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A Project Report

A Project Report

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Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of microsensors and microactuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications
In addition, the mechanical switch, it is a key component with huge potential in various microwave circuits. Optical MEMS technology is currently used in low- or medium-volume applications. It proves to be a boon for the modern world.
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of microsensors and microactuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications
In addition, the mechanical switch, it is a key component with huge potential in various microwave circuits. Optical MEMS technology is currently used in low- or medium-volume applications. It proves to be a boon for the modern world.

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MEMS

A Project Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the B.tech

ASHUTOSH BISHOYI

Roll # ECE200610178

Mar-2010

Under the guidance of

Mr. Boli Sridhar

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY
PALUR HILLS, BERHAMPUR, ORISSA – 761008, INDIA

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ABSTRACT
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of microsensors and microactuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications In addition, the mechanical switch, it is a key component with huge potential in various microwave circuits. Optical MEMS technology is currently used in low- or medium-volume applications. It proves to be a boon for the modern world.

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AKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my proud privilege to epitomize my deepest sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my guide, Mr. Boli Sridhar for his valuable guidance, keen and sustained interest, intuitive ideas and persistent endeavor. His inspiring assistance, laconic reciprocation and affectionate care enabled me to complete my work smoothly and successfully.

I acknowledge with immense pleasure the sustained interest, encouraging attitude and constant inspiration rendered by Mr Purnendu Mishra , Dr.Ajit Ku. Panda, DEAN and Prof. Sangram Mudali, Director, N.I.S.T. His continued drive for better quality in everything that happens at N.I.S.T. and selfless inspiration has always helped us to move ahead.

At the nib but not neap tide, we bow our head in gratitude at the omnipresent Almighty for all his kindness. We still seek his blessings to proceed further.

ASHUTOSH BISHOYI DATE

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TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................3 AKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................................4 TABLE OF CONTENT....................................................................................................5 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................7 Introduction................................................................................................................ 8 MEMS.......................................................................................................................... 8 Materials for MEMS Manufacturing.............................................................................9 Silicon...................................................................................................................... 9 Polymers.................................................................................................................. 9 Metals.................................................................................................................... 10 MEMS Manufacturing Technologies..........................................................................10 Bulk micromachining.............................................................................................10 Surface micromachining........................................................................................11 High aspect ratio (HAR) silicon micromachining....................................................12 Applications of MEMS................................................................................................13 OPTICAL SWITCHING.................................................................................................14 Optical Mirrors..........................................................................................................14 MEMS Mirrors: Types................................................................................................15 Torsional Mirrors...................................................................................................15 Mechanical Restoring Torque.............................................................................17 Electrostatic Torque...........................................................................................17 Stability Analysis................................................................................................19 Piston Mirrors.......................................................................................................19 Applications Of Optical MEMS...................................................................................20 Display and Imaging Systems..............................................................................21 DMD...................................................................................................................22 GLV..................................................................................................................... 23 FIBER OPTICS COMMUNICATION ...........................................................................25 Adaptive Optics.................................................................................................... 26 Data Storage........................................................................................................ 29 5

Use in Medicine.....................................................................................................29 MEMS Endoscopic OCT Imaging ........................................................................30 Confocal Microscopic Imaging............................................................................30 Disadvantages of Optical MEMS devices...............................................................30 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 31 References:.............................................................................................................. 32

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1:OPTICAL MEMS............................................................................................14 Figure 2:Torsional Mirrors.........................................................................................16 Figure 3:Mechanical Mode........................................................................................16 Figure 4:Electrostatic Torque....................................................................................17 Figure 5:Electrostatic Pressure.................................................................................18 Figure 6:Piston Mirrors..............................................................................................20 Figure 7:Spring Capacitor Model...............................................................................20 Figure 8:GLV.............................................................................................................24 Figure 9:Adaptive Optics..........................................................................................27 Figure 10:OCT Imaging.............................................................................................30 Figure 11:Confocal Microscopic Imaging..................................................................30

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Introduction The increasing quest for transporting large amounts of data at a fast speed, search for adaptive optics and high resolution video graphics along with miniaturization of electronic components has evolved a new era in micro-structure world .The sophisticated technology of Optical MEMS devices, currently used in low- or medium-volume applications proves to be a boon and outshines all tradiotional devices. MEMS
Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) is the technology of the very small, and merges at the nano-scale into nano electromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano technology. MEMS are also referred to as micro machines (in Japan), or Micro Systems Technology- MST (in Europe). MEMS are separate and distinct from the hypothetical vision of molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics. MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micro meters in size (i.e. 0.001 to 0.1 mm) and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micro meters (20 millionths of a meter) to a millimeter. They usually consist of a central unit that processes data, the microprocessor and several components that interact with the outside such as micro sensors. At these size scales, the standard constructs of classical physics are not always useful. Due to MEMS large surface area to volume ratio, surface effects such as electrostatics and wetting dominate volume effects such as inertia or thermal mass. The potential of very small machines was appreciated long before the technology existed that could make them—see, for example, Richard Feynman's famous 1959 lecture There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. MEMS became practical once they could be fabricated using modified semiconductor device fabrication technologies, normally used to make electronics. These include molding and plating, wet etching (KOH,TMAH) and dry etching (RIE and DRIE), electro discharge machining (EDM), and other technologies capable of manufacturing very small devices.

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MEMS description MEMS technology can be implemented using a number of different materials and manufacturing techniques; the choice of which will depend on the device being created and the market sector in which it has to operate.

Materials for MEMS Manufacturing

Silicon
Silicon is the material used to create most integrated circuits used in consumer electronics in the modern world. The economies of scale, ready availability of cheap high-quality materials and ability to incorporate electronic functionality make silicon attractive for a wide variety of MEMS applications. Silicon also has significant advantages engendered through its material properties. In single crystal form, silicon is an almost perfect Hookean material, meaning that when it is flexed there is virtually no hysteresis and hence almost no energy dissipation. As well as making for highly repeatable motion, this also makes silicon very reliable as it suffers very little fatigue and can have service lifetimes in the range of billions to trillions of cycles without breaking. The basic techniques for producing all silicon based MEMS devices are deposition of material layers, patterning of these layers by photolithography and then etching to produce the required shapes.

Polymers
Even though the electronics industry provides an economy of scale for the silicon industry, crystalline silicon is still a complex and relatively expensive material to produce. Polymers on the other hand can be produced in huge volumes, with a great variety of material characteristics. MEMS devices can be made from polymers by processes such as injection molding, embossing or stereolithography and are especially well suited to microfluidic applications such as disposable blood testing cartridges.

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Metals
Metals can also be used to create MEMS elements. While metals do not have some of the advantages displayed by silicon in terms of mechanical properties, when used within their limitations, metals can exhibit very high degrees of reliability.

MEMS Manufacturing Technologies Bulk micromachining
Bulk micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).Bulk micromachining uses a succession of thin film deposition and selective etching, bulk micromachining defines structures by selectively etching inside a substrate. Whereas surface micromachining creates structures on top of a substrate, bulk micromachining produces structures inside a substrate. Usually, silicon wafers are used as substrates for bulk micromachining, as they can be anisotropically wet etched, forming highly regular structures. Wet etching typically uses alkaline liquid solvents, such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to dissolve silicon which has been left exposed by the photolithography masking step. These alkali solvents dissolve the silicon in a highly anisotropic way, with some crystallographic orientations dissolving up to 1000 times faster than others. Such an approach is often used with very specific crystallographic orientations in the raw silicon to produce V-shaped grooves. The surface of these grooves can be atomically smooth if the etch is carried out correctly, and the dimensions and angles can be precisely defined.

Bulk micromachining starts with a silicon wafer or other substrates which is selectively etched, using photolithography to transfer a pattern from a mask to the surface. Like surface
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micromachining, bulk micromachining can be performed with wet or dry etches, although the most common etch in silicon is the anisotropic wet etch. This etch takes advantage of the fact that silicon has a crystal structure, which means its atoms are all arranged periodically in lines and planes. Certain planes have weaker bonds and are more susceptible to etching. The etch results in pits that have angled walls, with the angle being a function of the crystal orientation of the substrate. This type of etching is inexpensive and is generally used in early, low-budget research.

Surface micromachining
Surface micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery or

Microelectromechanical systems.Unlike Bulk micromachining, where a silicon substrate (wafer) is selectively etched to produce structures, surface micromachining is based on the deposition and etching of different structural layers on top of the substrate. As the structures are built on top of the substrate and not inside it, the substrate's properties are not as important as in bulk micromachining, and the expensive silicon wafers can be replaced by cheaper substrates, such as glass or plastic. The size of the substrates can also be much larger than a silicon wafer, and surface micromachining is used to produce TFTs on large area glass substrates for flat panel displays. This technology can also be used for the manufacture of thin film solar cells, which can be deposited on glass, but also on PET substrates or other non-rigid materials.

Fabrication Process Surface micromachining starts with a silicon wafer or other substrate and grows layers on top. These layers are selectively etched by photolithography and either a wet etch involving an acid or a dry etch involving an ionized gas, or plasma. Dry etching can combine chemical etching with physical etching, or ion bombardment of the material. Surface micromachining can involve as many layers as is needed with a different mask (producing a different pattern) on each layer. Modern integrated circuit fabrication uses this technique and can use dozens of layers, approaching 100. Micromachining is a younger technology and usually uses no more than 5 or 6
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layers. Surface micromachining uses developed technology (although sometimes not enough for demanding applications)which is very repeatable for volume production. Sacrificial Layers Complicated components, such as movable parts, are built using a sacrificial layer. For example, a suspended cantilever can be built by depositing and structuring a sacrificial layer, which is then selectively removed at the locations where the future beams must be attached to the substrate (i.e. the anchor points). The structural layer is then deposited on top of the polymer and structured to define the beams. Finally, the sacrificial layer is removed to release the beams, using a selective etch process that will not damage the structural layer.There are many possible combinations of structural/sacrificial layer. The combination chosen depends on the process. For example it is important for the structural layer not to be damaged by the process used to remove the sacrificial layer.

High aspect ratio (HAR) silicon micromachining
Both bulk and surface silicon micromachining are used in the industrial production of sensors, ink-jet nozzles, and other devices. But in many cases the distinction between these two has diminished. A new etching technology, deep reactive-ion etching, has made it possible to combine good performance typical of bulk micromachining with comb structures and in-plane operation typical of surface micromachining. While it is common in surface micromachining to have structural layer thickness in the range of 2 µm, in HAR silicon micromachining the thickness can be from 10 to 100 µm. The materials commonly used in HAR silicon micromachining are thick polycrystalline silicon, known as epi-poly, and bonded silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers although processes for bulk silicon wafer also have been created . Bonding a second wafer by glass frit bonding, anodic bonding or alloy bonding is used to protect the MEMS structures. Integrated circuits are typically not combined with HAR silicon micromachining. The consensus of the industry at the moment seems to be that the flexibility and reduced process complexity obtained by having the two functions separated far outweighs the small penalty in packaging. A comparison of different high-aspect-ratio microstructure technologies can be found in the HARMST article.
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Applications of MEMS
• MEMS gyroscopes used in modern cars and other applications to detect yaw; e.g. to deploy a roll over bar or trigger dynamic stability control.

Silicon pressure sensors e.g. car tire pressure sensors, and disposable blood pressure sensors.

Displays e.g. the DMD chip in a projector based on DLP technology has on its surface several hundred thousand micromirrors.

Optical switching technology which is used for switching technology and alignment for data communications.

Bio-MEMS applications in medical and health related technologies from Lab-On-Chip to MicroTotalAnalysis (biosensor, chemosensor).

Interferometric modulator display (IMOD) applications in consumer electronics (primarily displays for mobile devices). Used to create interferometric modulation reflective display technology as found in mirasol displays.

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OPTICAL SWITCHING
The integration of micro-optics and micro-electromechanical systems has created a new class of Microsystems , termed micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS).Optical MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. And Optical MEMS has created a new fabrication paradigm for optical devices and systems. Using tools developed for the integrated-circuits industry, Optical MEMS brings unprecedented levels of miniaturization and integration to optical communication systems. Today , the capacity of optical communication networks is limited by the switches that are Figure 1:OPTICAL MEMS electronic in their core. Optical MEMS is transforming the telecommunications infrastructure by providing all-optical switches that enable high-capacity networks. With the ability to directly manipulate an optical signal, MEMS have several applications that eliminate unnecessary optical-electrical-optical (O-E-O) conversions. In optical communication, electrical components such as inductors and tunable capacitors can be improved significantly compared to their integrated counterparts if they are made using optical MEMS technology. With the integration of such components, the performance of communication circuits will improve, while the total circuit area, power consumption and cost will be reduced. In addition, the mechanical switch, as developed by several research groups, is a key component with huge potential in various microwave circuits. Optical MEMS technology is currently used in low- or medium-volume applications.

Optical Mirrors
• In Optical MEMS mechanical motion of microstructures is used for manipulation of photons. • MEMS Mirrors are the most critical component for optical MEMS technology.

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• MEMS mirrors are useful to – – – Modify the optical path on the chip Couple Light in and out of optical fibers Redirect light in image formation devices

MEMS Mirrors: Types
• Two fundamental types of mirrors based on motion

Torsional mirrors
Torsional mirrors deflect light spatially by rotating the mirror surface relative to the plane

Piston mirrors
Piston mirrors move perpendicular to the plane of the mirror and shift the phase of the incoming light

Torsional Mirrors

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Figure 2:Torsional Mirrors

Figure 3:Mechanical Mode

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Mechanical Restoring Torque
• The restoring mechanical torque exerted on the plate by the beams for anangular rotation θ is given by Mechanical Restoring Torque

TM = kθθ
where

Electrostatic Torque

Figure 4:Electrostatic Torque

Electric Field

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Figure 5:Electrostatic Pressure

Electro static torque produced by an incremental plate length dx located at x is given by

Total electrostatic torque is obtained by integrating the incremental torque over the plate length

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Stability Analysis
In the stable region, initially the electrostatic torque is greater than themechanical restoring torque TE < TMTo reach a stable equilibrium point, the plate will rotate so as to compensate the electrostatic torque that increases with square of the voltage by a restoring mechanical torque that increases in proportion to the angular rotation At equilibrium TE = TM ,We obtain

For equilibrium in the stable region, A restoring torque will bring the plate back to its initial position even in the presence of any small perturbation in the angular displacement.

Piston Mirrors

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Figure 6:Piston Mirrors

Figure 7:Spring Capacitor Model

Applications Of Optical MEMS A few applications of Optical MEMS include
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• • • • • •

Display and Imaging Systems Fiber Optic Communication Optical Scanning Systems Adaptive Optics Data storage Medicine

Display and Imaging Systems
MEMS technology is well suited for making sophisticated imaging devises which includes features such as
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• High Resolution • High Contrast and Brightness • Small Size • Controlled in both digital mode and analog modes

New market such as portable projector and large screen TV Micromirror Array

Two types of imaging devices :

– –

Digital Mirror Device Grating Light Valve

DMD

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Digital micromirror device (DMD) technology focuses on the impact of a fully digital video display system. It redefines the architecture of an entire video system that can dramatically decrease costs and increase performance from current display technologies (CRT and LCD). The inherent nature of a digital display tends toward high-performance applications, such as highdefinition or high-quality displays. In addition, the digital nature of the technology matches well with today's surge in computer graphics display. In contrast, rapid integration of digital semiconductor technology could enable low-cost applications of the technology, such as consumer TV or personal viewers. Future displays will focus on the display of media from several sources, such as digital multimedia TVs or personal ports into the "information superhighway." In general, the scope of the DMD display application space is very large and seemingly ever- increasing high definition or highquality displays. In addition, the digital nature of the technology matches well with today's surge in computer graphics display. In contrast, rapid integration of digital semiconductor technology could enable low-cost applications of the technology, such as consumer TV or personal viewers. While digital displays have inherent high performance, this can be traded for a cost advantage in these applications. Future displays will focus on the display of media from several sources, such as digital multimedia TVs or personal ports into the "information superhighway." In general, the scope of the DMD display application space is very large and seemingly ever- increasing.

GLV
The Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology is a micromechanical phase grating. By providing controlled diffraction of incident light, a GLV device will produce bright or dark pixels in a display system.With pulse width modulation, a GLV device will produce precise gray-scale or color variations. Built usingmicro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, and designed to be manufactured using mainstream.IC fabrication technology, the GLV device can be made both small and inexpensively. A variety of display systems can be built using GLV technology each benefiting from the high contrast ratio, fill ratio, andbrightness of this technology. In addition, GLV technology can provide high resolution, low power consumption, and digital gray-scale and color reproduction. A Grating Light Valve (GLV) device consists of parallel rows of reflective ribbons. Alternate rows of ribbons can be pulled down approximately one-quarter wavelength to create diffraction effects on incident light . When all the ribbons are in the same plane, incident light is reflected from their surfaces. By blocking light that returns along the same path as the incident light, this state of the ribbons

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produces a dark spot in a viewing system. When the (alternate) movable ribbons are pulled down, however, diffraction produces light at an angle that is different from that of the incident light. Unblocked, this light produces a bright spot in a viewing system.

Figure 8:GLV

The Grating Light Valve uses reflection and diffraction to create dark and bright image areas.

If an array of such GLV elements is built, and subdivided into separately controllable picture elements, or pixels, then a white-light source can be selectively diffracted to produce an image of monochrome bright and dark pixels. By making the ribbons small enough, pixels can be built with multiple ribbons producing greater image brightness. If the up and down ribbon switching state can be made fast enough, then modulation of the diffraction can produce many gradations of gray and/or colors. There are several means for displaying color images using GLV devices. These include color filters with multiple light valves, field sequential color, and sub-pixel color using "tuned" diffraction gratings.

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FIBER OPTICS COMMUNICATION
Optical MEMS has brought unprecedented levels of miniaturization and integration to optical communication systems. Today , the capacity of optical communication networks is limited by the switches that are electronic in their core. Optical MEMS is transforming the telecommunications infrastructure by providing all-optical switches that enable high-capacity networks.It has features like • • • • Switching Speed in µs/ms range Low Crosstalk / Low Insertion Loss Small Size / Low Cost Scalability to Large Number of I/O Port

Optical MEMS devices are driving the trend toward all-optical telecommunication networks. With the ability to directly manipulate an optical signal, MEMS have several applications that eliminate unnecessary optical-electrical-optical (O-E-O) conversions. In optical communication, electrical components such as inductors and tunable capacitors can be improved significantly compared to their integrated counterparts if they are made using optical MEMS technology. With the integration of such components, the performance of communication circuits will improve, while the total circuit area, power consumption and cost will be reduced. In addition, the mechanical switch, as developed by several research groups, is a key component with huge potential in various processing and communication circuits.

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Adaptive Optics
Optical MEMS can be used to create adaptive optics chips which can be used for wavefront correction systems. There are a variety of application for wavefront correction systems ranging from advanced military targeting systems to preview systems for advanced surgeries.

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Adaptive Optics systems are in use today on large Astronomical telescopes. Adaptive optics remove the optical imperfections that result from peering through the atmosphere. These systems are built today with expensive macro technology. While they work very well, these systems are very expensive. Large telescopes are not that sensitive to costs, so they can readily afford the present significant costs in order to improve the quality of the images that see. More widespread adoption of adaptive optics, and wavefront correction is hampered, however, by the significant costs of traditional systems.

Figure 9:Adaptive Optics

MEMS offer the promise of achieving low cost adaptive optics systems. With lower cost, there are many applications which could benefit from wavefront correction. Some applications under consideration for a low cost adaptive optics system include preview systems for LASIK surgery, ophthalmic phoropters, and fundus imaging systems. Fundus imaging systems are used by eye doctors to image the retina, and detect degenerative eye disease. The challenge is that image quality from present systems is poor, and the disease can be in advanced stages before a doctor can detect it. Improving the image quality through use of affordable MEMS adaptive optics systems will allow 27

surgeons to detect degenerative eye disease at much earlier stages where it is easier to treat, and before vision is affected.

MEMS chips have been created to meet the demanding requirements of the vision science community. The chip will enable the creation of high performance, cost effective adaptive optics systems. The vision science community has significant interest in obtaining such systems for a variety of ophthalmic applications. This chip will enable a true paradigm shift, and will permit the placement of high performance imaging systems into the hands of ophthalmologists and optometrists. These chips should enable order of magnitude improvements in the doctor's ability to image the retina, and as such, will dramatically increase the ability to diagnose degenerative ophthalmic conditions while they are still treatable. Enhanced capabilities in fundus imaging will enable earlier detection of disease, better measurement of treatment effectiveness, and the development of improved treatment methods.

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Data Storage
Optical data storage is a promising field to which the optical MEMS technology can be applied. Tight integration of optical and mechanical components is needed for the optical head for data storage in the next generation. The diffraction limit in optical storage using a lens can be overcome by near-field optical technology. An optical storage system with a multi-probe array based on scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is proposed. An integrated SNOM probe with a micro aperture for generation of the optical near-field has already been fabricated. The data is stored in the optical array of mirrors which can be extracted easily.This gives us voluminous data storage facility at a very low cost.

Use in Medicine
Optical MEMS facilitates advanced surgery, ophthalmic phoropters, and fundus imaging systems. Fundus imaging systems are used by eye doctors to image the retina, and detect degenerative eye disease. The challenge is that image quality from present systems is poor, and the disease can be in advanced stages before a doctor can detect it. Improving the image quality through use of affordable MEMS adaptive optics systems will allow surgeons to detect degenerative eye disease at much earlier stages where it is easier to treat, and before vision is affected. Optical biopsy provides high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue noninvasively. There are several optical biopsy techniques including optical coherence tomography (OCT), nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging and confocal imaging. Conventional optical imaging systems are too bulky and have slow imaging speed and its solution is using MEMS mirrors and lenses for miniaturization The following images shows Endoscopic OCT imaging and Confocal microscopic imaging which proves to be a boon for modern medical treatements.

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MEMS Endoscopic OCT Imaging

Figure 10:OCT Imaging

Confocal Microscopic Imaging

Figure 11:Confocal Microscopic Imaging

Disadvantages of Optical MEMS devices

High driving voltage (~100V), which raises safety concern Small rotation angle (<30°), resulting in low imaging efficiency Relatively small aperture size (~0.5mm), resulting in low image resolution Small linear displacement (<45μm) (small imaging depth for confocal imaging) Limited degree-of-freedom (DOF) ( Multiple DOF desired.)


• •

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Fabrication of optical MEMS components (Time consuming, Process R&D required

Expensive startup, Complex business relationship )

Conclusion
Optical MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, and optical components thus making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. Optical MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception ,control `capabilities and communication of microsensors , micro-actuators and micro-mirrors and expanding the space of possible designs and applications.

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References:
• • • • • • • Scientific American India, January-2008 Issue Optical fibres and fibre optic communication systems,Subir K Sarkar, Publications www.sciam.co.in www.wikipedia.co.in www.centralchronicle.co.in www.freepatentsonline.com www.omems.com S.Chand

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