHM HnH HenpaBHnHO pacnopel)eHHM
TpaKaMa (Stalio 1986: 27-35). 3ajellHo ca cnHKaHHM opHaMeHToM Hana3e
ce H XOpl130HTanHe HnH BepTHKanHe TpaKe OTI1CaKa HOKTa, nOHeKall
annHl\l1paHe Y HacYMwIHoM nopeTKY. TaKol)e ce jaBJbajy H nnaCTHqHO
MOllenOBaHe TpaKe. J13Y3eTHa je nojaBa MOllena nenl1 rile ce Hall
• •
KBallpaTHOM OCHOBOM HaIlBH)a Kyrrona ca KpylKHHM OTBOPOM, KO)Y, Kao
II1TO neMO lIaJbe y TeKcTY Bl1l1eTH, MOlKeMO Be3aTH 3a KOHl\errl\Hjy KBallpaTa
y Kpyry. THnonOIIlKa aHanH3a nocyl)a ca AjMaHe, Kao H 6nHcKe aHanorHje
ca MaTepl1janoM ca PaKHTOBa (HnH H3 AHallonHje y Kpajlhoj HHCTaHl\H),
• •
Hrrp. TYHenaCTe IIpIIlKe rOBope y rrpHnor paHOM lIaTYMY 3a OBa) MaTepl1)an,
rra 611 ce Ha OCHOBY KnaCI1QHHX apxeonOIIlKHX MeTOlla Morao CTaBHTH y
caM Kpaj VII MHneHHjYMa.
77
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
1
,
-
1
6
7 9
10
1 '
ClIl1Ka 21 - Eello ClIl1KaHa rpWIaPl1ja 113 ,lJ;ofue EpafueBI1 He
78
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
I 2
.i7-
,


• •


I.


,
,
,
3





-.,..
b
CnHKa 22 - MOTHB Mep.o;eBJ.1Ha M KanJbl1'-IaCTO Cn J.1KaH BJ1 CenM Tpoyrao
(npeMa: BogdanoviC 2004)
I
I
C JHIKa 23 - Marapeol1 MnI1H. 6eno Cn J.1KaHH TpoyrnOBJ1 11 KOHI..J; eHTpl1'fHH KpyroBI1
79
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
EMcepHa 06aJIa, Hoca, BojBollMHa
Ha OBOM HaJIa311111TY paBHl1'lapCKOr Tl1na, CMelliTeHOM Ha
ceBepy BojBollMHe OTKpMBeHa je KepaMMKa yrJIaBHOM rpy6e M3palle
ca nap <jJparMeHTa lIpBeHor, MOHOxpOMHor nocyl)a. CBera HeKOJIMKO
YJIOMaKa YKpallieHO je 6eJIMM CJIMKalDeM Ha lIPBeHKaCToj OCHOBM. TOKOM
• •
MCKonaBalDa Je OTKpMBeHa M KOJIeKlIMJa aJIaTKM Oil rrra'laHOr KaMeHa Kao M
• • • •
OKpecaHa KaMeHa MHIlYCTpMJa, KOP no aYTopOBMM pe'lMMa nOKa3YJe pKe
Me30JIMTCKe TpallMlIMje (D. Garasanin 1959: 9-11; Jl [apalllaHMH 1960:
228-229).
ClHtKa 24 - n OCYAa ca ll eTBopOlHt CHOM CTonOM 11 3 BYl)aKa Ha fl YAaWKOM j e3epy
MJIal)a Oil IIBe oKynallMoHe <jJa3e Ha OBOM HacelbY, CMelliTeHor y
lIeHTpaJIHoj IIIyMallMjM HellaJIeKO Oil KparyjeBlIa, callPlKM KJIaCM'IaH
CTap'leBa'lKM MaTepMjaJI ca nap <jJparMeHaTa YKpallleHMx 6eJIMM CJIMKalDeM
opraHM30BaHMM y MpelKaCT opHaMeHT. AyTOpM cy lIaTOBaJIM MaTepMjaJI
y <jJa3y npeJIa3a CTap'leBo/ BMH'Ia, M ynopellMJIM ra ca MaTepMjaJIOM M3
HajHMlKMx CJIojeBa BMH'Ie - EeJIor Eplla M l.(pHOKaJIa'lKe 6ape (Letica 1970:
15; BogdanoviC 1988: 71-72; TacMn H., TOMMn, E., 1969). MaTepMjaJI je
OCTao Heny6JIMKOBaH TaKO lIa je 1I0HOllieIDe peJIeBaHTHMx 3aKlbY'laKa, Ha
lKaJIOCT, caCBMM OrpaHM'IeHo.
EYI,IaK-JIYllalll, BojBollMHa
KepaMMKa ca OBor HaJIa3MlIITa Ha 06aJIM JIYllalliKor je3epa, HellaJIeKO
Oil TOKa peKe Kepelll, lIaTOBaHa je y KJIaCM'IHY <jJa3y CTap'leBO-Kepelll
KyJIType. Oil 06Mlba KepaMM'IKOr MaTepMjaJIa npoHal)eHa je caMO jellHa
lIeJIa nOCYlla M lIeo <jJMHO yrrra'laHor HMCKor nexapa lIpBeHe 60je. OCTaJIa
KepaMMKa OI\fOBapa KJIaCM'IHOM TMny CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType. IlpoHal)eHa
cy M TpM <jJparMeHTa 60jeHe KepaMMKe, 11 TO jellaH ca 6eJIMM CJIMKalDeM
M IIpyra IIBa ca lIPHMM TpaKaMa Ha lIpBeHoj OCHOBI1. OTKpMBeHa cy IIBa
80
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
EMcepHa 06aJIa, Hoca, BojBollMHa
Ha OBOM HaJIa311111TY paBHl1'lapCKOr Tl1na, CMelliTeHOM Ha
ceBepy BojBollMHe OTKpMBeHa je KepaMMKa yrJIaBHOM rpy6e M3palle
ca nap <jJparMeHTa lIpBeHor, MOHOxpOMHor nocyl)a. CBera HeKOJIMKO
YJIOMaKa YKpallieHO je 6eJIMM CJIMKalDeM Ha lIPBeHKaCToj OCHOBM. TOKOM
• •
MCKonaBalDa Je OTKpMBeHa M KOJIeKlIMJa aJIaTKM Oil rrra'laHOr KaMeHa Kao M
• • • •
OKpecaHa KaMeHa MHIlYCTpMJa, KOP no aYTopOBMM pe'lMMa nOKa3YJe pKe
Me30JIMTCKe TpallMlIMje (D. Garasanin 1959: 9-11; Jl [apalllaHMH 1960:
228-229).
ClHtKa 24 - n OCYAa ca ll eTBopOlHt CHOM CTonOM 11 3 BYl)aKa Ha fl YAaWKOM j e3epy
MJIal)a Oil IIBe oKynallMoHe <jJa3e Ha OBOM HacelbY, CMelliTeHor y
lIeHTpaJIHoj IIIyMallMjM HellaJIeKO Oil KparyjeBlIa, callPlKM KJIaCM'IaH
CTap'leBa'lKM MaTepMjaJI ca nap <jJparMeHaTa YKpallleHMx 6eJIMM CJIMKalDeM
opraHM30BaHMM y MpelKaCT opHaMeHT. AyTOpM cy lIaTOBaJIM MaTepMjaJI
y <jJa3y npeJIa3a CTap'leBo/ BMH'Ia, M ynopellMJIM ra ca MaTepMjaJIOM M3
HajHMlKMx CJIojeBa BMH'Ie - EeJIor Eplla M l.(pHOKaJIa'lKe 6ape (Letica 1970:
15; BogdanoviC 1988: 71-72; TacMn H., TOMMn, E., 1969). MaTepMjaJI je
OCTao Heny6JIMKOBaH TaKO lIa je 1I0HOllieIDe peJIeBaHTHMx 3aKlbY'laKa, Ha
lKaJIOCT, caCBMM OrpaHM'IeHo.
EYI,IaK-JIYllalll, BojBollMHa
KepaMMKa ca OBor HaJIa3MlIITa Ha 06aJIM JIYllalliKor je3epa, HellaJIeKO
Oil TOKa peKe Kepelll, lIaTOBaHa je y KJIaCM'IHY <jJa3y CTap'leBO-Kepelll
KyJIType. Oil 06Mlba KepaMM'IKOr MaTepMjaJIa npoHal)eHa je caMO jellHa
lIeJIa nOCYlla M lIeo <jJMHO yrrra'laHor HMCKor nexapa lIpBeHe 60je. OCTaJIa
KepaMMKa OI\fOBapa KJIaCM'IHOM TMny CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType. IlpoHal)eHa
cy M TpM <jJparMeHTa 60jeHe KepaMMKe, 11 TO jellaH ca 6eJIMM CJIMKalDeM
M IIpyra IIBa ca lIPHMM TpaKaMa Ha lIpBeHoj OCHOBI1. OTKpMBeHa cy IIBa
80
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
pa3nWqWTe na60paTopwje. TIpeMa KOMeHTapy A. MeK¢epOHa (McPherron,
Srejovic 1988: 379-383) MOlKe ce CXBaTWTW lIa je 6wno TeIIlKO w311BojwTw
Y30pKe 1I06por KBanWTen, 6Yllynw lIa je ¢a3a KaCHor HeonWTa, L\WBOCTWH
II qeCTO rrOMeillaHa ca MaTepwjanoM ¢a3e L\WBOCTWH 1. TaKolje je 6wno
HeMoryne rrpwKyrrwTw 3a C14 aHanw3Y MaTepwjan KpaTKor lKWBOTHor BeKa.
L\OIha opalheBwHa - L\epolhe, Ol,lal\w, BojBollwHa
MOlKlla W HajBalKHwje Oil BWIIlecnojHwx Hana3WIIlTa
Kymype Koje je llano 6WTHe WH¢OpMal\wje, KaKO 0
CTapqeBa'IKe

KepaMWqKOJ
• ••
rrpollYKl\WJW, TaKO W 0 penaTwBHoJ xpoHonorwJw KynTyTpe.
CTpaTyM II callPlKW HOBe MOTWBe W HaqWHe lIeKOpal\wje. TInaCTWqHe
pe6paCTe TpaKe y jellHoM wnw IIBa pella ce rrojaBlbyjy Ha rrpena3HoM
rrocyljy Oil OBor XOpw30HTa. IIlTo ce TWqe 6enor cnwKalha, OHO ce rrojaBlbyje

y KapaKTepWCTWqHOM MOTWBY KarrlbWl\a, rrOHeKall rrpaBonwHwJcKW
opraHw30BaHoM, a rrOHeKall rrpaBenw MpelKy wnw rwpnaHlle (CnwKa 21).
KarrlbWqaCTW MOTWBW cy rrOHeKall opraHw30BaHw y pelloBe TpoyrnoBa
W pOM60Ba, a WMa cnyqajeBa lIa rrpeKpwBajy l\enoKyrrHY rroBpillwHY
rrocYlle cTBapajynw TaKO n03WTWB-HeraTWB e¢eKaT. oena 60ja je nOHeKall
pa3BolllheHa (Karmanski 1979: 15, pI. XVII -XXVII).
Olla6paHa cy TPW Y30pKa W rrocnaTa y na60paTopwjy y [poHwHreHY.
Y30Pl\W rroTwlY W3 POBa B/1986-1987 ca MeCTa rile KepelIlKa jaMa npecel\a
XOPW30HT ca 6enwM cnWKalheM. (H.H. Tacwn 1993: 100).
l. GrN-15974: 6033BC (0.95) 5953 BC (Y30paK KOillTaHor MaTepwjana
KOjW lIaTyje HajHwlKw XOPW30HT Hacelba ca 6eno cnWKaHOM lIeKOpal\wjoM
y TWrrWqHOM CTwny L\olhe opalheBwHe);
2. GrN-15975: 5840BC (l.00) 5723 BC (TaKolje KOillTaHW Y30paK
Y3eT W3 rrpOIIlwpelha BaH jaMe KOjW TaKolje lIaTyje XOPW30HT ca 6enwM
cnwKalheM);
3. GrN-15976: 6048BC (0.68) 5932 BC (Y30paK Haropenor IIpBen
Y3eT W3 lIerr03wTa BaH jaMe KOjW TaKolje lIaTyje XOPW30HT ca 6enwM
cnwKalheM).
XOPW30HT ca 6enwM cnWKalheM Ha OBOM Hana3wIIlTY MOlKe ce
lIaTOBaTw w3Meljy 6048. W 5932. cTape epe.
82
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
rpVIBau;, KparyjeBau;, lliyMallMja
KepaMMKa paHe cpa3e HaJla3MlIITa rpMBau;jaBJba ce y pa3HMM 60jaMa,
Oil u;pHe 110 u;pBeHe. 06JIMU;M cy TMnWIHM 3a CTapqeBa'IKY KYJITYPY, y3

1I0MMHaU;M)y KOHMqHMX TaIMlpa.
POB A - MCKon
lliTO ce MOTMBa TMqe, 6eJIM TaqKaCTM opHaMeHT ce nOHeKall nojaBJbyje
y 06JIMKy BMceher Tpoyrna. I1paBonMHMjcKM opHaMeHT je opraHM30BaH y
06nMKY Mpe)Ke M TpoyrnoBa. TaKol')e ce cpehy cpparMeHTM ca u;pBeHMM

ClIflKafueM npaBOnMHM)CKOr MOTHBa opraHH30BaHor y TpoyrnoBe M
Mpe)Ke. ,lJ;eKopaU;Mja je nOHeKall annMU;HpaHa M Ha YHYTpalllfuocT TafuHpa.
oena 60ja je na)KJbHBO rnaqaHa H HaHeTa je npe neqefua TaKO lIa je BeOMa
OTllOpHa M TpajHa (CnMKa 22).
POB A (M3 cnoja)
PenepToap YKpalliaBafua M3 cnoja je npMnMqHO 60raT. I10jaBJbyje ce
KaKO 6eno TaKO M U;PHO cnMKafue. I1ap cpparMeHaTa yKa3yje Ha nOCTojafue
MaT 6enor cnMKafua. Baja je MaT M naKO ce OTMpe. JellaH cpparMeHT ca
nacT03HMM 6enMM cnMKafueM je npoHal')eH y MCTOM cnojy. MOTMBM cy
napanenHe, XOpM30HTanHe nMHMje npaheHe 6enMM TaqKaMa ca 06e
CTpaHe. rpy60 nocyl')e je lIeKopMcaHO ypel')eHMM 6ap60TMHOM, MMnpeco
opHaMeHTOM (3pHO nllleHMu;e), nnaCTMqHMM TpaKaMa M annMKaU;MjaMa
pa3nHqHTOr 06nMKa (oorllaHoBHh 1983: 9-26; Bogdanovic 1988: 61-70;
2004).
JellHHH lIaTYM CTapqeBaqKe KylIType M3 rpHBu;a je Bln-869: 6129 BC
(0.83) 5988 Be. Y30paK je 6MO ManH KOMall yrJba, a nOTHqe H3 HajHM)Ker
cnoja POBa 0 ca lIy6MHe Oil 2 m (McPherron, Srejovic 1988: 379-388).
KaKo MO)KeMO BMlleTH H3 HanOMeHa M. oorllaHoBHha HajHH)KM HHBO
• •
KynTypHor cnop ca 3eMYHMu;aMa npMnalla npoTOCTapqeBaqKO) KyJITypM
(Bogdanovic 1995). JiIaKo HeMaMO npeU;M3HMx nOllaTaKa 0 apXeOJIOlliKOM

KOHTeKcTY, OBa) lIaTYM MO)KeMO Be3aTM 3a paHM HeonMT u;eHTpanHor
oanKaHa, OIlHOCHO 3a cpa3y npoTOCTapqeBa no ayTopy MCTpa)KMBafua y
rpMBU;Y·
MarapehM MnMH, AnaTMH, BojBollMHa
OBaj nOKanMTeT je lIao YJIOMKe cpMHe KepaMMKe lIeKopMcaHe
opHeMeHToM opraHH30BaHMM y pelloBe McnYfueHMx KpyroBa cnHKaHMX H
6enoM 60jOM. (Lekovic 1988: 79-80; H.H. TacHh 1993: 99-102). Hana3MlIITe
MMa penaTMBHo TaHaK KynTypHM cnoj Oil 0,3 m, Oil qera caMO 5-10 cm
83
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
• • • •
npwna,n;a CTap'leBa'lKO) KyJITypW, a wnaK )e no CBO)O) KepaMWl\W BPJIO
WHTepecaHTHO. XOpW30HTaJIHa CTparwrpaq.mja Ha OBOM HaJIa3WIIITY
nOTBp,n;WJIa je nocTojalhe HajMalhe ,n;Be <\.>a3e oKynal\wje: paHy CTap'leBa'lKY
W HelliTO KacHwjy KepelliKY <\.>a3y. CJIWKaHa KepaMwKa ,n;aTOBaHa je y nepwo,n;
paHor HeOJIWTa l\eHTpaJIHOr EaJIKaHa (CJIWKa 23).
Y30pKe cy npwKynWJIW H.H. Tacwn W B. JIeKoBwn W nOCJIaJIW y
JIa60paTopwjy y fpoHwHreHY (H.H. Tamn 1993: 101). Y30paK 6poj 3 je Y3eT
W3 orlhwIlITa/BaTpwIlITa OKO Kora cy Hal')eHw 6eJIo CJIWKaHW <\.>parMeHTw.
Y30paK 6poj 2 je Y3eT ca MeCTa w3Mel')y KepelliKe jaMe W CTap'leBa'lKOr
XOPW30HTa. Y30paK 6poj 1 ,n;aTyje KepelliKY jaMy. OBW pe3YJITaTW cy y
w,n;eaJIHOM CKJIa,n;y ca CTpaTwrpa<\.>cKoM cepwjoM.
1.GrN-15971 : 5775BC (1.00) 5688BC
2.GrN-15972 : 5892BC (0.73) 5762BC
3.GrN-15973 : 6015BC (0.71) 5938BC
CajaH - L\oM60IlI, ceBepHw EaHaT, BojBo,n;wHa
Malha COH,n;alKHa WCKonaBalha y ceJIY CajaH, 110TeC JapoIlI, L\oM60IlI,
BpIlIeHa cy TOKOM 1972. ro,n;WHe Ka,n;a je W oTKpwBeHa nOBpIlIwHa o,n; 150 m'
(Giric 1974: 178). KOHCTaTOBaH je KyJITypHW CJIoj ,n;e6lI>WHe 1,6 m. EoraT
KepaMW'IKW MaTepwjaJI Haj'lelline je YKpallieH IlITwnalheM W nJIaCTW'IHWM
HaJIenl\WMa. Malhw 6poj <\.>parMeHaTa YKpallieH je 6ap60TwH TeXHWKOM.
KepaMW'IKW 06JIwl\w cy nOJIYJIOnTaCTe W JIonTaCTe nocy,n;e, 3,n;eJIe Ha

l\WJIWH,n;PW'IHO) CTonw, JIOHl\W ca l\WJIWH,n;PW'IHWM BpaToM W BepTWKaJIHO
nep<\.>opwpaHwM ,n;pIlIKaMa. JaBlI>ajy ce nocy,n;e Ha BWIlIe HWCKWX HOlKWl\a.
<DwHwja KepaMwKa YKpalliaBa ce HaHOllielheM eHr06e (<\.>WHor
I1peMa3a 110 'IwTaBoj 110BPIlIWHW), rrra'lalheM W CJIWKaHWM yKpacoM. Ha
OBOM HaJIa3wIlITY jaBlI>ajy ce nOHeKa,n; nocy,n;e YKpallieHe CJIWKalheM 6eJIOM
W l\pBeHOM 60jOM y MOTWBY je,n;HoCTaBHwx cnwpaJIa Ha MpKOj OCHOBW. O,n;
3Ha'laja 3a ,n;aTOBalhe OBor HaJIa3WIlITa je KepaMW'IKW <\.>parMeHT ca 6eJIo
CJIWKaHWM yKpacoM y MOTWBY TalhWX W ,n;e6lI>wx BepTWKaJIHWX JIWHwja W
<\'>PW30M TeKynwx cnwpaJIa 110CTaBlI>eHWX y3 caM 060,n;. Ha OCHOBY OBWX
nOKa3aTelI>a CajaH-L\oM60IlI 6w Tpe6aJIo CMeCTWTW y <\.>a3Y MNCB I IlITO
110TBpl')yjy W pa,n;woKap60H ,n;aTyMw (Boric 2002):
84
1.0xA-8567: 5812BC (89.3%) 5606BC
2.0xA-8566: 5810BC (95.0%) 5624BC
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
EnOHI1MHO Hana3l1WTe CTap'leBO je npBI1 nyT I1CKOnaBaHO 1928.
rOlll1He 11 llano je BeOMa 6l1THe nOllaTKe 0 CTpaTl1rpa<j>cKoM pacnopellY
pa3nl1'1I1TI1X BpCTa KepaMI1Ke 11 pa3nl1'1I1TI1M opHaMeHTanHI1M
TeXHI1KaMa. EYllyhl1 lIa je jellHo Oil peTKI1X Hana3l1WTa ca BepTI1KanHOM
CTpaTl1rpa<j>l1joM aFopl1, cy ce nOTpYlll1nl1 lIa KOM6l1Hyjy BepTI1KanHY
11 XOpl130HTanHY CTpaTl1rpa<j>l1jy jaMa 11 KynTypHI1X XOpI130HaTa.
25
OBa
KOMrrnl1KOBaHa CTpaTl1rpa<j>cKa cepl1ja lIaje HaM cnellehe rrOllaTKe 0
rr0311l\l1jl1 6eno Cnl1KaHor opHaMeHTa rrO'leBWI1 ca lherOBI1M HajpaHl1jl1M
rrojaBlbl1BalheM y JaMI1 4.
JaMa 4 - I1paBOnl1Hl1jcKI1 6eno Cnl1KaHI1 MOTI1BI1, OpraHl130BaHl1
y Mpe)!(e, rrpoHal)eHI1 cy 3ajellHo ca rrpaBOnl1Hl1jcKI1M MOTI1BI1Ma
113BelleHl1M TaMHOM 60jOM. J1CTI1 06jeKaT je lIao 11 6ap60Tl1H opHaMeHT
KOjl1 rrpeoBnal)yje Ha rpy60M rrocyl)y, a Hana311 ce 3ajellHo ca rrnaCTI1'1HI1M
TpaKaMa, ywTI1HyTI1M opHaMeHToM, OTI1Cl\I1Ma HOKTa 11 6pallaBI1l\aMa.
JaMa 5A - J13 OBor 06jeKTa rrOTI1'1Y caMO Tpl1 6eno Cnl1KaHa
<j>parMeHTa, Cnl1'1Ha OHI1Ma 113 jaMe 4, anl1 OHI1 HeCTajy y rOplhl1M
cnojeBI1Ma I1CTe jaMe. 06jeKaT 0 KOMe je pe'l, TaKol)e je Callp)!(aBaO ynoMKe
ca 6ap60Tl1H lIeKOpal\l1joM, orpy6lbl1BalheM, rrnaCTI1'1HI1M TpaKaMa,
Behl1M arrnI1Kal\l1jaMa, yWTI1HyTI1M opHaMeHToM, OTI1Cl\I1Ma HOKTa 11
YTI1CHYTI1M KpyrOBI1Ma.
JaMa 6 - Y lhOj cy Hal)eHI1 ynOMl\11 ca 6enl1M Cnl1KalheM Ha l\pBeHoj
rrOBpWI1HI1. MOTI1BI1 cy Mpe)!(e 11 IIpyrl1 rrpaBOnl1Hl1jcKI1 opHaMeHTI1
rrorrYT l\I1K-l\aK nl1Hl1ja, anl1 11 rl1pnaHlle I1CrrOIl 060lla cYlla. OCTanl1
KepaMI1'1KI1 MaTepl1jan yKlby'lyje CI1BO rrocyl)e, rpy60 rrocyl)e YKpaweHo
6ap60TI1HOM, rrnaCTI1'1HI1M TpaKaMa, yWTI1HyTI1M opHaMeHToM,
ype3l1BalheM 11 6pallaBI1l\aMa. Y OKBI1PY I1CTOr KOHTeKCTa OTKpl1BeHO je 11
lIeceT <j>parMeHaTa ca 6I1KOHI1"1HI1M rrpo<j>l1noM.
JaMa 7 - Eena 11 TaMHa 60ja ce rrojaBlbyjy I1CTOBpeMeHo, anl1 je
6eno Cnl1Kalhe "IeTl1pl1 rryTa 3aCTyrrlbeHl1je. MOTI1BI1 KOjl1 cy Mornl1
6l1Tl1 peKoHcTpYI1CaHI1 cy rl1pnaHlle I1CrrOIl 060lla y KOM6I1Hal\l1jl1 ca
BepTI1KanHI1M nl1Hl1jaMa, Kao 11 TpoyrnOBI1. Eap60TI1H, 6pallaBI1l\e,
ype311, orpy6lbl1Balhe rrOBpWI1He 11 rrnaCTI1"1He TpaKe ce TaKol)e rrojaBlbyjy
Ha rpy60M rrocyl)y 3ajellHo ca Cnl1KaHOM lIeKOpal\l1joM (Ararrdelovic-
Garasarrirr 1954).
25 M. fp6HIi 1928. rOAM He; <l>j yKC, fOBAMaH H EpMX 1932. rOAM He; EpMX M)l
fapaWaHItIH 1971. rOAHHe.
85
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
Cm1Ka 25 - Beno CJIWKaHa na3a W3 CTap1.J eSa
'Ien!pM C14 pe3Y'ITaTa ,!IaTyjy 6eno cnMKaHM opHaMeHT:
26
1. GrN -9034: 5585BC (0.84) 5446BC
2.GrN-6629: 5526BC (0.92) 5420BC
3. GrN -9036: 5789BC (0.86) 5696BC
4.0xA-8562: 5637BC (0.77) 5572BC
OBM ,!IaTyMM rroKa3yjy pa3MMMOMna)!(elhe ca OCTanMM ,!IaTYMMMa
XOpM30HTa ca paHMM 6enMM cnMKalheM, anM ce ,!Io6po YKnarrajy ca
pe3ynTaTMMa ca LloM6owa M Hana3MWTMMa ca 6enMM cnMKalheM y
EyrapcKoj Kao WTO cy fana6HMK M CnaTMHa Te ce Mory KOPMCTMTM Kao
apryMeHT 3a ,!IpyrM Tanac 6enor cnMKalha Ha Kpajy CTapqeBaqKe KynType.
26 KOMeHTape W KOHTeKCTe 3a cTap1.J eSa
l
lKY cepwj y j e Aao Ap. JaH flaHTHHI' (Jan Lanting)
ca OAeJbel-ba 3a apXeOnOI' Hj y, KpaJbenCKOI' YHHBep3HTeTa y rpOI'H1HreHY {Rijksuniversiteit
Groningen, Dept. for Archaeology}.
86
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
3MajeBal1, CMe,!1epeBCKa I1anaHKa, IlIyMa,!1l1ja
OBaj nOKanl1TeT je ,!1aO CaMO je,!1aH ynoMaK ca 6enl1M Cnl1KaJ-beM
11 TO oHaj ca 6enl1M TpoyrnoM Ha TaMHoj n03a,!1I1HI1. Benl1Ka KOnl1ql1Ha
¢I1He, I1pBeHO rnaqaHe KepaMI1Ke (y O,!1HOCY 4:1) 611 Morna ,!1a HarOBeCTI1
HeUITO paHl1jl1 ,!1aTyM OBor Hana3l1IIITa. OBa BpCTa KepaMI1Ke, nOHeKa,!1
• •
Ha311BaHa MOHOXPOMHOM, Je Bpno peTKO ,!1eKOpI1CaHa, a Ka,!1a JeCTe OH,!1a
• •
ce opHaMeHT caCTOJI1 yrnaBHoM 0,!1 ype3aHI1X nl1HI1Ja OpraHI130BaHI1X
y MpelKe, napanenHe 11 I1I1K-l1aK nl1Hl1je, I1nl1 naK pe,!10Ba 6pa,!1aBl1l1a
I1nl1 rrnaCTl1qHI1X TpaKa. rpy60 rrocyl)e je ,!1eKOpI1CaHO orpy6lhI1BaJ-beM,
OTI1Cl1l1Ma npCTa I1nl1 HOKTa, pe,!10BI1Ma 6pa,!1aBl1l1a I1nl1 nnl1TKI1M
lKlhe6lheJ-beM (Katunar 1988: 110-111).
AH3a6erOBO, OBqe rrone, Perry6nl1Ka MaKe,!10Hl1ja
HaKO ce Hana311 BaH l1eHTpanHe 30He CTapQeBaQKe KynType, OBO
Hana311IIITe je BeOMa KOPI1CHO 3a ,!106I1jaJ-be nOY3,!1aHI1X nO,!1aTaKa 0
CTpaTl1rpa¢CKOM nonolKajy 6eno Cnl1KaHOr opHaMeHTa Kp03 pa3nl1Ql1Te
¢a3e.
<Pa3a I je oKapaKTepl1CaHa Tl1nl1QHI1M 06nl1l111Ma 3a paHI1 HeOnl1T
perl10Ha Kao 11 6eno Cnl1KaHI1M opHaMeHToM OpraHI130BaHI1M y TpoyrnoBe
(Ia), I1I1K-l1aK nl1Hl1je, Karrlhl1QaCTI1M MOTI1BOM 11 peTKI1M rrojaBlhl1BaJ-beM
6ap60TI1H I1I1Mrrpeco ,!1eKOpal1l1je (Ib).
<Pa3a II je 3aCTyrrlheHa peTKI1M rrojaBlhl1BaJ-beM 6eno CnI1KaHOr,
Kpl1Bonl1Hl1jcKor opHaMeHTa y KOM611Hal111jl1 ca MpelKaCTI1M MOTI1BOM.
HCToBpeMeHo, TaMHO Cnl1KaHa KepaMI1Ka ce rrojaBlhyje ca MOTI1BI1Ma
Cnl1QHI1M y0611QajeHoM penepToapy CTapQeBaQKe Kymype (IIb npeMa M.
rapaIllaHI1HY)·
Cepl1ja 113 AH3a6erOBa (¢a3e Ia 11 Ib) 3a ca,!1a Hajy6e,!1lhl1Bl1je
O,!1pel)yje BpeMe paHor 6enor Cnl1KaJ-ba Ha l1eHTpanHOM oanKaHY, O,!1HOCHO
HajpaHl1jy ¢a3y HeOnl1TCKor HaCelhaBaJ-ba OBe perl1je.
*
OBI1M ce 3aBpIllaBa Cnl1CaK Hana311IIITa ca 6eno Cnl1KaHOM
,!1eKopa,-\l1joM Ha ,-\eHTpanHOM oanKaHY. HnaK, nOCToje 6pojHa Hana311IIITa
y Illl1peM 6anKaHCKOM perl10HY Ha Kojl1Ma je TaKol)e Hal)eHa OBa BpCTa
,!1eKOpl1CaHe KepaMI1Ke. OBa Hana311IIITa ce Hana3e y ,!1Be 3ace6He
reorpa¢CKe pefl1je. I1pBa je MaKe,!10Hl1ja (y reorpa¢CKOM CMI1Cny,
06YXBaTajyhl1 rpQKy MaKe,!10Hl1jy 11 cyce,!1Hy, Peny6nl1KY MaKe,!10Hl1jy) ca
,!10nI1HOM ,!10J-ber TOKa CTpYMe, npl1KlhyQyjyhl1 Ty 11 1130nOBaHe Hana3e y
jyrol1CTOQHoj An6aHl1jl1. ,lJ;pyra perl1ja je TpaHCl1nBaHl1ja ca OmeHl1joM
87
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
• • •
Ha )yry, 3a)e1lHO ca rrOMeHYTMM yrrallMMa Ha rrollpyq)e l1eHTpanHor
EanKaHa. CTYIIMja MaTepMjana ca Hana3MllITa y OBMM perMOHMMa je Oil
• •
rrpecYIlHor 3Haqa)a 3a pa3YMeBalbe pa3BO)a lIeKopaTMBHe TeXHMKe M CTMna
Ha l1eHTpanH06anKaHCKOM rrollPyqjy, 6YllynM lIa ce McrrOCTaBMno lIa cy OHe
rrOCnellMl1e, MnM pallMje exo, CTMnOBa M3 06nacTM rrpMMapHe HeonMTM3al1Mje
y MaKelloHMjM, 1I0nMHM CTpYMe M TpaHcMnBaHMjM. llpBeHcTBo y rrpol1ecy
HeonMTM3al1Mje OBMX perMoHa je rroTBpryeHo cTpaTMrpa¢cKMM cepMjaMa
ca AH3a6eroBa (Gimbutas 1974) M C14 lIaTYMMMa ca IIpyrMx Hana3MllITa
jyroHCTOqHe EBporre H fp'lKe.
PailMoKap60H lIaTYMM HaBelleHM ca CBOjMM KOHTeKCTMMa, Kao
IlITO CMO BMllenM, rpyrrMllIy ce y IIBa xpoHonolliKa XOpM30HTa (CnMKa
18). YO'llbHBa pa3nHKa y cTHny H CallP)!(ajy 6eno cnMKaHe lIeKOpal1Hje
rroTBpryeHa je M CI4I1aTYMHMa.
Cnellena 3Ha'lajHa 'IHlbeHMl1a je lIa ce TOKOM cpeillber HeonHTa
IlIHpOM l1eHTpanHor EanKaHa jaBlba jOIli jellHa ¢a3a 6enor cnMKalba Koja ce
Hana3H y MCTOM KOHTeKcTY ca TaMHO cnHKaHOM KepaMHKoM, IlITO CTaBlba
06a HaqMHa YKpalliaBalba y MCTY xpoHonolliKY cepMjy. ,lJ;06ap rrpMMep
3a OBO je Hana3MllITe KOBa'leBO (Perniceva 1995: 103) Ha KOMe MMaMO
1I06py cTpaTMrpa¢cKy cepMjy rile ce 6eno M TaMHO cnMKalbe rrojaBlbyjy
3ajellHo y ¢a3M III. Eeno cnMKalbe, rrpMToM, yKlby'lyje rrpaBonMHMjcKe M
KpMBonHHMjcKe MOTMBe Kao M fbMXOBe KOM6MHaI1Mje. CrrMpanHM MOTHB
ce rrojaBlbyje y KOBa'leBY II M 'IeCTO je KOM6MHoBaH ca lIyrrnMpaHMM I1MK-
l1aK nMHMjaMa, a y KOBa'leBY III ce KOM6MHyje ca Mpe)!(aCTMM MOTMBOM.
MCToBpeMeHo, TaMHO cnMKaHM opHaMeHT je opraHM30BaH y crrMpane IlITO
yKa3yje Ha KacHMje lIaTOBafbe OBe cepMje (Perniceva 1995: 102-106).
3Ha'lM, Mory ce pa3nMKoBaTM IIBe rnaBHe lIeKopaTMBHe TeXHMKe
Koje pa3rpaHM'IaBajy IIBe pa3nM'IMTe ¢a3e HeonMTa, ENCB M MNCB III. Y
rrpBoj ce KOPMCTM 6eno cnMKafbe opraHM30BaHo y KBallpaTe, KarrlbM'IaCTe
MOTMBe, ¢nopanHe MOTMBe, TpeMono nMHMje M rroBpeMeHo TpoyrnoBe
M Mpe)!(e. ,lJ;pyra lIeKopaTMBHa TeXHMKa 'IeCTO yKlby'lyje MaT 6eny 60jy
M Mpe)!(aCTe MOTMBe, TpoyrnoBe, rMpnaHlle, crrMpane M KOM6MHal1Mjy
pa3nM'IMTMX MOT MBa IlITO 1I0BOIIM 110 rronMxpoMMje. llpBa TeXHMKa
3arrO'lMlbe y rrocnelllbMM BeKOBMMa VII MMneHMjYMa rrpe HOBe epe M
HaCTaBlba y rrpBe BeKOBe VI MMneHMjYMa. Ha CBOM BpXyHI1Y OHa rrOKpMBa
orpOMHO rrollPY'lje, Oil Hea HHKoMellMje 110 fypa Eanynyj. ,lJ;pyra TeXHHKa
• ••
ce pa3BH)a H3 rrpBe H y HeKMM rroIlPY'lH)HMa, Kao IlITO Je Ha rrpHMep
1I0nMHa CTpYMe, oBaj pa3Boj ce MO)!(e rrpaTHTM Ha Hana3HllITMMa TMrra
Ten Kao IlITO je KOBa'leBO. Ha l1eHTpanHOM EanKaHY 6eno cnMKafbe je y
3Ha'lajHoM orrallafbY 110 Kpaja rrpBe ¢a3e cpellfber HeonMTa H rrOHOBO ce
rrojaBlbyje rrpell caM Kpaj CTap'leBa'lKe KynType. OBaj ¢eHOMeH Tpe6a
88
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
I
6
f
1
CnWKa 26 - ITpHMepH 6enor CmtKaI-ba 113 AH3a6eroBa I
• •
TeXHMKa HaCTaBlba eBOJlYl.\MJY 110 KpaJa CTapqeBaqKe KyJlType KaO M
• •
l1a Je TpaHCnOHOBaHa y I1PyrM KOHTeKCT, TJ. TaMHO rrraqaHY KepaMMKY
BMHqaHCKe KyJlType, npM TOMe 3al1plKaBajyhM CJlMqHe MOTMBe nonYT
cnMpalIa, l.\MK-l.\aK M napaJlelIHMX JlMHMja M MpelKaCTor MOTMBa."
OpHaMeHTalIHM CTMJI
TIvlTalbe CTI1J1a y l1eKOpal.\l1jl1 KepaMMKe paHor 11 cpel1lber HeOJlMTa
l.\eHTpaJlHOr EaJlKaHa M HaqMH KOM6MHOBaiba MOTMBa y OKBMPY Tor
CTMlIa je 011 BelIMKor 3Haqaja 3a npoyqaBalbe OBor nepMOl1a. OCMM lIlTO

HaM npylKa elIeMeHTe 3a npen03HaBaibe TpeHI10Ba M yKyca 3aJe11HMl.\a
ca nOqeTKa HeOJlMTa EaJlKaHa oBaj CMCTeM YKpalliaBalba Morao 6M HaM
nOMohM y paCBeTlbaBalbY OCHOBa I1pYlliTBeHor YCTpojcTBa.
Y rpy6MM l.\pTaMa Moryhe pa3J1MKOBaTM I1Be rrraBHe rpyne 6eJlo
CJlMKaHe l1eKOpal.\Mje Ha lIlMpeM nOI1Pyqjy jyroMCTOqHe EBpone. Jel1Ha
je KapaKTepMCTMqHa 3a jylKHM l1eo KOMnJleKCa M npel1CTaBlbeHa je 6eJlo
ClIMKaHOM KepaMMKOM TMna: AH3a6erOBO Ia (Gimbutas 1976; Garasanin
1998), JaHMl.\a B (Chrisostomou 1993: 169-181), Hea HMKOMel1Mja (Pyke
27 MaKo M Aalbe 6e3 OtrypHOI' AOKa3a, Moryhe j e Aa je 6ena HHKpycTaUl1ja HaCTaJla Kao
oAroBop Ha now KBamlTeT 6ene 60je Koja ce llaKO ontpe. TexH HKa l1HKpycTaUl1j e 611 je 1.fYBalla
OA OTl1paI-ba 11 npl1 TOM 3awntTI1/la opHaMeHT OA npOnaAatha.
89
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
-
I
J
.\

1 8
Cm1Ka 27 - TIpHMepw TpenmHa 60je OCHOBe nocy.o; e J1 60je yKpaca (n03J1TI1B- HerantB)
(I. jaHMl\a; 2. HeBecTMHo; 3. 8. XaVMlIap; 4. 5. 7. AH3a6eroBo; 6. 9. KYPY' l3j )
and Yiouni 1996), KOBa'leBO (Perniceva 1995), TIOI\fOP" (Korkuti 1995).
Halla311 113 ElIeWHI1Qe 11 PaKI1TOBa TaKol')e np"nallajy OBOj rpynl1. Hew TO
TpaHC¢OpMI1CaH ca nap reHepaQl1ja 3aKaWlbelba, oBaj Ha'll1H lIeKopaQl1je
CTl1lKe 11 110 TpaHCl1l1BaHl1je, BojBolll1He (L\olba EpalbeBI1Ha) 11 l.\eHTpallHe
Cp611je (rp"BaQ 11 L\I1BOCTI1H I). Haj'lewne ce 6ello ClIl1Kalbe HaHOCI1
npeKo l.\pBeHOr rrpeMa3a 11 lIaje yrre'laTlhl1BY 11 e¢eKTHy npellcTaBY.
OBa BpCTa 6eJIor CJII1Kalba ce jacHo MOlKe CTl1l1CKI1 pa31111KOBaTI1
011 6ellor ClIl1Kalba Koje rrOTI1'1e ca MHOrl1X HaJIa311WTa y EyrapcKoj
(rrorrYT CJIaTI1He) alll1 11 113 PYMYHl1je, Kp'la (Circea) 11 Cp611je (BeJII1Ka
'-IecMa, CTap'leBO, CajaH-L\oM60w, I1TII). OBlle ce 6ello CJII1Kalbe KOP"CT"
lIa rrpellCTaBI1 MOTI1Be KOjl1 ce y KlIacl1'1Hoj ¢a311 rrojaBlhyjy OClIl1KaHI1
TaMHOM 60jOM Ha rrOll1l0311 Koja je 111111 CBeTJIOl.\pBeHa I1JII1 HapaHI,IaCTa.
MOTI1BI1 cy BI1Cenl1 TpoymoBI1 KOjl1 cy nOHeKall I1crrYlbeHI1 HI130BI1Ma

BepTI1KallHI1X 111111 KOCI1X 1I11HI1Ja I1JII1 MpelKaCTI1M 0pHaMeHToM;
rl1pllaHllaMa 11 CIIl1pallaMa Koje ce y ¢"HallHoj ¢a311 KyllType 3aBpwaBajy
y 061111KY TponpCTe warre. TIopell CTl1l1CKe pa3JII1Ke Koja ce MOlKe
oKapaKTep"CaTI Kao lIe¢I1Hl1wyna pa31111Ka y XPOHOllOWKOj rrp"nallHocTI
(KaKo cy rrpellllOlKl1l1l1 CpejoBl1n 1971. 11 M. rapaWaHI1H 1979.), Kao WTO
90
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
CMO BW/lenW, rrocTojw W pa3nWKa y TeXHonorwjw KOjOM je W3Be/leH 6eno
cnwKaHw OpHaMeHT, rra je y paHwjoj ¢a3W rrocTojaH W cjajaH, a y rr03Hoj
rraCTY03aH W lhycrra ceo
Tpe6a rrpWMenITW /la je, y OKBWPY rrpBe rpyrre, 6enw W rrOHeKa/l
)!(yhKacTw cnWKaHW opHaMeHT arrnWI1WpaH Ha I1pBeHW rrpeMa3, TaKO /la
MOTWBW Ha rrpBW rrorne/l aCOl1wpajy Ha opraHCKe, a rrOHeKa/l W ¢nopanHe
¢opMe. OBe ¢opMe Koje rro/lcehajy Ha nWCTOBe, a Koje ce WCKlhY'IWBO
oCTaBlhajy y HeraTwBY, HWKa/la HWCY HacnWKaHe W30nOBaHO, Beh cy
wHKopnopwpaHe y 0pHaMeHTanHY CTpyKTypy ¢opMwpaHY 0/1 cepwja
• •
rrapanenHwx W TanacaCTWX nWHwJa, I1WK-l1aK MOTWBa, npaBonwHwJcKWX
MOTWBa, wcnYlbeHwx TpoyrnoBa W pelje "S" MOTWBa.
Ba)!(HO je HanoMeHYTH /la, Ka/la ce Y3Me y 063WP CTpaTHrpa¢CKw
nono)!(aj OBe /lBe /leKOpaTWBHe TeXHWKe, ,,¢nopanHW CTwn" CTOjW WcnO/l
"CTwna TaMHor cnWKalba" W 6enor cnWKalba n03He ¢a3e. OBa BpCTa

penaTWBHo-xpOHonOWKor O/lHOCa nOKa3YJe wcnpaBHOM npeTnOCTaBKY
/la je 0/1 CYWTWHCKor 3Ha'Iaja "OHO WTO je HacnWKaHO", a He 60ja Koja ce
KOPWCTW, wnw yKpaTKo: Ca/lp)!(WHa npe ¢opMe.
TOKOM Cpe/llbOHeOnWTCKor pa3Boja CTap'IeBa'IKe KynType, Ha rpy60M
rrocyljy W y TeXHWKaMa Koje cy 3a lby cBojCTBeHe (ype3wBalbe, YTwcKwBalbe,
nnaCTW'IHe arrnWKal1wje, )!(ne6lhelbe, ypeljeHw 6ap60TwH) rroCToje /lOKa3W
• •
/la cy 'IeCTe WMWTal1wJe cnWKaHor opHaMeHTa, nonYT rwpnaH/lW KOJe ce
nojaBlhyjy Ha 6ap60TwH opHaMeHTY ny'IHOr 06nWKa W3 AH3a6eroBa,
TpoyrnoBa ypaljeHwx TeXHWKOM YTWCKWBalba (wMrrpeco) W3 06pe I W
Konwa, 3aTWM rrperrneTeHe crrwpane y 06nwKy cnOBa S W3 KOHorrlhape,
a nOCToje 'IaK W Mpe)!(e, Koje cy MO)!(/la W Haj'Iewhw rrpwMep KOjW
wnyCTpyje oBaj TpeH/I. Y OBY rpyrry opHaMeHaTa Moryhe je y6pojaTw jow W
KaHenOBaHW 6ap60TwH KOjW ce rrojaBlhyje Ha BenWKOM 6pojy nOKanWTeTa
Ha l1eHTpanHoM EanKaHY. IIope/l nOMeHYTwx BpcTa opHaMeHaTa CBaKaKO
jow rroCToje W /lpyrw MOTHBW KOjW ce rrpwMelbyjy WCKlhY'IWBO Ha rpy60j
rpH'Iapwjw, anw lbWXOBO pa3MaTpalbe 6whe ena60pwpaHo /lalhe y TeKCTY.
II03wTwB-HeraTwB
HapO'IWTO je Ba)!(HO wCTahw CKnOHOCT YMeTHwKa npeMa TeXHWI1W
chiaro-scuro, Koja je /10 ca/la y pa/lOBWMa Ha TeMY CTwna 6wna 3aHeMapeHa,
norOTOBO aKO ce Y3Me y 063HP /la je oBaj Ha'IHH YKpawaBalba BeOMa Ba)!(aH
3a pa3YMeBalbe CHCTeMa cnHKalba.
)J;06po je n03HaTO /la je 6eno cnWKalbe npWnH'IHO H3Y3eTHa nojaBa y
HeonwTY Me/lWTepaHa. )J;HpeKTHa aHanorwja OBOj TexHwl1w YKpawaBalba y
BpeMe OKO 6000. rO/lWHe CTape epe jow YBeK Hwje OTKpWBeHa. 3aHeMapWMO
91
I
1
I
92
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
1 3
\
6
ClI l1Ka 28 - CTeneHaCnt MOTJ1BH J1 ,!l; J1jaroHane Ha paHOHeOJIl1TCKoj rpwlapl1jl1
(1. fpa,!l; HHHKe; 2. JaHJtlu;a; 3, 5· 6. Hea HHKOMeAJ1ja; 4, 8. KOBaqeBO; 9. TIO,u;fOpH)
4
-,
7

CnHKa 29 - fpH'IaPl1ja ca Cll l1KaHI1M yKpacoM 113 Kypyqaja
(npeMa Duru 1995)
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
JIM Ty 'IMlheHMl1Y M rrOrrrel1aMO JIM HeKe 011 KapaKTepMCTM'IHMX OpHaMeHaTa
ca JIOKaJIMTeTa JaHMl1a B, KOBa'leBO l, HeBeCTMHO MJIM AH3a6erOBO
(rr03MTMB-HeraTMB Ta6JIa) MO)!(eMO rrpMMeTMTM l1a cy OpHaMeHTM M3Bel1eHM
TaKO l1a, Ha rrpBM rrOrrrel1, HMje Moryne penM llITa je CJIMKaHM opHaMeHT, a
lIlTa je caMa rrOBplIlMHa rrocYl1e. Haj3aHMMlhMBMjM je MrraK yKpac ca rrocYl1e
M3 JaHMl1e (CJIMKa 27/1). Ha OBOj Ba3M Mary ce BMl1eTM rrpel1CTaBe MOTMBa
y 06JIMKy M311y)!(eHMx JIMCTOBa, M3Y3eTHO rrpel1M3HO M3Bel1eHe y BMI1Y

YKJIOrrlheHMx OI1Ce'laKa Kpyra, OCJIMKaHe TaKO l1a ce Ha OCHOBM y l1pBeHO)
60jM, y HeraTMBY, BMl1e JIMCTOBM 'IMja je OCOBMHa rrOCTaBlheHa rrOI1 yrrroM
011 45°. BeoMa je TelIlKO 3aMMCJIMTM l1a 6eJIa 60ja Koja OMBM'IaBa JIMCTOBe

3arrpaBo rrpel1CTaBlha cal1p)!(a).
OBO HMje ycaMlheHM rrpMMep; CJIM'IHM JIMCTOJIMKM MOTMBM Y
HeraTMBY cpeny ce M Ha rpH'IapMjM M3 PaKMTOBa (HMKOJIOB 2002: T. 91),
lIlTO 110l1aTHO rroTBpl)yje l1a je y mlTalDY HaMepa, a He CJIyqaj.
CJIM'IaH opHaMeHT KOjM ce 3aCHMBa Ha MrpM CBeTJIO-TaMHO MJIM
rr03MTMB-HeraTMB rrOHaBlha ce M Ha rrocYI1M M3 AH3a6eroBa la, rl1e cy
HaCJIMKaHM HM30BM l1MK-l1aK JIMHMja (CJIMKa 2717). 11 OBl1e je TelIlKO penM
lIlTa je 60ja rrpeMa3a, a lIlTa caMor opHaMeHTa. Ha OBOM MeCTY Balha

rrOI1CeTMTM Ha CJIM'IHy TeHl1eHl1M)Y YKpalIlaBalDa Ha rrpMMepMMa TaMHor
CJIMKalDa Ha CBeTJIoj rrOBplIlMHM ca JIOKaJIMTeTa HeBeCTMHO y oyrapcKoj
MJIM aHaJII10JICKMX HaJIa3MlIlTa Kypy'laj l3, MJIM HelIlTO KacHMjer Kypy'laj 11
M XaI,IMJIap V. 'lMHM ce l1a je, Kao y cJIy'lajy iJpyzoz mallaca 6eJIor CJIMKalDa
Ha l1eHTpaJIHOM OaJIKaHY, KOjM 6eJIOM 60jOM rrOHaBlha yKpace KOjM ce
MHa'ie OCJIMKaBajy TaM HOM 60jOM, MJIM rrpMJIMKOM MMMTal1Mje CJIMKaHOr
opHaMeHTa Ha rpy60M rrocyl)y, OBO jOlIl jel1aH l1oKa3 l1a je 3a OBe YMeTHMKe
cal1p)!(aj 3Ha'lajHMjM 011 TeXHMKe KOjOM ce CJIy)!(e. YKOJIMKO ce cal1p)!(aj

opHaMeHTa rrOCMaTpa y OBOM CBeTJIY, HOBM XOPM30HTM M aHaJIOrM)e
ne ce rrojaBMTM rrpel1 HaMa M MO)!(l1a rrOTBpI1MTM, aKO He 6alIl I1MpeKTHy
Be3Y M3Mel)y rrpOCTopHO Yl1alheHMX JIOKaJIMTeTa 3arral1He AHal10JIMje M
OaJIKaHa, OHl1a 6ap IhMXOBO Moryne 3ajeI1HM'IKO rrOpeKJIO.
MOTMBM Y 06JIMKY CTerreHMl..\a
OBaj MOTMB ce y CJIMKaHOM 06JIMKy rrojaBlhyje rOTOBO MCKlhY'lMBO
y ¢a3M paHor HeOJIMTa (ENCB), rl1e ra MO)!(eMO rrpoHanM 011 jyroMcTo'lHe
AJI6aHMje (Ilol1ropM) Ha 3arral1Y OaJIKaHa, rra CBe 110 KOBa'leBa Ha MCTOKY.
IlpeMa TpeHYTHoM cTerreHY MCTpa)!(eHOCTM OBM MOTMBM ce Mory rrpoHanM
M 011 )J;olhe opalheBMHe Ha ceBepy 110 JaHMl1e M Hea HMKOMel1Mje Ha jyry.
Koco rrOCTaBlheHe TaJIaCaCTe JIMHMje, TaK03BaHM TpeMOJIO MOTMB, Mory
93
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
ce rrOBe3an1 ca U;MK-u;aK MOTMBMMa, qeCTO KopMIlIneHMM TOKOM ENCB
M MNCB I ¢a3e OBor rro/lpyqja. ):(06ap rrpMMep OBe Be3e je MOTMB M3
KOBaqeBa (CJIMKa 28/8), Ha KojeM MO)!(eMO BM/leTM KaKO cy /lBa pe/la

CTerreHaCTMX MOT MBa, CaqMlDeHMX 0/1 TpoymoBa crrOJeHMX BpXOBMMa y
• • •
rrpaBOJ JIMHMJM, rrOCTaBlheHa TaKO /la y HeraTMBY OCTaBlhaJY MOTMB U;MK-
u;aK JIMHMje. IloHeKa/l TaKaB MOTMB rroKpMBa u;eJIy rroBpIlIMHY cY/la /10K je
y /lpyrMM rrpMMepMMa OrpaHMqeH Ha ¢pM30Be Y/lBojeHMx U;MK-u;aK JIMHMja
MCJIMKaHMX MCrrO/l 060/la MJIM M3Ha/l /lHa rrocY/le, Kao y cJIyqajy HaJIa3a M3
JaHMu;e.
I
h
CnJilKa 30 - [pwIapJ.1ja ca KypY"Iaja ca reOMeTpJ.1jcKJ.1M MOTJ.1BJ.1Ma
(CTeneHacH1 MOTHB, AHj al'OHanHo nOAelbeHJ.1 KBaApaTt1, Tpt1rnH<pJ.1, npeMa Duru 1995)
CTerreHaCTM MOTMBM ce KOM6MHyjy Ha pa3JIMqMTe HaqMHe M qMHM
ce /la OHM rrpaTe HeKY BM/llhMBy cxeMy. ):(OK 6MCMO 3a CMCTeM BMcenMX
TpoymoBa rrOCTaBlheHMX MCrrO/l 060/la MomM penM /la rrpe/lCTaBlhajy
orrIlITerrpMXBaneHM TpeH/I M 3HaK Y3ajaMHor rrperr03HaBalDa y je/lHOM
/ly)!(eM rrepMO/lY, TO ce He 6M Momo penM M 3a CTerreHaCTe (U;MK-u;aK)
MOTMBe. J1aKo je IlIMPOKO pacrrpOCTpalDeHa, IbMXOBa yrroTpe6a HMje
yHM¢opMHa. '-IMHM ce /la IlITO je BapMjaU;Mja MOTMBa CJI060/lHMja, TO BMIlIe
yKa3yje Ha Moryny ¢yHKU;Mjy rrpeHoca MH¢opMaU;Mje. IlpMJIMqHO qeCTa
je opMjeHTaU;Mja CTerreHaCTor MOTMBa rrO/l ymoM 0/1 45° Y O/IHOCY Ha ocy
rrocY/le (CJIMKa 27 M 28). OBaKaB HaqMH rr03MU;MoHMpalDa CTerreHaCTor
MOTMBa je jOlli yOqlhMBMjM Ha CJIMKaHoj /leKOpaU;MjM M3 3arra/lHe AHa/lOJIMje
(Kypyqaj XMjMK, Xal,IMJIap, CJIMKa 29 M 32), IlITO jOlli je/lHOM MO)!(e 6MTM
apryMeHT y /lOKa3MBalDY 3aje/lHMqKOr rrOpeKJIa yrrpKoc /lpyraqMjoj 60jM
CJIMKalba. J1 y je/lHOM 11 y /lpyroM cJIyqajy CTerreHaCTl1l1JII1 TpeMOJIO MOTI1B
rrOCTaBlheH je Kao /ll1jarOHaJIa KBa/lpaTa CMelliTeHor I1crrO/l 060/la rrocY/le,
IlITO, KaKO 113me/la I1Ma rroce6Ho 3Haqelbe.
94
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
):(aneKM Ol1jeK, MnM jel1aH 011 HaqMHa TpaHC<pOpMal1Mje OBOr MOT MBa
y TpoyrnacTM MOTMB MO)!(e 6MTM rrocYl1a M3 ):(OIhe BpalheBMHe (CnMKa
21/14). Ha lhOj cy y TeXHMI1M rycTo rrOCTaBlbeHMX 6eno cnMKaHMx KarrlbMl1a
rrpel1CTaBlbeHM pOM60BM KOjM Y BepTMKanHMM pe110BMMa, Mel)yco6Ho ce
110l1MpyjynM TeMeHMMa, rroKpMBajy l1eny rroBpllIMHY rrocYl1e. Y HeraTMBY
ce jacHo M311Bajajy CTerreHaCTM MOTMBM Koje Hana3MMO y KOBaqeBY
MnM JaHMI1M B (Chrisostomou 1993a: 123). Tpe6a rroce6Ho HarnaCMTM
M rrocTojalhe ocnMKaHMX BMcenMx TpoyrnoBa Ha MCTOj rrocYI1M MCrrOI1
06011a. OBa TMrronOlliKa KapaKTepMcTMKa rrocYl1e rroKa3yje CnMqHOCTM ca
paHoHeonMTcKoM rpHqapMjoM M3 TecanMje.
Y KacHMjMM <pa3aMa CTapqaBaqKe KynType CTerreHaCTM MOTMB ce
pel)e jaBlba y Cnl1KaHOM yKpacy. Tal1a 110Ml1Hl1pajy TpoyrnOBI1, KOjl1 cy
HajqellIne nOCTaBlbeHI1 I1cnOI1 060l1a nocYl1a jel1HI1M TeMeHOM YCMepeHI1M
HaHI1)!(e. Mel)YTI1M, Ha npl1Mepy eneraHTHe Ba3e Ha KOHl1qHOj CTOrrl1 113
CTapqeBa (Cnl1Ka 25), anl1 11 Ha I1pyrl1M npl1Mepl1l1Ma Cnl1qHOr CTl1na,
BI1I1I1 ce l1a oBaj MOTI1B CaCBI1M nao y 3a60paB, rra je TaKO, HeOqeKI1BaHO,
nOCTao I1CnYHa npoCTopa 113Mel)y BepTMKanHI1X nl1Hl1ja Koje ce cnYllITajy
011 06011a.
CTeneHaCTI1 MOTI1B, KOjM ce qeCTO cpene Kao Cnl1KaHM yKpac Ha
KepaMl1l1M paHor HeOnl1Ta l1eHTpanHor BanKaHa, I1naK ce 3al1p)!(aBa
y opHaMeHTanHOM CI1CTeMY CTapqeBaqKe KynType TOKOM cpel1lher
• •
HeOnl1Ta, anl1 ca nocYl1a npena311 Ha npel1MeTe KOJe 03HaqaBaMO nOJMoM
)!(pTBeHI1K. OHI1 ce acol1l1pajy ca "KynTHI1M pal1lhaMa", 11 qeCTO ce TYMaqe
Kao "pl1TyanHI1 rrpeI1MeTI1". CKOPO l1a HeMa )!(pTBeHI1Ka KOjl1 Ha CBOjl1M
HO)!(l1l1aMa HeMa rrnaCTl1qHO M3Bel1eHe I1nl1 ype3aHe CTerreHl1l1e. I1pl1MepM
rrpel1CTaBlbeHI1 OBl1e rrOTMqy 113 ):(Olhe BpalheBI1He (CnMKa 33/1, 3, 4) M
KOBaqeBa (CnMKa 33/ 5) 11 rropel1 Ben rrOMeHYTMX KOM6l1Hal1l1ja 06n11Ka,
OBM rrpl1Mepl1M cy l1eKOpl1CaHM CTerreHaCTI1M MOTI1BOM.
Jel1aH 011 rrpl1Mepa, KOjM yjel1HO rroKa3yje rroce6aH 3Haqaj MOTI1Ba
CTerreHl1l1a Ha OBOj BpCTI1 rrpel1MeTa je l1eo apXI1TeKType 113 Bp6jaHcKe
'-!YKe, (Mitkovski, Naumov 2008: 10-11). Ha OqYBaHoM yraoHoM l1eny OBe
CTpyKType 113Bel1eHe cy CTerreHl1l1e, 6allI Kao Ha rrpl1Mepl1l1Ma )!(pTBeHI1Ka
113 KOBaqeBa, ):(Olhe BpalheBI1He I1nl1 ):(I1BOCTI1Ha. ):(OCTa qeCTO ce

CTerreHaCTI1 MOTI1B ype3aH y CTpaHl1l1e )!(pTBeHI1Ka JaBlba yrropel10 ca
)!(eHCKI1M norrpcjeM, llITO je aCOl1l1jal1l1ja 0 KOjOj ne HelliTO BI111Ie peql1
6l1Tl1 KaCHl1je y TeKCTY.
J1HTepecaHTHO je l1a cy CTerreHaCTI1 MOTI1BI1, 11 Kal1a ce Cnl1Kajy 11
• •
Kal1a ce ype3YJY YBeK npel1CTaBlbeHI1 Kao l1enOBI1 Jel1HaKOCTpaHl1qHI1X
TpoyrnoBa rrOCTaBlbeHI1X y H113, llITO I1X opraHCKI1 Be3yje 3a cnel1enl1
110Ml1HaHTHl1 Cnl1KaHI1 yKpac, BI1Cene TpoyrnoBe KOjl1 rrpel1CTaBlbajy
95
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
rrraBHM opMaHeHTaJIHM callP)l(aj CTapqeBO - KpMIlI - WBPP - AH3a6erOBO
KOMrrJIeKCa y KacHMjMM ¢a3aMa, CBe 110 rrpell Kpaj cpellfuer HeOJIMTa M
rrojaBe jOlli jellHor M3pa3MTO reoMeTpMjcKor MOTMBa - CrrMpaJIe, Koja he
06eJIe)l(MTM caM Kpaj OBor rrepMolla.
L\MjarOHaJIHe JIMHMje
Ha MOTMB rrpaBMx JIMHMja rrOCTaBlbeHMX rroll yrrroM Oil 45 CTerreHM y

OIlHOCY Ha BepTMKaJIHY ocy rrocYlle, KOJe cy BeOMa qeCTe y paHoM HeOJIMTY
jyroMCTOqHe EBporre, CBaKaKO 6M Tpe6aJIo 06paTMTM rroce6Hy rra)l(fuY.
L\MjarOHaJIHM MOTMB ce qeCTO CJIMKa y rpyrraMa Oil rro TpM M KOM6MHyje ca
BepTMKaJIHMM JIMHMjaMa (Hrrp. JaHMl.\a, Chrisostomou 1993a: 123; CJIMKa
31/1-3). IloHeKall, Kao IlITO je TO CJIyqaj y HaJIa3Y M3 KOBaqeBa (Perniceva
1995: 101) CJIMKajy ce IIMjarOHaJIHo rrOCTaBlbeHe rrpaBe JIMHMje (rroHeKall M
TpM JIMHMje jellHa 110 IIPyre) Koje cy yrrpaBlbeHe y cyrrpoTHMM rrpaBI.\MMa.
OBaj MOTMB MO)l(e 6MTM MHKoprropMpaH y I.\MK-l.\aK MOTMB KOjM Mile OKO
l.\eJIe rrocYlle.
CTpaTMrpa¢cKa rr03MI.\Mja OBor opHaMeHTa cyrepMIlIe paHY
¢a3y ENCB-a. KOM6MHoBafue OBor MOTMBa ca BMcehMM TpoyrrroBMMa
McrrYfueHMM Mpe)l(aCTMM opHaMeHToM (CJIaTMHa, PaKMToBo; HMKOJIOB
2002) KOjM ce HaJIa3e McnOIl 060lla rrocYlle yKa3yje Ha opraHcKY Be3Y
• • •
OBor HaqMHa lIeKOpal.\HJe ca KacHHJoM lIeKOpal.\MJoM 3aCHOBaHOM Ha
TpoyrJIaCTOM MOTMBY H TaM HOM CJIHKafuY. L\HjaroHaJIHe JIHHHje TaKol)e
HarOBelliTaBajy KBallpaTHY IIHcn03HI.\Mjy Koja je, Kao WTO heMO BHlleTH

KaCHMJe, y OCHOBM opHaMeHTaJIHOr CMCTeMa paHor HeOJIMTa.
OpHaMeHT y 06JIMKy MeplleBMHa
OBaj opHaMeHT nojaBlbyje ce HCJIHKaH 6eJIOM 60jOM Ha caMO
HeKOJIMKO JIOKaJIMTeTa Ha qMTaBOM EaJIKaHCKOM rrOJIyocTpBy M M3BeileH
je HCTOM TeXHHKOM Kao H IIPYrH KapaKTepHCTHqHH MOTMBH paHor 6eJIor
CJIHKafua - npe neqefua, 6eJIa 60ja je HaHen Ha I.\pBeHY nOBpwHHy CYlla
Koja je npeTXOIlHO rrraqaHa 1I0K HHje 1I06HJIa nOpl.\eJIaHCKH cjaj. KOJIMKO
HaM je rr03HaTO, oBaj MOTHB ce MO)l(e HahH y AH3a6erOBY (CJIMKa 26/6),
PaKMToBY y EyrapcKoj (HMKOJIOB 2002: T. 9912) M rpMBI.\Y y l.\eHTpaJIHoj
Cp6HjM (Bogdanovic 1995; 2004). 360r reorpa¢cKe H XPOHOJIOWKe
M30JIOBaHOCTM oBaj MOTMB MMa BeJIMKM 3Haqaj 3a rrpahefue rrpoMeHe
y CTMJIy. Y MCTO BpeMe, y PaKMToBY, oBaj opHaMeHT ce nojaBlbyje Ha
96
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n: paTypa Kpyra
HeKOJIMKO <pparMeHaTa, rrpM qeMY je ypal)eH TaKO lIa <pOpMMpa BMCehM
TpoyraO. I1ocTojalbe OpHaMeHTa y 06JIMKy MeplleBMHa Ha rpMBI.\Y
(CJIMKa 22/6) je Ba)!CHO 360r qMlbeHMl.\e lIa je OTKpMBeH y CJIojy KOjM je
Callp)!(aO <pparMeHTe KepaMMKe KOjM cy Ha ce6M MMaJIM 6eJIo CJIMKalbe
• •
ca KarrlbMqaCTMM MOTMBOM, CepM)e BaJIOBMTMX rrapaJIeJIHMX JIMHM)a
(Koje Mory 6MTM M rrOBe3aHe y CTerreHaCTM MOTMB), TpoyrrroBe rrorrYlbeHe
Mpe)!(aCTMM opHaMeHToM. Y PaKMToBY, MOTMB MeplleBMHa ce rrojaBlbyje
yrropello ca MOTMBOM JIMCTOBa Koje HaJIa3MMO Ha JaHMI.\M, Hea HMKoMellejM
M AH3a6eroBY (CJIMKa 26/6). 0pHaMeHT y 06lIl'lKY MeplleBI1Ha, C IIpyre
cTpaHe, rrojaBlbyje ce y PaKMToBY Ha HeKOJIMKO <pparMeHaTa, opraHM30BaH
y 06JIMKy Tpoyrrra MJIM rrOCTaBlbeH IIMjarOHaJIHO rrpeKo roplbe rroBpUlMHe
cYlla (Ha I1CTI1 Haql1H Kao 11 rrapaJIeJIHe rrpaBe I1JII1 BaJIOBMTe JIMHl1je 113
PaKMTOBa, JaHl1l.\e 11 AKCOCa; BI1I1I1 KOII: HI1KOJIOB 2002). CXOIIHO TOMe,
<pparMeHTe M3 rpl1Bl.\a MO)!(eMO I1HTeprrpeTl1paTM Kao lIeo IIMjarOHaJIHO
rrOCTaBlbeHor MOTMBa y 06JIl1KY MeplleBMHa (CJII1Ka 22/6).
I 2
Cm1Ka 31 - MeToncKa, KBap; paTHa OpraHJ13au,l1ja CmtKaHor yKpaca
(1-3 4. AH3a6eroBo)
Ha BehMHM paHOHeOJIMTCKMX JIOKaJIMTeTa Ha lIeJIY
OaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIYOCTpBa cpeheMO, CKOPO rro rrpaBMJIY, 6eJIo CJII1KaHe
MOTMBe opraHM30BaHe y KBailpaTHe MeTorre. OBY TeHlleHI.\Mjy MO)!(eMO
rrpMMeTMTM Ha HaJIa3MMa M3 JaHMl.\e, Hea HMKoMeIlMje, AH3a6erOBa,
KOBaqeBa MTII (CJIMKe 2611, 7 M 28; 31).
MHTepecaHTHo je rrpMMeTMTM lIa je KBallpaT, Kao <popMa peTKo
OCJIMKaH Kao l.\eJIMHa, 28 aJIM je 3aTO qeCTO Ha3HaqeH rr03Ml.\MOHMpalbeM
BepTMKaJIHMX JIMHMja M IIMjarOHaJIa. I10HeKall je rrpMKa3aHa caMO
IIMjarOHaJIHa JIMHMja (KOBaqeBO, JaHMl.\a), IIOK je HajqeIllhe rrpMKa3aH
• •
pell rrapaJIeJIHMX JIMHM)a, KO)e cy rroHeKall BaJIOBMTe, a rroHeKall rrpaBe,
aJIM Kao IllTO TO rr03Ml.\Mja rrpMKa3aHor opHaMeHTa cyrepMIlle, Moryhe
je rrperro3HaTM MeTorrCKY (KBallpaTHY) IIMCII03MI.\MjY. HapOqMTO je
Ba)!(HO MCTahM lIa cy MeTorre opraHM30BaHe TaKO lIa ce yKJIarrajy y 06MM
rrOCYlle rrpM o6ollY. Y CJIyqajy rrOCYlla M3 JaHMl.\e (CJIMKa 31/1 M 3) cTpaHa
28 MentHa, BeJl l1Ka KOlll14l1Ha r pH1.J. apwje CTI1)f(e AO Hac y 0611 l1KY OI T HI1 X <l>parMeHaTa,
peTKO Ka,!1.a Kao u, ene nocyp;e.
97
I
1
I'
3
ClIl1Ka 32 - CTeneHaCTI1 MOTI1BI1, MeTonCKa yKpaca 11 AwjarOHaJIHe lIHHl1je
(1, 2. Kypyqaj; 3-4. XaVHnap)
KBaApaTa rOTOBO je jeAHaKa rrpe'IHI1Ky 060Aa, a Cnl1'IHa TeHAeHI.\I1ja MO)!(e
ce rrpOHanl1 11 Ha Apyrl1M nOKanl1TeTI1Ma OBor KOMrrneKca. OBa BpCTa

opHaMeHTanHe OpraHl13al.\l1Je, OAHOCHO rr03111.\110HI1palhe KBaApaTa y
rrpaBl1nHI1M pa3Mal.\I1Ma 11 KOpenal.\l1ja I1CTI1X ca 0611MOM Kpyra, Kao 11
• •
HarnaweHa Al1jarOHanHa nl1HI1Ja KBaApaTa, rOBope y rrpl1nor rr03HaBalhY

OCHOBHI1X rrpaBl1na reOMeTpl1Je.
C Apyre CTpaHe, KOMrr03111.\I1ja pa3HOBpCHI1X MOTI1Ba, rrorrYT rrpaBI1X,

BanOBI1TI1X 11 Bl1weCTpYKI1X nl1HI1Ja, CTerreHaCTor MOTI1Ba, nl1CTOnl1KOr
MOTI1Ba (y HeraTI1BY) 11 rrojaBa I1CTI1X MOTI1Ba Ha MOAenl1Ma Kyna (rAe cy
TaKol)e Al1jaroHanHo rrOCTaBlbeHe) 113 TIopOAI1Ha (M. Garasarrirr 1979;
OBAe: Cnl1Ka 45), Mal,lapa (CaHeB 1988: T. I, cn. 2, 13; OBAe: Cnl1Ka 4412)
rroTBpl)yjy Be3Y 113Mel)y rrocYAe 11 Kyne 11 Aalbe Kp03 Be3Y AOManer 11
rrpl1rrl1TOMlbeHor.
KBaApaT Kao jacaH KOHl.\errT MOlKe ce rrpaTI1TI1 11 Ha nOKanl1TeTI1Ma y
06JIaCTI1 Je3epa y 3arraAHoj AHaAonl1jl1, rrorrYT XyjY'IeKa, Kypy'Iaj Xl1jl1Ka
I1nl1 Xal,ll1napa (Duru 1995; 1999; Mellaart 1970).29 TIopeA 'Il1lheHl1l.\e Aa
cy KBaApaTI1, 3arrpaBo MeTorrCKe rrpe3eHTal.\I1je rrpl1cyTHe Mel)y Cnl1KaHI1M
• •
opHaMeHTI1Ma KOJe CMO rroMeHynl1, Ba)!(HO Je rroMeHYTI1 aCKol1AHY rrocYAY
113 Xyj'IeKa (Cnl1Ka 34/8), Koja je BeOMa aTl1rrl1'IHa y OAHOCY Ha perrepToap
29 HeAasHo oTKpHhe )KeHCKor rpo6a y MeHTewe, HeAaJleKO OA it1m1nI1Hapa (mill.. KOMYH. ca
J. Roodenberg), ca rpo6HHM np"JT0311Ma y Koje yna3H llocYAa KsaApaTHe oeBose ca AynJlI1M
peAoM ype3aHl1X KsaApaTa ca nOCTaBJbeHI1M Al1jaroHanaMa, TaKotje yKa3yje Ha cI1M6oJlI11.J:HO
3Ha
l
lethe 11 palUHpeHOCT Tor KOHl\enTa.
98
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
'2
1
5
4
6 7
CJl ItI Ka 33 - CTeneHaCTJ..1 Monf BM, KsaApaT J.1 AJllj ar oHallHe Jl J.1Hl'Ije Ha )f(pTBeHJ.1IJ;I1Ma
(1,3,4. ,l1,OI-ba OpaJ-beBJ.1 Ha; 5. KOBaqeBO; 2, 6, 7. Bp6jaHcKa qyKa; )
rrocY,l1a H rrope,l1 cBoje He06wIHe ¢opMe MOlKe 6HTH yrrHcaHa y KBa,l1paT.
KBa,l1paTHa ¢opMa ce rrojaBlhyje H Ha MHHHjaTypHoM CTOllY ca HCTor
llOKallHTeTa (CllHKa 34/7) H Ha je,l1Hoj lKeHcKoj ¢HrypHHH (CllHKa 34/ 6;
Duru 1999: fig. 21, 22).
O,l1HOC KBa,l1paTa H Kpyra je, KaKO H3rJIe,l1a, 6HO 0,l1 BellHKor 3Haqaja,
TaKO ,l1a je OBeKOBeqeH Ha 6pOjHHM lKpTBeHHl.\HMa IllHpOM CTapqeBaqKOr
KylITypHor Kpyra. EpOjHH rrpHMepH rroKa3yjy ,l1a je HajqeIllhe KBa,l1paTHa
OCHOBa lKpTBeHHKa HOCHlla OKPYrJIH pel.\HIIHjeHT. I1oHeKa,l1, Kao Ha
rrpHMepl.\HMa H3 ,1J;OIne EpalDeBHHe (CllHKa 33/ 1, 3, 4), oTKpHBaMo
,l1HjaroHallHe llHHHje ype3aHe HllH MO,l1ellOBaHe Ha ,l10lDOj CTpaHH 6a3e.
I1pHMepaK H3 06pelKa y Cp6HjH (EpyKHep 1960: 18-23) CBe,l10qH 0
,l1yrOTpajHocTH OBor ¢eHoMeHa. OBaj Halla3 je ,l1aTHpaH y BpeMe Kpaja

CTapqeBaqKe KyllType, Te rrOCTO)e MHIlllhelDa ,l1a ce CllalKe H ca rrOqeTKOM
BHHqaHCKe KyllType.
CrreKTaKYllapHH Halla3H H3 JIerreHcKor BHpa (oB,l1e rrpH TOM He
MHCllHM Ha rr03HaTe KaMeHe CKYllrrType, Beh Ha lKpTBeHHKe OTKpHBeHe
99
I 1
6
7
Cm1Ka 34 - KBaApaT Y OCHOBJ.1 opHaMeHTanHor CJ1CTeMa y o6nacTH 0YPAYP, jY)f(Ha
AHaAOJIJllja (XaI,lItlJIap, Kypyqaj, XyjqeK). Ha Cfll1KaMa 5-8. MO)f(e ce BItt,!l;en1,lJ;a ce I1 npe,Il,MeTJ.1
3a cBaKo,o:HeBHY ynoTpe6y, Kao lIITO cy rpy6e rrocy.o:e 3a CKJIa,o:J1lIITelbe, )KpTBeHJ.11.1)1,
<l>l1rypl1He J1 nocYAe TaKorye yKJlanajy Y (HeTeM KBaApaTa.
y HeOnl1TCKI1M cnojeBI1Ma 03HaQeHI1M Kao J1erreHCKI1 Bl1p IIIb), rroKa3yjy
KOnl1KO IW6oKO cy KepaMI1Qapl1 paHor HeOnl1Ta MOrITl1 ):IOMl1l11lbaTI1
arrCTpaKTHe <popMe rrorrYT KBa):lpaTa, KO,-\Ke, c<pepe 11 ):Ipyrwx
TpO):ll1MeH3110HanHI1X 06nl1Ka (Srejovic 1971: T. 12/ 1; OB):Ie: Cnl1Ka 35/1-5).
100
I
' .
'.
1

HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
3

-.
"
Cm1Ka 35 - Mo.o;emt Kyha J.1 "cpPyKHtjepe"
(1 -5. fleneHCKI1 BHP; 6. naAl1Ha; 7. }J,Ol-ba 6palheBl1Ha)

OBaKBe rrocYl\e HMCY ycaMlbeHM rrpMMepI\M Beh MX MMa M Ha IIal\MHM
(JoBaHoBMh 1984; Jovanovic 1987; OBl\e: CJIMKa 35/6), ,[(OlDOj opalbeBMHM
(CJIMKa 35(7), a KaKO M3rJIel\a M Ha OJIarOTMHY.3O IIMTalbe OI\HOCa M3Mel)y
OBMX HaJIa3a ca OHMM M3 Me30JIMTCKor cTpaTYMa JIerreHcKor BMpa,
TaKol)e MO)!(e 6MTM 3aHMMlbMBa TeMa, 0 KOjOj OBl\e HeheMo pacrrpaBlbaTM.
30 DBO 3ana)Kalhe je AOHeTO H3 oCHony YSI1Aa y Heny6mtKOBaHY rpHllapl1jy ca SJlarOTI1Ha.
101
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
OBe rrocYl1e, Koje qeCTO Ha3HBajy H <jJpyKTHjepaMa, rrOCTaBlheHe cy Ha
rrOCTOlhe y 06JIHKy KOl\Ke Koja, HeI1BOCMHCJIeHO, rrpel1CTaBlha rpal)eBHHy/
Kyny. ITocTolha Ha rrpHMepl\HMa H3 JIerreHcKor BHpa H ITal1HHe rOTOBO
cy Hl1eHTHqHa MOl1eJIHMa Kyna H3 MaI)apa y MaKel10HHjH (CJIHKa 44/2).
YKOJIHKO OBY rrocYI1Y rrocMaTpaMo 01103rO, OHa HMa 06JIHK KBal1paTa HaKO
ce 3arrpaBO pal1H 0 HCeqKY c<jJepe rrOCTaBlheHe Ha KOl\Ky.
IT. lIlHajl1ep (Schneider 2002) HarrOMHlhe l1a je "rrpBH KBal1paT"
Mopao 6HTH pe3YJITaT jeI1HOCTaBHor, jacHor e<jJeKTHBHor H e<jJHKacHor
MeTOl1a KOHCTpYKl\Hje: MeTOl1a KOjH je O<jJ0PMHO lheroBY H3BOPHY

reOMeTpH)Y H YCTaHoBHo lheroBY caBplUeHocT Kao HHcTpYMeHT 3a
CBe rrOTOlhe reoMeTpHjcKe H MeTpOJIOlUKe rrOI1YXBaTe. IToCTojalhe I1Be
HCToBpeMeHe KyJITypHe MaHH<jJecTal\Hje, Koje HMajy KBal1paT y OCHOBH

CHCTeMa YKpalUaBalha, H y KO)HMa ce eKcrrepHMeHTHCaJIO ca BHCHHOM

MOTHBa H rroJIyrrpeqHHKOM rrocYl1e, rrOCTaBlheHHM I1H)arOHaJIaMa, rro MOM
MHlUlhelhY, rrpel1CTaBlhajy HrraK HelUTO BHlUe 011 CJIyqajHoCTH. qHlheHHl\a
je, HrraK, l1a rrocToje pa3JIHKe y THrrOJIOrHjH H <jJaKTypH rrocyl)a Ha KojHMa
ce OBH yKpacH CJIHKajy, Kao H TO l1a ce pa3JIHKyje 60ja yKpaca KOjOM ce
CJIHKa y 06JIaCTH OaJIKaHa H AHaI10JIHje. 3a aYToxToHHCTHqKY CTpyjy y
apXeOJIOrHjH HeOJIHTa, nOMeHYTe qHlheHHl\e cy 6HJIe 110BolhaH pa3JIOr
l1a ce 0116al\H MorynHoCT lKHBHX Be3a OBa I1Ba KyJITypHa KOMfmeKca.
MHlUlhelha caM l1a je OCMHlUlheH H pa3pal)eH KOHl\eI1T y qHjeM je l\eHTpy
KBal1paT H lheroB OI1HOC rrpeMa 06HMY OTBopa rrocYl1e, lheHoj BHCHHH H
c<jJepH rrpel1CTaBlha 3HaqajaH eJIeMeHT Ha OCHOBY Kora ce MOlKe H3BplUHTH
rrOBe3HBalhe OBHX <jJeHOMeHa MaKap H Ha Yl1alheHOCTH 011 BHlUe 011 xHlhagy
KHJIOMeTapa.
*
• •
rrpeTXOI1HO pa3MaTpaHHX yKpaca KO)H rrpel1CTaBlhaJY OCHM
HajTHrrHqHHje OI1JIHKe 6eJIor CJIHKalha y paHOM HeOJIHTY jyroHCTOqHe
EBporre (ENCB), rrojaBlhyjy ce H CrrOpal1HqHO rrpHMelheHH MOTHBH, rrorrYT
MOTHBa y 06JIHKy CJIOBa "W" (CJIHKa 28/9). OBaj MOTHB oTKpHBeH je Ha
JIOKaJIHTeTY ITOl1rOPH Kao l1eo yKpaca KOjH je YKJIOrrlheH y CTerreHaCTH
MOTHB (Korkuti 1995). ITopel1 OBor ycaMlheHor cJIyqaja "W" MOTHBa,
BalKHO je rroMeHYTH ymacTH MOTHB rrpel1CTaBlheH Ha rrocYI1H H3 KOBaqeBa
(CJIHKa 28/8) H TaKol)e HarroMeHYTH l1a 6H rrpoyqaBalhe OBHX H30JIOBaHHX
<jJeHOMeHa Momo 6HTH 011 3Haqaja 3a HHTeprrpeTal\Hjy l1eTalha H3 CHCTeMa
YKpalUaBalha. CTerreHHl\e, JIHCTOJIHKH opHaMeHT HJIH TaJIaCaCTe JIHHHje,
"W" H " S" MOTHBH, Kao H CJIHKalhe 6eJIHM TaqKaMa cy l1eo CHCTeMa
YKpalUaBalha KOjH ce jaBlha caMO y TOKY paHor HeOJIHTa. OBH MOTHBH
102
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
• •
HeCTaJY, a ca rrO'IeTKOM Cpe/1IDer HeOmlTa 3aMeIDYJY MX TpoyrnoBM M
KacHMje crrMpane. Cne/1 /10ral)aja rOBopM y KOPMCT rrpeTrrOCTaBKe /1a je
y /10MeHY COl\MjanHor )!(MBOTa Mopano /1otlM /10 HeKe rrpOMeHe Koja je
pe3ynToBana TpaHC<popMMcalDeM CMCTeMa YKpalIlaBalDa. EMno KaKO
6Mno, OBM CMCTeMM HMCY Y3ajaMHo rrOTrrYHO MCKlbY'IMBM M Moryhe je,
Kao lIlTO CMO TO Beh BM/1enM, rrpaTMTM IDMXOBY rrOCTerreHY rrpOMeHY
M pa3Boj. OBO je CBaKaKO Bpe/1HO rrOMeHa, jep ce 'IMHM /1a je y rrMTalDY
je/1Ha <PYH/1aMeHTanHa pa3nMKa M3Mel)y /1Ba CMCTeMa, a TO cy M3Y3eTHOCT
npOTMB YHH<P0PMHOCTH. TIpe06pa)!(aj CHCTeMa MO)!(e ce yO'IHTH Kp03
• • •
rrOCTerreHO rrOJe/1HOCTaBlbMBalDe CMCTeMa YKpalIlaBaIDa, rrOJaBY CMMeTpMJe
M rrOHaBlbalDe opHaMeHaTa. TIpoMeHe Y cTMny He Mory ce HapaBHO
• ••
nOCMaTpaTH H TyMa'IHTH O/1BOJeHO O/1/1PYrHX npOMeHa KOJe ce /1elIlaBaJY
y HeonHTCKHM 3aje/1HHl\aMa. TIoMeHYTa npOMeHa y CHCTeMY YKpalIlaBalDa
Morna 6H YKa3aTH Ha rrepHO/1 nOTnYHor YCBajalDa HeonMTCKor Ha'IMHa
)!(HBOTa H 3aY3MMaIDa O/1pel)eHe TepMTopHje, anH 6H HCTO TaKO Morna
• •
/1a ce npOTYMa'IH Kao nOCne/1Hl\a rrOBpaTHor yTHl\ap 3aJe/1HMl\a ca
ceBepa, Kao lIlTO TO npeTnOCTaBlba M. [aplIlaHMH (1996), a BM/1M ce Y
cnojeBMMa /1eBaCTal\Mje Ha AH3a6eroBY IIII, Ha nOKanMTeTY MaI,IapM HnM
Ha rroCTeneHoj npeBnacTM rpy60r nocyl)a KOjy npaTM l\pHO nMHeapHo

cnMKalDe Kao OCHOBHM TpeH/1 y YKpalIlaBalDY rpH'IapMJe.
JOlIl je/1Ha 'IMIDeHMl\a Koja ce Mo)!(e npMMeTMTM npoy'IaBajyhM paHY
cnMKaHY KepaMMKY EanKaHa jeCTe /1a YMeTHMl\H paHor HeonMTa HMCY 6MnM
orr'IMIDeHM CMMeTpMjoM MnM 6ap y TOM TpeHyTKy HMCY yrroTpe6lbaBanM
CMMeTpMjy rro CBaKY l\eHy. Ba)!(HO je HarnaCMTM /1a ce MOTMBM OBOT rrepMO/1a
rOTOBO YBeK rrojaBlbyjy y pe/10BMMa. TIoHeKa/1 cy opraHM30BaHM y MeTorre,
a rrOHeKa/1 y BM/1Y <ppM3a, anM ce pel)e rrojaBlbyjy M M30nOBaHM MOTMBM.
C /1pyre CTpaHe, He MO)!(e 6MTM rOBopa 0 CTpaxy 0/1 rrpa3HMHe (horror
vacui) yHyTap IDMXOBor CMCTeMa YKpalIlaBalDa. CTpyKTypa Koja /1MKTMpa
TOK opHaMeHaTa je rrOHeKa/1 py6 060/1a, a rrOHeKa/1 CTorra rrocY/1e. OBaKBa
TeH/1eHl\Mja MO)!(e ce rrpMMeTMTM H y YKpalIlaBalDY 06M'IHOr rrocyl)a,
Koje je M3Bol)eHo /1pyra'IMjMM TeXHMKaMa (ype3MBaIDe, YTMcKMBalDe MnM
orpy6lbMBaIDe), lIlTO rOBopM y rrpMnor rrocTojalDY CnM'IHOr, rrpeTXO/1HO
OCMMlIllbeHor, CMCTeMa.
Kao lIlTO cy Beh /1pyrM aHanMTH'IapM M TeOpeTM'IapM rrOTBp/1MnM,
• •
nOTpara 3a 3Ha'IeIDeM, TO JeCT, 3a pa3YMeBaIDeM 3Ha'IelDa rrOJe/1MHMX
MOTHBa je nO/1YXBaT KOjH je, aKO He nOTrrYHO HeMoryh, a OH/1a npHnH'IHO
HecHrypaH. I1rraK, Moryhe je, Kao lIlTO TO 11. XO/1ep cyrepMlIle (Hodder
1982: 175), /10hM /10 peneBaHTHHx 3aKlbY'IaKa Ha OCHOBY noje/1HHHX
eneMeHaTa y TeXHHl\H H ca/1p)!(ajy CHCTeMa YKpalIlaBalDa. AKo ce Y3Me y
063HP CTaHOBHlIlTe /1a CHCTeM YKpalIlaBalDa O/1pa)!(aBa cTHMynHcalDe H
103
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
rrpOBOKal\l1jy I1pYlIlTBeHor )I(l1BOTa (11 06paTHo) (Braithwaite 1982: 87-88
11 l\I1Tl1paHa JII1TepaTypa), OHl1a je Moryne rrperr03HaTI1 TpeHyTKe y Kojl1Ma
• • • •
ce rrpoMeHe y COl\I1)aJIHO) CTpyKTypl1 OI1BI1)a)y 11 HaCJIYTI1TI1 lhl1XOBO
rrOpeKJIO Ha OCHOBY rrpoMeHe y cI1cTeMY YKpalIlaBalha.
31
Y rrepl1ol1Y KOjl1
• • • •
)e HalIla rrpl1MapHa TeMa y OBOM pal1Y, )aBlbaJY ce HeKe 3Ha'la)He rrpoMeHe y
cI1cTeMY YKpalIlaBalha:
• 6eJIo CJII1Kalhe reoMeTpl1jcKl1x MOTI1Ba

• l\pHO CJII1Kalhe reOMeTpl1)CKI1X MOTI1Ba
• l\pHo/ 6eJIo CJII1Kalhe KPI1BOJII1Hl1jCKI1X MOTI1Ba (crrl1paJIe)

• rrOJII1XpOMI1)a
TeK HaKOH l1eTalbHl1je aHaJII13e cTpyKType, a He caMO TeXHI1Ke, oBaj
pa3Boj MO)!(e ce CBeCTI1 Ha CJIel1eny TpaHc<jJopMal\l1jy: KBal1paT-Tpoyrao-
crrl1paJIa.
TIpOY'laBalhe paHO HeOJII1TCKe 6eJIo CJII1KaHe KepaMI1Ke OI1BeJIO
• • •
Hac )e 110 3aKlbY'lKa l1a rrOCTO)e HeKe rrraBHe TeHl1eHl\I1)e y YKpalIlaBalhY
Koje cy y0611'1ajeHe, He caMO 3a HeOJII1T jyrol1cTo'lHe EBporre, Ben 11 3a
rrpeJIa3 paHor y Cpel1lhl1 HeOJII1T 3arral1He AHa110JIl1je. OBO HaM MO)!(e
YKa3aTI1 Ha KOMrrJIeKCHI1 CI1CTeM pa3MI1lIllbalha y KOMe ce CI1M60JII1'1Ka
TpaHc<jJopMal\l1ja rrojaBlbyje Ha BeJII1KOM rrpoCTpaHcTBY HacelbeHOM

rrpBI1M rrOlbOrrpl1Bpel1HI1l\I1Ma 11 Y3ra)I1Ba'lI1Ma cToKe, a orrrella ce,
rroHajrrpe, y eJIa60pal\l1jl1 reOMeTpl1jCKl1x rrpI1Hl\l1rra.
31 OBAe ce OrpaHI11.faBaMO Ha nocMaTpalhe caMO OCJl l1 KaHe KepaMI1Ke, AOK he HeKI1 6YAyhl1
paA 6HTl1 nocBeheH I1 CTOBpeMeHoM CBa KOAHeBHOM nocyljy YKpaweHoM ype3l1BalbeM,
WTl1nalheM, I1MnpeCO, 6ap6oTl1H H Apyn1M TeXHMKaMa AeKOpall,l1je KapaKTepHCTl1
t
IHl1M 3a
oBaj TI1 n nocylja.
104
HeOlIMTCKe reoMeTpMje
Y KOHTeKCTY pa3MaTpalba rrpWHIVlIIa HeOnWTCKe reOMeTpwje rrohw
heMO 01\ CWCTeMa YKpallIaBalba KOjW je W3Bel\eH Ha rrocYI\W W3 JaHWl\e
(CnwKa 31/1). Balba 06paTwTw rra)!(lbY Ha BWCWHY MOTWBa. OHa je rOTOBO
Wl\eHTW'IHa rronyrrpe'IHwKy 060l\a rrocYl\e. TOKOM rrepWOl\a paHor HeOnWTa
y BeheM I\eny DanKaHCKor rronYOCTpBa MO)!(e ce rrpWMeTWTW CnW'IHa
CTpaTerwja Y Ol\pe!jwBalbY BWCWHe YKpallIeHe rrOBpllIWHe rrocYl\e, TaKO I\a
ce He 6w Morno pehw I\a je Y rrWTalbY cnY'IajHocT. KaKO 6w ce Ha rrpaBW
Ha'IWH YKpacwna rrocYl\a O'IWrneI\HO je 6wno HeOrrXOI\HO rr03HaBaTW

OCHOBe reOMeTpWJe.
L\a 6w ce rrpWKa3ana KOMnneKCHOCT OBaKBor Ha'IWHa pa3MWllIlbalba
npe3eHTwpao 6wx jel\HO 01\ MWllIlbetba 0 pellIaBalbY Tpal\WQWOHanHor
MaTeMaTW'IKOr np06neMa KBal\pWpalba Kpyra.
32
AKO ce 3aMWllIlbeHW Kpyr
rrpe'IHWKa 1 pOTwpa 3a 180
0
OHl\a he nWHwja w3Me!jy Ta'IKe A W Ta'IKe B
6wTH jel\HaKa 6pojy 11:. AKO HaQPTaMo rronyKpyr rrpe'IHWKa AC=AB+1 W

nOBY'IeMO nWHwJY 01\ QeHTpa l\eCHOr Kpyra I\OK He rrpece'Ie nonYKypyr Y
Ta'IKW D, OHl\a 1\06wjaMo cnel\ehy jel\HaKOCT ABxBC= BD2, llITO pellIaBa
rrp06neM KBal\pWpalba Kpyra jep je AB=n W BC=l (CnwKa 36). DW3apHa
'IWlbeHWl\a je I\a nocYl\a W3 JaHWl\e KOjy CMO Y3enw y pa3MaTpalbe (CnwKa
31/1), WMa 0601\ Wl\eHTW'IaH Kpyry rrpe'IHWKa AC, a I\WMeH3wje MeTorre cy

Wl\eHTW'IHe Ha rrpeTXOI\HO orrwcaHW Ha'IWH W3Bel\eHOM KBal\paTY, I\OK Je
CTorra rrocYl\e Wl\eHTW'IHa Kpyry rronyrrpe'IHWKa l.
CaCBWM je jacHo I\a HeonWTCKW KepaMW'IapW HWCY 6wnw CBeCHW
OBe I\wneMe y rope HaBel\eHoj cj>OpMW, Te HWCY Ol\nY'IWBanW 0 BWCWHW
opHaMeHTa caMO 360r arrCTpaKTHor reoMeTpwjcKor rrp06neMa. Ca I\pyre
CTpaHe, jacHo je W I\a cy I\peBHw rpH'IapW WManw 036wlbaH rrp06neM
rroKYllIaBajyhw I\a Hal\pTajy KBal\paT 'Iwja je CTpaHWl\a jel\HaKa rrpe'IHwKy
32 A. Bogomolny, Squaring the Circle from Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles
http: //www.cut· the·knoLorg/impossible/sq_circle.shtml
105
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
c
A
CJntKa 36 - JeAaH op; Ha1.U1Ha pelliaBafua KBap;paType Kpyra y aHHIQKO Ao6a
nOCYlle, 6e3 lIa OCTaBlhajy npa3aH npoCTOp H3Mel)y KBallpaTa H MeTona.
OBaj pacnopeil BepOBaTHO He 6H 3acnY)!(HBaO na)!(lhY lIa je Kpyr (Ha OBHM
npHMepHMa 03Ha'ieH Kao 06011 nocYlle) nOllelheH jellHocTaBHo Ha 4, 8 HnH
16 cerMeHaTa. MeI)YTHM, y cny'lajy nocYlla H3 JaHHl.\e, PaKHToBa, Kypy'laja
H JOIII HeKHX Hana3HIIITa, MO)!(eMO BHlleTH lIa je npellcTaBlheHo 6 MeTona,
IIITO 3Ha'iH lIa je 6Hno nOTpe6Ho n03HaBaTH MHoro BHIIIe Oil jellHocTaBHe
lIe06e Kpyra Ha IIBa (4 HnH 8) lIenOBa. BepHTHKanHe nHHHje nOCTaBlhaHe cy
H3Mel)y KBallpaTa (noHeKall IIBe HnH TpH), nOMarane cy lIa ce KOMneH3yje
HeMorynHocT npHMeHe rope HaBelleHe jellHa'lHHe KopHcTenH ce HnH
anre6apcKHM HnH reoMeTpHjcKHM MeTOllaMa (CnHKe 29 H 30).
BHIIIe npHMepa pa3palle reoMeTpHjcKHx npopa'lyHa MO)!(e ce HanH
Ha nocYllaMa H3 TIOI\TOPH Y An6aHHjH, H ,i'\olhe opalheBHHe H Marapener
MnHHa y Cp6HjH (CnHKe 22/4, 11, 14; 23/4 H 37/1). Ha CBHM OBHM nocYllaMa
• •
rpH'Iap Je Mopao Bpno npel.\H3HO npellBHlleTH IIHMeH3HJe CBaKor Tpoyrna,
y 3aBHCHOCTH Oil 06nHKa nocYlle. Y I.\Hlhy npHMeHe OBe lIeKOpal.\Hje -
rile I..\pBeHH H 6enH TpoyrnoBH y npaBHnHoM pHTMy nOKpHBajy I..\eny
• •
rrOBpIIIHHY rrocYlle - rrpopa'lyH Je Mopao CTapTH y Be3H ca rrpe'lHHKOM
060lla rrocYlle, ca c<jJepH'IHHM 06nHKoM rrocYlle H rrpe'lHHKOM IIHa rrocYlle.
Oil Herrp0l.\elhHBe BpellHOCTH 3a pa3YMeBafbe reoMeTpHjcKHx rrOCTaBKH
OBor BpeMeHa je Mana I.\HnHHllpH'IHa nocYlla oTKpHBeHa y JaHHI.\H (CnHKa
37/2). OHa, 3anpaBO, MO)!(e 6HTH rrOCMaTpaHa Kao reoMeTpHjcKa Be)!(6a.
'IHHH ce lIa je lIeKOpal..\Hja Ha rrocYIIH He3aBpIIIeHa, Kao lIa je rpH'Iap
6HO npeKHHyT y TpeHyTKy nOCTaBlhalha Mpe)!(e TpoyrnoBa, KOjH ne
KacHHje 6HTH HcnYlheHH 60jOM. UHnHHIIPH'IHH 06nHK OBe nocYlle HHje
cTaHllapllaH 3a oBaj nepHolI, anH je rpH'Iapy, O'lHrneIlHO, 6HO norollaH
106
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
rrpw w3Bol)elbY KOMrrnWKOBaHOr u;pTe)Ka. rrpWMepW W/1eHTWqHWX
reoMeTpwjcKWX W/1eja Mory ce Hahw y Kypyqajy, XyjqeKy W XaI.mnapy
(CnwKe 29 W 30).
Ho W /1albe oCTaje rrWTalbe 3aIIITO cy /1peBHW rpHqapW w3a6panw
• •
reoMeTpwJY Kao /1eKOpaTwBHw CTaH/1ap/1 y YKpaIIIaBalbY CBOJWX
perrpe3eHTaTwBHwx /1ena? nw je TO CaMO perrnWKa /1eKOpau;wje W3Be/1eHe
Ha HeKWM /1pyrwM rrpe/1MeTWMa KaO IIITO cy KOIIIape wnw TKalbe, r/1e cy
reoMeTpwjcKW MOTWBW rrpe/10/1pel)eHw BPCTOM MaTepwjana W CTpyKTypOM
caMOT rrpe/1MeTa (Cootner 1990)? CTaB rrpOTWB W/1eje /1a cy eneMeHTW
• •
/1eKOpaTWBHor CWCTeMa rrpe/1CTaBlbeHW Ha paHOHeonWTCKOJ rpHqapWJW
rrpey3eTw 0/1 TKalba, 3acTyrra M. ManeT, Koja CMaTpa /1a ce caMO HeKonWKO
yKpacHwx eneMeHaTa ca KepaMWKe W3 cpa3e XaI,mnap V, MO)Ke Be3aTW 3a
TpaKaCTO TKaHe Tarrwcepwje W3 eTHOrpacpCKe rpal)e W3 AHa/10nwje. OHa
/1albe Wcmqe /1a cy ,,60jeHw rrpeceu;w rropel)aHw BepTwKanHo W 6pojHe
CTwcHYTe BepTwKane W /1wjaroHane yrrpaBo OHW 06nwu;w Koje WCKYCHW
TKaqW Tarrwcepwja HacToje y Haj60lbeM cnyqajy w36ehw" (Mallet 1994: 10-
25).
To 6w HaBO/1wnO Ha 3aKlbyqaK /1a ce W3a OBaKBor ene60pwpalba
• •• •
reoMeTpwJcKe /1eKOpau;wJe KPWJY HeKW /1pyrw MOTWBW KOJW cy MHOro
CHa)KHwjw 0/1 lbWXOBe eCTeTWKe. rIo MOM MWIIIlbelbY Moryhe je pacrrpaBlbaTw
o acpwHwTeTwMa rrpeMa KOMrrnWKOBaHWM reoMeTpwjcKwM rrpOpaqyHwMa
ca KBa/1paTWMa cnWKaHWM Ha KepaMwu;w BenwKwx je3epa (Lake District) W
u;eHTpanHor EanKaHa, rrpe/1CTaBlbeHwM Ha )KpTBeHWu;wMa, Ka/1WOHwu;aMa
W MO/1enWMa Kyha. Kao HajyBeplbwBwje 06jaIIIlbelbe 3a oBaKBY CKnOHOCT
Balba ce rrpwceTwTw Tpa/1Wu;wja rpa/1lbe Kyha C rrOqeTaKa HeonWTa, W3
•• •
30He rrpwMapHe HeonwTw3au;wJe wnw JOIII rrpeu;w3HwJe W3 lbeHor ceBepHor
/1ena. CaBpIIIeHo rrOCTaBlbeHW KaMeHW TeMelbW Kyha y qajeHw (<;:ayiinii),
y AHa/10nwjw y rrpeKepaMWqKOM HeonwTY wnw rycTo HacelbeH rpa/1 ca
CTOTWHaMa rrpaBoyraoHwx rrpocTopwja W3 AIIIwKnw XwjwKa
Hiiyiik) rOBope yrrpaBo 0 3Haqajy Mepelba W rrOIIITOBalba reoMeTpwjcKwx
rrpaBwna. C /1pyre cTpaHe, rrocBeheHocT /10MY W lberOBWM 6nar0/1aTWMa
Mopana je 6WTW WCTwu;aHa W cnaBlbeHa 0/1 cTpaHe TeK Ce/1eHTapW30BaHwx
3aje/1HWu;a. Anw aKO ce ceTWMO /1a je 0/1 CBWX 6nar0/1aTW rrpenacKa

Ha ce/1enaqKW HaqWH )KWBOTa W HOB HaqWH rrpO/1yKU;WJe xpaHe, paCT
rrorrynau;wje HajBa)KHwjw W HajeBW/1eHTHwjw, a TWMe W MHoro Beha IIIaHca
• •
3a O/1raJalbe 3/1paBOr rrOTOMCTBa, MopaMO ce CnO)!(WTW /1a Je HeonWTCKW
New Deal WMao MHoro BWIIIe YTwu;aja Ha )KeHCKW Hero Ha MyIIIKW /1eo
rrorrynau;wje. JaCHO je /1a je y rrpou;ecy HeonWTw3au;wje )!(eHa /106wna
KlbyqHY ynory y /1oMahwHCTBY. lheHe HOBe 06aBe3e cy 6wne YCMepeHe Ha
yrrpaBlbalbe /1oMahwHCTBOM, rrpwrrpeMy W CKna/1WIIITelbe xpaHe, 6pwry
107
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
2
CmtKa 37 - TlocTynaK H npopa'-lyHH npH YKpalllaSaH>Y rpH'-IapHje
ca nOl\rop", JaHI1l1e 11 Kypyqaja (l1pTelK 11 aHanl13a H.H. Tacl1n 11 C. 1jYP"qln)
108
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
• •
3a l\elW M CTapM)e Te OpraHM3aU;M)y I\pYIlITBeHOr )!(MBOTa yHyTap 1\0Ma
M Hacelba. Ol\jel\aHrrYT OHa je rrOCTana HeKO KO I\OHOCM Ol\nYKe. TOKOM

IlIe31\eCeTMX rOI\MHa rrpOIlInor BeKa BpIlIeHO )e rrpOMaTpalDe rrpou;eca
Cel\eHTapM3aU;Mje XyTMja (Houttu), nOBa'lKo-caKyrrlba'lKe 3ajel\HMu;e M3
jY)!(He BeHeu;yene. M. MenHMK (Melnyk 1993: 2) Hac 06aBeIlITaBa I\a je
rrpMnMKOM rrpenaCKa Ha cel\ena'lKM Ha'lMH )!(MBOTa yrrpaBo )!(eHa MMana
6MTHy ynory y 1\0HOIlIeIDY l\aneKOCe)!(HMX Ol\nYKa rro rrMTalDY 6Yl\ynHoCTM.
EpojHe HeonMTCKe )!(eHCKe qmrypMHe Be3aHe 3a domus KaKBe OTKpMBaMO
Ha EanKaHY M y AHal\omljM, M3rnel\a I\a nOTBpljyjy oBaj HOBOCTe'leml
CTaTYC )!(eHe.
IlpeMa K. BMTenM (Vitteli 1999: 184 M I\albe) BepoBaTHo je I\a je
rpH'IapCTBO 6Mno jel\Ha 01\ HeKonMKO aKTMBHOCTM M MHTepeca Koje je
)!(eHa CTeKna y OBOM pa31\06lbY. J1aKo ce M OBOM CTaHOBMIlITY MO)!(e
npMnMcaTM CHa)!(HO npel\y6eljeIDe (bias), YBepeH caM I\a je, Kao H y
cny'lajy TKalDa, npHpOl\a rpH'IapCKOr 3aHaTa nOrOI\OBana oc06aMa Koje cy
ynyneHe Ha Kyny, OI\HOCHO Cel\eHTapHH Ha'lHH )!(HBOTa. AKO je OBO 3aHCTa
6HO cnY'laj, OHl\a je opHaMeHTanHM CHCTeM paHoHeonHTcKe rpH'IapHje
HajBepoBaTHHje 6MO YMeTHH'IKa eKcrrpecHja 1\0ManHu;e Kyne. OTYl\a
npoM3na3M I\a u;enH cMM60nM'IKH CHCTeM ca'lYBaH Ha cjJparMeHTHMa
KepaMMKe ca KBal\paTMMa H KpyroBHMa, U;MK-u;aK MOTHBHMa M CnO)!(eHOM
• • •
reOMeTpH)OM, Ha)BepOBaTHH)e npel\CTaBlba )!(eHCKH paU;HoHanHH,
H HanocneTKY, eMoU;HoHanHH M3pa3, KOjM Bpel\Hyje Ml\ejy domusa H
cel\ena'lKOr Ha'lMHa )!(MBOTa. CHara OBe Ml\eje, BM3yenM30BaHa Kp03
• • ••
KBal\paTe, KpyroBe M reOMeTpM)Y, eBHl\eHTHa )e 'IHlDeHHu;a KOP rroKa3y)e

I\a ce Ta Ml\e)a paIlIMpHna rrpeKO KOHTHHeHaTa H 3al\p)!(ana 1\0CTa I\yro.
IlpMKnoHMnH ce OBOM MMIlIlbelDY HnH He, 'IMlDeHMu;a je I\a je rrpel\ HaMa
CHM60nH'IKM CHCTeM 3a6ene)!(eH Ha rpH'IapMjM I\Be Yl\albeHe perMje KOjH

HaM rrpel\O'laBa arrCTpaKTHO MMIlIlbeIDe KO)e cy Tal\aIlIIDH lbYI\M 1\0CernH.
TaKolje, rroKa3yje KonMKO je OBaKaB Ha'lMH pa3MMIlIlbaIDa yTHu;ao Ha
IDMXOB rrpocrrepHTeT.
IlpoMeHa I\HBlber y rrHToMo, rrpMpOI\HOr y KynTypHo, CBaKaKO je
Ba)!(aH CHM60n, HapO'lHTO Ha rro'leTKY HeonHTCKor Ha'lHHa )!(MBlbelDa.
CBel\O'laHCTBO I\a TM rrO'leU;H HHCY 6HnH 6e3 MYKe, Tj. I\a HMCY 6MnM
naraHM, cy 6pojHa Hacelba KpaTKor BeKa IlIMpOM perMoHa KOjH CMO
nocMaTpanH, anH HCTO TaKo, Ty cy H CTpaTHrpacjJCKH nOl\aU;H ca Hacelba
THrra Ten y TecanHjH H MaKeI\OHHjH. 3a XOl\epa (1990: 45) H BHTenH (1999:
184-198) npOH3BOl\IDa KepaMHKe npel\CTaBlba npoMeHY H3 I\HBlber y
rrHTOMO, npoMeHY rnHHe y 06jeKaT H3 1\0ManHHcTBa - domus proprie dicti
- YBoljelDe penepToapa KOjH He caMO I\a npel\CTaBlba HeonHTCKH Ha'lHH
pa3MHIlIlbalDa, Ben ra H TBOpH. OBa Be3a CTaBlba HarnacaK Ha 3Ha'ieIDe
109
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
YJIore )!(eHe y TOM rrpOl\ecy. MHTeprrpeTal\Mja 06JIMKa KepaMMKe M fueHO
YKpaIIlaBafue cy TaKol)e 3HaqajHM y CBeTJIY rrOTpare 3a 3HaqefueM KOjM cy
06jeKTM M3 ,J:IOMatlMHCTBa MMaJIM, HMIIlTa Mafue O,J:I 06nerrlbeHMX JI06afua
M3 JepMXOHa MJIM O,J:I caxpafuMBafua MCrrO,J:I rrO,J:IOBa Kyha. HarrocJIeTKY,
qeTBpTaCTa rrocY,J:Ia M3 MeHTeIIle ( M e r r t e ~ e ) y KOHTeKCTY caxpafuMBafua
)!(eHCKe MH,J:IMBM,J:Iye HarnaIIlaBa JOIIl BMIIle OBY TBp,J:Ifuy (l\MTMpaHO rrpeMa
Thiessen 1999).
YKOJIMKO je XO,J:Iep y rrpaBY, Ha YKpaIIleHMM rrocY,J:IaMa paHor
HeOJIl1Ta l\eHTpanHor oanKaHa, CaqYBaHa HaM je HeIIlTO cKpaheHa Bep3Hja
rrpMpyqHMKa 3a yrr03HaBafue ca O,J:IHOCMMa domus/agris, rrMTOMO/,J:IMBlbe,
KyJITypa/rrpMpO,J:Ia M qaK ce,J:IenaqKO/HOMa,J:ICKO. Ha,J:IaM ce ,J:Ia caM Ha OBOM
MeCTY y Taj npupY'iHUK ycrreo ,J:Ia ,J:IO,J:IaM HeKonMKO HOBHX CTpaHHl\a.
BepOBaTHO HHje My,J:IpO OqeKHBaTH ,J:Ia he ,J:IOKa3 3a KyJITypHe Be3e
H3Mel)y rrorryJIal\Hja OaJIKaHa H AHa,J:IOJIHje OCTaTM caMO Ha M,J:IeHTHqHOCTM
60je KOjOM cy rrocY,J:Ie CJIMKaHe, HJIH Ha CKJIOHOCTM rrpeMa o,J:IroBapajyheM
THrry rrpHMece y rnHHH H 06JIMKa rrocy,J:Ie. AJIH TO cy CBaKaKO eBH,J:IeHTHe H
jacHe MH,J:IMl\Mje Koje ce He Mory 3aHeMapMTM. C ,J:Ipyre CTpaHe, MCTOBeTHM
• •
HaqMH pa3MMIIllbafua KOJM ce O,J:Ipa)!(aBa y aHaJIOrHOM reOMeTpMJCKOM
•• •
YKpaIIlaBafuY KepaMMKe, M KOJM caM HaCTOpo OB,J:Ie ,J:Ia MJIYCTpYJeM, MO)!(e

ce rrOTBp,J:IMTM Ha MCTOBpeMeHMM apXeOJIOIIlKMM HaJIa3MIIlTMMa KOJM cy
Mel)yc06HO y,J:IalbeHM BMIIle O,J:I XMlba,J:Iy KMJIOMeTapa. To roBOPM y KOPMCT
rroCTojafua 3aje,J:IHMqKe KyJITypHe M CMM60JIMqKe c¢epe. Oy,J:IyhM Kpajfue
arrcTpaKTHa, OBa KOMrrJIeKCHa M MCl\prrHa M,J:IeOJIOIIlKa IIleMa BepOBaTHO ce
HMje Morna rrpeHeTM Ha ,J:IpyrM HaqMH OCMM Bep6aJIHO, IIlTO MH,J:IMl\Mpa ,J:Ia
je 3HaqajaH CTerreH Bep6aJIHe M CMM60JIMqKe KOMYHMKal\Mje Mel)y OBMM
• •
3aJe,J:IHMl\aMa Mopao rrOCTOJaTM.
110
Y CymTHHH CBaKe rrepHO/lH3al\Hje je rroKymaj /la ce BpeMe
KaTeropH3yje H CTaBH y OKBHpe ca rrOCe6HHM HMeHOM. OBH OKBHpH
6H Tpe6aJIo /la 6yllY y CKJIa/lY ca O/lrOBapajynHM rrOJIO)!(ajHMa OCTaJIHX
BpeMeHCKHX HCeqaKa. IIlTaBHwe, ycrroCTaBlbalbe O/lHOCa H3Mel')y
• •
BpeMeHCKHX O/lCeqaKa Je H CMHCaO rrepHO/lH3al\HJa H CBHX XPOHOJIOWKHX
CHCTeMa. qHlbeHHl\a /la cy <j>a3e, rrO/l<j>a3e, KyJITYPHH XOPH30HTH H
• •
XPOHOJIOWKe CeKBeHl\e KOHCTPYKT apXeOJIOra KOJH rroKymaBaJY /la y
rrpHKyrrlbeHH MaTepHjaJI yHecy pe/l H oMoryne rropel')elbe, Tpe6aJIo 6H /la HaC
06aBe3yje /la y CBaKOM TpeHYTKy 6Y/leMO crrpeMHH /la cBoja (rrpe/l)y6el')elba
• •
YKJIOHHMO rrpe/l yqeCTaJIOM rrOJaBOM HOBHX /lOKa3a HJIH /lpyraqHJHX
rrpOMHWlbalba rrocTojenHX. 3a OBaKBO rrOHawalbe y rrpOWJIOCTH HHje
6HJIO rrpeBHwe CKJIOHOCTH, rra CMO 6HJIH CBe/lOl\H yrropHor HCTpajaBalba
• •
Ha Je/lHOM rrOCTaBlbeHHM H rrpOMHWlbeHHM KOHCTpYKl\HJaMa, BHwe Hero
WTO CMO 6HJIH crrpeMHH /la HX O/l6al\HMO H rrOCTaBHMO HOBe. I1oHeKa/l ce,
HrraK, 3a OBO MO)!(e HanH pa3YMeBalba. I1pHMepa pa/lH, KarrHTaJIHO /leJIO B.
MHJIojqHna Chronologie der jungere Steinzeit Mittel- und Sudost-Europas
06jaBlbeHo je 1949. rO/lHHe, HCToBpeMeHo K ~ a je B. JIH6H (W. Libby) Y
qHKary 06jaBHo pe3YJITaTe CBOjHX eKcrrepHMeHaTa /lan!palba Ha OCHOBY
paH/lHOaKTHBHor yrlbeHHKa C14 (Arnold, Libby 1949), WTO ne H3 KopeHa
rrpoMeHHTH HaqHH Ha KOjH CMO ce 6aBHJIH rrpaHcTopHjoM. HHje, CTora, HH
qY/lo KOJIHKO cy OBe /lBe KlbHre YTHl\aJIe Ha <j>opMHpalbe reHepal\Hja, He
caMO cprrCKHX, apxeOJIora H lbHXOBHX CTaBOBa. PeJIaTHBHO XPOHOJIOWKH
• • •
O/IHOCH, KOJe Je Ha OCHOBY aHaJIOrHJa, HMrropTa H TeMelbHor rrpoyqaBalba
YTBp/lHO MHJIojqHn, 6HJIH cy y6e/llbHBH 3a Tpa/lHl\HOHaJIHO 06pa30BaHe
apxeOJIore, /10K je HOB MeTO/l /laTOBalba MaxOM rrOHeo MJIal')e reHepal\Hje
cprrCKHX apxeOJIora. Y CBaKOM crryqajy Ben 0/1 OBor BpeMeHa <j>opMHpajy
ce /lBe rpyrre CTpyqlbaKa Koje ne ce KacHHje /lO/laTHO paCJIojHTH H rrpeMa
rrHTalbHMa rrOpeKJIa HeOJIHTCKHX KyJITypa Ha l\eHTpaJIHOM OaJIKaHY.
III
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
MO)!(l1a 6M OBaKBO 06jailIlhelDe, Koje he 110l1aTHO 6MTM pa3MOTpeHO
• •
HeWTO KaCHH)e, Morno l1a OCBeTnH M '1HlDeHHQY l1a )e, H nocne HH3a
rOI1MHa TepeHcKHx MCTpa)!(HBalDa, 06pal1e H npoY'laBalDa npoHal)eHor
• •
MaTepM)ana, nocne MHorMX KlDMra M '1naHaKa KO)M y CBOM HacnOBY

cal1p)!(e nOJaM CTap'leBa'lKa KynTypa, OHa M l1albe He 1103BOlbaBa l1a caCBMM

npeQM3HO M nOY311aHO YTBPI1MMO CBe OHO WTO Hac MHTepecy)e y Be3M ca

lDeHMM HaCTaHKOM, Tpa)alDeM M pacnpOCTMpalDeM, a norOTOBO ca lDeHMM
• •
yHyTpawlDMM YCTPO)CTBOM M nepM0I1M3aQM)OM.
,[(Ol1aTHM np06neM, KOjM ce nOKa3ao Kao rOTOBO HenpeMocTMB
110 06jaBlbMBalDa Hana3a ca AH3a6erOBa, cy jel1HOcnojHa Hana3MWTa
• •
KO)a npel1CTaBlbaJY rnaBHY KapaKTepMcTMKY paHor M cpel1lDer HeonMTa
l.\eHTpanHor oanKaHa. OI1CYCTBO MCTpa)!(eHOr M 1106po ny6nMKoBaHor
BMwecnojHor Hacelba Koje je )!(MBenO Kp03 BMwe ¢a3a y l.\eHTpanHoj
06nacTM CTap'leBa'lKe KynType '1MHMna je l1a MCTpa)!(MBa'lM onepMwy MnM
ca Man06pojHMM Hana3MWTMMa Ha KojMMa ce l1enMMM'IHO npeKnanajy I1Be
¢a3e MnM l1a cBoje rrepM0I1M3al.\Mje cTBope Ha OCHOBY CTMnCKO-TMrrnOWKMX

aHanH3a rpH'IapH)e.
I1MTalDMMa rrepM0I1M3al.\Mje CTap'leBa'lKe KynType 6aBMnM cy
• •
ce MHorM ayTopM M CBaKO )e Ha CBO) Ha'lMH rrpoMMwlbao M cBpcTaBao
'1HlDeHMQe 110 KOjHX ce TOKOM BpeMeHa 110na3Hno. Ha OBOM MecTY 6Hhe
nOMeHYTM caMO HeKM 0l1lDMX: B. MMnoj'lMh,,[(. ApaHl)enoBMh-fapawaHMH,
M. fapawaHMH C. ,[(MMMTpMjeBMh, ,[(. CpejoBMh, P. EpMx (R. Ehrich), X.
TOl1opoBa M ayTop OBHX pel10Ba. Y Ol1pel)eHoM TpeHyTKy, CBaKO 011 Hac
l1ao je CBOj 110rrpMHOC pa3YMeBalDY rrp06neMa HajpaHMje Kynrype HeOnMTa
Ha OBMM rrpocTopMMa.
XpoHonowKM CHCTeM B. MHnoj'lMha (1949), KOjHM je oTBopeHo
rrMTalDe nepM0I1M3al.\Mje CTap'leBa'lKe KynType pal)eH je y Ka6MHeTcKMM
ycnoBMMa Ha rpH'IapMjM rrpMKyrrlbeHoj TOKOM MCTpa)!(MBalDa M. fp6Mha
1928. M B. <PjyKca (V. Fewkes) M P. EpHxa 1932. Ha errOHHMHOM Hana3MwTY
y CTap'leBY. lheroBM pe3ynTaTM yKa3yjy Ha TO l1a je rrocTojano O'leKMBalDe
• •
MnH Hal1a l1a )e Ha TOM nOKanMTeTY 3acTyrrlbeH l.\eo pa3BO) OBe KynType.
TaKo je cal1P)!(aj HajHM)!(HX cnojeBa npaHcTopHjcKor xyMyca H jaMa 6e3
cnMKaHe KepaMMKe rrocnY)!(MO 3a l1e¢MHMCalDe HajpaHMje ¢a3e CTap'leBa'lKe
KynType, me cy ywnM CBM 06nMl.\M M CBM Ha'lMHM YKpawaBalDa rpy6e
KepaMHKe. ,[(e¢HHHcalDe jel1He ¢a3e, y OBOM cny'lajy nO'leTHe, Koja
Tpe6a l1a ce OI1HOCM Ha Qeny Kynrypy, Ha l.\enoj lDeHoj rroBpwMHM, HMje
M3B0l1lbMBO Ha OCHOBY cal1P)!(aja rrpaMcTopMjcKor xyMyca M jaMa 6e3
cnHKaHe KepaMHKe. YKonHKo je OBO BHl)elDe B. MHnoj'lHha Ta'lHO, HnaK
ra Tpe6a rrpMrrMcaTM rrpe CBera lDeroBoj apxeonowKoj MHTyMl.\MjM, a MalDe
enaKTHMM '1MlDeHMQaMa. Tpe6a CBaKaKO MMaTM y BMI1Y l1a je y BpeMe Kal1a
112
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
je oBaj XPOHOJIOlliKH CHCTeM CTBOpeH 6HO Ha paCrrOJIaraInY peJIaTHBHO
MaJIH 6poj CTapqeBaqKHX JIOKaJIHTeTa, a ,11a je 6HJIO BpeMe ,11a ce YBe,11e pe,11

y apXeOJIOlliKH MaTepHjaJI.
CTAPqEBO I - Y OBY <Pa3Y cy YKlbyqeHe CBe BpCTe YKpalliaBaIna
Ha rpy60j KepaMHl.\H. IIlTo ce mqe <PH He KepaMHKe He,110CTaje l.\pBeHa
MOHoxpOMHa.
CTAPqEBO II - 11 ,11albe ce jaBlbajy CBe BpCTe rpy6e KepaMHKe,
a y perrepTOapy <pHHe rrojaBlbyje ce l.\pBeHa MOHoxpoMHa, a rrpH Kpajy
OBe <pa3e H l.\pHa KepaMHKa. CJIHKa ce Ha rrOqeTKY 6eJIOM, a rrpH Kpajy H
TaMHHM 60jaMa. MOTHBH cy rrpaBOJIHHHjcKH.
CTAPqEBO III - fpy6a KepaMHKa H ,11albe 3a,11p)((aBa O,11JIHKe H3
rrpeTxO,11He <pa3e, a y KJIaCH <pHHe KepaMHKe ry6H ce l.\pHO MOHOXPOMHO
rrocyl)e. CJIHKa ce TaMHHM 60jaMa, a 6eJIa 60ja ce jaBlba caMO y BHllIe60jHoM
CJIHKaInY. MOTHBH cy KPHBOJIHHHjCKH H CrrHpaJIHH.
CTAPqEBO IV - HOBHTeT y YKpalliaBaInY rpy6e KepaMHKe
rrpe,11CTaBlba rrojaBa ,,)((HTHOr KJIaCa" Kao H rrJIaCTHqHe aHTporroMop<pHe
H 300MOP<pHe arrJIHKal.\Hje. Kpaj KyJIType KapaKTepHllIe H rrojaBa <pHHor
l.\pBeHOr rrocyl)a YKpallieHor ype3aHHM opHaMeHToM. CJIHKa ce CBe MaIne,
a KBaJIHTeT orra,11a: 60ja je HeKBaJIHTeTHa, BO,11eHaCTa H 6e3 cjaja. HaJIa3H
OBe <pa3e jaBlbaJIH 6H ce rrpeTe)((HO ceBepHo 0,11 H CaBe.
Ha HCTOM Tpary, aJIH H Ha HCTOM MaTepHjaJIY Ha KOMe je cBoje aHaJIH3e
crrpoBeo B. MHJIojqHn, HaCTaJIa je H cJIe,11ena rrepH0,11H3al.\Hja CTapqeBaqKe
KyJIType H3 rrepa R fapallIaHHH (1954). ITo OBOj rrepH0,11H3al.\HjH, Koja je

3aCHOBaHa rrpBeHcTBeHo Ha 3aTBopeHHM l.\eJIHHaMa, O,11HOCHO )aMaMa Ha

errOHHMHOM HaJIa3HllITY, CTapqeBaqKa KyJITypa rrO,11elbeHa )e Ha qeTHpH
<pa3e.
CTAPqEBO I - OBa <pa3a H3,11BojeHa je Ha OCHOBY rrOKpeTHOr
MaTepHjaJIa, rrpe CBera rpHqapHje H3 jaMa 3, Haj,11y6lber cJIoja jaMe SA H jaMe
8. rpy6a KepaMHKa, Koja ce YKpalliaBa CBHM opHaMeHTaJIHHM
TeXHHKaMa YKlbyqyjynH Ty H MOTHB ,,)((HTHH KJIac". Y KJIaCH <PH He
KepaMHKe ,110MHHHpa OHa CHBe 60je, jaBlba ce CBeTJIOMpKa H l.\pBeHa, a
pel)e ce cpene MpKa H )((YTa (y jaMH 8 rrpoHal)eHa cy ,11Ba <pparMeHTa ca
cjajHoM, rrraTKOM )((YTOM rrpeBJIaKoM). CJIHKaIne rroTrrYHo H30CTaje.
CTAPqEBO IIa (jaMa SA HajHH)((H XOPH30HT HCrrO,11 ,110Iner rrO,11a;
jaMa 4; jaMa 6 H jaMa 7) - 11 ,11albe ce jaBlbajy CBe BpCTe YKpalliaBaIna
Ha rpy60j KepaMHl.\H. c!>HHa KepaMHKa ce jaBlba y CBHM rr03HaTHM
60jaMa, yKlbyqyjynH H l.\pHY, aJIH rrpeTe)((e CBeTJIOMpKa. Y OBOj <pa3H ce
rrojaBlbyjy 6HKOHHqHH <pparMeHTH BenHx rrocy,11a, Kao H je,11aH <pparMeHT
ca llIHpOKHM KaHeJIypaMa, a jaBlbajy ce H rrpBH CJIHKaHH yKpacH. CJIHKa
ce rrO,11je,11HaKO H 6eJIOM H TaMHOM 60jOM, HajqellIne Ha l.\pBeHoj OCHOBH, a
• •
3aCTyrrlbeHH cy rrpaBOJIHHH)CKH H KPHBOJIHHH)CKH MOTHBH.
113
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
CTAPqEBO lIb (jaMa 5A M3Mel)y roplber M 110lber rrOl1a, lIe)!(M
I1MpeKTHO Ha 110lbeM rrol1Y M MOlKI1a jaMa 10) - 11 l1alhe ce jaBlhajy CBe
BpCTe YKpawaBalba Ha rpy60j KepaMMQM, 110K je KepaMMKa qlMHe <paKType
rrpeTelKHO CBeTlIOMpKe 60je.11 y OBOM ClIOjy rrpoHal)eHa cy I1Ba 6MKOHM'lHa
<pparMeHTa. ClIMKa ce MCKlhY'lMBO TaMHOM 60jOM KPMBOlIMHMjCKMM
• •
MOTMBMMa, a rrpeTrrOCTaBlheHa Je M rrOJIMXpOMMJa.
CTAPqEBO III - 3a OBY <Pa3Y aYTOpKa KalKe l1a ce He jaBlha y caMOM
CTap'leBY. fuy KapaKTepMWY rrocYl1e ca rrlIaCTM'lHMM aHTporrOMop<pHMM
M 300MOP<PHMM HalIeIII.\MMa, a y Mal)apcKoj rrocYl1e Ha BMwe Hory.
Hew TO KacHMje y CBOM pal1Y, ,0:. [apawaHMH HaBOI1M l1a cy, TOKOM
MCKorraBalba Cel1aMl1eCeTMX rOI1MHa y CTap'leBY, y roplbeM ClIOjy COHl1e
III-IV M ol1TOBapajyneM rrpowMpelby "MCIIOI1 clIoja xyMyca M M3MewaHor
KymypHor clIoja KOjM je o6elIelKeH Kao Cy6XyMyC" Hal)eHM OCTaQM jel1HOr
Bener CTaM6eHor 06jeKTa 'leTBpTaCTe OCHOBe, KOjM je lIelKao Ha ClIOjy
6elIM'laCTe 3eMlhe, Koja rrpel1CTaBlha OCHOBY Kyne. Y lIerry 3rpal1e M 6elIoM
ClIOjy Hal)eHa je <pMHMja MOHoxpoMHa KepaMMKa QPBeHe, KpeM M CMBe 60je,
Kao CMBOl.\pHa KepaMMKa. [py6a KepaMMKa je 110CTa 6pojHa, a YKpawaBa
ce 6ap60TMH HalIerrQMMa M rrpeBlIa'lelbeM, YKlhY'lyjynM M opraHM30BaHM
6ap60TMH. Y KlIaCM ClIMKaHe KepaMMKe jaBlhajy ce crrMpallHM M

KpMBOllMHMJCKM MOTMBM, a BepTMKallHe TpaKe ca MpelKacTo McrrYlbeHMM
Mel)yrrpoCTopoM Halla3e ce caMO, M TO peTKO, y 6ellOM CllOjy rrOl1a Kyne.
OHM rrocTajy 'leWnH HCIIOI1 OBor clloja. Y roplbeM XOPH30HTY, Tj. H3Hal1
6ellM'laCTOr clloja OCHOBe Kyne rrpoHal)eHM cy <pparMeHTH rrOllMxpOMHO
CllMKaHe KepaMMKe ca opHaMeHTOM opraHM30BaHMM y 06llMKy crrMpalla
(D. Garasanin 1989: 55-59).
ITOl1ella ,0:. [apawaHHH je TaKol)e, Kao H MHlloj'lHneBa, 3aCHOBaHa

Ha rrpoY'laBalbY MaTepMJalla ca errOHHMHor Halla3MWTa OBe KyllType.
11 OBl1e ce BMI1M l1a ce Kllaca rpy6e KepaMMKe TYMa'lM Kao XPOHOlIOWKM
HeoceTlhMBa, now TO ce y CBe TpM <pa3e Koje cy 3aCTynlheHe Ha CTap'leBY
KalKe l1a ce jaBlhajy CBe BpcTe YKpawaBalba Ha rpy60j KepaMMQH. Y <pa3H
IIa jaBlha ce yrropel1o 6ello H TaMHO CllMKalbe, WTO je rroTBpl)eHo M Ha
I1pyrMM Halla3MWTMMa M TaKol)e MCTM'le jel1HOBpeMeHocT rrpaBollMHMjcKMx

M KpMBOllMHMJCKMX CllMKaHHX MOTMBa.
011 we311eceTMx rOI1HHa, a HapO'lHTO 011 1969. H oTKpMna rrpe-
HeOllMTCKe Kymype JIerreHcKM BMp y 1)epl1arry, pa311Bajajy ce OHM KOjM
rropeKllO HeOllMTa, Tpal1MQMOHallHO TpalKe Ha jyry M y AHal10llMjM M I1pyrM,
Ha 'lellY ca ,0:. CpejoBMneM, ayTopoM MCKorraBalba Ha JIerreHcKOM BMPY,
• •
KOJH CMaTpaJY l1a y OKBHpHMa OBe KyllType Balha TpalKHTH H3BopHWTe
CTap'leBa'lKe KyllType paHor H cpel1lber HeOllMTa (1979). OKocHMQa
OBaKBor CTaBa je CBaKaKO oTKpMne 6pOjHMX <pparMeHaTa rpH'lapMje Koja
je rrpHcyTHa He caMO Ha JIerreHcKOM BMpy Ben M Ha I1PyrMM llOKallMTeTMMa
114
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
Kymype JIerreHcKOr BMpa. Y Mel)YBpeMeHY je o6jaBJbeHO HeKOnMKO
cTYIIMja (RadovanoviC 1996; Boric 2002; 2008; Boric, Miracle 2004), Koje
yKa3yjy Ha MorynHocT rrpeKnarralDa HeonMTCKor M Me30nMTCKor rrepMolla
Ha OBOM TepeHY Ha OCHOBY pailMoKap6oH lIaTOBalDa M Hana3a rrocyl)a
Ha rrOIlOBMMa HeKOnMI.\MHe Tparre3HMx Kyna TMrrM'IHMX 3a Me30nMTcKY
Kymypy JIerreHcKM BMp. 33
IlepMOIIM3al.\Mja Kojyje.n. CpejoBMn rrpellnO)!(MO (1971) jeyrrOqeTHMM
<jJa3aMa 3aCHOBaHa Ha MaTepMjany npMKynJbeHOM Ha JIeneHcKoM BMpy M
TO Y lDerOBOM HeOCrrOpHO HeOnMTCKOM cnojy. To cy XOPM30HTM JIerreHcKM
BMp lIla 1I0ne M lIla rope Kao M JIerreHcKM BMp IlIb. OCTaTaK OBor CMCTeMa
• •
lIorrYlDeH Je YBMIIOM y rpHqapMJY I.\enor CTapqeBaqKOr KynTypHor Kpyra.
IlPOTOCTAPqEBO I - OBa, nOqeTHa <jJa3a HeonMTa l.\eHTpanHor
oanKaHa M311BojeHa je Ha OCHOBY Hana3a Ha JIeneHcKoM BMpy IlIa/lloIDM
lIeo cnoja. fuy KapaKTepMllIe npMcycTBO rpy6e KepaMMKe, Koja je yrnaBHoM
cBeTnoMpKe MnH MpKe 6oje, 1I0K ce cnOpallMqHO jaBJba H y I.\pBeHKacTOj
HnHl.\pHoj 60jH (CpejoBHn 1969: 167). Oil o6nHKa npeoBnal)yjy nOIITaCTe H
nonynOIITaCTe 311ene Ha npcTeHaCToj H03M. CnOJbHe nOBplliMHe OBe Knace
KepaMMKe cy rpy6e, YCTanacaHe, npeBnaqeHe CHonOM rpaHqHl.\a MnM
xpanaBe. J1 rpy6a M <jJMHa KepaMMKa cyyrnaBHoM HeYKpallieHe. Oil peTKHX
yKpaca KapaKTepMCTHqHO je rroBMjeHo rrnaCTMqHO pe6po, 3aCTyrrJbeHO Ha
KepaMMI.\M <jJMHHje <jJaKType. IlnacTMqHa pe6pa Ha 3MllY CYlla <jJopMMpajy
rMpnaHlle, a rroHeKall M crrMpane. PeTKo ce jaBJba Heypel)eHo YTMCKMBalDe
rrpCTa M HOKTa. KpeMeHa MMKponMTCKa M MaKponMTCKa MHllycTpMja
(TpoyrnaCTa, Tparre3aCTa CeqMBa) qMHe lIeo rroKpeTHor MaTepMjana TOKOM
OBe <jJa3e, lliTO rro CpejoBMny yKa3yje Ha opraHCKY Be3Y ca Me30nMTCKMM
rrepMolloM.
IlPOTOCTAPqEBO II (JIerreHcKM BMp IIIa/roplDM XOPM30HT
3eMYHHl.\a) - Y OBOj <jJa3M ce y3 rpy6y, 3aCTyrrJbeHY y HelliTO BeneM
rrp0l.\eHTY, M <jJMHMjy MOHOXPOMHY KepaMMKY jaBJba M cnMKaHa KepaMMKa,
MCTHHa y lIocTa ManOM rrp0l.\eHTY (0,1%). YKpalliaBalDe ce y OBOj KnaCM
KepaMHKe BplliMno 6enoM 60jOM 6e3 cjaja, McnMKaBaIDeM Mpe)!(aCTMX H
TpoyraoHMx MOTMBa MnM pa3pel)eHoM MPKOM 60jOM rrpaBonHHMjcKMM
MOTMBMMa. fpy6a KepaMMKa M lIaJbe Tpaje, a rro rrpBM rryT ce jaBJba
6ap6oTMH TeXHHKa. TpH HOBe rpyrre MOHoxpoMHe KepaMHKe jaBJbajy ce
no npBM nyT y OBOM XOpM30HTy: pa3pel)eHa MpKo'-\pHa npeBnaKa, TaHKM
• •
CBeTno'-\pBeHM, yrnaqaHH npeMa3 H KepaMMKa y qMJe Je 3HIIOBe YTpJbaHa
TaMHOl.\pBeHa 60ja Koja ce oTHpe. Y OBOM lIeny cnoja IlIa BeOMa je qeCT
33 Ha)f( anOcT,,U. Cpej oBHna HeMa, a OHI1 KOj l1 nOAp)Kasajy InerOBe (TaBOBe no DBOM IlHTal-bY
HHCY cnpeMHH Ha Mor yoHocT XPOHOllOWKor AOAl1pa 11 3Mel)y Me30/1 HTCKI1 X Kyl1 Typa 'I3epAana
H H O C H J l a ~ a HeOJH1TCKor Ha4HHa )KHBOTa. Cnop H3Mel)y OBe ABe r pyn e apxe0J10r a Y BellHKoj
Mep'" je yenopaBao pa3Boj cpnCKe apXe0J1 0fwj e HeOJl I1 Ta, 11 3HOBa j e Bpanajytut Ha AOKa3l1 Satne
nopeKna 11 Ty je 3aAP)Kasajytut.
llS
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
I1Mrrpeco yKpac (OTI1CI1I1 Bpxa rrpCTa, ype311 HOKTOM, py60M llIKOlbKe I1JII1
HeKI1M I\pyrl1M I1HCTpYMeHTOM). OBl\e cpeheMo <jJparMeHTe ca HacyMI1'IHo
Ha6al1aHI1M opHaMeHTOM, aJII1 11 OHe ca opHaMeHTOM OpraHI130BaHI1M y
MOTI1B )I(I1THor KJIaCa I1JII1 I1cKOllieHe TpaKe. rpy6a KepaMI1Ka je 'leCTO
YKpallieHa rrJIaCTl1'lHI1M arrJII1Kal1l1jaMa, a jel\Ha c<jJepl1'lHa 31\eJIa ca
KpaTKI1M I1I1JII1Hl\pl1'lHI1M BpaTOM I1Ma Ha Tp6yxy HacrrpaMHO rrOCTaBlbeHe
I\Be arrJII1Kal1l1je y 06JII1Ky llIaKa ca rro 'leTl1pl1 rrpCTa.
CTAPqEBO I - (JIerreHCKI1 Bl1p Illb - XOPl130HT Hal\3eMHI1X
3rpal\a). OBY <jJa3y KapaKTepl111Ie HeCTaHaK KepaMI1Ke ca I1crrYl1aJII1M
XparraBI1M CrrOlbHI1M rrOBpllIl1HaMa, llIapeHo rre'leHe KepaMI1Ke, 34 rrocyl)a
rrpeBY'leHOr MpKOl1pBeHOM 60jOM, CJII1Kalhe 6eJIOM MaT 60jOM, Kao 11
CJII1Kalhe rrpaBOJII1Hl1jcKl1x opHaMeHaTa MPKOM 60jOM, a rrocyl)e ca TaHKI1M
• •
CBeTJIOl1pBeHI1M yrJIa'laHI1M rrpeMa30M 11 OHO Y 'll1Je Je rrOBpllIl1He YTplbaHa
TaMHOl1pBeHa 60ja Koja ce OTl1pe jaBlba ce jOlli 113Y3eTHO peTKO. BeoMa
'leCT yKpac je 6ap6oTI1H, a paCTe 11 3aCTyrrlbeHocT CJII1KaHOT opHaMeHTa.
ITo rrpBI1 rryT ce rrojaBlbyjy rrocYl\e YKpallieHe TaMHI1M rrpaBOJII1Hl1jcKI1M
opHaMeHToM Ha yma'laHoj I1pBeHoj OCHOBI1. 06JII1l111 rrocyl)a rrocTajy
• • •
pa3HOBpCHI1JH: KapaKTepl1CTl1'lHI1 cy rrexapl1 Ha KpaTKOJ, llIyrrlbOJ
rrpCTeHacToj I1JII1 KOHl1'lHOj H0311, rrexapl1 ca KPCTaCTOM HoroM, l\y6oKe
rrpo<jJI1JII1CaHe 3l\eJIe, KpYlliKacTI1 JIOH'll1hl1 ca pa3rpHyTI1M 0601\OM,
JIOrrTaCTe rrocYl\e ca KpaTKI1M I1I1JII1Hl\pl1'lHI1M BpaTOM 11 6pal\aBI1'laCTI1M
I\pllIKaMa, Kao 11 BeJII1KI1 rrI1TOCI1. YKpaCI1 cy I1AeHTl1'lHI1 Kao y rrpeTXOI\Hoj
<jJa311. ,1J;oMI1Hl1pa yKpac 113Bel\eH OTI1Cl1l1Ma rrpcTl1jy I1JII1 HOKTa. Pa3JII1Ka

Je y TOMe llITO cy y rrpeTXOI\HOM HI1BOY YTI1CI1I1 rrOKpl1BaJII1 CBe crrOlbHe

rrOBpllIl1He, a cal\a ce OCHOBa YBeK BI1I\I1, a opHaMeHT Je OpraHI130BaH y
TpoymoBe I1JII1 Tparre30111\He MeTorre.
CTAPqEBO II - KapaKTepl111Ie rrpl1cycTBO CBI1X BpCTa YKpalliaBalha
rpy6e KepaMI1Ke. Y KJIaCI1 <jJI1He KepaMI1Ke HeMa rrocyl)a I1pHe 6oje. CJII1Ka
ce ymaBHoM TaMHI1M TOHOBI1Ma, I\OK ce 6eJIa 60ja KOPI1CTI1 caMO 3a
l\o611jalhe rrOJII1XpOMHI1X e<jJeKaTa. MOTI1BI1 CJII1KaHOr rrocyl)a cy yrJIaBHOM
KPI1BOJII1Hl1jCKI1 11 CIIl1paJIHI1. OBa <jJa3a OI\TOBapa MI1JIoj'll1heBoj <jJa3H
III, <jJa311 lIb ,1J;. rapallIaHI1H 11 ,1J;I1MI1Tpl1jeBl1heBoM CTyrrlhy CIIl1paJI0111\ A.
CTAPqEBO III - OBY <jJa3y KapaKTepl111Ie orrllITe orraAalhe CJII1Kalha,
TaKO I\a je 60ja KOjOM ce CJII1Ka BOl\eHaCTa 11 6e3 cjaja. HOBI1TeT je rrojaBa
)I(I1THor KJIaCa Ha rpy60j KepaMI1I1I1, Kao 11 rrJIaCTl1'lHI1 aHTporroMop<jJHI1
11 300MOp<jJHI1 HaJIerrl1l1. Ha I1pBeHOM MOHOXPOMHOM rrocyl)y 113BOl\e
ce ype3aHI1 YKpacl1. Ol\rOBapa <jJa311 IV KOI\ B. MI1JIoj'll1ha, III KOI\ ,1J;.
rapallIaHI1H 11 CIIl1paJI0111\ B CTyrrlhy KOI\ C. ,1J;I1MI1Tpl1jeBl1ha.
OBaj CI1CTeM yHyTpallilhe rrepl1ol\113al111je je rrpBI1 KOjl1 6ap6oTl1H
• •
yKpacy l\aJe XPOHOJIOllIKI1 oceTlbl1BY yJIory Te pa3BoJ CTap'leBa'lKe
34 TaKo3BaHa <rainbow ware'
116
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n: paTypa Kpyra
KynType l1enl1 Ha BpeMe rrpe 11 rrocne rrojaBe OBor OpHaMeHTa. Mel)yTI1M,
KaO IlITO je CTaB]baHa rrpl1Mel16a B. Ml1noj'Il1hy 11 ):(. [apaIlIaHI1H l1a cy
rrol1eny Ha'II1Hl1nl1 Ha OCHOBY MaTepl1jana ca CTap'IeBa, TaKO ce I1CTa
• •
3aMepKa MO)!(e CTaBI1TI1 OBOJ rrep11011113a1111JI1, C TOM pa3nl1KOM IlITO ce
OBl1e rrpOTOCTap'IeBa'IKa <jJa3a I 11 II 11311Bajajy caMO Ha OCHOBY Hana3a 113
JIerreHcKOr Bl1pa - cnojeBI1 IlIa 110ne, IlIa rope 11 IIlb.
Ilol1ena paHor HeOnl1Ta l1eHTpanHor BanKaHa Ha I1Be maBHe eTarre

rrpoTOCTap'IeBa'IKY 11 CTap'IeBa'IKY, cy y CKnal1Y ca HacToJalhl1Ma l1a ce y
pa3Boj HeOnl1Ta l1ene jyrol1CTO'IHe EBporre YBel1e <jJa3a cpel1lher HeOnl1Ta,
rra ce TaKO rrpoTOCTap'IeBa'IKe <jJa3e cMeIlITajy y paHI1 HeOnl1T Kal1a ce
• ••
rrpeTrrocTaBlbaJY rrO'Iel1l1 HeOnl1TCKor pa3BoJa, 110MeCTI1Kal111Je )!(I1BOTl1lha
11 6l1lbaKa, (rrpeMa ):(. CpejoBl1hy ycnoBlbeH je I1l1eanHI1M KnI1MaTCKO-
reorpa<jJcKI1M ycnoBI1Ma 1)epl1arrCKe Knl1cype) 11 cpel1lhl1 HeOnl1T ca
pa3BI1jeHoM CTap'IeBa'IKOM KynTypoM Koja je 6aIlITI1HI1na rrpeTXOI1HO
• •
TeKOBI1He paHor HeOnl1Ta 11 HaCTaBl1na oBaJ pa3BoJ Kao Kl laCU'/HO
HeOnl1TCKa KynTypa.
C 06311pOM l1a je Hel10CTaTaK 6ap60TI1HI1paHe KepaMI1Ke 11 Cnl1Kalha
C jel1He 11 110MI1Hal111ja MOHoxpoMHe, Haj'Iellihe I1pBeHe 60je KepaMI1Ke, ca

I1pyre cTpaHe cyBI1IlIe xpoHOnOIlIKI1 HeOCeTlbl1Ba KaTerOpl1Ja rrp0l13na311
l1a ce <jJa3a IlpoTocTap'IeBo I Mo)!(e rrOTBpl1l1TI1 caMO aKO je Hana311IlITe
I1CTpa)!(eHO y HajBehoj Moryhoj Mepl1 11 aKO je CrrpOBel1eHa cBe06YXBaTHa
KBaHTI1TaTI1BHO-CTaTI1CTI1'IKa aHanl13a. C 06311POM l1a ce rrojel1l1HI1
Ha'II1HI1 YKpalliaBalha, 6eno Cnl1Kalhe 11 MOHoxpOMHa KepaMI1Ka jaBlbajy

11 KaCHI1Je, 110l1YIlIe y HelliTO rrpOMelheHOM rrpOl1eHTY, MO)!(eMO pa3YMeTI1
KOH<jJY3I1jy 11 rrOTelliKohe ca Kojl1Ma cy ce cycpeTanl1 KOPI1CHI1I1I1 OBe

rrepl1 011113al111 J e.
Y apxeonorwjl1 HeOnl1Ta jyrol1CTO'IHe EBporre C. ):(I1MI1Tpl1jeBl1h
he OCTaTI1 yrraMheH Kao Ol1nl1'IaH rr03HaBanal1 apxeonoiliKor MaTepl1jana

11 ayTop HeKOnl1KO 3Ha'IaJHI1X I1CTpa)!(I1Balha Be3aHI1X 3a HeOnl1TCKI1
rrepl1ol1. lberOBa rrepl1011113al111ja CTap'IeBa'IKe KynType HaCTana KpajeM
• •
IlIe311eCeTI1X r0l111Ha rrpollinor BeKa 3aCHOBaHa Je Ha TeMelbHoJ aHanl1311
CTl1nCKI1X oc0611Ha CTap'IeBa'IKe rpH'Iapl1je IlIl1pOM lheHor paCrrpOCTl1palha
(Dimitrijevic 1969). HelliTo KacHl1je 110rrYlheHa (DimitrijeviC 1974),
• • •
OBa rrepl1011113al111ja 113mel1ana Je CaCBI1M I1pyra'II1Je 011 rrpeTXOI1HI1X.
):(I1MI1Tpl1jeBl1h je CBeCTaH 'Il1lheHl1l1e l1a 611 nojaBa BI1IlIecnojHl1x
Hana311IlITa OBe KynType pa3peIlII1na lherOBe I1l1neMe 0 cmymve8albY
OBe KyITType 11 Ol1pel1l1na xpOHOnOIlIKI1 rrono)!(aj 6pOjHI1X jel1HOcnojHl1x
Hacelba paHor 11 cpel1lher HeOnl1TCKOr nepl1ol1a perl10Ha KOjl1M ce 6aB110.
OH He rrpaBI1 rpelliKy KOjy cy rrpaBl1nl1 lherOBe Konere 11 He l1aje npel1HOCT
MaTepl1jany ca caMO jel1HOr Hana3l1IlITa. HarrpOTI1B, OH je CTYl11103HI1M
117
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
YBMIIOM Y MaTepMjalI M TepeHCKY 1I0KYMeHTaD;Mjy, Koja je 6MlIa 1I0CTyrrHa,
ycrreo lIa HarrpaBM rrOllelIY 3aCHOBaHY Ha rrpeKlIarralbY pa31IMqMTMX <j>a3a
CTapqeBaqKe KylIType Ha pa31IMqMTMM HalIa3MIllTMMa. KOM6MHOBalbeM
OCKYIIHMX rrollaTaKa Be3aHMX 3a MalI06pojHe rrpMMepKe BepTMKalIHe
CTpaTMrpa<j>Mje M CTMlICKO-TMrrOlIOIllKor MeTolla, OH je rrOHYIlMo clIelleny

rrep
Mo
IIM3aD;MJY·
MOHOXPOM - cDa3a y KOjOj ce jaBlba rpy6a KepaMMKa rrOBpIllMHe
orpy6lbeHe CHorrOM rpaHqMD;a, rroHeKall YKpaIlleHa rrlIaCTMqHMM
pe6pMMa. KlIaca <j>MHe KepaMMKe ce rrpOTelKe M Ha rrocyrye 3a cBaKolIHeBHY
yrrOTpe6y. OHa je HajqeIllne D;pBeHe 60je MMa D;pHM rrpelIOM, a rrOBpIllMHa je
6PMlKlbMBO rrraqaHa. 061IMD;M cy yrrraBHoM c<j>epMqHM, 3aTMM "S" 061IMD;M
Kao M rrOCYlle Ha HMCKOj H03M. CaM ayTop OBY <j>a3y CMaTpa XMrrOTeTMqHOM
(Dimitrijevic 1979: 241-243).
JIJ1HEAP A - XOPM30HT 6elIor ClIMKalba, ca KapaKTepMCTMqHHM
KarrlbMqaCTHM MOTHBOM. OCHM OBe rrraBHe M Haj3Ha'lajHMje pa31IHKe
THrrH'lHH cy: lKpTBeHHD;H Ha qeTBpTaCToj rrep<j>opHpaHoj H03H, lKpTBeHHD;M
Ha 300MOp<j>HHM HoraMa M 06MqHM lKpTBeHMD;H. Ha rpy60j KepaMMD;M,
Koja ce perye YKpaIllaBa, HajTMrrMqHMjH opHaMeHT je rrceYlloMMrrpeco,
qeCTO lKlbe6lbeH.
JIJ1HEAP B - ,[(oMMHMpa TaMHO ClIMKalbe, a MOTMBM cy
rrpaBolIMHMjcKM (Illpa<j>MpaHe KlIHHaCTe TpaKe M TpoyrrroBM). I10Herlle
ce jOIll 3allplKaBa ClIHKalbe 6elIoM 60jOM. [py6a KepaMHKa ce HajqeIllne
YKpaIllaBa 6ap60TMHOM (cBe TexHMKe), orralla 3aCTyrrlbeHocT MMrrpeco
M ype3aHor opHaMeHTa, 1I0K je <j>MHa MOHoxpoMHa KepaMMKa yrrraBHoM
D;pBeHe M rrOHeKall lKynKacTe rroBpIllMHe.
[J1PJIAH,[(OJ1,[( - Y OBOj <j>a3M ce 3allPlKaBajy6MTHeKapaKTepMcTMKe
rrpeTxollHe <j>a3e, alIM ce ClIMKa 6elIoM M TaM HOM 60jOM y 3aBMCHOCTM Oil
perMoHa, a MOTMBM cy rMplIaHlle. AyTOp OBor XPOHolIoIllKor CMCTeMa 6elIY
60jy pe3epBHIlle 3a ceBepHe 061IacTM pacrrpocTMpalba a 3a jyroMCTOqHe
TaMHY 60jy ClIMKaHor opHaMeHTa.
CI1J1PAJIOJ1,[( A - OBO je <j>a3a Kalla ce jaBlba crrMpalIOMIlHO
ClIMKalbe TaMHMM 60jaMa. I10pell paHMje 3aCTyrrlbeHMx MOTHBa clIMKajy
ce opraHM30BaHe crrMpalIe pacrroperyeHe y TeKynMM HH30BMMa. JaBlbajy
ce CBe BpCTe rpy6e KepaMMKe M rrpelIa3Ha KepaMMKa (rro C,[(. OI\fOBapa
<j>HHMjOj KepaMMD;M KepeIll KYlIType).
CI1J1PAJIOJ1,[( B - YKpaIllaBalbe rpy6e KepaMHKe ce yrlIaBHoM
BpIllH KaHelIOBaHHM 6ap60THH opHaMeHTOM, alIH ce KopHCTe H CBH OCTalIH
Ha'lHHH lIeKopaD;Hje. cDMHa KepaMMKa je yrlIaBHoM MpKe, CMBOMpKe H CHBe
60je. YKpaIllaBa ce ClIMKalbeM TaM HOM 60jOM, 1I0K ce 6elIa KOPHCTH caMO
pallH 1I06Hjalba rrolIHxpoMHor e<j>eKTa. Oil MOTHBa jaBlbajy ce clI060llHO
118
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
• •
rrOCTaBlbeHe CrrMpane, 'IeCTO BemlKe KOJe rroHeKall 3aY3MMaJY l1eny BMCMHY
rrOcYlle. Boja ce lbycrra, M HaHen je y rraCTY03HMM HaHOCMMa. Y CBMM
KnaCaMa KepaMMKe 'IeCTO ce jaBlbajy 6MKOHM'IHM 06nMI1M.
<pMHAJI (?) - C. ):(MMMTpMjeBMh OBY <j>a3y CTaBlba rroll 3HaK rrMTalba

M rrpeTrrOCTaBlba lIa ce pallM 0 XOPM30HTY lIereHepal1MJe CTap'leBa'lKe
KynType, a lIa ce y HeKMM perMjaMa CTBapa rrpena3HM XOPM30HT M3Mel')y

paHor M cpeillber HeonMTa, rile ce Ollp)!(aBaJY HeKe ollnMKe CTap'leBa'lKe
KynType y perrepToapy rpy6e M lIenMMM'IHo MOHoxpoMHe KepaMMKe. Y
OBOj <j>a3M M30cTaje cnMKalbe.
AyTOp OBe rrepMOIIM3al1Mje TaKol')e rrpellBMl')a lIa he ce y OKBMPY
<j>a3e MOHOXPOM HaKHallHO M311BojMTM cTapMjM MOHOXPOM A M Mnal')M
MOHOXPOM B XOPM30HT, Koje Beh M311Bajajy HeKM ayTopM (Minichreiter
1992).
ITp06neM ce jaBlba KOII npaKTH'IHe ynOTpe6e OBe nepMOIIH3al1Mje,
nOlllTO cy Kao THnonOlllKH oceTlbHBe Y3eTe CTHnCKe MaHM<j>eCTal1Hje
Koje ce jaBlbajy cpa3MepHO peTKo: KanlbM'laCTO cnHKalbe 6enOM 60jOM
(yrnaBHoM 0,1% Oil yKynHor 6poja <j>parMeHan), npeBna'lelbe CHonOM
rpaH'IMl1a M CnM'IHO ):(MMMTpMjeBMh M311Baja pa3nM'IMTe BpCTe cnMKaHMX
MOTMBa y 3ace6He <j>a3e, lIlTO ce y BpeMe Kalla je xpOHonOlllKM CMCTeM
Hacno 'IMHMnO jellMHO Moryhe M rrOTnYHO onpaBllaHO. Y HOBMje BpeMe,
HapO'lMTO Oil 06jaBlbMBalba Hana3a ca AH3a6erOBa, lIaBllapa, KOBa'leBa
MnM ):(Olbe BpalbeBMHe YBMl')a ce lIa ce y MCTO BpeMe jaBlbajy pa3JIM'IMTM
MOTMBM YKpalllaBalba y HeMCl1prrHMM KOM6MHaI1MjaMa. Calla M3rnella
lIa MMa BMllle orrpaBllalba cBpcTaBaTM OBY pa3HoBpcHOCT y perMoHanHe
oKBMpe M 1I03BonMTM Behy IIMHaMMKY y OBOM rrornellY.
llITo ce TM'Ie MOHoxpoMHe <j>a3e, 3a KOjy caM Ka)!(e lIa je
XMrrOTeTM'IHa, M3rnella lIa jy je C. ):(MMMTpMjeBMh YBeo y CBOj CMCTeM
CTyrrlbeBalba npe nOli npMTMCKOM orrlllTe rrpMXBaheHor npelly6el')elba
lIa CMrypHO Mopa rroCTojaTM <j>a3a npBe "npaKepaMMKe" jellHocTaBHe,
HeYKpallleHe, YTMnMTapHe KepaMMKe rpy6lbe <j>aKType, Hero lIoKa3M
Koje je rrperr03Hao y MaTepMjany MnM nMTepaTypM. M y OBOM cny'lajy ce
jacHo nOKa3yjy Hepa3pellleHa rrMTalba rropeKna HeonMTa Ha BanKaHY.
YOCTanoM, M nocneillba <j>a3a OBe rrepMOIIM3al1Mje 03Ha'leHa Kao <PM Han
CTaBlbeHa je nOli 3HaK nMTalba Oil CTpaHe ayTopa. OH rrpeTnOCTaBlba lIa
6H Taj XOPH30HT Tpe6ano O'leKHBaTH, C 063MPOM lIa y TO BpeMe lIona3H
110 rOTOBO HenpHMeTHe CMeHe CTap'leBa'lKe H BHH'IaHCKe KynType. OH
npeTnocTaBlba lIa y OBOj <j>a3M HellocTaje cnMKaHM yKpac, OBor nyn, 'IMHH
ce, nOli YTHl1ajeM HaCTynajyhe BHH'IaHCKe KynType Koja je cnHKaHH yKpac
• •
pa3BHna TeK npell KpaJ CBor pa3BOJa.
119
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
BemiKW rr03HaBaJIal1 rrpawCTopwje EaJIKaHa, ayTop MHor06pojHWX
WCTpa)l(WBalha Ha HaJIa3WlIITWMa HeOJIWTCKWX KyJITypa EaJIKaHa,
MWJIYTWH fapalliaHWH TaKol')e je ):lao CBOj ):IOrrpWHOC OBOM rrp06JIeMy W TO
KOpeKl1wjoM rrepWO):lW3al1wje )l fapalliaHWH.
CTAPqEBO I (JaMe 3A W SA ):IHO) - Y OBOj ¢a3w y YKpalliaBalhY
rpy6e KepaMwKe w30cTaje opraHw30BaHw 6ap60TwH opHaMeHT. <!JwHa

MOHoxpoMHa KepaMwKa ce JaBlha y CWBWM W MpKWM TOHOBWMa, a CJIWKalhe

rroTrrYHo He):lOCTaJe.
CTAPqEBO IIa (JaMe SA WcnO):l ):IOlher nO):la H 4, 6, 7) - VI ):Ialhe ce
jaBlhajy CBe BpCTe KepaMwKe Kao y npeTXO):lHoj ¢a3w, aJIW ce rrojaBlhyje
opraHw30BaHw 6ap60TwH. no npBw nyT ce cpene CJIWKaHa KepaMwKa W
TO 6eJIo Ha I1pBeHoj OCHOBW W TaMHO Ha CBeTJIoj. 0):1 nO'leTKa OBe ¢a3e
•• • •
JaBlhaJY ce KPHBOJIHHHJCKH MOTHBH, 3aJe):lHO ca CnHpaJIHHM MOTHBOM,
KOjH ce, HCTWHa, peTKO cpene.
CTAPqEBO lIb (JaMa SA H3Mel')y ):IBa nO):la, a MO)l():Ia H jaMa 10) -
HacTaBlhajy ce Ha'lHHH YKpalliaBalha H3 npeTXO):lHe ¢a3e, aJIW HeCTaje
6eJIo CJIWKalhe.
CTAPqEBO III - OBY ¢a3y KapaKTepwlIIe rpy6a KepaMwKa Ha
KOjOj ):IOMWHWpa opraHw30BaHw 60p60TWH yKpac. CJIWKaHa KepaMwKa
je y 3HaTHOM orra):lalhy. 0):1 rrpeOCTaJIOr penepToapa CJIWKaHe KepaMwKe
jaBlhajy ce cnwpaJIe W3Be):leHe TaMHOM 60jOM Ha )I(yTOj OCHOBW. 3a OBY ¢a3y
• • •
KapaKTepWCTW'IHa Je W nopBa eJIeMeHaTa BWH'IaHCKe KyJIType, Kao lIITO Je
6wKOHW3al1wja 06JIWKa. TaKol')e ce rrojaBlhyjy rrJIaCTW'IHW 300MOp¢HW WJIW
aHTporroMoP¢HW HaJIerrl1W.
"KaKo je CWCTeM JJ;. fapalliaHwH 3aCHOBaH Ha cwrypHwjwM nO):lal1WMa
(y O):lHOCy Ha MWJIoj'lWneBY, rrpwM. H.H.T.), a KaKO W JIOrW'IHO ¢a3e IIa W
lIb lheHe nO):leJIe '1WHe je):lHy Y)l(e rrOBe3aHY, '1WCTY CTap'leBa'lKY l1eJIWHY,
y HallieM pa):ly rroCJIY)l(wneMo ce lheHOM XPOHOJIOlliKOM nO):leJIOM" (M.
Garasanin 1971: 73-85; 1972: 37 W 132-136). Pe'lWMa " ... '1WCTY cTap'leBa'lKY
l1eJIWHY" M. fapalliaHwH OB):Ie nOTBpl')yje rroCTojalhe ¢a3a Koje HWCY 'iucmo
CTap'leBa'lKe. To ce W YKJIana y lherOB Ha'lWH npoMwlIIlhalha nWTalha
. "
paHor W cpe):llher HeOJIWTa W lherOBor W3):1Bapiha perWOHaJIHWX "rpyna
AH3a6erOBO - fypa EanyJIyj, Koje cToje Ha nO'leTKY HeOJIWTCKOT pa3Boja
jyrowcTo'lHe EBporre. lherOBO YBepelhe ):Ia ce Ty pa):lw 0 KyJITypHWM
06paCl1WMa KOjH ce 3HaTHO pa3JIHKyjy 0):1 CTap'leBa'lKe KyJIType y OCHOBH
• •
Je Ta'lHO, nOlliTO cy H MaTpHl1a HacelhaBalha H apxHTeKTypa H rpH'IapJ.l)a
):IOCTa pa3JIH'IWTH 0):1 OHora lIITO HaJIa3WMO y "paHHM ¢a3aMa" y 06JIaCTW
l1eHTpaJIHOr EaJIKaHa. AHaJIH3HpajytlH Be3e H CWHXpoHw3Me ca rpynoM
AH3a6eroBo-BplIIHWK, M. fapalliaHwH CTaBlha CTap'leBO III y HCTY
BpeMeHcKY paBaH ca ¢a30M III AH3a6eroBo-BplIIHWK KyJIType, W rrOTOM,
120
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
aHaJIM3MpajyhM HaJIa3e ca JIOKaJIMTeTa 1)YJIBe3 (Giulvez), EaIIlTMHe,
BMHKOBU;M-Tp)!(HMu;a p;aje jep;aH HOB Cap;p)!(aj rrpeTXOp;HO MHTyMTMBHO
op;peljeHoj ¢a3M. <Da3a CTap'IeBO III cap;p)!(aJIa 6M, p;aKJIe - rpy6y KepaMMKY
Ha KOjOj rrpep;oMMHMpa opraHM30BaHM 60p60TMH, P;OK ce y KJIaCM ¢MHe
KepaMMKe jaBlba rrOJIMXpOMHO CJIMKafue, TeKyhe CrrMpaJIe M 3aBplIleU;M y
06JIMKy KaHI,Ie MJIM lIlarre. M. fapalIlaHMH O'IeKyje y OBOj ¢a3M M rrojaBY
eJIeMeHaTa BMH'IaHCKe KyJIType, Kao IIlTO je 6MKoHM3aU;Mja 06JIMKa.
Ilp06JIeM ca rrepMop;M3aU;MjoM U. fapalIlaHMH aJIM M McrrpaBlbeHoM
rrepMOp;l13aU;l1joM M. fapalIlaHl1Ha je y TOMe IIlTO je ¢a3a lIb nOCTaBlbeHa
rrpeorrlIlMpHO, TaKO p;a ce BeJIMKa BehMHa CBMX OTKpMBeHMX HaJIa3MlIlTa
MO)!(e CBpCTaTM yrrpaBo y fuY. qMfueHMu;a je p;a je CJIMKaHa KepaMMKa,
HapO'Il1TO OHa ca 6eJIl1M yKpacoM, peJIaTl1BHO peTKa nojaBa, na
ce CBl1 OCTaJIl1 JIOKaJIl1TeTl1 6e3 CJIMKaHOr yKpaca rro p;e¢MHl1U;l1jl1
Haj'IelIlhe cMelIlTajy y ¢a3y CTap'IeBO lIb l1aKO je Moryhe l1 HeKO p;pyro
XPOHOJIOIIlKO onpep;elbefue. Y XPOHOJIOIIlKl1M Cl1CTeMMMa U. fapalIlaHl1H
l1 M. fapalIlaHl1Ha Ha OCHOBY rpy6e l1 HeOCJIl1KaHe KepaMMKe Hl1je Moryhe
¢MHMje p;aTOBafue.
IlepMop;M3aU;Mja KOjy je Ha'IMHMJIa X. Top;opoBa rrpep;CTaBlba pep;aK
rroKYlIlaj p;a ce KyJIType paHor M cpep;fuer HeOJIMTa EaJIKaHCKOr rrOJIyoCTpBa
• ••
rrOBe)!(y 3aJep;HM'IKOM rrepMop;M3aU;MJoM M Ha TaJ Ha'IMH MCTaKHe fuMXOBa

CPOP;HOCT M 3aJep;HM'IKM KopeHM.
MOHOXPOM - HeoJIMT MOHoxpOMHe KepaMMKe (Tpeha 'IeTBpT VII
MMJIeHMjYMa) Y OBO BpeMe cy HacelbeHM caMO perMOHM ca OrrTMMaJIHOM
KJIMMOM: TeCaJIMja M u;eHTpaJIHM EaJIKaH, Kao M HeKM p;eJIOBM jyroMCTO'IHe
EyrapCKe.
EBN A - IloKpMBa Kpaj VII M rrO'IeTKe VI MMJIeHMjYMa. OBO je
BpeMe Kap;a ce IIlMpM 6eJIo CJIMKaHa KepaMMKa. U:eo jY)!(HM p;eo EaJIKaHCKOr
rrOJIyoCTpBa je HeOJIMTM30BaH TOKOM OBe ¢a3e: TpaKMja, Pop;orrM M jY)!(Ha
AJI6aHMja. IlpeMa X. TOP;OPOBOj, OBO je BpeMe Kap;a cy ce pa3BMJIe rrpBe
KyJITypHe 30He M fuMXOBe KyJIType, a CMHxpOHe cy ca KapaHOBO I.
EBN B - HOBM MMrryJIC HeOJIMTM3aU;Mje KOjM p;OJIa3M op; p;pYIIlTaBa
EBN. Y OBOM TpeHyTKy ceBepOMCTO'IHM perMOHM jyroMCTO'IHe EBporre
(CBe P;O YKpaMHe) 6MBajy HeOJIMTM30BaHM. Y u;eHTpaJIHoj EBporrM
rrojaBlbyje ce JIMHeapHa KepaMMKa. Uoralja ce jacHa p;M¢epeHU;MjaU;Mja
KyJITypa: KOMrrJIeKC CJIl1KaHe paHOHeOJIl1TCKe KepaMl1Ke (TecaJIl1ja, JY)!(Ha
AJI6aHl1ja, u;eHTpaJIHl1 EaJIKaH), KepaMl1Ka paHor HeOJIl1Ta 6e3 CJIl1KaHOr
yKpaca (jyrOl1CTO'IHa EyrapcKa, MYHTeHl1ja, YKpajl1Ha, TpaHCMJIBaHl1ja,
MOJIp;aBl1ja), KOMrrJIeKC l1MrrpeCO KepaMl1Ke (Jap;paHCKO rrpl1Mopje l1
p;eJIOBM EOCHe l1 AJI6aHl1je). OBa rrop;eJIa op;peljyje l1 pa3Boj KaCHl1jl1X
KyJITypa OBor rrpOCTopa.
121
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
EBN C - BpeMe Koje ce rrOHeKal\ Ha3WBa "Cpel\lbW HeOJIWT". TOKoM
OBe ¢a3e ce l\elIlaBajy CYlIlTWHCKe rrpOMeHe, Koje I\pYlIlTBa paHor HeOJIWTa
CrrpOBOl\e y rr03HOHeOJIWTCKW rrepWOI\. OBa ¢a3a je ¢a3a TpaH3Wl1wje W
jOlIl YBeK je Hel\OBOlbHO 1\06po rrpoy'IeHa.
XPOHOJIOlIlKW CWCTeM X. TOl\opoBe rrOKYlIlaBa I\a rrpy)!(w
aJITepHaTWBY rroCTojenwM xpOHonOlIlKWM CWCTeMWMa, KOjWX, KaKO
TOl\opoBa W BajcoB 3aKlby'Iyjy WMa KOJIWKO W WCTpa)!(WBa'Ia. HaMepa WM
je 6wJIa I\a CTBope jel\aH CWCTeM KOjW ne rrpemel\HO rrOCTaBWTW 3ajel\HW'IKe
TeHl\eHl1wje pa3Boja HeOJIWTa Ha l1enOM oanKaHCKOM rrOJIyoCTpBy. TaKo 6w
ce w36emo KopWlIlnelbe 6pOjHWX WMeHa 3a WCTe KyJITypHe rrojaBe. AyTOpw
cy 3a ¢opMwpalbe OBor CWCTeMa Y3eJIW HajKapaKTepWCTW'IHwje rrojaBe Kao
lIlTO cy: MOHoxpOMHa KepaMWKa, 6eJIo CJIWKalbe ... 'IWHW ce, MeI)YTWM, I\a
je oBaj CWCTeM y )!(elbW I\a ce CTBOPW jel\Ha YHw¢opMHa W cBe06YXBaTHa

rrOl\eJIa WlIlao Ha TO I\a ce )!(pTBYJe WCTaH'IaHa rrOl\eJIa y OKBwpWMa

rrOJel\WHWX KyJITypa.
Y KlbW3W, KOjy je ypel\WO ayTop WCKonaBalba y CTap'IeBY P. Epwx,
Chronologies in the Old World Archaeology, jel\aH 01\ aYTOpa A. oaHKo¢
(Bankoff 1992) ce TaKol)e HalIlao npel\ I\WJIeMOM KOjy nepwol\w3al1wjy
rrpwxBaTwTw W rrpoMoBwcaTw y OBOj KlbW3W. BepoBaTHo W caM CBeCTaH
6pOjHWX Hel\OCTaTaKa W HeI\Ope'IeHOCTW rrocTojenwx cwcTeMa, OH ce
OI\JIY'IWO Ha w3Bol)elbe BpeMeHcKwx jel\Ha'IWHa (temporal equation)ol\HocHO
peJIaTWBHO XPOHOJIOlIlKWX jel\HaKOCTw Mel)y HaJIa3WlIlTWMa 'IWTaBOr
perWOHa (Bankoff 1992). OH je HarrpaBwo TPW BpeMeHcKe jeI\Ha'IWHe:
Temporal Equation I - fypa oanyJIyj - AH3a6eroBo I - KapaHoBo I -
Thessalian Early Neolithic II wnw Proto Sesklo Horizon;
Temporal Equation II - CTap'IeBO - KepelIl - KpWlIl - KapaHoBo II/Ill -
Thessalian Early Neolithic III;
Temporal Equation III - BWH'Ia - KapaHoBo IV - JIwHeapHa KepaMwKa
(Linear Incised Ware OI\HOCHO Bandkeramik).
l1aKo caCBWM cYMapHa, OBa rrepwol\W3al1wja 3arrpaBo rroKa3yje
rryT KOjWM Balba wnw. BpeMeHCKe jel\Ha'IWHe 3aCHOBaHe cy He caMO
Ha Ben rry6JIWKOBaHWM CTWJICKO-TWrrOJIOlIlKWM aHaJIW3aMa Ben W Ha
arrCOJIYTHWM l\aTYMWMa 1\06wjeHwM W3 pal\WoyrlbeHWKa. 'IwlbeHWl1a I\a ce
eKcrrepT, yrryneH Ha rrWTalba XpOHOJIOrwje HeOJIWTa jyrowCTO'IHe EBporre
W WCTpa)!(WBa'I errOHWMHor HaJIa3WlIlTa, orrpel\eJIWO 3a OBaKaB rrpwCTyrr
1\0BOlbHO je pe'IWT caM rro ce6w. Yrral\lbWBO je I\a je oaHKo¢ 3a l1eJIO
Tpajalbe paHor (w Cpel\lber) HeonWTa pa3JIy'IWO caMO I\Be ¢a3e I\OK Tpena
rrpwrral\a BpeMeHY rr03HOT/¢WHanHor HeOJIWTa (Late Neolithic).
122
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
)eI\HOCTaBHO nopel)elhe nojel\l1HI1X <j>a3a, Koje cy ycnoCTaBI1JII1
pa3JII1ql1TI1 ayTOpl1, 11 nOKYIlIajl11\a ce OHe CI1HXPOHI13yjy 1\0BOl\e HajqeIlIhe
1\0 3a6YHe, nOiliTO Cal\p)!(aj <j>a3a Hl1je KOI\ CBI1X ayTopa I1CTI1, a nojel\l1He
MaHI1<j>eCTaU;l1je YKpalliaBalha KepaMI1Ke KOI\ jel\HI1X 03HaqaBajy nOqeTaK
a KOI\ I\pyrl1x Kpaj KyJIType. TIpl1Mepa pal\l1 Tpe6a pehl1 I\a je y CI1CTeMY B.
MI1JIojql1ha nojaBa )!(I1THor KJIaCa KapaKTepl1CTl1qHa 3a Kpaj CTapqeBaqKe
KyJIType (<j>a3a CTapqeBO IV) a y cI1cTeMY )l CpejoBl1ha OBa I1cra nojaBa
03HaqaBa <j>a3y TIpoToCTapqeBO II. OBO 3Haql1 I\a ce ayTop HeMI1HOBHO
• •
Mopa onpel\eJII1TI1 3a Jel\HY 01\ lhl1X I1l\a Je CaCBI1M Henpl1MepeHO l\aTOBaTI1
MaTepl1jaJI no BI1IlIe pa3JII1ql1TI1X CI1CTeMa: Hnp. CTapqeBO IIa no U.
fapaIlIaHI1H I1JII1 TIpoTOCrapqeBO II no )l CpejoBl1hy. qaK 11 I\Ba Haj6JII1)!(a
CI1CTeMa B. MI1JIojql1ha 11 U. fapaIlIaHI1H y nojel\l1HI1M <j>a3aMa I1Majy
pa3JII1ql1T cal\p)!(aj Hnp. CTapqeBO IV no B. MI1JIojql1hy 11 CrapqeBO III no
U. fapaIlIaHI1H.
TIol\eJIa U. fapaIlIaHI1H je TaKol)e, Kao 11 MI1JIojql1heBa 3aCHOBaHa

Ha npoyqaBalhY MaTepl1JaJIa ca enOHI1MHOr HaJIa311IlITa OBe KyJIType.
11 OBl\e ce BI1I\I1 I\a ce KJIaCa rpy6e KepaMI1Ke TYMaql1 Kao XPOHOJIOIlIKI1
HeOCeTlbI1Ba, rrOlliTO ce y CBe Tpl1 <j>a3e Koje cy 3acTyrrlbeHe Ha CTapqeBY
Ka)!(e I\a ce jaBlbajy CBe BpCTe YKpalliaBalha Ha rpy60j KepaMI1U;I1. Y <j>a311
IIa jaBlba ce ynopel\o 6eJIo 11 raMHO CJII1Kalhe, IlITO je rroTBpl)eHo 11 Ha
I\pyrl1M HaJIa311IlITI1Ma 11 raKol)e I1CTl1qe jel\HOBpeMeHocT rrpaBOJII1Hl1jcKl1x
11 KPI1BOJII1Hl1jCKI1X CJII1KaHI1X MOTI1Ba. ql1HI1 ce I\a je y OBOM cI1cTeMY
nepl101\113aU;l1je 01\ Behe Ba)!(HOCTI1 3a XPOHOJIOiliKO Onpel\elbl1Balhe
KepaMI1Ke TpeTMaH cnOlbHe nOBpIlII1He <j>I1He KepaMI1Ke, a Malhe Haql1H
CJII1Kalha 1111360p MOTI1Ba 11 60ja.l1cTI1Ha, <j>a3a lIb je 1131\BojeHa Ha OCHOBY
npel\OMI1HaU;l1je TaMHe 60je, 6e3 l\eTalbHl1jer pa3BpCTaBalha MOTI1Ba.
Moje je MI1IlIlbelhe, naK, I\a cy 11360p MOTI1Ba 11 60je YKpaca 3a
YMeTHI1Ka MOPaJIl1 611TI1 01\ Beher 3Haqaja 01\ caMe 60je neqelha nocYl\e.
OBO TI1M npe IlITO je Hl1jaHCY 60je cnOlbHe nOBpIlII1He CBaKaKO 611JIO Te)!(e
KOHTpOJII1CaTI1 TOKOM OKCl1l\aU;110HOr npou;eca neqelha, KOjl1 cy CTapqeBU;11
npaKTI1KOBaJII1, Te MI1 ce CTora He ql1HI1 BepOBaTHI1M I\a he CBe nocYl\e
Koje cy, TOKOM neqelha, 1\0611JIe 60jy Koja Hl1je TpeHyrHo "y TpeHI\Y"
611TI1 01\6aqeHe, 11 TO TaKO I\a ce yoniliTe He nojaBe Mel)y apXeOJIOIlIKI1M
HaJIa311Ma. C I\pyre CTpaHe, BaH CBaKe cyMlhe je I\a he ce BOI\I1TI1 paqYHa
o TpeHyrHoM yKyCy Kal\a je y rrl1TalhY CJII1KaHI1 yKpac, 113Mel)y OCTaJIOr 11
CTora IlITO ra je JIaKille 113a6paTI1 11 KOHTpOJII1CaTI1.
CI1CTeM rrepl101\113aU;l1je CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType KOjl1 npel\JIa)!(e U.
CpejoBl1h rro rrpBI1 nyr rrpaBI1 BpeMeHcKY pa3JII1Ky Ha OCHOBY nojaBe
6ap60TI1Ha, 11 l\eJII1 pa3Boj CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType Ha BpeMe npe 11 rrOCJIe
rrojaBe OBor opHaMeHTa. MeI)YTI1M, Kao IlITO je CTaBlbaHa rrpl1Mel\6a B.
123
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
MHJIojqHny H ,[(. rapalIIaHHH l1a cy rrOl1eJIY HaqHHHJIH caMO Ha OCHOBY
MaTepHjaJIa ca CTapqeBa, TaKO ce HCTa 3aMepKa MO)!(e CTaBHTH OBOj
rrepH0I1H3al.\HjH, C TOM pa3JIHKOM lIITO ce OBl1e rrpOTOCTapqeBaqKa cj>a3a
I H II H311Bajajy caMO Ha OCHOBY HaJIa3a H3 JIerreHcKor BHpa, Te ce cj>a3a
I1poToCTapqeBO I 3aCHHBa Ha MaTepHjaJIY H3 JIerreHcKH BHp IIla/110JIe,
a cj>a3a I1poToCTapqeBO II Ha MaTepHjaJIY H3 cJIoja JIerreHcKH BHp IlIa/
rope (XOpH30HT 3eMYHHl.\a). I1ol1eJIa paHor HeOJIHTa l.\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa
Ha I1Be rnaBHe eTarre, rrpoTOCTapqeBaqKY H CTapqeBaqKY, y CKJIal1Y cy ca
HacTOjalbHMa l1a ce y pa3Boj HeOJIHTa l.\eJIe jyroHcTOqHe EBporre YBel1e
cj>a3a cpel1lber HeOJIHTa, rra ce TaKO rrpOTOCTapqeBaqKe cj>a3e l1aTyjy y
paHH HeOJIHT (rrOqeTKe HeOJIHTCKor pa3Boja, 110MeCTHKal.\Hje )!(HBOTHlba H
6HlbaKa, KOjH ce Tpa)!(H y Hl1eaJIHHM KJIHMaTCKo-reorpacj>cKHM YCJIOBHMa
1)epl1arrCKe KJIHcype) H Cpel1lbH HeOJIHT ca pa3BHjeHoM CTapqeBaqKOM
KyJITypOM Koja je 6alIITHHHJIa rrpeTXOI1HO HaBel1eHe TeKOBHHe H HaCTaBlba
• •
oBaJ pa3BoJ Kao KllaCU'JHO HeOJIHTCKa KyJITypa.
I1p06JIeM ce jaBlba KOI1 npaKTHqHe ynoTpe6e OBe nepH0I1H3al.\Hje,
rrOlIITO cy Kao THnOJIOlIIKH HajBa)!(HHje Y3eTe CTHJICKe MaHHcj>eCTal.\Hje
Koje ce jaBlbajy cpa3MepHO peTKo: KanlbHqaCTO CJIHKalbe 6eJIOM 60jOM
(yrnaBHoM 0,1% 011 yKynHor 6poja cj>parMeHaTa), rrpeBJIaqelbe CHonOM
rpaHqHl.\a H CJI, Te ce Mory Y3eTH H Kao JIOKaJIHO Cnel.\Hcj>HqHH 3a rrojel1HHe

JIOKaJIHTeTe HJIH perHJe.
CBaKaKo HHje H3Y3eTaK rrocTojalbe rpy6e H cj>HHe KepaMHKe y
perrepToapy rpHqapHje y OKBHPY HeKe KylIType. Y CTapqeBaqKoj KylITypH
• ••
OBa rroJaBa HMa 110l1aTHH 3HaqaJ, rrOlIITO Je pa3JIHKa y TpeTMaHY OBe
I1Be BpCTe H3Y3eTHO BeJIHKa. rpy60 rrocyl)e, BepOBaTHO YTHJIHTapHOr
KapaKTepa, KpyrrH03pHe cj>aKType ca 06HlbeM rrJIeBe l1e6eJIHx H cJIa60
rreqeHHX 3HI10Ba H CBOjHM H3rnel10M ol1aje apXaHqaH YTHcaK. C I1pyre
CTpaHe JIYKCY3Ha rpHqapHja (display pottery) CHTH03pHe cj>aKType, H3yeTHO
TaHKHX 3H110Ba, qeCTO ca cj>HHHM rrpeMa30M (CJIHn) KOjH je paBHoMepHo
HaHeT Ha nocYI1Y. YKpalIIaBalbe OBaKBHX nocYl1a npel1CTaBlba BpxyHcKe
110MeTe OBe enoxe. J1aKo HeMa l1ecj>HHHTHBHHX 3aKlbyqaKa 0 TpajHocTH
• • •
Jel1HHx H I1pyrHx, rrpeTnocTaBKa Je l1a ce JIYKcY3Ha rpHqapHJa KOPHCTH
• • •
ca BHlIIe rra)!(lbe, He CTaBlba ce Ha BaTpy, qHMe JOJ Je CBaKaKO rrpOl1y)!(eH
POK ynoTpe6e. Ha oBaj HaqHH H311Bajajy ce I1Be OCHOBHe KJIaCe KepaMHKe

pa3JIHqHTOr KapaKTepa, HaMeHe H I1Y)!(HHe TpaJalba lIITO MO)!(e YTHl.\aTH

H Ha lbHXOBY 3acTynlbeHocT y YKynHoM KepaMHqKOM MaTepHJaJIY.
YTHJIHTapHa, CBaKOI1HeBHa rpHqapHja no HeKHM HCTpa)!(HBalbHMa Tpaje
CBera I1Be 110 TpH rOI1HHe 110K TaK03BaHa cj>HHa KepaMHKa MO)!(e TpajaTH
3HaTHO l1y)!(e H npeHocH ce Kp03 nap reHepal.\Hja (Hnp. Arnold 1985).
124
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
CmlKa 38 - .uolha EpalheBHHa, rrpHMepl1 ypeljeHor yKpaca Ha rpy60j KepaMl1IJ;J1
(npeMa: Karmanski 2005)
HajBetU! 6poj HaJla311111Ta Ha Tepl1TOpl1jl1 ,-\eHTpanHOr oanKaHa
06l1nyje yrrpaBo rpy60M KepaMI1KOM, C<j>epl1'IHI1X 06n11Ka, ca 1I0CTa
rrpl1MeCa lIJIeBe Koja ce YKpaIIlaBa pa3MepHO peTKO. ,[(a 6l1CMO MOrJIl1
lIa l1X cBpcTaMo y HeKY Oil <j>a3a CTap'leBa'lKe KynType HeorrxollHo je
rrepl1011113a,-\l1jy rrpl1J1arOlll1TI1 11 rpy60j KepaMI1,-\I1. OBO Hl1je jellHocTaBaH
3allaTaK. J1rraK, rrocTojl1 MoryhHocT lIa ce Ha OCHOBY OIlHOCHO
opHaMeHTa Ha rpy60j KepaMl1,-\l1 YTBPIll1 rrpl10pl1TeT,
• •
anl1 l1 TO caMO 110 BpeMeHa Kalla ce rrOJaBJhYJY CBl1 Ha'll1Hl1 YKpaIIlaBalha
Ha rpy60j KepaMl1Ijl1, a TO je rrpeMa C. ,[(l1Ml1Tpl1jeBl1hy rrO'leTaK <j>a3e
Crrl1pan0l111 A. Y rrepl1011l13aIjl1jaMa KOjy cy He3aBl1CHO rrpellnO)!(l1nl1 B.
Ml1noj'll1h l1 HeIIlTO KaCHl1je ,[(. fapaIIlaHl1H, CBe BpCTe rpy6e KepaMl1Ke
• • • •
JaBJhaJY ce Oil IIO'leTKa 110 KpaJa CTap'leBa'lKe KynType l1 TpeTl1paJY ce Kao
aTl1IIl1'1He. Ml1IIlJhelha caM lIa je OpraHl13aIjl1ja yKpaca rpy6e KepaMl1Ke
xpOHOnOIIlKl1 l1HIIl1KaTl1BHa: Ha'll1H OpraHl130Balha 6ap60Tl1Ha
), . .
l1nl1, IIaK, MOTl1B ,,)!(l1THOr Knaca l13rnella lIa Je y lIl1peKTHoJ Be311 ca
OpraHl13aIjl1joM Cnl1KaHor MOTl1Ba. TaKo, Kalla ce Cnl1Kajy yKpaCl1 ca
Kpl1BOnl1Hl1jcKl1M MOTl1BOM 3a O'leKl1BaTl1 je lIa ce l1 ype3aHl1, peJhe<j>Hl1
l1 YTl1CHYTl1 MOTl1B OpraHl13yje y Cnl1'1HOM MaHl1py. BeOMa cy y OBOM
CMl1Cny l1nyCTpaTl1BHl1 <j>parMeHTl1 l13 ,[(olhe OpalheBl1He (Cnl1Ka 38/1-2)
Ha Kojl1Ma ce MO)!(e Bl1l1eTl1 Bl1cehl1 Tpoyrao l13BelleH y l1MIIpeCO TeXHl1Ijl1

I1nl1 BepTI1KanHe nl1HI1Je l13BelleHe lIITl1rralheM.
ITOlliTO IIocTojehe rrepl1011113a,-\l1je CTap'leBa'lKe Kynrype
rrpellCTaBJhajy rrojellHoCTaBJheHo jellHor III1HaMl1'1Hor rrpoIjeca,
apXeOn0311 cy rrpl1l1aToBalhY HOBI1X Hana3a OBe KynType I1l1aJhe
• •
lIa ce ocnalhaJY Ha I1HTYI1,-\I1JY l1 YBpe)!(eHe CTl1nCKO-TI1IIOnOlliKe
rrpellpacYlle. TpeTl1pajyhl1 caMO jellHy BpCTy apxeonolliKor MaTepl1jana
(rpH'Iapl1jy) l1 6Yllyhl1 CTora HeMl1HOBHO IIlType, OHe rrpeTIIOCTaBJhajy

CTaTl1'1HOCT cTBapana'lKOr l13pa3a y BpeMeHY l1 rrpocTopy, Te IIPl1l1aJY
125
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n

npeTepaHH 3Ha'la) HHjaHcaMa 60je cnOlbHe

nOBplIlHHe rpH'IapH)e H

cnHKaHor yKpaca, a npeManH 3Ha'la) CaIlP)!(HHH opHaMeHTanHor cHcTeMa.
Ha Taj Ha'lHH HCTOBpeMeHa pa3HonHKOCT Koja je Mopana nocTojaTH Ha TaKO
BenHKOM npOCTpaHCTBy KaKBO je jyroHcTo'lHa EBpona 6HBa nOTHCHYTa H
3aHeMapeHa.
126
IIpe,ll;JIor rrepI10,ll;113aU;l1je
C 06311POM l1a 3aCTyrraM CTaHOBI1IllTe l1a je OpHaMeHTanHI1 CI1CTeM
KOjl1 je 6a311paH Ha ena60pl1paHI1M reoMeTpl1jcKI1M <j:>OpMaMa MOpaO

I1MaTI1 Benl1KI1 3Ha'la) y CI1CTeMY MI1IllJbelha, 0 'IeMY rOBOpl1 CaMO lherOBO
rrpl1CYCTBO Ha nYKCY3HOj rpH'Iapl1jl1 Illl1pOM Benl1Kor rrpOCTOpa BanKaHa
11 AHal10nl1je (N.N. Task 2007), Hana311M l1a je 113Y3eTHo KOMrrnl1KOBaHO

rrpaTI1TI1 rryT 0I1I1CX0I1I1IllTa Tor CI1CTeMa 110 lherOBe rrOTrrYHe l1ereHepal.\l1)e
Kp03 BpeMe 11 rrpoCTOp. YrrpaBO 113 Tor pa3nora orrpel1eJbI1Balhe 3a 611no
KOjy rrepl1011113al.\I1jy Kymypa MeHI1 je rroce6HO TeIllKO, C 06311pOM l1a

110rrYIllTaM rrOCTO)alhe 3HaTHe I1I1HaMI1Ke y OCMI1IllJbaBaIhY, CTBapaIhY,
rrpeHOIllelhY 11 rrpl1XBaTalhY cI1M60nl1'1KOr CI1CTeMa KOjl1 BI1I1I1MO Ha
rrocYl1aMa.
Ilepl1011113al.\I1ja Koja cnel1l1 pe3ynTaT je TeMeJbHor YBl1l1a KOjl1 caM
I1Mao y KepaMl1'1KI1 MaTepl1jan ca rrpOCTopa jyrol1cTo'lHe EBporre 011 Kny)!(a
110 ConyHa 11 011 TY3ne 110 BYKypeIllTa.
35
OCnOHal.\ OBe rrepl1011113al.\I1je je
113Meljy OCTanor KynTypHI1 cnoj AH3a6erOBa 11 pal1110Kap60H l1aTYMI1 ca
1106pl1M KOHTeKCTOM.
36
Hl1je cny'lajHa Moja rrpI1Bp)!(eHOCT C14I1aTYMI1Ma.
OHI1 rrpel1CTaBJbajy 06jeKTI1BaH Ha'll1H YTBpljl1Balha arrconYTHe (a TI1Me
11 penaTI1BHe) CTaPOCTI1 y30pKa. OKOnHOCTI1 Koje yTl1'1y Ha Ta'lHOCT, a TO
cy 0l1a611P Y30pKa, rrpel.\113HOCT rrpl1MelheHe MeT0l10nOrl1je, BpCTa Y30pKa
11 KBanl1TeT na60paTopl1je, cy rrpel1Bl1l1l1Be 11 Mory ce 113pa311TI1 Kp03
CTaHl1apl1HY rpeIllKy y30pKa. OBI1 pe3ynTaTI1 611, l1aKne, Mornl1 l1a HaM
OTKpl1jy Koja ce HaCeJba pa3BI1jajy y I1CTO BpeMe, IllTO he, KaKO cnyTI1M,
OTKpl1TI1 60raTcTBo pa3nl1Ka Koje cy Mopane rrocTojaTI1 y BpeMe paHor
11 cpel1lher HeOnl1Ta. Y cyrrpoTHoM, cl1CTeMaTl13yjyhl1, CBpCTaBajyhl1 11
<j:>a3l1pajyhl1 OCTaTKe MaTepl1janHe KynType Morno 611 HaM ce l1eCI1TI1 l1a,
• ».
'IaK 11 aKO ycrreMo l1a pa3HI1nl1KOCT 113pa3a TI1X JbYI1I1 "crraKy)eMO y jaCHe 11
35 TOKOi\I TpajaH,a Alexander von Humboldt CTt1neHAl1je 1999-2001, 11 60paBKa y 6pojmtM

MY3eJl1Ma Wl1POM pel'110Ha.
36 KOj l1 nOTBpl)yjy npeTnocTaBKY M. rapaWaHI1Ha 0 CMeHl1 ¢a3a Ha AH3a6eroBY.
127
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
OIlITpO ollelbeHe <j>a3e, OCTaHeMO CMpoMallIHMjM 3a MHore lIeTalbe M BaJIepe
jellHor BeJIM'IaHCTBeHor TKalha. CpetlHa je OKOJIHOCT lIa je AH3a6erOBO, Koje
rrpellcTaBlba Haj60lbe MCTpa)!(eHM BMWeCJIojHM JIOKaJIMTeT CTapqeBaqKe
KyJIType, rrpMJIMqHO 1I06po lIaToBaHo pallMoyrlbeHMK MeToiloM Te lIa je
pa3peweHa IIMJIeMa OKO rrpel\M3HOr CTpaTMrpa<j>CKor rrOJIo)!(aja rrojellMHMx
lherOBMX CJIojeBa (M. Garasanin 1998). Y rrOCJIeilihe BpeMe Kao lIa ce Bpana
MHTepec 3a rrMTalha HeOJIMTa l\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa rra TaKO CTM)!(Y M HOBM
pailMoKap60H lIaTYMM M3 OBe 06JIaCTM (Boric, Miracle 2004; Biaggi et al.
2005), Ha Koje ce OCJIalha H nepHOIIH3al.\Hja Koja CJIeIlH.
l..[MHM MM ce lIa je HajBenM HarrpellaK y pa3YMeBalhY XPOHOJIOWKor
rropeTKa CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType M HeOJIMTa l.\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa, Kao M y
ollpeljHBalhY CallP)!(aja rrojellHHMx <j>a3a 6HJIO CHCTeMaTCKO MCKonaBalhe
Ha AH3a6eroBY. OHO je H 110 lIaHac OCTaJIO Haj3aqajHHje BHWeCJIojHo
HeOJIMTCKO Hacelbe ceBepHo Oil COJIYHa H 3anailHo Oil 1I0JIHHe CTpYMe.
I1cKorraBaJIa cy ynopello IIBa TMMa, jellaH nOli ynpaBoM M. [apawaHMHa
H IIpyrH, aMepHqKH, nOli ynpaBoM M. [HM6YTac. Ha)!(aJIOCT, TOKOM
HCKorraBalha (pers. comm. M. [apawaHMH) 1I0WJIO je 110 nporryCTa y
npanelhy CTpaTHrpa<j>Hje Ha lIeJIY KOjM je MCKOnaBaJIa M. [MM6YTac
M CallP)!(ajM IIBe <j>a3e (II H III) cy 6MJIH rrOMewaHM. l..[HlheHMl.\a lIa je
MaTepMjaJI ca MCKorraBalha M. [apawaHMHa lIyro OCTaO He06jaBlbeH,
CBe 110 lheroBor Ca)!(eTOr qJIaHKa y Prehistorische Zeitschrift (1998),
• •• • •
YTHl\aJIa Je Ha M30CTaHaK eBaJIyal\MJe nOllaTaKa KOJe Je OBO BMWeCJIOJHO
HaJIa3MWTe rrpY)!(MJIO. 0YllynM lIa ce jellMHO Ha AH3a6erOBY Mory
CarJIellaTM rroqeTHe <j>a3e KyJIType paHor HeOJIMTa l\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa
(<t>a3e Ia-dII), MMwlbelha caM lIa ra HMKaKO He CMeMO 3a06MJIa3MTM Kalla
rrpaBMMO XPOHOJIOWKe Ta6eJIe M rrepMOIIM3al.\Mje. HarrpoTMB, lherOB
MonaH KyJITypHM CJIoj M BMWellel\eHMjcKo TepeHcKo MCKYCTBO aKalleMMKa
[apawaHMHa CToje Kao jeMal\ 3a TaqHOCT CJIeila 1I0raljaja ca Kpaja VII
M rroqeTaKa VI MMJIeHMjYMa. C Tora ce y <j>opMMpalhY CBor rrpMCTyrra
rrepMOIIM3al.\MjM CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType, MJIM 60lbe penH, rrepMOIIM3al.\MjM
paHor M cpeiliher HeOJIMTa l\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa OCJIalhaM y 3HaTHoj MepM
Ha CJIojeBe AH3a6eroBa M rrepl.\errTMBHocT M. [apawaHMHa.
128
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
PaHW HeOJIWT I\eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa (Early Neolithic
of the Central Balkans, I\albe y TeKcTY ENCB)
ENCB rrpe 5900. rOI\WHe CTape epe"
OTBopeHa je MorynHocT I\albe rrOl\eJIe Ha rrOI\<j>a3e YKOJIWKO ce HOBWM
WCTpa)!(WBalhWMa 3a TO YKa)!(e rrOTpe6a. Ol\rOBapa <j>a3W fypa BanyJIyj M.
fapawaHWHa W <j>a3W i1poToCTapqeBO I W II U. CpejoBwna.
Y OBOj <j>a3W HajqeWne ce jaBlbajy jel\HOCTaBHW 06JIWI\W rpy60r
rrocylja, crrOlbHe rrOBpWWHe ce orpy6lbyjy rrpeBJIaqelheM CHorra rpaHqWI\a,
a YKpawaBalhe ce BPWW YTWCKWBalheM Bpxa rrpCTa WJIW HOKTa; He
WCKlbyqyje ce W rrojaBa HeypeljeHor rrceYl\o-6ap6oTwH yKpaca. <DwHa
KepaMwKa WMa 3HaTHO pa3HoBpcHwje 06JIWKe, TaKO I\a ce rrOHeKal\ jaBlbajy
W 6WKOHWqHW o6JIwl1w. i1ocYl\e Ha qeTBOpOJIWCHoj CTorrw, Kao OHe W3 UOlhe
BpalheBwHe (Karmanski 2005: PI. LXX) Morrre 6w I\a 6Yl\Y WHI\WKaTWBHe
3a l\aTOBalhe y OBY <j>a3Y. IIlTo ce TWqe YKpawaBalha <j>wHe rpHqapwje -
OHa qeCTO WMa rrpeMa3, KOjw je rrOHeKal\ rJIaqaH. Y TOj KJIaCW KepaMwKe
jaBlba ce W 6eJIo CJIWKaHa KepaMwKa qwjw je yKpac HajqeWne opraHw30BaH
y KBal\paTHWM MeTorraMa (CJIWKa 31). JaBlbajy ce W yKpacw ca MOTWBWMa

KarrlbWI\a, TpeMOJIO JIWHwJa, I\WK-I\aK MOTWBWMa W peTKwM MOTWBWMa

.. -" Iio ••
4 7 f 1 ~ .. 1v

...



Cm1Ka 39 - Eeno CnHKaHJ.1 MOTHBH Ha rpwlapl1jl1 HajpaHHje cpa3e
HeOllHTJ13aIJ;Jllje u;e HTpallHor oallKaHa (ENCB)
TpoyrrroBa (CJIWKa 39). HapOqWTO je 3HaqajHa rrojaBa pa3HoBpcHWX
reoMeTpwjcKwx MOTWBa KOjW ce KOM6wHyjy <j>opMwpajynw W <j>JIOpaJIHe
MOTWBe. feoMeTpwjcKe <j>opMe cy pa3HoBpcHe W OqWrrrel\HO wMajy
3HaqajHY yJIory y CWM6oJIWqKOM cwcTeMY OBor I\pywTBa. J1CTpa)!(WBaqW
WCTWqy I\a je CJIWKaHW yKpac KOjW rrpwrral\a OBOj <j>a3w nocTojaH, HaHeT
npe neqelha W HajqeWne WMa nocTOjaHw cjaj. Ol\rOBapa AH3a6eroBo la-
Ic. Ha TepwTopwjw l1eHTpaJIHOr BaJIKaHa OBa <j>a3a 6w ce MOrJIa Ha3BaTW
W MOHOXPOMHOM 360r qWlheHWI\e I\a je 6poj oTKpwBeHwx 6eJIo CJIWKaHWX
<j>parMeHaTa w3Y3eTHo MaJIW. Ho WCTa MOHoxpoMHa KepaMwKa jaBlba ce
37 J.13pa)KeHO y KaJIw6pwpamtM (I1CTOPHjCKHM) rOAHHaMa.
129
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
11 Y Hapel1HI1M <jJa3aMa 11 I1crrOCTaBI1JIO ce l1a Hl1je 110BOlbHO XPOHOJIOIlIKI1
OCeTlbl1Ba Kao IlITO je TO CJIyqaj ca (peTKI1M) 6eJIo CJII1KaHI1M rrocYl1aMa.
OBaKO MaJIa 3acTyrrlbeHocT 6eJIor CJII1Kafua Morna 611 ce 110HeKJIe
06jacHI1TI1 11 rrpl1JIl1qHO rpy611M TeXHI1KaMa rrpafua, Koje ce rrpaKTI1Kyjy
CBe 110 HaIlII1X l1aHa.
38
HaJIa311IlITa Koja rrpl1rral1ajy OBOj <jJa311 cy peTKa Ha Tepl1Topl1jl1
l\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa aJII1 CJII1KaHI1 yKpac Ha ful1Ma ql1HI1 jel1l1HCTBeH
KyJITypHI1 <jJeHoMeH (BI1I1I1: N.N. Tasic 2007): Marapenl1 Mmm- Arranm,
Llofua OpafueBI1Ha, PYI1HI1K I, LlI1BOCTI1H I, CTy611l\a-'13epl1arr, BeJIeCHI1l\a-
'l3epl1arr, BJIacal\-'13epl1arr (HeOJII1TCKI1 HaJIa311), I1aI1I1Ha-'13epl1arr.
I10cJIe OBe <jJa3e Kao l1a 110JIa311 110 l1ereHepal\l1je opHaMeHTaJIHOr
• • •
CI1CTeMa KOJI1 Je y rrpBI1 rrJIaH I1CTI1l\aO reOMeTpl1JCKe MOTI1Be 11 HapOQI1TO
OI1HOC Kpyra 11 KBal1paTa.
Cpel1ful1 HeOJII1T l\eHTpaJIHOr OaJIKaHa,
(Middle Neolithic of the Central Balkans, l1albe y TeKcTY MNCB)
MNCB I - 110 5800. r0l111He CTape epe
LlOMI1Hl1pa rpy6a KepaMI1Ka, ypeljeHI1 6ap60TI1H yKpac, ,,)[(I1THI1
KJIaC" MOTI1B 113Bel1eH YTl1cKI1BafueM y CBe)[(y rroBpllll1HY rrocYl1e ... Y OBOj
<jJa311 je 11 l1albe Moryna rrojaBa peTKI1X 6eJIo CJII1KaHI1X MOTI1Ba 11 rrpBor,
peTKor TaMHOr CJII1Kafua. YKpalliaBafue rpy6e KepaMI1Ke ype311BafueM
Hajqelllne ce jaBlba y HeypeljeHI1M I1JII1 rrpaBOJII1Hl1jcKI1M MOTI1BI1Ma.
Ol1rOBapa AH3a6eroBY IIa.
HaJIa3I1IlITa: JIyr-3BeQKa, BeJIeCHI1l\a, PYI1HI1K II, LlpeHOBal\ I,
CTy611l\a, BJIacal\ (HeOJII1TCKI1 XOPI130HT), KaparaQ-)KI1TKOBal\ (110ful1
XOPI130HT), CTapQeBO (JaMe 3A 11 SA I1HO) ...
I 2
r "
I ~
-II (
Cm1Ka 40 - HajqernnJ1 Haql1H YKparnaBaJ-ba TOKOM cpa3e MNCB 1
38 Ml1ClIl1 ce Ha nOTanali>e y KI1CeJlItIHY 11 tleTKal-be rpy6l1M anaTOM.
130
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyr a
MNCB II - 110 5700. rol1WHe CTape epe
Eellw MOTWBW nOTnYHo HeCTajy, a IhWXOBO MeCTO 3aY3wMajy TaMHO
• • • •
CllWKaHW npaBOIIWHW)CKW MOTWBW W MOTWBW rWpllaHI1W, KO)e cnap)y
KapaKTepwcTwlHe BepTwKallHo nOCTaBlbeHe l1e6lbe W Talhe IIwHwje.
[py6a KepaMwKa 3al1plKaBa KapaKTepwcTwKe npeTxOI1He ¢a3e. Ol1rOBapa
AH3a6eroBY II6.
1 1 1 4
Cnl1Ka 41 - TaMHo CmtKafue cpa3e M N CB II
Halla3WWTa: AT-Bpwal\, [lIaI1HWl\e-[pa'laHWl\a, KY'lajHa-Eop,
):(peHOBal\ IIa, IlIawwHl\w 521, Te'lWn-PeKOBal\, CTap'leBO (JaMe 5A wcnOI1
110lher nOl1a W 4, 6, 7), BWH'la-Eello 6pl10 (CTap'leBa'lKW Halla3w).
MNCB IIIa - 110 5400. rOI1WHe CTape epe
CnwpallHO TaMHO CJIWKalhe W nOHOBHa nojaBa 6eJIo CllWKaHor
yKpaca, OBora nyTa W3Bel1eHOr nOCHOM 60jOM Koja ce 'leCTO lbycna.
MOTWBW 6eJIor CllWKalha cy KapaKTepWCTW'lHW CTap'leBa'lKW TpoyrJIOBW,
allw W KPWBOllwHWjCKW MOTWBW. HajKapaKTepWCTW'lHwjw MOTWB OBe n03He
¢a3e je TaMHOCIIWKaHa cnwpalla Koja ce 3aBpwaBa y 0611WKY "wane". [py6a
I 5 6
7
8 9 10 11 11
Cnl1Ka 42 - TaMHo CJU1KaHJ.1 MOTJ1BJ1 KapaKTepJ1CTJ1'-IHJ1 3a 4>a3Y MNCB lIla
131
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
KepaMMKa ce YKpaIllaBa CBMM TeXHMKaMa, HapOqMTO KOM6MHOBafueM
TeXHMKa, Kao M orrOHaIllafueM MOTMBa ClIMKaHor yKpaca. TaK03BaHM
apKa,J:IHM 6ap6oTMH je qeCTO rrpMCYTaH Ha <j>parMeHTMMa rpy6e KepaMMKe.
O,J:IroBapa XOPM30HTY AH3a6erOBO III.
HalIa3MIllTa: I.:(MmaHa-)J;o6aHOBI1M, qyKap-fyMHMIllTe (I1aBlIOBal1),
qypra- JIy,J:IOIll, I.:(pHoKalIaqKa 6apa, )J;y6oqaj - fpoI1Ka, )J;y6paBa
I - Kfua)!(eBal1, flIa,J:IHMl1e Ib-fpaqaHMl1a, KpYIlleBal1- l1eHTap, PM6fuaK-
Eeqej, PY,J:IHMK IV, CajaH- )J;oM6oIll, )J;peHOBal1 lIb, CyrrcKa- 1iyrrpMja,
llialIMTpeHa rrenMHa-BalbeBo, BalIyre-Kfua)!(eBal1, BelIMKa qeCMa-
BpTMIllTe (HMIll), 3MajeBal1- CMe,J:IepeBCKa I1alIaHKa.
MNCB IIIb - rrOClIe 5400. rO,J:IMHe CTape epe
• • •
rrexapM Ha H03M, rroJaBa TaMHOmaqaHe KepaMMKe, crrMpalIe KOJe 3aY3MMaJY

l1elIY rroBpIllMHY cy,J:Ia - BpeMe Ka,J:Ia y HeKMM perMJaMa CTapqeBaqKa
KylITypa Tpaje rrapalIelIHo ca B11HqaHCKOM. O,J:lrOBapa <j>a3M AH3a6eroBo IV.
-'.-
1 -=:--
,
Cm1Ka 43 - HajKaCHJ.1jH cnHKamI yKpaCJ.1 CTapqeBaqKe KynType MNCB IIIb
HalIa3MIllTa: 1)YPMna BMHOrpa,J:IM-fpa6oBal1, fOlIOKYT-BM3Mn
(<t>pyIllKa ropa), Kaparaq-)KMTKOBal1, KpCTMneBa xyMKa-3pefuaHMH,
JIyKa y CaCTaBI1MMa, )J;peHOBal1 III, TorrOlIe-Eaq, TpafuMHa 6apa-I.:(pHqe
(JarO,J:IMHa), BMHorpa,J:IM-Eeqej, fopfua TY31Ia, AH3a6eroBo IV, PY,J:IHMK IV.
*
Moje Orrpe,J:Ielbefue 3a cKpaneHMI1Y ENCB MlIM MNCB, rrpoM3aIlllIY

M3 eHrlIeCKor Ha3MBa 3a rlIaBHe eTarre HeOlIMTCKor pa3BoJa Ha l1eHTpalIHoM
EalIKaHY, 6MlIO je YClIOBlbeHO He caMO ClIMqHO YCBojeHoM HOPMOM y
fpqKoj M EyrapcKoj apxeolIorMjM, Ben M 360r lIaKIlle KOMYHMKal1Mje
ca CTpaHMM CTpyqfual1MMa, KOjM cy, KaKO M3me,J:Ia,39 rrpMXBaTMlIM
39 ... 6MJlM OHM 11 3 aHrJlO<pOHCKor, repi\IaHo<poHCKor MJlM pOMaHCKor rOBopHor nOApytlja
132
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
OBaKBe Ha3HBe y rrepHOI\H3al\HjaMa. 1131\BajaIDe Cpel\IDer H paHOr
HeOnHTa y rrepHOI\H3al\HjH HeOnHTa l\eHTpanHOr BanKaHa YCBojeHo
je Ben y IIpaucmopuju jYZOCl108eHCKux 3eMalba (1979) ca OCnOHl\eM Ha
rrepHOI\H3al\Hjy ,lJ;. TeoxapHca (Teocharis 1973).
OBa rrOl\ena Ha rrpBH rrornel\ H3rnel\a Kao H rrOl\ene B. MHnojqHna,
,lJ;. fapawaHHH, )J;. CpejoBHna H M. fapawaHHHa. MeI)YTHM, Tpe6a
HarroMeHYTH I\a je cal\p)!(aj rrojel\HHHX <j>a3a 1\0HeKne rrpoMeIDeH, Kao H
TO I\a oBaj CHCTeM pa3nHKyje I\Be rrojaBe 6enor cnHKaIDa. Jel\Ha ce I\oral)a
01\ nOqeTKa Heom-lTa TOKOM <j>a3e ENCB y KOjOj ce jaBJba 6eno cnHKaIDe
y caCBHM oc06eHHM MOTHBHMa 0 KojHMa je l\eTaJbHO 6Hno peqH (CTp.
73-107), a I\pyra rrojaBa OnHqeHa je y 6enoM cnHKaIDY <j>a3e MNCB III
• ••
MOTHBHMa KOJH CTHnCKH OI\fOBapaJY OHHMa KOJH cy H3Bel\eHH TaM HOM
60jOM. 1131\BojeHe <j>a3e paHor H cpel\IDer HeOnHTa 1\06po KopeCnOHI\Hpajy
ca xpoHonowKoM CeKBeHl\OM AH3a6eroBa, a npeKo IDe H ca HCTOqHHM
BanKaHoM H ErejoM.
ENCB = AH3a6eroBo la-Ie
MNCB I-II = AH3a6eroBo IIa-b
MNCB IIIa-IIIb = AH3a6eroBo III-IV
Ha OBOM MeCTY HCTHqeM YBepeIDe, 3aCHOBaHO Ha npoyqaBaIDY
06nHKa nocYl\a, HaqHHa IDHXOBe H3pal\e H 0pHaMeHTanHHx TeXHHKa, anH

H YBHI\OM Y I\pyre BpCTe nOKpeTHor MaTepHpna H MaTpHl\e HaCeJbaBaIDa,
I\a ce, Kao WTO TO C rrpaBOM rrpHMenyjy H ,lJ;. CpejoBHn H M. fapawaHHH,
Kal\a rOBopHMO 0 paHOM H Cpel\IDeM HeonHTY l\eHTpanHor BanKaHa
MO)!(e rOBopHTH 0 I\Be MaHH<j>eCTal\Hje HCTor KynTypHor Kpyra. TepMHH
IIpoTocTapqeBO, KOjH KOPHCTH ,lJ;. CpejoBHn, 03HaqaBa opraHCKY
rrOBe3aHOCT paHe <j>a3e HeonHTa ca CTapqeBaqKOM KynTypoM, WTO je H
OCBel\OqeHO rrojaBoM 6ap6oTHH TeXHHKe y IIpoTocTapqeBO II <j>a3H. KOI\
M. fapawaHHHa, C I\pyre CTpaHe, TepMHHoM fypa Banynyj H H31\BajaIDeM
rroce6He AH3a6erOBO-BpWHHK rpyrre rroTBpl)yje ce pa3nHKa y KepaMHqKOM
• • •
MaTepHJany H HaqHHY CTaHOBaIDa KOJH Je eBHl\eHTaH Ha rrOqeTKY HeonHTa
l\eHTpanHor BanKaHa. OBe KynTypHe MaHH<j>eCTal\Hje cy CBaKaKO
opraHCKH 6nHCKe, a l\enH HX MO)!(l\a caMO HeKH HOBH yTHl\aj HnH 3aqeTaK
perHOHanHor aYToxTOHor pa3Boja. YBol)eIDeM HeYTpanHor TepMHHa Early
H Middle (paHa H cpel\IDa) nOKywao caM I\a He npejYI\Hl\HpaM IDHXOB
Mel)yco6HH OI\HOC y cMHcny KynTypHor Hl\eHTHTeTa.
Y xpOHonOWKOM CHCTeMY KOjH caM npel\nO)!(HO nocTojH MorynHocT
• •
napanenHor )!(HBOTa HaCeJba KOJa KopHCTe rpHqapHJY ca cnHKaHHM
yKpacoM H 6e3 IDera. YnpaBO OBa '1HIDeHHl\a H HMa BenHKO 3HaqeIDe Kal\a
aHanH3HpaMO KapaKTep jel\HOcnojHHx HaCeJba. Kao WTO CMO BHl\enH
H3 ena60pal\Hje Be3aHe 3a Ol\rOHeTaIDe CHM60nHKe HeKHX MOTHBa
133
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
• •
ClHlKaHMX Ha CTapqeBaqKO) KepaMMU;M, rrpBeHCTBeHO OHMX ca pa3BM)eHOM
reoMeTpMjoM (N.N. Task 2007; OBl\e: 73-lO7), OHM ce Mory I\MpeKTHo
Be3aTM 3a )!(eHY, CTapaTelbMU;y I\OMa, M HajBepoBaTHMje rrpoM3Boryaqa
KepaMMKe. MaJIa, jel\HOCJIojHa, ce30HCKa, HajBepoBaTHMje CTOqapCKa
(aKO He M eKCKJIY3MBHO MyIllKa) Hacelba Ha KojMMa I\OMMHMpa rpy6a
KepaMMKa, McrrOCTaBMJIO ce, HMCY MeCTa Ha KojMMa 6M Tpe6aJIo OqeKMBaTM
BpxyHcKe I\OMeTe y KepaMMqKoj rrpOI\YKU;MjM. lbMX neMo Hajrrpe
HanM Ha l\yroBeqHMM, BMIlleCJIojHMM HacelbMMa Koja MMajy KapaKTep
CHJIe y OI\HOCY Ha roperroMeHYTa. YrrpaBo H3 OBor
pa3JIOra ce rra)!(lba y rrepMOI\M3aU;MjM rrocBenyje M rpy60j KepaMMU;H Te ce
pa3JIMKyje BpeMe HeopraHM30BaHor M opraHM30BaHor yKpaca, rrpe
6ap6oTMHa M Kal\a OH I\OMHHHpa, opraHH3aU;Mja MOTHBa H, Hajrrpe,
TpaHcrroHoBalbe CJIHKaHOr yKpaca y yKpac H3Bel\eH I\pyrHM TeXHHKaMa y
rpy60j KepaMMU;M.
l(Hlb rrepHOI\H3aU;Hje KOjy caM rrpeI\JIO)!(HO je CBpCTaBalbe
KyJITypHHX rrojaBa y XPOHOJIOIllKH OI\CeqaK Ol\peryeH
MeTOl\aMa. OBaj rrpMCTyrr 6M Tpe6aJIo I\a oMorynM HeYTpaJIHO Carnel\aBalbe
I\MHaMMKe I\oraryaiba Ha rrpoCTopy u;eHTpaJIHOr EaJIKaHa y BpeMe paHOT M
cpel\lber HeOJIMTa TaKO IllTO ne MCKlbyqMTM rrpMCTpaCTHOCT MCTpa)!(MBaqa.
OqeKMBaHM pe3YJITaT rrpMMeHe OBe rrepMOI\M3aU;Mje 6MO 6M Carnel\aBalbe

I\MHaMMKe pa3BOp HeOJIMTCKMX KyJITypa.
134
IlPMIII1TOMlbaBalbe 'IOBeKa 11 rrpl1poAe, OKI1Balbe Kpyra KBaApaTOM,
• • •
3Ha'IaJ 11 rrYTeBI1 COJII1 11 I1CXpaHY oAoJ'IaAI1 CMeCTI10 caM y JeAHY Klbl1ry ca
)I(elbOM Aa cBoje AyroroAl1l11lbe 6aBlbelbe paHI1M HeOJII1TOM rrpeACTaBI1M
jeAHI1M CI1HTeHTCKI1M rrpl1Ka30M, rrOKYlliaBajynl1 Aa carrreAaBalbeM 113
'IeCTO, cyrrpOTHI1X yrrroBa OCBeTJII1M, KOJII1KO je Moryne, oBaj Y36YAlbI1BI1
rrepl10A 'IOBeKOBe rrpOlllJIOCTI1. Kao lIITO KBaApaTypa Kpyra 113MI1'Ie
JIelbl1py, lIIecTapy 11 rrpl1pOAHI1M 6pojeBI1Ma, TaKO apXeOJI03l1Ma 113MI1'Iy
MHor06pojHe I1HqJOpMal.\l1je, Koje 360r cBoje TpOlliHe rrpl1pOAe HecTajy 11
He CTl1rHY Aa Hal)y cBoje MeCTO y apXeOJIOlliKOM 3arrl1cy.
IlorrraBlbe rrOCBeneHO HeOJII1TI13al.\l1jl1 611JIO je rrOKYlllaj Aa ce
Hajrrpe AOManoj CTpy'IHOj 11 KyJITypHOj jaBHOCTI1 CKpeHe rra)l(lba Ha
06l1lbe HOBl1jl1X paAOBa KOjl1 Tparajy 3a rrOpeKJIOM rrO'IeTaKa HeOJII1Ta 11
ceAeHTapHor )I(I1BOTa. J1360p caM HarrpaBl10 cy6jeKTI1BHO rrOKYlliaBajynl1
Aa rrpeACTaBI1M I1rraK Haj3Ha'IajHl1je MOAeJIe 11 Teopl1je. HeKa MI1 He 6YAe
3aMepeHO lIITO cy HeKI1 MOAeJII1 A06l1JII1 rrpeMaJIO, a HeKI1 rrpeBl1l11e MeCTa
y OBOj Klb11311, rrOlliTO ce HI1CaM BOAI10 I1AeHTI1'IHI1M Kpl1Tepl1jyMI1Ma Ben
caM I1X 611pao rro YTI1CKY KOjl1 cy Ha MeHe OCTaBI1JII1. TaKo cy ce, MO)l(Aa
" .
11 He3aCJIY)l(eHO, OBAe HalllJII1 HeKI1 "enOTI1'IHI1 MOAeJII1 KOJI1 Y3POK
HeOJII1TI13al.\l1jl1 Tpa)l(e y rrCI1XOreHI1M cyrrCTaHl.\aMa I1JII1 y rrl1By!
'-II1HI1 MI1 ce Aa je I1rraK Klby'IHO rrl1Talbe rrpeJIaCKa Ha HeOJII1TCKI1
Ha'II1H rrpl1Bpel)l1Balba Hajyrre'IaTlbl1Bl1jl1 y Be311BalbY 3ajeAHI11.\a 3a jeAHo
MeCTO (ceAeHTapI13al.\l1ja) 11, C TI1Me y Be311, Apyra'Il1jl1M Ha'II1HI1Ma
cy63l1CTeHl.\l1je, rAe ce 11 rrpoMeHe HajBl1l11e ocenajy. 0 TpaH3111.\l1jl1 Ka
HeOJII1TCKOM Ha'II1HY I1cxpaHe Bol)eHe cy 6pojHe pacrrpaBe, a 3aKlbY'IaK,
• •
KOJI1 ce HarrOCJIeTKY HaMeTHYo, Je Aa HeOJII1TCKI1 Ha'II1H I1cxpaHe, lIITO
ce pa3HoBpCHOCTI1 11 HyTpl1TI1BHI1X BpeAHOCTI1 TI1'Ie He rrpeACTaBlba
HarrpeAaK y 0AHOCY Ha rrpeTXOAHI1 Bl1l11eMI1JIeHl1jcKI1 MOAeJI. Kao lIITO
CMOBI1AeJII1, TpaAl11.\110HaJIHI1 I1JII1, CJI060AHO ce MO)l(e penl1, rrpl1pOAHI1
135
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
H a q ~ 1 H McxpaHe KaKaB je rroCTojao 1\0 HeonMTcKor 1\06a 6MO je 6ap Ha

HMBOY l\aHaIllIDMX rrperropYKa CBeTCKMX 31\paBCTBeHMX opraHM3aU;MJa.
):loCTa y6el\lbMBO 0 OBOj rrpOMeHM roBOPM J. ):lMaMOHI\ y CBOM roTOBO
KaTaCTpoqmqHOM TeKcTY (Diamond 1987: 64-66). OH TBpl\M I\a je KopaK
KOjM Hac je rrOBeo CTa3aMa 3eMlbOpal\IDe M Cel\eHTapM3aU;Mje 6MO y KpajIDoj
KOHceKBeHU;M nOIll! ):lalbe, OH HaBOI\M 6pojHe rrpMMepe KOjM rOBope 0 rral\Y
McxpaHe, HeyxpalDeHocTM M rnal\M. MrraK, HMje 1\0IllnO 1\0 KOHceH3yca 0
MOTMBY rrpenacKa Ha nOIllMjy M HeM3BecHMjy CTpaTerMjy cy63McTeHU;Mje
Koja je Mopana 6MTM eBMl\eHTHa M OHMMa KOjM cy Taj rrpena3aK BpIllMnM.
HMje TeIllKO rrpeTrrocTaBMTM I\a je ca rroBenalDeM rrpMpOI\HOr rrpMpaIllTaja
Mopano 1\0nM M 1\0 rroBenalDa 6poja pal\HMX caTM Ha 06e36el)MBaIDY xpaHe
3a CBe 6pojHHja YCTa. MeI)YTHM, '1MHM MH ce I\a je jel\Ha 3Ha'lajHa '1HIDeHHu;a
YBeK y nHTepaTypM CXBaTaHa Kao nOCneI\Hu;a, a He Kao MOTHB H Y3POK
Cel\eHTapM3aU;Hje, paHe 3eMlbOpal\IDe na H OTKpHna rpH'IapHje H rna'laHOr
KaMeHor opyl)a ('1MTaj: 1\06po yrraKoBaHor HeonMTCKor naKeTa). Pal\H ce 0
1\0l\aTHoj HcxpaHH 3a Ol\oj'lal\! Kao IllTO CMO BMl\enH, eKcnepHMeHTH ca

lKMTapMu;aMa, KOJe ce M l\aHaC npBe YBOl\e npM npenacKy I\eu;e Ha qBPCTY
xpaHY, nOqenM cy ca 3aBpIlleTKOM nOCnel\IDe rnaU;MjaU;Mje. MCKYCTBO ce
npMKynlbano TOKOM Cnel\enMX MMneHMjYMa TaKO I\a cy cel\enaqKM lKMBOT
M 3eMlbOpal\IDa 6MnM caMO nOCnel\Mu;a OBor I\Yro npMnpeMaHor npou;eca.
MOl\en pacejaBalDa "HeonMTCKor naKeTa" KOjM je HaCTao Ha oBaj

HaqMH MMa MHxepeHTaH pa3nor, npen03HaTlbMB M pa3YMlbHB CBMMa KOJM
cy C IDMM I\Ona3MnM y KOHTaKT. YKonMKO pe3ynTMpa BenMM rrpou;eHTOM

rrpelKMBlbaBalDa rrOTOMCTBa, TO Je Ha rrpBM rrornel\ BMl\lbMBO M CBaKaKO
Bpno rrpMMaMlbMBO. C I\pyre CTpaHe, pacejaBalDe OBMX 3HaIDa He
rrpel\CTaBlba rrpeTlDy 3a 3ajel\HMU;y Koja MX rrOcel\yje IllTO YTMqe Ha 6p3MHy
IllMpelDa HeonMTCKor rraKeTa.
MaKO crral\a y rpyrry OHMX HeBMl\lbMBMX M HeyxBaTlbMBMx
MH<j>opMaU;Mja, Koje 360r cBoje rrpMpOl\e He CTMlKY 1\0 apxeonora,

CO MrraK rrpel\CTaBlba 3HaqaJaH eneMeHT y pacrrpaBaMa He caMO 0
CBaKOI\HeBHOM lKMBOTY H HaqMHMMa rrpMrrpeMe H KOH3epBMpaIDa xpaHe,
Ben M 0 HacelbaBalDY u;eHTpanHor EanKaHa M ycrrOCTaBlbeHoj MaTpMU;M
HacelbaBalDa. Ha OCHOBY qMIDeHMu;e I\a CO HHje Moryne M30CTaBHTM M3
• •
I\HeBHOr JenOBHMKa Cel\eHTapHMX lbYI\M M lKMBOTMIDa, 3aKlbyqeHO Je I\a
je KYXHIDCKa CO Mopana 6HTH pel\OBaH apTHKan M TOKOM HeonHTCKor

nepMOl\a, Te I\a cy MopanH rrOCTO)aTH OCMHIlllbeHH Ha'lHHH IDeHor
rrpOHanalKeIDa, npOM3BOl\IDe M I\MCTPH6YU;Hje. M30CTaHaK pacnpaBe 0
conH y KOHTeKCTY HeonHTCKor nepMOl\a MO)!(e ce rrpaBl\aTH M30CTaHKOM
OTKpHna rroCTpojeIDa 3a 6pHKeTalKY Koja cy H 6Hna I\OKa3 3a npOH3BOl\IDY
y HeKHM KacHHjHM enoxaMa npaHcTopHje. Peq je 0 BenHM rpynaMa,
136
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
Haj'lelIlhe, HlleHTH'IHHX rrocYlla Koje ce OTKpHBajy y3 BaTpHlIlTe HnH rreh.
CBe 110 CKOPO, 110 OTKpHha Hana3HlIlTa COnHHl.\aTa y EyrapcKoj, TaKBHX
OTKpHha HHje 6Hno, HaKO cy OCTal.\H CTap'leBa'lKe H IIpyrHx HeonHTCKHX
KynTypa rrpOHana)KeHH y KOHTeKCTY cnaHHX H3Bopa HnH ne)KHlIlTa
KaMeHe conH.
YKonHKO ce CO pa3YMe Kao HaCYlIlHa rroTpe6a, jacHHja he 6HTH H
rrpoCTopHa IIHCTPH6Yl.\Hja CTap'leBa'lKe Kymype, 'IHje ce CpellHlIlTe
Hana3H y COlbY cHpoMalIlHoj 06nacTH. J1Ha'ie rrpHnH'IHO paBHoMepHo
pacrropeljeHa y eKoc<jJepH, OBa HaMHpHHl.\a Ha l.\eHTpanHoM EanKaHY
rOTOBO caCBHM H30cTaje, lIlTO je Mopano rrpellcTaBlbaTH 3Ha'lajaH rrp06neM
3a lIeceTHHe Hacelba Koja cy Oil 6000. rOIlHHe CTape epe HaCTana H )KHBena
Ha OBOM Tny. ManHpajyhH Hana3HlIlTa OBor rrepHolla H nopellehH IhHXOBO
• ••
pacnpoCTHpalhe ca HaJ3Ha'laJHHJHM H3BOpHwTHMa conH y OBOM lIeny CBeTa,
YTBpljeHo je lIa je npocTOp KOjH je nOKpHBana CTap'leBa'lKa KynTypa 6HO
oMeljeH C TpH COlbY 60raTe 06nacTH: TpaHcHnBaHHjoM, ceBepOHCTO'lHOM
EOCHOM H OB'IHM noneM y Peny6nHl.\H MaKelloHHjH. Ha nyTy HHHl.\HjanHe
HeonHTH3al.\Hje CTajano je AH3a6eroBo Koje H npellcTaBlba HajpaHHjH
HeonHT l.\eHTpanHor EanKaHa. HellaneKo Oil Hacelba, TOKOM neTIhHX

MeCel.\H 1I0na3H 110 npHpollHe eBanOpal.\HJe, Te pacTHlhe Ha nOBplIlHHH
6HBa npeKpHBeHo COlby. ,[(oHeKne CnH'IaH cny'laj je H ca JaHHl.\OM Koja je
6Hna Ha 06anH nnHTKor 3anHBa ErejcKor Mopa. Hana3HlIlTa Kao lIlTO cy
fypa Eahynyj, OKHa CH6Hynyj H IIIeylIla Hana3e ce lIaneKO Ha ceBep, y
06nacTH TpaHcHnBaHHje H TaKolje crrallajy y cTapHja HeonHTCKa Hacelba
CTap'leBa'lKOr KynTypHor Kpyra. foplha TY3na je Hacelbe Koje MapKHpa
ceBep03arrallHY rpaHHl.\Y CTap'leBa'lKe KynType H cTapHje je Oil BehHHe
Hacelba y IIoMopaBlbY Koje crralla y COlbY HajcHpoMalIlHHje 06nacTH.
YrrpaBo Taj pacrropell H xpoHonolIlKH rrpHopHTeT Hana3HlIlTa H3 py6HHX
06nacTH HHIIHl.\Hpa Ha'lHH H rrpaBl.\e rrpHMapHor HacelbaBalha, TaKO lIa ce
'IHHH lIa cy H3BoljeHH y 6apeM IIBe <jJa3e, rrpH TOM rrpecKa'lyhH y rrpBOM
TpeHyTKy COlbY CHpOMalIlHe 06naCTH, Koje cy HrraK HacelbeHe, anH TeK
rrOlIlTO cy 06e36eljeHH cHrypHH H3BOPH conH H rrOlIlTO je YCTaHOBlbeH
pHTaM H HcrrnaTHB Ha'lHH lheHor rrpeHOlIlelha y YHYTpalIllhOCT EanKaHa.
3Ha'laj conH H lheHa Be3a ca MaTpHl.\OM HacelbaBalha je TaKolje
YTBljeHa H y 06naCTH rrpHMapHe HeonHTH3al.\Hje rile cyroToBo 6e3 H3Y3eTKa
Hacelba OBe <jJa3e aCOl.\HpaHa y3 cnaHe H3Bope, 6Hno lIa cy y rrHTalhY OHa y
1I0nHHH peKe JOPllaHa, Koja cBaKolIHeBHo y MpTBO Mope 1I0npeMH orpoMHe
KOnH'IHHe conH; OHa nOl.\HpaHa Ha 060llY cnaHe rrycTHlhe Anerro HnH OHa
y 6nH3HHH HajBeher cnaHor je3epa y AHallonHjH - Ty3 fene.
CHrypaH caM lIa cy H HlleonolIlKH pa3n03H 6HnH npHnH'IHO Ba)KHH
3a npHxBaTalhe H/HnH 01l6al.\HBalhe " HeonHTCKor naKeTa", H CKnOH caM
137
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
I\a rrpWXBaTWM KOBeHOBY CWHTarMY "peBonYl\wja Y cWM6onWMa". Y OBOj
KlDW3W ce Ta peBonYl\wja BWI\W W3 HaqWHa YKpaIlIaBalDa r r o c y ~ a Y OKBWpy
oanKaHCKO-aHal\OncKor KynTypHor Kpyra. Kp03 aHanW3Y 6eno cnwKaHor
yKpaca y CTapqeBaqKoj KynTypw W 6pOjHWM aHanorwjaMa ca AHal\OnwjoM
W rpqKOM rrOKYIlIao caM I\a yrrpaBo rrpWKa)KeM Ty HeYXBaTlbWBY CTpaHy
TpaH3Wl\wje. OBl\e Tpe6a wCTatm I\a ce CBeCT 0 3Haqajy reoMeTpwje BWI\W
yrrpaBo y rrpeHOIlIelDY OBor, MHorw 6w peKnw, xepMeTWQHOr W enWTHor
3HalDa, W Kp03 BeKOBe W Kp03 l\y6oKe BOl\e ErejcKor Mopa. Kp03 I\yra
TpajalDe OBHX CHM60na Hacnynyje ce rrOHOC pe3ynTaTHMa y 6op6H ca
rrpWpOI\OM. Kpyr Kao cWM60n rrpwpOl\e OKOBaH je KBal\paTOM IlITO ce BWI\W
Hal\eCeTWHaMa W l\eCeTWHaMa eneraHTHO YKpaIlIeHWX rrocYl\a. ,,)KpTBeHWK"
Hnw KynHH onTap Ha ce6w HOCH HCTe 03HaKe Koje y ocnHKaBalDY KepaMWKe
3HaQe domus, KynHo orlDHIlITe H y KpajlDoj HHCTaHl\W )KeHY IlITO je Be3a
1 2
Cnl1Ka 44 - MOAen l1 Kyne ca npeAcTaBoM )KeHe ca BpWHl1Ka 11 Mal)apa
HajOQWrnel\Hwje rrpWKa3aHa Ha <PwrypWHaMa Koje OTKpWBaMO IlIWpOM OBor
KynTypHor KOMrrneKca (CnwKa 46, 47). OBl\e MwcnWM Ha CTerreHWl\e, Koje
• •
ce, I\W)arOHanHo rrOCTaBlbeHe, rrpwKa3y)y Ha HO)KWl\aMa )KpTBeHWKa, anw
W Ha )KeHCKHM 6el\pWMa. ,i:(albe, Ty cy nHCTonHKW Hnw cprracTH OTBOPH
wnH CTerreHHl\e, KOjH Ha MOl\enWMa Kyna rrpel\CTaBlbajy rrp03ope. Kao
l\o6ap I\OKa3 3a OBe aCOI..\wjal\wje Mory rrocnY)KWTW KepaMHQKH o6jeKTw
OTKpWBeHH Ha HeonWTCKWM Hana3HIlITWMa y MaKel\OHwjH (BpIlIHHK,
Mal,lapH, TIOpOI\HH, Bp6jaHcKa qYKa) KOjW rrpwKa3yjy Kyny KBal\paTHe

OCHOBe, ca rrp030pWMa CTerreHaCTO H3pe3aHWM W3 3WI\a W )KeHOM KO)a
138
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
113paCTa 113 CaMe Kyhe (CJII1Ke 44, 45)! )KpTBeHI1l\11 cy MaXOM KBallpaTHor
06JII1Ka C pel\I1III1jeHToM KOjl1 je HajqelIIhe KpY)!(HOr 06JII1Ka 11 YIII1caH y
OCHOBY. Kao rro rrpaBI1JIy cI1M60JII1qHe CTerreHI1l\e Kpace Hore, 11 HeKalla
cy rrJIaCTl1qHO 113BelleHe, HeKalla cy ype3aHe, HeKalla YTI1CHYTe, aJII1 cy
rOTOBO YBeK rrpl1cyTHe.
PacrrpaBa rrocBeheHa KBallpaTypl1 Kpyra HI1 y KOM CJIyqajy HeMa
3a l\l1lb lIa 1I0Ka)!(e lIa cy HeOJII1TCKI1 rpHQapl1/ rpHQapKe rrOKYlIIaBaJII1 lIa
pelIIe KBallpaTYPY Kpyra, rrp06JIeM KOjl1 je Kp03 I1CTOPl1jy I1HCIIl1pl1CaO 11
orrTepehl1BaO MaTeMaTI1Qape lIII1pOM CBeTa, Beh lIa I1CTaKHe IhI1XOBY CBeCT
o 3HaQajy cI1M60JIa KOjl1 03HaQaBa 1I0MYC 11 QOBeKOB ycrrex y 60p611 ca
rrpl1pOlloM. Y6el')eH caM, a TO rroTBpl')yjy 11 HeKa I1CTpa)!(I1Balha (BI1TeJII1,
XOllep, XaJlaHII, opel1l1BajT) lIa je OBa I1KoHorpaqll1ja lIeJIO )KeHCKe pYKe,
yrrpaBo OHe Koja je 11 611JIa CPOKYCl1paHa Ha 110M. XaJIaHIl Ha jellHOM
CJlHKa 45 - MOAeJl Kyhe ca ITopoAHHa
MeCTY y CBOM BI13110HapCKOM
QJIaHKY (Haaland 1995) Ka)!(e
1I0CJIOBHO cJIellehe: "HecyMIhI1BO je
• •
lIa Je y rrpol\ecy CelleHTapl13al\I1Je
MOpaJIO 1I0hl1 110 cYK06a I1HTepeca
113Mel')y MYlIIKapal\a 11 )!(eHa".
YrrpaBo OBa peQeHI1l\a rrOCTaBlba
jellHO HOBO rrl1Talhe. L\a JII1 cy
)!(eHe
40
611JIe 1I0BOlbHO yTI1l\ajHe lIa
opHaMeHTaJIHI1 CI1CTeM, 3aCHOBaH Ha
OIlHOCY KBallpaTa 11 Kpyra (ollHoca
III1Blber 11 rrI1TOMOr, rrpl1pOIlHOr 11
KYJITypHor, Kyhe 11 oKyhHI1l\e ... ),

YTKaJY y CP)!( I1l1eOJIOlIIKor CI1CTeMa
Tor BpeMeHa? TparOBI1 rrocejaHI1 Oil
06JIaCTI1 BeJII1KI1X je3epa (KypyQaj,
Xyj'leK, Xal,II1JIap) Ha jyry AHallOJIl1je
rrpeKo TecaJIl1je, COJIYHCKor 3aJII1Ba 11 1I0JII1He Bapllapa 11 CTpYMe, rra CBe
110 ceBepa BojBolll1He 11 TpaHCI1JIBaHl1je lIaJII1 611 rr0311TI1BaH OllrOBOp Ha
OBO rrl1Talhe! Ha )!(aJIOCT, 3aYBeK he OCTaTI1 TajHa CallP)!(aj opHaMeHTaJIHOr
• • •
CI1CTeMa Ha MaTepl1)aJII1Ma KOJI1 rrporrallaJY, aJII1 ce I1rraK lIa HaCJIYTI1Tl1l1a
je yKpac 113Bol')eH y TKalhY I1JII1 KoprrapCTBY Mopao 611TI1 HajMalhe I1CTO
OBOJII1KO aTpaKTI1BaH 11 pe'lI1T.
Pa3MepaBalhe je MOpaJIO lIa ce YQI1 11 rrollY'laBa KaKO 611 rrpe)!(I1BeJIO
TOJII1KO reHepal\l1ja. I1oce6Ho je MOpaJIO 611TI1 YBa)!(eHO Oil CTpaHe l\eJIe
3ajellHI1l\e Kalla je Momo lIa 6Ylle ,,113Be3eHO" Ha IIPyre Tepl1Topl1je.
40 ... 3a Koje, 11 3 pa3nora HaBeAeHI1X y nornaBlhY

o cMaTpaM Aa cy

npe,lV-bal.J. l1J1e Y cnpeMHOCTI1 Ha .. .
139
HeHa)]; H. Tacl1n
Pa3MI1IlIlbalba K. BI1TeJII1 0 Marl1jl1 TJII1He 11 rrp0l13B0l1lbl1 rpH'Iapl1je
CMaTpaM KaO jel1HO 011 MOTynI1X, 110l1ajynl1 I1CKYCTBO ca TparrOBI1Ma, KOjl1
ce 011 BpeMeHa EI1HaHa (Eynan-Ain Mallaha), OI1HOCHO rrOCJIe 10000 .

r0l111He CTape epe, KOpl1CTe y CKJIOrry CTaHI1IlITa 11 KOJI1 cy I1MaJII1 CBe
rrpel1YCJIOBe l1a rrOCJIe jel1HOr rro)!(apa 6Yl1Y rrpeTBOpeHI1 y ¢parMeHTe
CJ1t1Ka 46 - CTeneHaCTl1 MOTHS 113seJ{eH y pa3JU1"1I1TI1M TeXHI1KaMa Ha 6e,ll;pl1Ma )f(eHCKI1X cpt1ryplma
o,n: paHor AO n03Hor HeOJllfTa (1. BPWHUK; 2-3 . .IJ.OIba npatbeSI1Ha; 4. Ma'ieso)
KepaMI1Ke. KaKO TBPI1I1 BI1TeJII1 (1999: 191-192), KepaMl1'1Ka rrpOl1yKl.\l1ja
611JIa je, 6ap rrpeMa rrpl1Mepy 113 rrenl1He <!>paHKTI1, eKCKJIY311BHO 3Halbe
MaJIor 6poja )!(eHa. OHa 11M npl1l1aje Ba)!(HOCT (3Ha'laj) IlIaMaHa, IlITO Mo)!(e
11 He Mopa l1a 6Yl1e Ta'lHO, aJII1 rrOBeCT KOjy rrpaTI1MO 011 AHal10JII1je 110
OaJIKaHa 11 MI1HYl.\1103HO CJII1Kalbe Ha rrocyl)y l1e¢I1HI1TI1BHO rroTBpl)yjy
BeJII1KY CI1M60JII1'1HY Bpel1HOCT rpH'Iapl1je 3a 3ajeI1HI1l.\Y. ]l[CTo06pa3HOCT
y CTpaTerl1jl1 l1eKOpal.\l1je, Koja ce He OTJIel1a y I1l1eHTl1'1HI1M YKpaCI1Ma Ben
y orrIlITerrpl1XBaneHoj I1l1ejl1 11 CTpaTerl1jl1 pa3MepaBalba (reOMeTpl1jCKOM
rrpI1Hl.\l1rry) I1CTl1'1e HOBe KBaJII1TeTe, a TI1Me BepOBaTHO 11 HOB rrOJIo)!(aj
KOjl1 je )!(eHa ca rrO'lel.\I1Ma HeOJII1Ta OCBojI1JIa! Mo)!(e ce ca 110CTa
• • •
113BeCHOCTI1 TBPI1I1TI1 l1a Je arrCTpaKl.\I1Ja pa3MepaBalba, KOJY BI1I1I1MO 11
• •
y OpraHl13al.\I1JI1 yKpaca Ha rpH'IapI1JI1, aJII1 11 y 113rpal1lbl1 KBal1paTHI1X
Kyna HOBI1TeT y I1l1eOJIOrl1jl1 OBor BpeMeHa. OBa I1l1eOJIOlliKa rrOCTaBKa,

OI1HOCHO 11311BaJalbe KBal1paTa 11 lberOBor OI1HOCa C KpyroM a HapO'll1TO
lbeHO I1CTI1l.\albe y rrpBI1 rrJIaH l1eKOpaTI1BHor CI1CTeMa, rro MOM CXBaTalbY
l1e¢I1HI1IlIe 11 rroTBpl)yje rroCTojalbe CBeCTI1 0 Bpel1HOCTI1Ma KyJITypHOT
HacrrpaM rrpl1pOI1HOr, ypel)eHocTI1 HacrrpaM xaoca, rrJIaHl1palba rrpeMa
CTI1Xl1jl1. ]I[ yrrpaBo y BpeMe Kal1a HeOJII1TCKI1 Ha'll1H )!(I1BOTa, rrOCJIe 6pOjHI1X
• •
I1CKYllielba, rrOCTaJe 110MI1HaHTaH Ha'll1H I1pYlliTBeHe OpraHI13al.\I1Je,
I1CTI1l.\albe rrOMeHYTI1X Bpel1HOCTI1 110611ja cBoje rryHo OrrpaBl1albe. ql1HI1
ce l1a je CaCBI1M jacHo l1a cy HeOJII1TCKI1 )!(I1Telbl1 (a HapO'll1TO lbl1XOBe
)!(eHe), 611JII1 CBeCHI1 BeJIl1'1l1He rrpOMeHe KOjy cy 113BeJII1. Kal1a ce y oBaj
I1I1CKYpC YBel1e 11 rrl1Talbe rrpe)!(I1BlbaBalba rrOTOMCTBa, Ha IlITa cy )!(eHe
140
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyr a
CBaKaKO MHOrO OCeTlbMBMje Oil MYlliKapal1a, oHlla rrocTaje jacHo 360r 'lera
cy ca TOnMKOM MCTpajHollihy HeOnMTCKe YMeTHMl1e MCTMl1ane 3Ha'laj 1I0Ma
M lberOBMX 6narollaTM. 3a pa3nMKY Oil )i{. KOBeHa, KOjM "peBonYI1Mjy y
cMM60nMMa" BMIIM y rrpellcTaBaMa 60rMlba, BenMKMX MajKM, M qmrypa Koje
06ene)!(aBajy 6pyTanHy cMny Koja ce KPOTM, (Cauvin 2000), OHO IlITO ce rro
,
-
-

~ , " .

Cm1Ka 47 - )KeHcKa ¢l1rypa 113 KOBaqeBa
MOM MHIlIlbelbY HCTH'le y rrpBM nnaH cy ynpaBo cynTHnHH HCKa3H Be3aHH
3a rrpMrrMTOMlbaBalbe rrpMpOlle M3pa)!(eHM rrpel1M3HO ena60pMpaHOM
reoMeTpMjoM!
MaKO je eBMlleHTHO MMnnMI1MpaHa, MnaK MM ce He 'lMHM lIa je
ynora )!(eHe Kao pOIIMTelbHl1e 6Hna y l1eHTPY OBor pa3pal)eHor CHCTeMa.
'-[MlbeHMl1a je lIa je rrpell HaMa cnMKaHM yKpac KOjM reHepanHo HYIIM
cno6ollY lIa ce 60jOM M KMCTOM Ha MHoro IIMpeKTHMjM Ha'lMH rrpellcTaBM
)!(eHCKa qmrypa, POll M nnollHocT Hero IlITO ce TO 'lMHM reoMeTpMjcKMM
06nHl1HMa aCOI1HpaHHM ca KpyroM OTBopa rrOCYlle. TIa HnaK OHe/OHH
ce ollny'lyjy 3a M360p MOT MBa ca "rrpeHeceHMM" 3Ha'lelbeM. Y OBOM
M360py ce MO)!(lIa Haj60lbe MO)!(e HacnyTMTM CBeCT 0 3Ha'lajy KyllmypHoz
M lberOBOM "TPMjyM<j>y" Hall npupOOHUM. Beh nOMMlbaHM cyKo6 MHTepeca
H3Mel)y MYlliKapl1a H )!(eHe npHnHKoM celleHTapM3al1Hje, OIlHOCHO lberOBO
pa3pellielbe MO)!(lIa je lIo6Mno CBOj M3pa3 y cKpMBeHoj M cMM6onM'lKM
rrpMKa3aHoj Be3aHOCTM pOIIMTeIbMl1e, KyhaHMl1e M rpH'lapKe 3a KpeMpalbe
CBeCTM 0 1I0MY, rile je apTM<j>MI1MjenHocT reoMeTpMjcKe <j>opMe KBailpaTa
cy6nHMHpana OBY COI1HjanHy TeH3Hjy. CMaTpaM lIa cy IIY)!(HOCTH
)!(eHe, Koje ce He ollHoce caMO Ha rrOllM3albe rrOTOMCTBa (M caCBMM HOBO
MCKYCTBO ca peanHOM MoryhHollihy lIa rrpe)!(MBM caB rrollMnallaK M yl)e y
3penoCT), Beh 3arrpaBo OHe Koje ce ollHoce Ha rrnaHHpalbe, KOHI1MnMpalbe
M Ollp)!(aBalbe rrpoCTopa lIoMa H OKyhHMl1e 6MBane Bpno pa<j>MHMpaHO
rrpellCTaBlbeHe "reoMeTpMjcKMM Be)!(6aMa" ocnMKaHMM Ha TaHKMM M

3BOHKMM 3MIIOBMMa HeonMTCKe rpH'lapMJe.
141
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
Ha caMOM Kpajy OBe KIhMre l1ao CaM rrpel1nor rrepM0I1M3aU;Mje BpeMeHa
paHor M cpel1lher HeonMTa u;eHTpanHor EanKaHa, Koja je M oMoryhMna
pa3MaTpalha Be3aHa 3a CTMn, cMM60nMKY M Be3e M e ~ y 3ajel1HMu;aMa ca OBor
rrpocTopa. I1epM0I1M3aU;MOHM CMCTeM M rrpernel1 rrpeTXOI1HMX CMCTeMa l1ao
1
Cnl1Ka 48 - 1, 3. PaKJ1TOBO (npeMa Hl1KOnOB 2002), 2. JaHl1Lta (Crisostomoll 1993a)
caM y Hal1l1 l1a he ce rrpoHahl1 Ha'll1H l1a ce CBI1 KynTypHI1 <jJeHoMeHI1 ca
EanKaHCKor rronYOCTpBa 113 BpeMeHa OKO 6000. rOl1l1He CTape epe, 110Bel1Y
y jel1l1HCTBeHY penaTI1BHO-XpoHonowKY neCTBI1U;y WTO he HaM YMHorOMe

onaKWaTI1 l1aJhI1 pal1 11 l1eMOHCTpl1paTM I1I1HaMI1KY rrpoMeHa KOJe cy ce y
TO BpeMe Ha HaWI1M rrpOCTOpl1Ma 110r0l1l1ne.
142
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
3aXBalIHOCT
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MM Je ymlO caMorrOY311alhe Kalla Je peq 0 peJIaTMBHO-XPOHOJIOIlIKOM
orrpellelbMBalhY HaJIa3MIlITa CTapqeBaqKe KyJIType Ha TJIY l\eHTpaJIHOT
EaJIKaHa. ITOPOIlMl\M - cyrrpy3M, Majl\M M Ol\Y - BeJIMKO XBaJIa IlITO cy
rrpeMa MeHM rrOKa3aJIM M3BaHpeilHO CpTIIlbelhe M pa3YMeBalhe M CTaJIHO MM
rrpy)!(aJIM rrOIlPIlIKY TOKOM palla Ha OBOj KlhM3M. Ee3 BeJIMKe lby6a3HocTM
KOJIera IlIMpOM EaJIKaHa, Mel)y Koje crrallajy n. rapaIlIaHMH, K. KOTl\aKMC,
B. CaHeB, B. HMKOJIOB, T. CTe<j>aHOBa, r. JIa3apoBMnM, n. n060Tapy, M.
MMxaM-nYTa, IT. XPMCOCTOMOY, r. Ty<j>eXCMC, K. CTaBpoc, n. HMKOJIMn, M.
EorllaHOBMn, 11. KYJIOB, M. EMJI6Mja, E. [(BeTKOBMn M lhMXOBMxllparol\eHMX
06jaIlIlhelha Be3aHMX 3a KOHTeKCTe HaJIa3a Koje caM CTYIIMpao, OBY KlhMry
6MCMO MOTJIM Ha3BaTM Ka6MHeTCKMM rrpOM3BOIlOM. BeJIMKO OJIaKWalhe
rrpl1JIl1KOM palla Ha HeOJIl1TCKoj KBallpaTypl1 Kpyra 6l1JIa je CmrreHIIl1ja
AJIeKCaHllep <j>OH XYM60JIT <j>OHllal\l1je l1 rocTOrrpl1MCTBO J. MapaHa,
IlITO Ml1 je oMOTynl1JIO lIa y rrpaBOM TpeHyTKy CTl1THeM 110 HajcBe)!(l1je
JIl1TepaType Be3aHe 3a HeOJIl1T EaJIKaHa. nparOM KOJIerM A. ITaJIaBeTCpM
lIyryjeM 3aXBaJIHOCT Ha peql1Ma rrOllpIlIKe, Koje je l13peKaO Kalla je (M rile
je) TO 6MJIO Haj6l1THl1je. BeJIl1KY 3aXBaJIHOCT 3aCJIy)!(yjy l1 MOjl1 rrpl1jaTelbl1
11. EorllaHOBMn, E. rOBellapMl\a, n. YpeM-KoTCOC, M. ITorrOBl1n, n. l1 n.
MapKOBl1n, KOjl1 cy rrpellyro 6l1JIl1 eKcrrOHMpaHl1 callP)!(ajeM OBe KlhMre,
a TO cy CTOl1qKl1 l13I1p)!(aJIl1. E. 1)opl)eBl1n XBaJIa Ha cjajHo 06aBlbeHOM
rrOCJIY l1 JIYl\MIIHl1M orraCKaMa, Koje cy 6MJIe 1I0rrPl1HOC KOjl1 rrpeBa3l1JIa3M
lheHY <j>yHKl\Mjy HaBelleHY y l1MrrpecyMy. HarrOCJIeTKY, aJIl1 He l1 Ha Kpajy,
XBaJIa n. CTl1JIY 3a JIeKTYPY eHTJIeCKOr pe3l1Mea.
143
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
1. AI,lIme IbI1Be, KrreHaK
2. AjMaHa, Marra Bp611l.\a
3. AHI11I1Te, I3pecHI1l.\a
4. ApaAal.\, JIeje
5. AT, BplIlal.\
6. l3aKoBaqa,qaqaK
7. l3alba, ApaHljerrOBal.\
8. l3alIlTI1He, 06pe)[(
9. l3aTKa, IIeprre3
1O.l3erra 6apa, 1)ypljeBo
11.l3erreTI1Hl.\I1, BplIlal.\
12.l3l1cepHa 06arra, Hoca
13.l3rraroTI1H
14.l3pAO, KycoBal.\
15.l3y6alb, HI11I1
16.I3YI,IaK, JIYAOlli
17. I3YKoBaqKa qeCMa, I3YKoBqe
18.I3YHap, JarOAI1Ha
19. U:l1rrraHa 11 Cerro, ,[\o6aHOBl.\11
20. U:pHoKarraqKa 6apa, Pyjl11I1Te
21. qeCTa, ,[\06POBOAI1l.\a
22. qYKap, [YMHI11I1Te, IIaBrroBal.\
23. qypra, JIYAOlli
24. ,[\aMjaHoB KrraAeHal.\, BI1HOpaqa
25. ,[\I1BOCTI1H
26.,[\olba I3palbeBI1Ha, ,[\epolbe
27. ,[\olbe I3YTOpKe, KrraAoBo
28.'[\y6oQaj, [p0l.\Ka
29. ,[\y6paBa [ , Klba)[(eBal.\
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31. [rraAHI1l.\e, [paQaHI1l.\a
32. [orroKp, Bl13l1n
33. [oplba l3errl1l.\a, JarOAI1Ha
34. [paA, CTapQeBO
35. [pI1Bal.\
36. XajAYQKa BOAeHI1l.\a
37. KaparaQ, )f{I1TKOBal.\
38. KacapcKe rrl1BaAe, IIIa6al.\
39. KaBorraK, IIpoKywbe
144
40. Klbenl1lI1Te, MI1Xal1rrOBal.\
41. KOHonlbapa, KpYllieBal.\
42. K03rryK, BplIlal.\
43. KpeMeHl1rrO, BI11I1eCaBa
44. KpeMelIlTI1l.\a
45. KpCTl1neBa xyMKa
46. KpYllieBal.\
47. KyQajHa
48. JIeneHcKa nOTKanl1Ha
49. JIeneHCKI1 Bl1p
50. JIyr, 3BeQKa
51. JIyKa y CaCTaBl.\I1Ma
52. Marapenl1 MrrI1H, AnaTI1H
53. OKpyrrrl1l.\a, KpalbeBo
54. 0pHI1l.\e, MaKpelliaHe, KpYllieBal.\
55. IIaAI1Ha
56. PI16IbaK, BeQej
57. PYAHI1K, MeTOXl1ja
58. CajaH, ,[\oM601I1
59. CrraTI1Ha, IIapanl1H
60. CrraTI1Ha, TypcKa QeCMa, ,[\pe-
HOBal.\
61. CTy611l.\a
62. CyncKa, 1iynpl1ja
63. IIIarrl1TpeHa nenl1Ha
64. IIIalIll1Hl.\11
65. IIIlbI1BI1K, CTparapl1, TpCTeHI1K
66. IIIynlbaja, IIolbHa
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68. Tonorre, l3aQ
69. Tpalbl1Ha 6apa, U:pHQe
70. Barryre
71. Berrl1Ka QeCMa, BpTI11I1Te, HI11I1
72. BerreCHI1l.\a
73. Berrl1Ka peKa, Tonorra
74. BI1HQa, l3erro 6PAO
75. BI1HOrpaAI1, l3eQej
76. Brracal.\
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Key to Fig. 49 - Starcevo culture sites in the central Balkan region
1. Adzine Njive- Klenak
2. Ajmana-Mala Vrbica
3. AniSte- Bresnica
4. Aradac-Leje
5. At- Vrsac
6. Bakovaca- Cacak
7. Banja- Arandelovac
8. Bastine- Obrez
9. Batka- Perlez
10. Bela bara- Durdevo
11. Beletinci- Vrsac
12. Biserna Obala- Nosa
13. Blagotin
14. Brdo- Kusovac
15. Bubanj-NiS
16. Budzak- Ludos
17. Bukovacka cesma - Bukovce
18. Bunar- Jagodina
19. Ciglana, Selo- Dobanovci
20. Crnokalacka bara- RujiSte
21. Cesta- Dobrovodica

22. Cukar, Gumniste- Pavlovac
23. Curga- Ludos
24. Damjanov Kladenac- Vinoraca
25. Divostin
26. Donja Branjevina-Deronje
27. Donje Butorke- Kladovo
28. Dubocaj-Grocka
29. Dubrava I- Knjazevac
30. Durica Vinogradi-Grabovac
31. Gladnice- Gracanica
32. Golokut- Vizic
33. Gornja Belica- Jagodina
34. Grad- Starcevo
35. Grivac
36. Hajducka Vodenica
37. Karagac- Zitkovac
38. Kasarske livade- Sabac
39. Kavolak- Prokuplje
146
40. KnjepiSte- Mihailovac
41. Konopljara- Krusevac
42.Kozluk- Vrsac
43. Kremenilo- ViSesava
44. Kremestica
45. Krsticeva Humka
46. Krusevac
47. Kucajna
48. Lepenska Potkapina
49. Lepenski Vir
50. Lug- Zvecka
51. Luka u Sastavcima
52. MagareCi Mlin - Apatin
53.0kruglica- Kraljevo
54. Ornice- Makrdane, Krusevac
55. Padina
56. Ribnjak- Vecej
57. Rudnik- Metohija
58.Sajan- Dombos
59. Slatina- ParaCin
60.Slatina, Turska Cesma- Drenovac
61. Stubica
62. Supska- Cuprija
63. Salitrena PeCina
64.Sasinci
65. Sljivik- Stragari, Trstenik
66. Supljaja- Poljna
67. TeCic- Rekovac
68. Topole-Bac
69. Tranjina Bara- Crnce
70. Valuge
71. Velika cesma, VrtiSte - Nis
72. Velesnica
73. Velika reka- Topola
74. Vinca- Belo Brdo
75. Vinogradi- Becej
76. Vlasac- Derdap
77. Zlatara- Ruma
78. Zmajevac- Smederevska Palanka
Summary
At different times Serbian prehistoric archaeology has focused on
different periods of the past. From time to time the problems of the Neolithic
period have come to the forefront. In the course of the last twenty years
the popularity of Neolithic research in Serbia has decreased significantly.
We have been witnessing fewer and fewer systematic archaeological
excavations, and only a small number of new Neolithic sites have been
discovered. This represents a sharp contrast to the period of the 1960s
and 1970s, when dozens of sites were discovered, investigated and some of
them published. One of the reasons for this is, of course, the unfortunate
period or the 1990s when Serbia was devastated by war, but the decline can
be also attributed to the generation shift which occurred simultaneously.
As interest declined interpretations became fewer and fewer. The one in
front of you comes as an invitation and a teaser for the revival of interest
in the complex enigmas of the Neolithic period of the Central Balkan
region. For that reason, this book tackles diverse subjects from different
perspectives and involves some of the most important and yet unsolved
questions. These are the initial settling down of Neolithic communities,
their taming of nature, the importance of salt, infant nutrition and its role
at the beginning of the Neolithic period, and the periodization of the Early
and Middle Neolithic of the Central Balkans. The choice to include these
topics in a book is also stems from this author's wish to summarize his
long term involvement with problems of the Early Neolithic period. At the
end of this book a new periodization of the Starcevo culture is proposed.
The opening chapter, dedicated to the processes of Neolithization,
represents an attempt to draw attention of the local archaeological
community to numerous new books and articles that investigate the
origins of the Neolithic and of the sedentary way of life. This selection
147
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
is, of course, personal, but includes the most important models and
theories. Both indigenous- and immigrant-oriented theories are presented.
Neolithic subsistence has been widely debated and the author agrees with
those whose opinion is that it must have represented a decline compared
with Mesolithic subsistence. There is no consensus, however, among
archaeologists regarding the motives for the transition towards poorer
nutrition. The drop in nutrition was probably predictable to those who
were making it and yet they accepted it. It is assumed that the increase of
population must have demanded longer working hours in order to provide
sustenance. In the discussion of the reasons for the new subsistence
practices, it seems that one important detail has always been taken as a
consequence rather than the cause for sedentization - early agriculture
and consequently the invention of pottery and polished stone tools (or
rather: a well-wrapped Neolithic package). The author proposes that the
introduction of nutrition supplements in infant diet, and earlier weaning
might have been the key reasons for experimenting with wild cereals, which
took place in different locations in the wider Mediterranean region since
the end of the last glaciation. This experience was accumulated throughout
the following millennia and resulted eventually in the sedentary way of life
and agriculture as the dominant subsistence basis. Due to its benefits to
the young the "Neolithic package" has innate appeal that would have been
recognizable and understandable to all. At the same time, carrying out this
cultural transfer represents no harm to the communities that disseminate
the knowledge.
Two main groups of scholars debated the questions of the first
Neolithic in the Balkan area for decades. There were those who sought
the origins in the Near Eastern cultures and those who sought it in local
Mesolithic communities. New data acquired from the realm of applied
sciences, together with alternative viewpoints taken in the study of archive
archaeological material have recently ended this debate. Genetic research
on anthropological material of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations from
Central Europe has confirmed that the two groups have different ancestors
(Bramanti et al. 2009), and therefore classical archaeological methods of
comparative sequencing between the European and Anatolian Neolithic
have gained a new value.
Unfortunately this new insight does not provide the reasons for the
migrations which have occurred 8000 years ago. For this reason the author
includes a chapter dedicated to climatic changes that occurred at the onset
of the Neolithic. It is suggested that the models in which migrations are
148
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
seen as a consequence a swift and sharp climatic change can be regarded as
plausible. The optimal climatic cycle that characterized the end of the 7th
and the beginning of the 6th millennium in the Balkans was probably a
comfortable retreat for the populations gradually emigrating from the arid
fringes of the Levant and the colder and drier Anatolian plateau.
*
The author advances the hypothesis that Early Neolithic settlements
are almost always associated with some sort of salt source - surface salt,
a rock salt mine, or brine or saline. The argument is put forward that the
settlement pattern in the zone of primary Neolithisation and its diffusion
into the Southeast Europe is closely associated with salt-rich soils and
salines. Numerous sites in salt-rich regions may support the hypothesis
that salt was used in food preparation and conservation and also in animal
husbandry. The use of salt in animal husbandry is even more important
than its use in human nutrition, because wild species could only obtain
sufficient salt intake from large areas of pastures. Once they were taken
captive and habituated to the sedentary way of life, which happened during
the Early Neolithic, extra portions of salt must have been introduced
into their diet. This could be achieved either by grazing them on salt-
rich pastures, which was probably the case in the Near East, or in cases
of salt-starved soils, which are frequent in the central Balkans, by adding
imported blocks of salt.
Direct indications for salt use in the region of Central Balkans are the
sites of Lunca - Poiana Slatini in the Siret valley, where a Middle-Neolithic
settlement has been discovered in context with a saline that was in use
until very recently (Dumitroaia 1987: 253-258); Gornja Tuzla, situated
near the largest rock salt mine east of Transylvania, with its cone-shaped
vessels that have been linked with briquetage (Covic 1961); Solnicata, a
recently discovered site in the vicinity of rich salt brine (Nikolov 2008).
The other evidence that speaks in favour of the use of salt comes from the
locations of the earliest Neolithic sites in the Fertile crescent area. They are
concentrated in the Zagros Mountains, the Levant and Anatolia - regions
extremely rich in easily obtainable salt. The example of <;atal Hiiyiik, the
first Neolithic urban centre, goes towards this point. It is situated in the
Konya Plain, not far from Tuz Giilii, a salt lake which evaporates during
the summer droughts leaving crusts of salt on the ground. Another very
important site is Ha<;ilar, situated not far from Hadji Bektas (near Kayseri),
the third largest inland salt source in the Ottoman Empire. Yet another
149
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
example is the famous site ofJericho, which lies close to the Dead Sea on
the salt-rich Jordan river.
A necesse est commodity (yet one so perishable from archaeological
records), salt has been taken for granted and overlooked in discussions
about the problems of the genesis of the Neolithic. The importance of
trade and exchange in the Neolithic period has been discussed amply
in archaeological literature, often dealing with obsidian, flint, quartz,
sulphur, bitumen, spondylus, cinnabar etc. However, proper attention has
been paid neither to the use of salt nor to the trade and exchange of this
indispensable commodity. The most probable explanation for this is its
abovementioned perishable nature and the relative abundance of salt in the
regions of primary Neolithisation.
Salines and places of salt trade and exchange are usually marked by
salt-related toponyms such as Saltzburg, Salona, Salies-de-Bearn, Salisbury,
Halle, Hallein, Hallstatt, Tuzla or Tuz Gala. For example, there are more
than twenty places throughout Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Macedonia
named "Slatina", and most of them are associated with Neolithic sites.
The importance of salt as a vital commodity has already been
recognised by Gordon Childe, who explained the golden finds from
Merseburg by the exchange and "commercial importance" of salt (Childe
1929: 244). These findings, however, belong to a much later period of
prehistory. Paradoxically, the significance of salt has been neglected in
studying the cultures of the Neolithic - the time of the sedentization of
human populations and the domestication of animals and plants. Except
for the brief notes concerning salt trade (e.g. Sherrat 1976; Anati 1962;
Gimbutas 1991) there have been no attempts to explain the connection
between salines and the Early Neolithic settlement pattern.
If salt were recognized as a vital for Neolithic communities, then the
spatial distribution of the Starcevo culture would look rather different but
also be easier to understand. Generally evenly distributed in the ecosphere,
salt is scarce in the Central Balkan area. This fact is to be taken into
consideration regarding the settlement pattern of the Starcevo culture. Its
core region is located in a salt-starved region, but the bordering regions
contain salt-rich areas. The mixture of cultural phenomena is evident in
salt-rich regions of the complex which speaks in favor
of their involvement in lively trade and exchange.
The vast region of the Balkans is speckled with sites of the Early
Neolithic that have similarly ornamented painted pottery. From Podgorie,
Albania in the southwest to Kovacevo, Bulgaria in the east and from
150
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
Giannitsa, Greece in the south up to Donja Branjevina, Serbia, in the north,
a tendency to represent geometrical motifs can be ascertained. The square,
which occurs on a number of pots in the Balkans and southern Anatolia,
is perhaps the most striking of all. But there are not just squares depicted
on pottery. Along with them, "steps-shaped" motifs, straight lines, nets,
triangles, wavy lines and leaf-shaped motifs are also common.
Only few pots with apparent painted square shapes have been
discovered in the Balkans so far. That is probably one of the reasons they
have not previously been recognized as vital for understanding Early
Neolithic ornamental system. The Giannitsa findings, discovered in 1991
have been mentioned above (Fig. 31/1-3). Along with those there are
fragments discovered in Nea Nikomedeia (Pyke, Yiouni 1996, Plate I19,12,15)
wherein we can see an identical disposition of vertical and diagonal lines
that resemble those from Giannitsa. From the site of Kovacevo there is
one fragment (Fig. 28/8) decorated in the similar manner. However, there
are many more pottery fragments with diagonal lines (straight, wavy or
zigzag), which can be reconstructed to form squares. It is my belief that
simple diagonal lines stand in for the square in later phases of the Early and
Middle Neolithic. But, squares can be found on different types of objects
as well, such as house models, altars and censers, and they are always
associated with a circle and/or diagonals. The square as a concept can be
traced all the way to the sites of the Lake District in Western Anatolia,
like Hiiyiik or (Duru 1994; 1999; Mellaart 1970). At these
sites we can see the identical treatment of metopes, which is related to the
circumference of the rim of the pot. Sometimes the calculations become
even more complicated and the metope is divided into 4 smaller ones.
There are also vertical lines between metopes, which provide for the even
distribution of squares around the pot (examples from: - Melaart
1965; Duru 1999).
Along with quadratic and rectangular metopes a strict geometrical
disposition can be also observed in the proportions of an ascoid vessel
from Hiiyiicek, but also in the disposition of a reclining female figurine
(Fig. 34/6). The square appears also on a miniature table from the same
site. As we can see from the chronological table for the Lake District the
sites of this region are somewhat earlier than the EN sites in the Balkans
so it appears that this tradition must have originated in their primary
inhabitation zone. The background for geometry probably developed from
the accumulated building traditions of the early settled communities of
Anatolia. The masterpieces of architecture discovered at Hiiyiik,
Cafer Hiiyiik and Nevali <;:ori with perfect rectilinear floor-plans, or
151
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
<;:ayonu with intriguing grill-plan buildings, could explain the importance
of geometry and its high standards (Ozdogan, B a ~ l e g e n 1999).
The fact that the square is almost totally absent from the natural
world then makes Neolithic geometry puzzling. The quadratic form is
completely artificial and represents an opposition to the circle. Being a
two-dimensional shadow of the sphere, the circle in different cultures,
as reported by anthropologists (e.g. Lawlor 1989), represents the natural
world, and is regarded throughout cultural history as a symbol of the
"indescribable oneness". In contrast, the square represents the manifest
and comprehensible world. It would appear then that the clash between
circle and square represents society's battle with nature and the attempt to
break free from its ruthless temper.
As we can see from numerous examples a square is almost always
associated with steps or wavy lines. A steps-shaped motif is apparently
a very important one and can be encountered over a very long period of
time. It can be found throughout the course of the entire Early and Middle
Neolithic of the Balkans. Painted steps are almost always combined with
some other ornament and are placed diagonally in relation to the rim e.g.
Anzabegovo, or Gradinile in Romania (Nica 1992).
Steps are occasionally represented in negative as on a white painted
pot from Kovacevo, Bulgaria (Perniceva 1995). Occasionally the steps are
hidden within some other ornament. When incised they have the form of a
zigzag ornament. The zigzag motif is almost exclusively placed diagonally
relative to the rim. There are also plastic zigzag ornaments (possibly
handles) on EN pottery (Donja Branjevina) and altars (Kovacevo, cube).
The importance of steps or zigzag motifs, regardless of the material or
technique used for their execution, can be also ascertained on the basis of a
representation of a zigzag shaped pendant on a female figurine discovered
at the site of Donja Branjevina. One of those pendants was eventually
discovered at the site of Blagotin, Serbia (Nikolic, Zecevic 2001). As we can
see from the examples from Kovacevo (Fig. 28, 29) and Donja Branjevina,
zigzag lines are closely associated with houses and women. The decoration
incised on the buttocks on these female figurines corresponds well with
the ornamental system regularly represented on altars or censers.
If we take a closer look at altars and house models from Kovacevo
(Perniceva 1995), Vrsnik (Garasanin 1979), Lepenski Vir, Donja Branjevina
(Karmanski 2005) and other sites of the early Neolithic of the Central
Balkans we can conclude that these representations are most probably
associated with the idea of domus. Female attributes often placed on the
legs of altars associate them with women as well. There are a variety of
152
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
motifs that can be found on these objects. The most frequent are zigzag
lines, diagonally placed steps, molded breasts and sometimes female
busts. Regardless of the technique of decoration, steps find their place on
almost every altar and house model of the Early and Middle Neolithic
of SE Europe. Another striking feature exclusively found on altars is the
association of squares and circles in 3D. Numerous examples show that
the basis of an altar always bears a circular recipient. Sometimes, as we
can see from altars from Donja Branjevina, diagonal lines are carved into
or moulded on the lower side of a base. The example from Obrez, Serbia
(Brukner 1960) demonstrates the longevity of this phenomenon. This piece
is dated to the end of the Starcevo culture, and there are opinions that it
coincides with the beginning of the Vinca culture.
Spectacular findings from Lepenski Vir - not the famous stone
sculptures, but altars discovered in Neolithic layers of the site - show how
deep into 3D thinking about abstract forms such as square, cube, sphere and
other 3D dimensional forms the pot makers of the Early Neolithic plunged
(Srejovic 1971). Mounted on a pedestal, represented by a cube-shaped home
(domus), similar to those from other Early Neolithic sites in Macedonia,
there is a recipient in the form of a square wrapped over a sphere! The
question of the relationship between these finds and the Mesolithic strata
of Lepenski Vir, also an important issue, is not discussed.
In that case of the pot from Giannitsa the height of the motif is
almost identical to the radius of the pot. Since there are more examples of
the same strategy from the same period (Fig. 37/2) we could agree that this
is definitely not a mere coincidence. In order to achieve such a decoration
on a pot one would have to be well aware of the basics of geometry.
In order to demonstrate the complexity of this way of thinking
the author presents one of the approaches to solving the legendary
mathematical problem of squaring the circle. If a circle with radius Ix is
rotated along a surface for 180
0
the line between points A and B will equal
1t (Fig. 36). If we draw a semicircle with the radius AC=AB+l and extend
the radius of the right circle until it bisects the semicircle at a point D then
we will obtain the equation AB x BC=BD
2
which would solve the problem
of the squaring of a circle since AB = 1t and BC = 1. The bizarre fact is
that the pot from Giannitsa shown at Fig. 31/1 has a diameter of the lip
identical to the circle 2r=AC; the dimensions of the metopes are identical
to the square produced above, and the base of the pot identical to the circle
with the radius Ix.
It is clear that Neolithic potters were not aware of this dilemma in
the form quoted above, and that they did not decide on the height of the
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HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
decoration because of some abstract formula. But, on the other hand, it
is evident that the ancient potters must have had a serious problem when
attempting to paint the square with the side which equals the radius of the
pot without having an empty space between the squares or metopes. This
would probably not deserve such attention if the circle (in these examples
determined by the dimension of the rim of a vessel) was to be divided in
4, 8 or 16. In the cases of Giannitsa, Rakitovo, Kuruo;:ay some other cases,
we can see that there were 6 metopes, so more than a simple division of the
circle was needed. Vertical lines were placed between squares (sometimes
two and sometimes three of them), which helped to compensate for the
impossibility of applying the above mentioned equation using either
algebraic or geometrical methods.
More examples of elaborate geometrical calculations can be observed
on the pots from Podgorie, Albania and Donja Branjevina, Serbia. On both
pots the potter had to calculate the size of each triangle (or a square made
of two triangles) relative to the perimeter of the pot very precisely. In order
to apply this attractive decoration - where red and white triangles encircle
the pot in friezes and cover entire surface of the pot - the calculation had to
be relative to the diameter of the pot but also to the sphere and the diameter
of the base of the pot (Fig. 37/1). It is amazing that a small cylindrical pot
from Giannitsa (Fig. 37/2) that appears to have been used as a geometrical
exercise has been discovered. It seems that the decoration has been left
unfinished, as if the potter was caught half way through in laying out the
grid for friezes of triangles. The shape of the pot is also not standard for
this period but makes it easier for the potter to practice this complicated
calculation. Further examples of identical geometrical ideas can be found
at Hao;:ilar, and other sites mentioned above.
But why did ancient potters decide to promote geometry as a
standard for the decoration of their display pottery? Was it simple
replication of the decoration applied in some other media such as basketry
or weaving (Cootner 1990), where geometrical motifs are determined by
the material and structure of the product itself? A voice against the idea
that the elements of decorative system found on EN pottery was derived
from weaving is that of M. Mallet (1994), who argues that very few of
the elements from Hao;:ilar V pottery could be successfully duplicated
in the slit-weave tapestry of Anatolia. She informs us further that "color
intersections aligned vertically and numerous narrow parallel verticals or
diagonals are features that experienced tapestry weavers try their best to
avoid." Subsequently, it must have been something other than the aesthetics
of other media that stood behind this elaborate geometrical decoration.
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The author suggests that it is plausible to argue that the affinity towards
complicated geometrical calculations with squares painted on the pottery
of the Lake District and Central Balkans, represented on altars, censers
and house models, originates from the tradition of house building from
the beginnings of the Neolithic in the primary Neolithization zone, or
more precisely its northern part.
The devotion to a permanent home and its benefits could have been
celebrated in this way by newly settled humans. But, if we remember that
among other benefits of the transition to a sedentary way of life and food
production the most important and visible one was a population boom and
much better chances of raising healthy offspring, then we must agree that
the Neolithic 'new deal' must have had much more impact on women than
on men. It is likely that in the course of Neolithization women acquired
key roles in the domestic realm. Their new duties were probably focused on
the household: food preparation, storage planning, the upkeep of children
and the elderly, the organization of social life in the village. All of a sudden
the woman became a decision maker. The process of sedentization has
been observed in the 1960ies in the Huottuja, a hunter-gatherer society
of Southern Venezuela. M. Melnyk (1993) informs us that women had
the decisive role in determining the transition to a sedentary way of life.
Numerous Neolithic female figurines associated with domus seem to
confirm the newly acquired self-respect.
Pottery making was, according to some authors (eg. Vitelli 1999),
probably another one of women's new activities and interests. If so, the
ornamental system on Early Neolithic pottery must have been an expression
of the lady of the house. The entire symbolic system preserved on pottery
fragments with squares and circles, zigzag motifs and complex geometry,
most probably represents women's rational and yet also emotional statement
praising the idea of domus and the settled way of life. The power of this
idea, visualized through squares, circles and geometry, could be felt on the
fact that it had been dispersed across continents and sustained for a long
time. Recorded on pottery of the early Neolithic Near East and Europe we
have an ideological system which shows that the abstract thinking of the
inhabitants of these regions was well developed. It also shows an awareness
that this way of thinking made them prosperous.
It is probably unwise to expect that the proof for cultural links
among the populations of the Balkans and Anatolia would emanate merely
from identical color used to paint pots, or a preference towards a particular
type of inclusion on the clay or the shape of pots. On the other hand the
way of thinking that could have lain behind the geometry on the pottery,
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as the author tried to demonstrate, can be identified in contemporaneous
archaeological sites more than a thousand kilometers apart. This speaks in
favor of the existence of a common cultural and ideological sphere. Being
utterly abstract, this complex and elaborate ideological scheme probably
wouldn't be possible to transfer by any means but narrative, which indicates
that proficient verbal and symbolic communication, must have existed
among these communities.
Following chapter of this book is dedicated to the chronology of the
Early and Middle Neolithic of the Central Balkan region. The essence of
every periodization is, of course, an attempt to categorize time and divide
it into distinctly named blocks. We are well aware that phases, sub-phases,
cultural horizons and relative-chronological sequences are constructs
of archaeologists who struggle to introduce order into their data so as to
make interpretation possible. This fact should oblige us to be ready at any
moment to abandon or at least alter our (pre-)conceptions in the face of new
evidence. Unfortunately, there has not been much enthusiasm for such an
attitude in the past, so we more often witnessed persistent perseverance on
once-established constructions than readiness to reject them and to create
new ones. Sometimes we can even have sympathy for such an attitude. For
example, the capital work of V. Milojcic Chronologie der jungere Steinzeit
Mittel- und SudostEuropas was published in the year 1949, at the same time
when W. Libby in Chicago published the results of his radioactive carbon
14C dating experiments (Arnold, Libby 1949), which thoroughly and
irreversibly altered approaches to studying and understanding prehistory.
The relative chronological relations so meticulously determined by MilojCic
on the basis of excellent knowledge of archaeological material, establishing
of analogies, determination of imported goods, and thorough investigation
were convincing enough for traditionally-educated archaeologists while
the new method of dating mostly influenced the younger generations of
the Serbian archaeologists. In any case, two groups of archaeologists were
constituted already at that time and they later diverged further when the
questions of origin of the Neolithic cultures in the Central Balkans was
raised. Maybe this division and disagreement could also explain the fact
that after many years of fieldwork, study, and classification, and after many
books and articles that have the Starcevo culture in their titles, the origin,
duration, distribution, and internal chronology of this culture have not
been definitively pinned down. An additional problem in resolving these
problems is the abundance of single-layered sites in the Early and Middle
Neolithic of the Central Balkans. The absence of thoroughly investigated
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HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
and well published multilayered settlements that lived through many phases
in the central area of the Starcevo culture resulted in investigators working
either with just few sites where two phases were partially overlapping
or making their periodizations on the basis of stylistic and typological
analyses of the pottery.
Various authors were engaged in rethinking the Starcevo culture
periodization. The author mentions just few of them: V. MilojCic, D.
Arandelovic-Garasanin, M. Garasanin, S. DimitrijeviC, D. SrejoviC, H.
Todorova and 1. Vajsov, L. Thiessen, and the author. Each one of us has
contributed to the understanding of the earliest Neolithic culture of the
Central Balkans.
The chronological system proposed by V. MilojCic (1949) that opened
up the question of the periodization of the Starcevo culture was conceived
taking into account the pottery collected in the investigations conducted
by M. Grbic in 1928 and V. Fewkes and R. Ehrich in 1932 at the type-site of
Starcevo. His results indicate that there was an expectation that the complete
evolution of this culture had been present at this site. Thus the contents of
the lowest layers of prehistoric humus and the pits without painted pottery
were used to define the earliest phases of the Starcevo culture including all
shapes and all types of decoration of the coarse pottery. If this opinion of
V. Milojcic is proven correct then it can only be due to his archaeological
intuition, because the facts were not yet in.
The periodization of D. Arandelovic-Garasanin, like the periodization
of V. MilojCic, is based on the study of material from the type-site of the
Starcevo culture. It is also obvious here that the class of coarse pottery
is regarded as chronologically insignificant as it is stated that all types of
ornaments on coarse pottery are present in all three phases identified at
Starcevo. In the phase II white and dark paintings appear simultaneously
which is confirmed on other sites as well and it is suggested that rectilinear
and curvilinear painted motifs are synchronous. It seems that for the
chronological determination of pottery in this system of periodization the
external surface treatment of fine pottery is more important and the way of
painting and selection of motifs and colors is of lesser importance. In this
manner the phase IIb is distinguished on the basis of predomination of
dark color without more detailed classification of the motifs.
Since 1960s and particularly since the discovery of the pre-Neolithic
Lepenski Vir culture in 1969 there was a split between those seeking
the origin of the Neolithic way of life in the south of the Balkans and in
Anatolia and those, led by D. Srejovic, the excavator of Lepenski Vir, who
are of the opinion that the origins of the Starcevo culture of Early and
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Middle Neolithic should be looked for within the Lepenski Vir culture
(Srejovic 1979). The keystone of the latter opinion is certainly the discovery
of numerous pottery fragments encountered not only at Lepenski Vir but
also at other sites of the Lepenski Vir culture. In the meantime a number
of studies have been published (Radovanovic 1996; Boric 2002; Boric and
Miracle 2004), suggesting the possibility of the overlapping of the Neolithic
and Mesolithic populations in this area. These suggestions have been made
on the basis of the radiocarbon dates from Mesolithic and Neolithic strata
and also the discovery of the pottery on the floors of a few trapezoidal
houses typical of the Mesolithic culture of Lepenski Vir. Unfortunately,
D. Srejovic is no longer with us and those who persist in his views on the
origin and chronology of the Early Neolithic are unwilling to accept the
possibility of spatial and temporal contact between the Mesolithic cultures
in the Iron Gates and the Neolithic farmers. The dispute between these two
groups of archaeologists has slowed down to a great extent the development
of Serbian Neolithic archaeology, turning it back to the origins of the
Neolithic and keeping it there. The periodization suggested by D. Srejovic
(197l) is based in its initial phases on the material discovered at Lepenski
Vir in what he labels as an (indisputably) Neolithic layer. These are the
horizons Lepenski Vir IlIa lower segment and IlIa upper segment as well
as Lepenski Vir III. The rest of this system is completed on the basis of the
pottery from other Starcevo culture sites. The division of the Early Neolithic
in the central Balkans in two main stages - Proto-Starcevo and Starcevo
- is in harmony with attempts to introduce the Middle Neolithic phase
in the evolution of the Neolithic of all southeast Europe. Thus the Proto-
Starcevo phases are attributed to the Early Neolithic i.e. the beginning of
the evolution of the Neolithic. According to D. SrejoviC this was caused by
the ideal micro climate of the Iron Gates.
This system of internal periodization is the first one to give a
chronologically relevant role to barbotine ornamentation by dividing
the evolution of the Starcevo culture into periods before and after its
occurrence. However, just as V. MilojCic and D. Arandelovic-Garasanin
were criticized for only working with the material from Starcevo, so this
periodization could be criticized as the Proto-Starcevo phases I and II are
distinguished only on the basis of the finds from Lepenski Vir, layers IlIa
lower, IlIa upper and IIlb. Since the lack of barbotine pottery and painted
ornaments on one hand and domination of red monochrome pottery on
the other is chronologically rather insensitive for the Starcevo culture
the phase "Proto-Starcevo I" cannot be confirmed. Only if the site had
been investigated to the greatest possible extent and if comprehensive
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quantitative statistical analysis had been performed would this be possible.
In the archaeology of the Neolithic of the southeast Europe S.
DimitrijeviC will be remembered as an expert in the archaeological material
and the author of several important investigations associated with the
Neolithic period. His periodization of the Starcevo culture dating from the
1960s is based on the thorough analysis of the stylistic traits of the Starcevo
pottery throughout the area of its distribution (Dimitrijevic 1969 and 1974).
Dimitrijevic is aware of the fact that the discovery of the multilayered sites
of this culture would solve his dilemmas about the phasing and determine
the chronological position of many single-layered settlements of the Early
and Middle Neolithic period in the region he was interested in. He does
not repeat the mistake made by his colleagues and does not insist on the
material from just one site. On the contrary, he managed to create the
division based on the overlapping of individual phases of the Starcevo
culture at different sites across the board. His smart labeling of phases
(Monochrome, Linear, Girlandoid, Spiraloid) denotes his main focus: to
systematize decorative elements on the Starcevo pottery.
The setback for this periodization occurs in its practical application
since stylistic manifestations, such as drop-like white painting (generally
0.1 % of the total number of fragments) , trailing the sheath of branches etc. ,
appear extremely rarely but are still identified as decisive for chronological
determination. Dimitrijevic distinguishes different types of painted motifs
in distinct phases as it seems the only possible way to find a difference
and was entirely justified in the time when his chronological system was
created. It has been realized more recently, especially since the finds from
Anzabegovo, Cavdar, Kovacevo or Donja Branjevina have been published,
that various motifs of decoration appear in numerous combinations
at the same time. Now it seems that it is more justified to classify this
heterogeneity into regional frames and to allow for greater variability in
this matter.
Dimitrijevic rightfully expresses hesitation regarding the mo-
nochrome phase of the Starcevo culture and allows for further demarcation
of sub-phases within its duration. Some authors are already distinguishing
them (e.g. Minichreiter 1992). On the other hand Dimitrijevic regards it as
hypothetical (1974). It seems that he keeps this phase in his system more
under the pressure/expectation of generally accepted preconception that
the phase of early, simple in forms, undecorated, coarse, utilitarian pottery
must have existed, than due to hard evidence in archaeological material.
The unanswered questions of the origin of the Neolithic in the Balkans
are clearly perceptible here. The last phase of DimitrijeviC's periodization
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labeled as Final is questioned by the author himself. He assumes that this
horizon should have existed due to the unobtrusive transformation from
the Starcevo to the Vinca culture. He presumes that painted ornaments are
missing in that phase due to the influence of the forthcoming Vinca culture,
which developed painted decoration mainly at the end of its evolution.
M. Garasanin, a great expert in Balkan prehistory and the author of
many investigations at the Neolithic culture sites in the Balkans, has also
given his contribution to the clarification of this problem by suggesting some
corrections of the periodization of D. Arandelovic-Garasanin (Garasanin,
M. 1971). 'As the system of D. Garasanin is based on more reliable data
(compared to MilojCiC's periodization, remark N.N.T.) and as phases IIa and
lIB of her periodization logically make one closely related genuine Starcevo
entirety, we shall use in our work her chronological division' (Garasanin,
M., 1971: 73-85; 1972: 37 and 132-136). In this way, using the term genuine
Starcevo entirety M. Garasanin confirms the existence of the phases, which
are not genuinely of Starcevo character. This fits into his way of reflecting
on the question of Early and Middle Neolithic and his distinguishing of the
regional 'groups' Anzabegovo and Gura Bacului that stand at the beginning
of the Neolithic evolution of the southeast Europe. His conviction that
these cultural patterns differ considerably from the Starcevo culture is
basically correct since the settlement pattern, architecture and pottery
differ significantly from the elements that we encounter in the 'early phases'
of the central Balkans. Analyzing the connections and synchronisms with
the Anzabegovo-Vrsnik group, M. Garasanin dates Starcevo III to the same
time as Phase III of Anzabegovo-Vrsnik. After analyzing the finds from
the sites Giulvez, Bastine, and Vinkovci-Tdnica he eventually attributes
the content to the previously intuitively distinguished phase. The features
of Starcevo III are polychromatic painting and running spirals that end as
claws or paws. According to M. Garasanin the emergence of Vinca culture
features is to be expected in Starcevo III.
The dilemma with the periodization of D. Arandelovk-Garasanin
and also with the adjusted periodization of M. Garasanin is the question
how to date a Single-layered site in phases other than IIb. The pottery with
white painted ornamentation is quite rare and monochromatic pottery is
not sensitive enough.
The periodization proposed by H. Todorova and I. Vajsov (1993) is an
exceptional attempt to link the cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic
in the Balkans by a mutual periodization and in this way to emphasize
their relationship and shared roots.
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Since the number of existing periodizations of the Neolithic of
the Balkans almost matches the number of its investigators, as Todorova
and Vajsov remark, the system they proposed aimed to provide an
alternative. Their intention was to create single periodization which will
present common tendencies in the Neolithic evolution within the entire
Balkan Peninsula. In this way the use of different names for the same
cultural phenomena could be avoided. For the construction of this system
the authors used monochrome pottery and white painting as the most
distinguishing phenomena on one hand and true historical age, based
upon 14C analysis, on the other.
It seems, however, that this system in its attempt to establish uniform
and all-inclusive divisions resulted in sacrificing the sophisticated phasing
within each of these cultures.
Perhaps the most interesting and intriguing attempt to clarify the
early stages of the neolithisation of the Balkans has been made by L. Thiessen
(2000). He has challenged chronological relations which were previously
regarded as "unquestionable". His meticulous work and fresh approach has
cast the shadow of doubt on what has been regarded as the early Neolithic
sequence of Macedonia (both Greek and FRY). The occurrence of white
painted ornamentation, which was the decisive element for dating pottery
assemblages in the early Neolithic, Thiessen confronts with a series of 14C
dates. He concludes that it should be attributed to the middle Neolithic
phase. However some of the decisive 14C dates from Serbia, such as
those from MagareCi Mlin, Donja Branjevina, Padina, and Divostin still
corroborate the early position of these sites within the Neolithic sequence
of the Central Balkans.
As we have seen above, the existing periodizations of the Starcevo
culture correspond to a narrow and simplified image of dynamic process
that took place during the Early and Middle Neolithic. Lacking a better
solution, Balkan archaeologists are still forced to rely on conventional
comparative means and intuition. Treating just one category of
archaeological material (basically pottery), they observe the artistic
expression depicted on the pottery as a motionless event, paying too much
attention to the means and too little to the content of the ornamental
system. Attempts to compare and synchronize different phases established
by different authors frequently result in confusion because the contents of
the phases are not identical for all the authors. For some of them certain
manifestations of pottery decoration indicate the beginning and for
the others the end of the culture. For example, it should be said that the
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appearance of 'wheat of grain' in the system of V. MilojCic is characteristic
ofthe end of the Starcevo culture (phase Starcevo IV) and in the system of
D. Srejovic this same phenomenon defines the phase Proto-Starcevo II. This
means that authors must decide on just one of them and that it is unsuitable
to date archaeological material after different systems, as still happens
throughout the literature (e.g. Starcevo IIa after D. Arandelovic-Garasanin
or Proto-Starcevo II after D. Srejovic). Even the two closest systems, those
of V. MilojCic and D. ArandeloviC-Garasanin, include different contents in
some phases, for example Starcevo IV after MilojCic and Starcevo III after
D. Arandelovic-Garasanin.
It is the author's conviction that the choice of motifs and colors to be
painted on the pottery is probably of greater importance than the color of
firing of the pot. In the oxidation process of firing, which was exclusively
applied in pottery making during the entire Starcevo culture, the exact
shade of a color of the surface of the pot must have been very difficult to
achieve. It is highly unlikely that pottery of "inappropriate" color would
have been discarded beyond the archaeological record. Hence, the color
of the pottery should be looked upon with fewer expectations regarding
its chronological significance. On the other hand it is certain that special
attention would have been paid to painted decoration because, among
other things, it was easier to control.
The Starcevo culture in its core region is abundant in coarse pottery.
The treatment, deposition pattern and fragmentation of this class of pottery
indicate that it was probably for everyday use. Simple shapes and thick and
poorly fired walls made of less refined clay with a lot of chaff give a rustic
impression. In the periodizations proposed by V. MilojCic and D. Garasanin
all types of coarse pottery appear from the beginning to the end of the
Starcevo culture. However, there might be a possibility of establishing a
chronological relationship on the basis of the patterns of the ornamentation
on coarse pottery, but only until the moment when all types of decoration
appear simultaneously. According to S. Dimitrijevic this is the beginning
of the Spiraloid A phase. It seems that decorative patterns on coarse pottery
are also chronologically indicative: the way barbotine is organized or the
motif of 'wheat of grain' appears to be directly related to the organization
of painted motifs. Thus, when decoration with painted curvilinear motifs
dominates engraved, patterned barbotine, relief or impressed motifs are
organized in a similar manner (e.g. N.N. Tasic 2001: 43-47).
On the other hand the displaypotterywhich is far morechronologically
sensitive represents only a small fraction of pottery assemblages within the
Starcevo culture. It was made of much better refined clay with exceptionally
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thin walls, often with fine slip. The decoration of such vessels represents one
of the highest achievement of this epoch. Although there is no conclusive
evidence for the durability of either class of pottery it is generally assumed
that 'luxury ware' was not used for cooking, which would have prolonged
its life span. According to some researchers, coarse pottery (cooking ware)
lasts up to three years, while the other class could have been handed down
for few generations (Arnold 1985) causing what we might label as a 'luxury
ware effect'. Unfortunately, without systematic radiometric direct dating of
pottery we cannot explore this possibility.
The author believes that the elaborate geometric ornamental system
must have had substantial importance in the Neolithic system of thinking
on the basis of the very presence of this kind of display ware throughout
the large areas of the Balkans and Anatolia (N.N. Tasic 2007).
The following periodization is the result of a thorough study the
author has made of the pottery material of the southeast Europe from
Cluj to Thessalonica and from Tuzla to Bucharest. In the absence of
more radiocarbon dates, this is yet another attempt to systematize the
pottery, only this time with more attention to neighboring regions and
also the available 14C dates. One of the most important steps forward
in understanding the chronological sequence of the Starcevo culture
and the Neolithic of the central Balkans was the systematic excavation
at Anzabegovo. This site has remained the most Significant multilayered
Neolithic settlement to the north of Thessalonica and to the west of the
Struma valley. Two independent teams carried out the excavations
Simultaneously: one was directed by M. Garasanin (1979) and the other by
M. Gimbutas (1976). However, their interpretations of the chronological
sequence were in disagreement. It was M. Garasanin's conviction that there
must have been a mix-up in the recording system of the American team
so there leading to an inversion of phases II and III. Not only because M.
Garasanin had a reputation as an excellent field director who worked for
decades in the region, but also on the grounds of pottery assemblages from
other Neolithic sites with stratigraphic sequences it is our opinion that his
chronological sequence should be accepted as the more plausible one. This
opinion is also substantiated by radiocarbon dates (N.N. Tasic 2006). The
importance of the site of Anzabegovo is also due to the fact that at least
the initial phases of the Early Neolithic in the central Balkans could be
perceived here in an unbroken order (phases Ia-c /II).
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ENCB - before 5900 cal. BC
Simple pottery shapes and the domination of fine pottery are the
distinguishing elements of this phase. Fine pottery often has slip, which
is sometimes polished. A particularly significant phenomenon is the
occurrence of diverse geometric motifs, which obviously have a central
role in the symbolic system of this society (Tasic 2007). White painted
pottery with ornaments organized in square metopes also appears in the
fine pottery class. There are also ornaments with motifs of drops (forming
geometrical shapes such as squares and lozenges), tremolo lines, zigzag
motifs and triangles. The quality and durability of painted ornament in
this phase is often emphasized by different authors. The coarse pottery is
sometimes decorated with lines, nets or impressions. It corresponds to
Anzabegovo Ia -Ie. M. Garasanin refers to this period as the Gura Bacului
phase (1979). It is probably possible to discern further sub-phases.
The following sites can be attributed to this phase: MagareCi Mlin-
Apatin, Donja Branjevina-Odzaci, Divostin I, Rudnik 1, Stubica-Derdap,
Velesnica-Derdap, VIa sac (Neolithic stratum), Padina-Derdap,
Middle Neolithic of Central Balkans (MNCB) after 5900 cal Be.
This is the time of classical Starcevo culture. The quality of pottery
generally deteriorates. Coarse ware is dominant. As one can see from the
assemblage of this time at Anzabegovo (Thiessen 2000: 214) and Vrsnik
(M. Garasanin 1985-1986: 25-35) an influence from the central zone of the
Starcevo culture can be ascertained.
MNCB I - until 5800 cal. BC
Coarse pottery dominates. Patterned barbotine ornamentation and a
'wheat of grain' motif executed by impressions prevail. Rare white painted
motifs still occur together with the first examples of dark painting during
this phase. The coarse pottery is also decorated by incisions without a clear
strategy. It corresponds to Anzabegovo II.
Sites: Divostin I, Grivac, Lug- Zvecka(Obrenovac), Velesnica, Rudnik
II, Drenovac I, Stubica, Vlasac (Neolithic horizon), Karagac-Zitkovac
(lower horizon), Starcevo (pits 3A and 5A bottom layer).
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MNCB II - until 5700 cal. BC
White motifs completely disappear and they are replaced by dark
painted motifs. They can be rectilinear and sometimes are combined with
garlands. The coarse pottery maintains the same character as during the
preceding phase. It corresponds to Anzabegovo lIb.
Sites: At- Vrsac, Gladnice- Gracanica, Kucajna- Bor, Drenovac IIa,
Sasinci 521, TeCic-Rekovac, Vinca- Belo brdo (Starcevo finds), Starcevo (Pit
5A below the lower floor and Pits 4, 6, 7).
MNCB IlIa - until 5400 cal. BC
Spirals painted in dark color are the most striking motif of this phase.
They are often executed with great care and geometrical precision. The skill
applied in positioning running spirals around the spherical or conical pot
demonstrates the importance of this motif. It also reveals that geometry
has retained its Significance and vitality since the initial phases of the
development of this culture. Another important feature is the reappearance
of white painted decoration. This time the color applied is without luster
and rubs off. The motifs are identical to those painted in dark colors. The
spiral terminating in the form of a 'paw' is a Significant indicator of this
phase. The coarse pottery is decorated with all techniques and combination
of techniques as well as by emulating the motifs of painted ornamentation.
It corresponds to Anzabegovo III.
Sites: Ciglana-Dobanovci, Cukar- Gumniste (Pavlovac), Curga-
Ludos, Damnjanov Kladenac-Jagodina, Dubocaj-Grocka, Crnokalacka
Bara, Dubrava I- Knjazevac, Gladnice Ib-Gracanica, Krusevac-Centar,
Ribnjak-Becej, Rudnik IV, Sajan-Dombos, Drenovac lIb, Supska-Cuprija,
Salitrena PeCina- Valjevo, Valuge- Knjazevac, Velika Cesma-VrtiSte (NiS),
Zmajevac-Smederevska Palanka.
MCNB IIIb - after 5400 cal. BC
Frequent biconical shapes, goblets on a foot, and the appearance of
dark burnished pottery indicate close connections with the Vinca culture.
On the other hand spirals that cover the entire surface of the vessel are
a traditional trait of the Starcevo culture. The regional diversity of the
Starcevo culture is even more pronounced. It is the period of cohabitation
of two major Neolithic cultures of the Central Balkans.
165
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1 n
Sites: Burica Vinogradi-Grabovac (Obrenovac), Golokut-Vizic
(Fruska gora) , Karagac-Zitkovac, Krsticeva Humka-Zrenjanin, Luka u
Sastavcima, Drenovac III, Topole-Bac, Tranjina Bara-Crnce (Jagodina),
Vinogradi-Becej, Gornja Tuzla, Anzabegovo IV, Rudinik IV,
The author's suggestion of the abbreviation ENCB or MNCB,
resulting from an English term for the main stages of the Neolithic in the
central Balkans, was made not only due to similar adopted norms in Greek
and Bulgarian archaeology but also in order to facilitate communication
with foreign scholars who, as it seems, accept such terms in periodizations.
Distinguishing the Middle and Early Neolithic in the Yugoslavperiodization
has been accepted already in Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemaija (1979)
based on the periodi zation ofD. Teocharis (1973).
The division proposed here at first glance resembles the divisions
of V. MilojCic, D. Arandelovic-Garasanin, D. Srejovic and M. Garasanin.
However, it should be mentioned that the contents of certain phases
are changed. Perhaps the most important difference with the other
chronological systems is in the early Neolithic phase where special accent
is given to geometrical motifs. Another distinction is the reappearance of
white painted decoration by the end of the Starcevo culture. Although it has
been mentioned in the context of polychromatic painting in later phases,
this phenomenon has long been a puzzle for the excavators who discovered
this manner of decoration together with dark painted spirals in their
assemblages. The phases of Early and Middle Neolithic distinguished by
the author correspond well with the chronological sequence of Anzabegovo
and also with the east Balkans and the Aegean (ENCB = Anzabegovo la-Ie;
MNCB I-II = Anzabegovo IIa-b; MNCB IIIa-IIIb = Anzabegovo III-IV).
The term Proto-Starcevo as used by D. Srejovic denotes the association
of this phase with the Starcevo culture as is confirmed by the appearance
of the barbotine technique in the Proto-Starcevo II phase. The new term
for the phase ENCB is formulated as such in order to avoid confusion in
the quoting and possible use of this periodization. Besides, it fits much
better into the general tripartite periodization of the Neolithic of southeast
Europe. Based on the study of the vessel shapes, the manner of their
production and ornamental techniques, the author is convinced that these
are actually two cultures from the same cultural circle that are organically
connected, being divided perhaps only by some new influences or the
inception of the autochthonous regional development. By introducing the
terms Early and Middle we try not to prejudice their cultural relationship.
In the chronological system suggested here, there is the possibility of
the parallel existence of settlements with and without painted decoration.
166
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
This fact is also of significance when we analyze the character and
chronological position of single-layered settlements. Nevertheless, more
radiometric dating results are critical for answering the question of the
relation of single layered and permanent sites within the Starcevo culture

regIOn.
Acknowledgements
First of all, lowe my gratitude to Milutin Garasanin, who had
managed to encourage my confidence when it came to relative chronological
position of the sites of the Starcevo culture in the central Balkan region.
To my family, wife Danijela, mother Vera and father Nikola, lowe deep
gratefulness and sincere appreciation for being so supportive and tolerant.
Without the colleagues from entire Balkans - D. Garasanin, K. Kotsakis, P.
Chrisostomou, G. Toufexis, K. Stavros, V. Nikolov, T. Stefanova, 1. Kulov,
G. Lazarovici, D. Ciobotaru, M.M. Ciuta, D. Nikolic, M. Bogdanovic, S.
Vetnic, V. Sanev and M. Bilbija, who have made possible for me to see the
material and acquire further information regarding the archaeological
context of the finds - this book could have been considered a mere cabinet
product. To my dear colleague A. Palavestra lowe sincere gratitude for
the words of support when (and where) they were needed the most. Extra
gratefulness goes to my friends 1. Bogdanovic, B. Govedarica, D. Urem-
Kotsou, M. Popovic, D. i D. Markovic et al. who have been exposed to
the context of this book for far too long but have endured gracefully. To
B. Dordevic a big thank for a job well done and lucid comments, which
represend a contribution vastly exceeding the title above her name in the
impressum. And last, but not the least, there is D. Steel, to whom lowe
many thanks for doing far more than proofreading of my English in the
Summary.
167
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
168
CIIJ1CaK cKpanemllI;a
- List of abbreviations -
Acta Bot. Need - Acta Botanica Neerlandica
AIATSIS - The Australian Institute of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander Studies
BASPR - Bulletin of the American School of. Prehistoric Research
DOl - Digital Object Identifier
GZMS - Glasnik zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu
J. biosoc. SCI - Journal of Biosociological Sciences
PAST - The Newsletter of the Prehistoric Society
PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America
PBM - Pall BojBoljaHCKI1X My3eja
RPRP - Reports of Prehistoric Research Projects
SADJ - Savez arheoloskih drustava Jugoslavije
UISPP - Union internationale des sciences prehistoriques et prohistoriques
World Rev Nutr Diet - World Review Of Nutrition And Dietetics
169
JhfTepaTypa
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193
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
AYHaB 16,68, 77, 113
1)epAan 23, 24, 77, 114, 115, 117, 124, 130
1)ypl1na Bl1trorpaAl1 - fpa6oBaL\
(06peHOBaL\) 132
E
eBanOpaL\l1ja COIIl1 55, 57, 58-61, 65, 137
eBOIIYL\l1ja 19,89
EBpona, eBpOnCKl1 12, 13, 16, 17, 20-24,
32,33,35, 38, 53,55,
58-60, 66,68, 69,71 , 72,88,89,96,
102, 104,117,120-122, 124,126,127
ef30pnl1H (exorpin) 18, 19
eKOCHCTeM II , 16, 25,28, 52
eKoc<j>epa 18, 137
eKCI1IIOaTaL\l1ja 18, 19, 32, 55, 64
ElIeWHl1L\a 43, 44, 90
ENCB 75, 88, 93, 94, 96,
102, 129,132, 133
enl1nalIeOIIl1T 17, 19, 27
ETl10nCKe rope 23
lK"Tap"L\e 17-19, 23, 25, 28-
32, 56, 136
lKHTHl1 KlIac, yKpac 113, 116, 125, 130
194
lKfue6 87, 118
lKpBalb 17,30,31,36
lKpTBeHl1 95, 99, 100, 107, 118, 138, 139
3
3arpoc 19, 36, 63
3eMlbOpa)l,tna, 3eMlbopaJ],HltPIKH 15,
17,18, 19,28, 29, 32, 33,56, 136
3MajeBaL\- CMeAepeBCKa
nalIaHKa 76, 87, 132
YlHAl1jcKa KOHOTIlba 19
l1CXpaHa 15, 17, 18, 25-33,
35,54-56,58,63, 135, 136
l1CXpaH 3a oAojqaA 27, 30, 32, 135, 136
J
jaHl1L\a (Gianni!sa) 39, 43, 44,
142
jacar (jaszag) 24
jepl1XOH (Jericho) 37, 63, 110
K
Kaparaq- )f(l1TKOBaL\ 130, 132
KapaHoBo 43, 45, 60, 121, 122
KapnanI, KapnaTCKI1 24, 68, 72
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
KBaApaT 12, 88, 94, 97-100, 102, 104-
107, 109,130, 135, 138-141. 77,96, 129
Ke6apaH 36, 37
Kepew 13,63-66, 80, 118, 122 .82,8411
KMHa 23
K1U1Ma, KlIHM3TCKl1 11, 13,28,
37, 44,49-53, 117, 124
44, 88, 89, 92-
97,99, 102, 119, 141
Kon w 65, 91
KOMnapaTJ1BHO- I1CTOPl1jCKH 15, 46
KOHTeKCT 9,11,12,20,21,52,54,59,67,
71,81, 83, 85, 86,88,89,127,136,137
KOHTMHYMTeT 21 , 46,53,63
Kow XMjMK (Kosh Hiiyiik) 63
KpeMeH 9, 36, 54, 67, 115
KpMW 13, 63, 64-66, 75, 96, 122
KpCTMhesa xYMKa- 3pefbaHMH 132
Kpyr 77, 79, 83, 85, 93, 98, 99, 105,
106,109,130,135, 138, 139-141
KpyweSaI1- I1eHTap 132
(Carcea) 90
KynTMBaI1Mja 17, 18,22,30,35
(KynTypa) nMHeapHe KepaMMKe 22, 121
Xl1jl1K (Kuru\:ay Hoyiik)
42, 90, 92-94,98, 100, 106-108, 139
131
KXMaMl1aH 37
IT
ITEK22
ITesaHT 12, 16, 21,23,25,
35, 38,40, 56, 63
nel\eHO 1\06a 13, 16, 17, 35,44
ITeneHcKM BMp 23, 99, 100,
102, 114-117, 124

lIOBal.{KO- caKynJbaQKe 3a) ep;HJ.1lJ,e,
10, 15, 21, 27-
29, 109
130
ITyKa Y CaCTaBI1MMa 132
ITYHKa, IToMaHa CnaTMHM
(Lunca, Poiana slatini) 59
M
MarapehM MnMH - ArraTMH
76,79,83, 106, 130
Marginal Zone Hypothesis 17
Maritime Pioneer Colonization Model 24
MaTpMI1a HacelbaBali>a (sett lement
pattern) 10, 13,21, 39, 46,55,
58, 72, 120, 133, 136, 137
Mal,lapM 98, 102, 103, 138,
195
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
Me30JU1T, Me30JU1TCKI1 17, 18,
33, 39,40,
45,46,63,71,80, 101, lI5
MepMep 67
Ml1rpaQl1ja, MHrpaToplH1 15,
21,23,28,39,45,53,66
MI1Hepan, MI1HepanHI1 25, 66
MneKO 29, 31, 32
MNCB 65, 75, 84, 88, 94, 130-133
MOAen Kyne 98,101,102,107,138,139
MOAenl1 11, 15, 17, 18,21,135
MOAenOBafbe (YKpaUlaBafbe) 77, 99
MOHOXPOM 71, 74, 75, 80,
87,113,114-122,129
MOpTanl1TeT 29
Mpe)f(a (MOTI1B Mpe)f(e) 66, 74, 77, 80,
82,83,85,87-91,96,97,106,114,115
H
Hea HI1KoMeAI1ja (Nea Nikomedeia)
44,71,88,89,92,93,97
HeBanl1 'lopl1 (Nevali <;;ori) 41
HeOnl1Tl13aL1l1ja 10-13, 15-25, 27, 28,
30,35,40,41,44,54,55,66,68,71,
88, 107, 121, 129, 135, 137, 139
HeOnl1TCKI1 naKeT 21, 32,
38,45,46,53,136,137
Nuclear Zone Hypothesis 17
196
HYTPITIBHI,HYTP"QI0HHCTIQKI
25, 27, 55, 135
o
06pe 91
06pe)f( - SaUlTI1He 99
orpy6Jbl1Bafbe 81, 85, 87, 103
OKep 30, 31
OKHa CI1611ynyj (Oena Sibiului) 137
onCl1Al1jaH 37, 54, 64, 66, 68
Oxano II 25, 35
n
lJaAI1Ha 100-102
Ilaneo-I1cxpaHa 25, 27
rrarreOKlIHMa, narreOKlIl1MaTCKH 49, 52
naneonaTonow K 18
nepl10Al13aL1l1ja II , 12,23,53,71,
74,75,111-128, 133, 134, 142
nnaHl1pafbe 13, 26, 28, 33, 140, 141
nnaCTl1'1H11 (YKpac) 77, 82-85, 87,
91,95,113,114-116,118,120,139
IlnOAHl1 nonYMeCeL1 13,22,
38,44,63
IlOArop" (Podgorie) 72,89,
92, 93, 102, 106, 108
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
n03MTMB-HeranIS (yKpac)
43,82,90,91, 93
noneH 49,51
nonMxpoMMja (YKparnaSatbe)
88, 104, 114, 116, 118, 121
nony-Cei\eHTapHM 23
nonynaL\Mja, 12, 18, 20, 21, 24, 27-
29,35,37,44-47,55,56,71,107,110
nonynaL\MOH 6YM 17, 18, 29, 46, 53
I1peKepaMMYKM HeonMT A 36, 37, 107
npOnOpL\Mja, npOnOpL\MjcKM 12
npOTeMH 25,31, 33
I1poToCTapyeSO 75, 115,
117, 123,124,129,133
proxy 49
I1ynMnMHa nenMHa 32
p
paAMOYflbeHMK (CI4) 12,24,31,35,42,
52,66,76,81,86,88, Ill , 122, 128
PaKI1TOSO 43, 44, 77, 90,
93,96, 97, 106, 142
paHM HeonMT 10, 11 - 13,16,21,32,39,
41-49,53,55,56,61,63,64,71,72,74-76,
83,84,87,89,93,95-97,100,102-105,
110, 112,114, 117, 119,120-122, 124,

pacejaB3l-be (HeOlIYlTa, 3Hatba)
19,23, 31, 45, 136
peKa, peKe 22, 41 , 59, 63, 64, 68, 80, 137
penan1BHO-XPOHOlIOlllKH 12,
43,75,91,111,122, 142
pemlrMjcKM 19
pecypc 17, 18,25,27, 32, 33, 64
PM6tbaK-Oeyej 132
pOM6 82, 95
PYi\HMKy Y MeTOxMjM 66, 130, 132
C
CajaH - L\oM6orn 76, 84, 90, 132
Capsarn (Sarvasz) 64, 65, 72
ceAenaYKI1 19,20,25,27,28,33,34,
37,45, 54,67, 107, 109, 110, 136
ceAeHTapM3aL\I1ja 15, 17,25,27,33,
37,55,109,135,136,139,141
CeneKL\Mja 23
Cepsl1a (Servia) 44
CeCKno (Sesklo) 39, 45
Secondary Products Revolution 31
CMM6on, cMM60nMYKM 11, 12,
19,20,72,98, 104, 109, 110,
127, 129, 133, 138, 139, 141
ClianlHa 54, 55, 59, 86, 90, 96
CO, COlI 10, 13,35,53-69,135-137
COIIHML\aTa 57, 59, 137
cnMpana,Cnl1panHI1,Cnl1panOMA
84,88-91,96,102,104,113-
116, 118,120,121, 131, 132
197
HeHa)]; H. TacJ1n
cnoHAYlnyc 545, 64, 67, 68
CTap'leBa'lKI1 23, 32, 53, 59, 62, 64-66, 68,
71,74-76,80-84, 86-89,91,95,99,111-
120,123-125,128,131,132, 133,137,138
CTap'leBO 76, 85, 86, 90, 95, 112,
114, 117, 112, 124, 130, 131
Crap'leBO-HMnpeco 65
CTap'leBO - Kepew - KpYlw
13, 63,66, 122
CTeneHaCTYI (MOTYl B) 92, 94,
95, 97-99, 102, 138, 140
CTeneHYll1e 43, 93, 95, 102, 138, 139
CTO'lapCTBO 33, 56
cy63Y1CTeHl1a 17, 18,28,33,
34, 3 ~ 5 6 , 135, 136
CynTaHHaH 37
CyncKa- nynpwja 132
T
Ten (tell) 16,42,60,88, 109
Ten A6y XypeYlpa (Tell Abu Hureyra) 37
Teomepa 24, 46
Tecanwja, TeCanCKI1 41, 44,
45, 46,95,109,121,139
Tonone - Ea'l 132
198
TpaAYll1Y1ja 21, 22, 24, 40,
41,46, 71, 80,107
TpaH3Y111Y1ja 10, II, 16, 25, 28,
29, 35, 39, 46, 122, 135, 138
TpaHCYlnBaHYlja 53, 62-65,
8 ~ 8 8 , 90, 121, 1 3 ~ 139
TpaHcq,ep Heon wra 11
Tpan 33, 37, 140
Tpane30YlA 23, 116
TproBYlHa 13, 19,44, 54-56, 67-69
TpOyTaO, TpoyrnoBH 66, 74, 77,
79,82, 83,85,87, 88, 90,91,94-97,
102, 106, 115, 116, 118, 129, 131
TypCKa, TypCKH 39-41
q,apMepH 21
<DpaHKTH (Franchti) 24, 39, 45, 46,140
x
XanaH '-IeMH (Hallan <;:emi) 41
Xap"q,leH 27, 37
XaI,mnap (Ha<;ilar) 41, 44, 90,
93, 94, 98, 100, 107, 139
xpOHOnOrl1ja 11, 12,35, 53, 74, 82, 122
XyjyeK (Hoy<;ek) 42, 43, 98, 100, 107, 139
HeOJlHTCKa KBa.n:paTypa Kpyra
1\
u,eHTpallH 6allKaH 11, 12, 16, 23,
42, 44, 45,53, 56, 59, 63, 64-68,71,
74-76,83,84, 87-89,91 , 93,95, 107,
110-112, 115,117, 120, 121,124, 125,
128-130, 132-134,136,137,142
l\YlrnaHa- L\o6aHOBl\YI 132
L\YlK-L\aK 66, 85, 87-89, 91,
93,94,96, 109, 129
l\YlHa6apMT 54
l\pHoKanaQKa 6apa 80
q
'-IajeHYI (yayiinii) 107
'-IaTan XMjYlK (yalal Hiiyiik)
40,41,43, 44,63
'-IyKap - [YMHYlWTe (ITaBnOBal\) 132
'-Iypra - J1Yllow 132
I,I
I,IapMo 16
III
IIIawYlHl\YI 521 131
IIIeywa 137
BallYl Ky6alba (Wadi Kubbaniya) 30
Wave of advance 21
WBPP (3anallHo6yrapcKa
CnYlKaHa KepaMYlKa) 74, 96
199
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HEOII HTCKA KBA/1PATYPA KPYfA
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